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Search results - "1004"
image01004.jpg
26 viewsSpongeBob
100404.JPG
12 viewsRandygeki(h2)
R922_241004_YORK.jpg
"RIC 922"44 views3 commentsvrtsprb
leith_halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Leith, Scotland.60 viewsObverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; laurel branches below.
Reverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LEITH EDINBURGH & GLASGOW ✤ ✤".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 60

Probably manufactured by Bonham Hammond, a button manufacturer from Birmingham. Bonham Hammond, has been credited with only this single large 18th-century token issue which was likely struck at his factory, then called Hammond, Turner, & Dickenson, located at Snow Hill in Birmingham.
1 comments*Alex
1004861.JPG
19 Constantius Gallus97 viewsConstantius Gallus, Caesar 351-354 AD. AE 3. DN CONSTAN-TIVS NOB CS, bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust rt. / FEL TEMP- REPARATIO, no beard, Phrygian helmet, reaching. SMK[]
Cyzikus 107
Randygeki(h2)
BOTLAUREL_2013.JPG
201344 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
20c-Constantine-Nic-043.jpg
20c. Constantine: Nicomedia.31 viewsAE3, 321-324, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Radiate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI / Jupiter standing, holding Victory; eagle at left, captive at right.
Mint mark: SMNB
2.83 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #43; PBCC #1004; Sear #15950.
Callimachus
g1004318.JPG
210 Gordian III56 viewsGordian III AR Antoninianus. March-May? 240 AD
IMP CAES GORDIANVS PIVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PM TR P II COS PP, Gordian standing left sacrificing over altar from patera.
Scarce one year obverse legend
RIC 54
4.5 g.
lil better shot.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
1004_P_Hadrian_RPC2762.jpg
2762A CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian Æ 24 Demeter standing29 viewsReference.
RPC III 2764A

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΑΔΡΙΑΝω ΚΑΙСΑΡΙ СΕ
Laureate bust right.

Rev. СΥЄΔΡЄωΝ.
Demeter standing left, holding torch and grain ears.

6.62 gr
24 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
a_003.JPG
323-317 BC Philip III 42 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaeus
AE Unit Miletos 323-317 BC

Obverse:Head of Apollo wearing tainia right
Reverse:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ;Horseman galloping right; double axe at left;monogram below

5.29gm 19.26mm

Price P64;SNG ANS 1003-1004;SNG München 981-984
1 commentsmaik
489_P_Hadrian_Prieur_763.jpg
3260 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche56 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3260/14; Prieur --; SNG France 1404; SNG Levante –.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC CΕ
Laureate bust right, slight drapery

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding palm frond and cornucopia; at feet, half-length figure of river-god Cydnus swimming left; all within wreath.

10.38 gr
25 mm
12 h

From the Olav E. Klingenberg Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 88 (14 September 2011), lot 1004.
Note from CNG
Most of the references do not distinguish the silver issues of Hadrian from Tarsus, but it is clear there are two distinct denominations. The heavier, at about 14 grams, is the traditional tetradrachm. The lighter, at slightly over 10 grams, is most likely a tridrachm.
1 commentsokidoki
451_P_Hadrian_Emmett1111.jpg
5755 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 129-30 AD Agathodaimon serpent53 viewsReference.
Emmett 1111.14; Dattari 1986; Milne 1289; RPC III, 5755; Köln 1004

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
aureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L-IΔ
serpent (Agathodaemon) erect, r., crowned with pschent, enfolding caduceus and stalk of corn

9.23 gr
25 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
sear_1004a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100421 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter E
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
25mm 5.01gm
Solid green patina
1 commentswileyc
sear_1004.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100417 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter Delta
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
22mm 6.28gm
wileyc
16~3.jpg
ALFOLDI 042.07122 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: F8 VAR. (PALUDAMENTUM)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/V//XXI
WEIGHT 3.29g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC 713 VAR. (F8 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 042.071 (8 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1004
Ex S. Luethi's collection
Barnaba6
Augustus_temple_(800x387).jpg
Antoninus Pius 11 viewsAntoninus Pius Sestertius temple of Augustus and Livia
Catalog: Temple of Divus Augustus
weight 28,6gr. | bronze Ø 32mm.
obv. Laureate head right ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII
rev. Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus, containing cult-statues of Augustus
and Livia TEMPLVM DIVI AVG REST COS IIII S C

The Temple of Divus Augustus was a major temple originally built to commemorate the deified first Roman emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life in the mid-1st century BC. The temple′s construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of the emperor in AD 14. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design. However, its size, physical proportions and exact site are unknown. During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It was restored again in the mid 150s by Antonius Pius, and that was the reason for this coinage. The last known reference to the temple was on 27 May 218 | at some point thereafter it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Its remains are not visible and the area in which it lay has never been excavated.

Cohen 805 | RIC 1004 | BMC 2063 | Sear 4235 R
vf
1 commentsAncient Aussie
Antoninus_Pius_denar_temple.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AR denarius8 viewsRome
158-159 AD
laureate hwad right
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII
temple of Augustus and Livia
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST
COS IIII
not in RIC (RIC III Antoninus Pius 272A/1004 var.), BMCRE IV 939, RSC II 804
2,68g

This issue comemorates reconstruction of the temple of Augustus and Livia by Antoninus.
Johny SYSEL
AntoSe60-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 779, Sestertius of AD 145-161 (Minerva)40 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 145-161.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: S C, Helmeted Minerva advancing right, holding spear and round shield.
RIC 779; Cohen 745; Strack 1004
ex Jasper Burns (via eBay, 2001)
Charles S
AntoSe65-2~1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)47 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia in the centre.
RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti 406.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second temple of Divus Augustus was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identified with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
constans_follis_B14.jpg
BCC B1419 viewsPost-Byzantine Period Caesarea
Constans II 641- 668 CE
AE Follis, Constantinople
Obv: IMPER CONST
Facing bust with crown and cross.
Rev:Large M, to left ANA, below
N[EOS], to right I..?,
25mm. 5.35gm. Axis:180
SB 1004
v-drome
01004AB.jpg
CALABRIA, TARENTUM, 302-280 BC86 viewsDidrachm, 22mm, 7.86g

O. Jockey on horse sprinting r.
R. Taras std on dolphin l, holding distaff & kantharos

Alexan Magistrate

Vlasto 697

Ex Washington Numismatic Gallery
5 commentsAZRobbo
stobi2100409.jpg
Caracalla, Stobi24 viewsCaracalla
Stobi, Macedonia
Ae 24mm; 6.95g

MAVREL-ANTONIN
Laureate head right

MVNICIP-S-TOBENSI
Victory advancing right holding wreath and palm

Josif 452 (V104-R146)
arizonarobin
stobi3100409.jpg
Caracalla, Stobi18 viewsCaracalla
Stobi, Macedonia
Ae24mm; 7.2g

M AVR ANTONINV A C
Laureate, cuirassed bust right as seen from behind

STOBE-N-MVNICI
Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm

Josifovski 342
(V57, R61)
arizonarobin
sb1856_28mm1004g.jpg
Class F follis, sb1856 attributed to Constantine X 1059-1067 CE18 viewsObverse: Christ seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium and raising r. hand in benediction; in l. hand, book of gospels; in field to l., IC to r. XC both barred.
Reverse: IS XS/bASILE/bASIL in three lines -+- above, + below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1059-1067 CE
SB 1856 class F
28mm, 10.04g
wileyc
1004301.JPG
Constans61 viewsBetter photo

Constans AE 3
CONSTANS P F AVG, laureate & rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / GLORIA EXERCITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them, O on banner. Mintmark: A SIS star
Siscia
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
H15a.jpg
Constans AR Heavy Miliarense148 viewsConstans AR Heavy Miliarense. Siscia. 342 - 343 AD. FL IVL CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GAVDIVM POPVLI ROMANI, within laurel wreath inscribed SIC XX SIC XXX flanked by palms, SIS and small wreath in ex. RIC 151

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE - CERTAINLY ONE OF IF NOT THE FINEST KNOWN
EXTRAORDINARY PEDIGREE

Ex. J. Horsky Collection
Ex. Vautier Collection
Ex. M. Collignon Collection
Ex. H. C. Levis Collection
Ex. E. A. Sydenham Collection
Ex. W. Niggeler Collection
Ex. A. Hess Nachf., Francfort 155 (1917), 4457
Ex. Naville & Cie., Genève 2 (Lucerne 1922), 1759
Ex. Naville & Cie, Genève - Ars Classica 11 (Lucerne 1925), 1004
Ex. Glendining & Co., Ltd., London 24 nov. 1948, 579
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel - Bank Leu & Co AG Zurich / SlgNiggeler 3 (1967) 1523
Ex. Bank Leu AG Zurich 48 (1989) 429
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
constansII.jpg
Constans II6 viewsConstans II, 641-668 AD. AE Follis (5.92 g, 24 mm). Constantinople mint, off. B. obv / Bust Constans facing. rev / Large M. Sear 1004. Podiceps
thrace_byzantion_tet.jpg
Demeter, Thrace, Byzantion (220-240BC)487 viewsTHRACE, Byzantion. Circa 240-220 BC. AR Tetradrachm (26mm, 12.07 gm). Veiled and wreathed head of Demeter right / Poseidon seated right on rocks, holding trident in left arm, aphlaston in right hand. Magistrate [EPI SI]LWN[OS], a man called Silo, is located below Poseidon.

Schoenert-Geiss, Byzantion, p. 135, no. 1004, pl. 44, citing and illustrating Naville I, 1920, 1135, same dies. SNG Black Sea 59-61.

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection; ex. Superior Galleries, May 30, 1995.

Owned & posted by Cogito
6 commentscogito
Demetrius_II~5.jpg
Demetrius II 146-138 B.C. (first reign)5 viewsDemetrius II 146-138 B.C. (first reign) Ae 18.3 ~ 21.6mm. 9.83g. Nisibis(?) mint. Obv: Diademed head Demetrius II r. with short beard, fillet border. Rev: Agathos Daimon and Agathe Tyche standing confronted, clasping hands, each wearing calathus and holding cornucopiae; H above E to inner left, Y between them. SC 1980.3; HGC 9, 1004.ddwau
CCS-93.jpg
Duchy of Athens: Guy II de la Roche (1287-1308) BI Denier Tournois, Athens (CCS 93)8 viewsObv: ✠ ❜CVI•DVX✿ATNS❜, or various other stop marks; Cross pattée
Rev: ThBANI✿CIVIS, or variation; Castle tournois
Dim: 20 mm, 0.88 g

Requires MUFI-compatible fonts for proper rendering of legends
Quant.Geek
EB0853_scaled.JPG
EB0853 Claudius Gothicus / Spes5 viewsClaudius Gothicus 268-270, AE Antoninianus, Milan mint, 268-269 AD.
Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped (cuirassed?) bust right.
Reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe, S in ex.
References: RIC 168 var (bust type); Cunetio 2240; Normanby 1004; Sear 11374 var (bust type).
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 4.1g.
EB
EB1004_scaled.JPG
EB1004 Christ / Jewelled Cross4 viewsMichael IV Class C Follis. 1034-1041 AD.
Obverse: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left.
Reverse: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jewelled cross with dot at each end.
References: SB 1825.
Diameter: 28.5mm, Weight: 7.099g.
EB
20171004_135836.jpg
Faustina Junior Denarius/ Concordia, Rome20 viewsObv. draped bust of Faustina facing right, with legends FAVSTINA.AVG.PII.AVG.
Rev. Concordia seated left on low seat, resting left elbow on cornucopiae set on globe below seat. CONCORDIA.
References: RIC 502A, RSC-54.
17.5mm, 2.89g
1 commentsCanaan
faustina100409.jpg
Faustina Junior, Neapolis50 viewsFaustina Junior
Samaria, Neapolis

FAVCTEINA CEB EY CE CEBAQUIGA
draped bust right

F L NEACPOLEW CYPIAC PALACT
Facing cult statue of Artemis Ephesia, holding two scepters topped with doves,
flanked by stags
date across L and R field

BMC 62, Ae 23-24mm; 6.84g
1 commentsarizonarobin
BCL0336.jpg
Follis (Fals)23 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 3.18g, diameter 25x20mm.

Obverse: Crowned imperial bust facing, holding globus cruciger, with traces of an obverse legend.

Reverse: Large M, between X / X and I [?] ; attempted cross (or monogram?) above; obscure symbol (perhaps blundered Γ) below.

This appears to be similar to Goodwin’s “Type G”, i.e. imitating the Constans II follis reference Sear 1004.
Abu Galyon
FR_024_fac.jpg
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1498, 4 Kreuzer, Raven, Cross3 viewsFreiburg im Breisgau
4 Kreuzer or Stäbler
after 1498
Obv.: ✿MO✿FRIBVRG✿In✿BRISG, Head of raven
Rev.: GLOR - IA✿In - EXCE - LS✿D, cross
Ag, 19.9mm, 1.26g
Ref.: Berstett - (comp. 242).
1 commentsshanxi
ZHENZONG_H_16_49_S_471.JPG
Hartill 16.49, Schjoth 47121 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhenzong (998-1022), Reign Title Jingde (1004-1007).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Jing de yuan bao (ordinary script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
helena100409.jpg
Helena, Constantinople24 viewsHelena
Ae 14mm; 1.30g

FL IVL HEL-ENAE AVG
bust right wearing mantle and necklace

PAX PV-BLICA(pellet)
Pax standing left holding branch and transverse scepter

CONSE
RIC VII Constantinople 34
arizonarobin
1004c.jpg
hhj8.26.34.089 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right.
Rev:VΠA NOB. POV ΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOC ICT, in lower field, PO N. Emperor riding horse right raising right hand.
26 mm, 12.40 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.34.8
Charles M
Indo11004aufanam~0.jpg
India Fanam62 viewsIndia Gold Fanam
9mm, 0.4gms
Coorg. H#1.09.01

"...Sometimes called "crocodile fanams"...reverse is actually a boar standing right."
1 commentsMat
jd3100409.jpg
Julia Domna, Nicaea22 viewsJulia Domna
Ae 16mm; 1.40g; Nicaea, Bithynia

IOVLIA - CEBASTH
draped bust right

NIKAIEWN
Bull standing right

RecGen 389
arizonarobin
jd100409-1.jpg
Julia Domna, Stobi17 viewsJulia Domna
Stobi
Ae 23-24mm; 7.06g

IVLIA-AVGVSTA
draped bust right

MVNICI STO-BE-N
Nike standing left holding wreath, wheel at feet
arizonarobin
P1010047.JPG
KINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. Æ Dichalkon 16mm.9 viewsKINGS of PARTHIA. Mithradates II. 121-91 BC. Æ Dichalkon
Obv. Diademed and draped bust left; M behind.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ , Horse’s head right.
Ref. Sellwood 24.37
Lee S
MarcusAurelius.JPG
Marcus Arelius16 viewsRIC 1004, C 496 Dupondius Obv: MANTONINVSAVGTRPXXV - Radiate head right.
Rev: No legend - Wreath, PRIMI/DECEN/NALES/COSIII/SC within. 171 (Rome).
Jeromy G
maureliusstobi100409.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, Stobi29 viewsIMPMAVRA(dot)-NTONINVS
Radiate bust right

MV-N-STOB
Tyche standing facing, head left,in short chiton and boots, chlamys over left shoulder,
holding paterain right hand and sceoter in left

Ae 26mm; 12.03g
Nominal III- Kuzmanovic 104
arizonarobin
85452p00.jpg
Pakoros II50 viewsSilver drachm, SNP VII 1004 ff.; Sellwood 73.11; Shore 395; Sunrise 431; BMC Parthian p. 195, 15, weight 3.613 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ecbatana (Hamedan, Iran) mint, c. 78 - 90 A.D.; obverse draped bust left with short pointed straight beard, wearing earring, diadem with four bands, loop behind, three diadem ends, torque without visible end; reverse archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, bow in extended right hand, cross under legs, TA pellet monogram under bow, squared seven-line blundered Greek legend around; from the Robert L3 Collection, ex Pegasi auction 22, lot 217

While Vologases (and his successor, Artabanos IV) ruled as Parthian king in Mesopotamia, Pakoros ruled in Iran. A state of conflict existed between the rivals until Pakoros emerged victorious circa 90 AD. Based on his beardless portraiture, he was obviously young at the time of his accession. The details of his reign and fate are unknown.
ThatParthianGuy
Philipp_II,_horseman,_AE18.JPG
Philip II horseman28 viewsPhilip II, horseman, AE18, 18mm, 6.45g
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right
Reverse: FILIPPOY; Horseman at full gallop right, A below. ex areich, photo credit areich, SNGANS 1004 var

2 commentskaitsuburi
Pontos_Amisos_HGC241.jpg
Pontos, Amaseia10 viewsPontos, Amaseia. 85-65 BC Time of Mithridates VI Eupator. AE19 (7.85 gm). Head of Ares r. in Attic helmet. / Sword in its belted scabbard, AMI-Σ●, star in crescent over R✽ to l., IB to r.  VF.  Bt Gables Coin 1998. HGC 7 241; BMC Black Sea 1147-1165; SNG Ashmolean IX 97; Waddington Recueil General 31, plate VII #24var (no AP monogram to r.). Christian T
10043_10044.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, (Crescent), KA0 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 280AD?
22.0mm 3.90gr 5h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: CLEMENTIA T-EMP; Probus standing right on left, holding eagle-tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left on right, holding scepter.
Exergue: (Crescent), above line; KA, below line.
Tripolis Mint
RIC V-2 Tripolis 928, (Crescent).
Aorta: B87, O25, R13, T94, M8.
allancientcoins/John Corridan 254368728173
10/5/19 10/31/19
Nicholas Z
10045_10046.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, (Digamma), XXI4 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 280AD
21.0mm 3.40gr 6h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: CLEMENTIA TEMP; Probus standing right on left, holding eagle-tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left on right, holding scepter.
Exergue: (Digamma), above line; XXI, below line.
Antioch Mint/Unknown Fourth Oriental Mint
Sear 11960 var. (obv. leg.); RIC V-2 Antioch 920, (Digamma).
Aorta: 2146: B87, O38, R13, T96, M1.
allancientcoins/John Corridan 254368731494
10/6/19 10/31/19
2 commentsNicholas Z
10041_10042.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Z, XXI0 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 280AD
23.5 x 20.0mm 4.00gr 5h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: CLEMENTIA T-EMP; Probus standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving Victory from Jupiter, standing left on right, holding scepter.
Exergue: Z, above line; XXI, below line.
Antioch Mint
Sear 11961; RIC V-2 Antioch 922, Z;
Aorta: 2158: B87, O38, R13, T96, M1.
allancientcoins/John Corridan 254368731284
10/6/19 10/31/19
Nicholas Z
10039_10040.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, XXIVI2 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 277AD
23.5 x 22.0mm 4.30gr 0h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, mantled bust, left, holding scepter with eagle atop.
R: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Mars, advancing right, holding transverse spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left hand.
Exergue: XXIVI
Siscia Mint
RIC V-2 Siscia 810, XXIVI
Aorta: 889: B48, O38, R195, T31, M6.
Numismax Rare Coins/John Middleton 293133855394
9/9/19 10/31/19
Nicholas Z
R646_281004_SILENOS.JPG
RIC 64620 viewsRIC 646; Alföldi type 17, n° 8; Siscia. Bust type H, (H2). Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
REV.: CLEMENTIA TEMP
Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.

Mintmark: V // KA

Weight: ?

vrtsprb
moneta 337z b.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Severus Alexander, Markianopolis55 viewsObv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: Nemesis standing with scale and cornucopiae; below - a wheel.
Struck 221-235 A.D. at Markianopolis under governor Tiberius Julius Festus
AMNG 1004v; Moushmov 710; Hristova/Jekov No.6.32.35.8-10 var.

Note: "...in my material it's a new rev. type for that obv. die." - Curtis Clay
Jericho
AntoSe65-2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antoninus Pius, sestertius, RIC 100467 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (22.23g,30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head right
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST [around] COS IIII [in ex.] S C [in field] Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia
ex Triton VI (2003)
The second temple of Divus Augustus, was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identifed with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
2 commentsCharles S
6MG_1004_Aurelian_left_Avers_640_320.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelianus, 270 - 275. Antoninianus.25 viewsAurelianus, 270 - 275. Antoninian, Tripolis. Büste / Sol mit Globus, daneben Gefangener. RIC 390. C. 233; 3,63 g.
dupondius
Roman_Empire__Julia_Paula_(2).png
Roman Empire, Julia Paula. First wife of Emperor Elagabalus 57 viewsRoman Empire, Julia Paula. First wife of Emperor Elagabalus
Obverse : IVLIA PAVLA AVG - Draped bust right.
Reverse : CONCORDIA - Concordia ( Goddess of harmony )seated left, holding patera; star in left field.
About 2,64 gr Max., Dia., 20 mm Above XF
Rome mint: AD 219-220
Reference: RIC 211 (Elagabalus)

This coin is considered as Best of The Type :

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-100402


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
IM001004.JPG
Roman, Geta276 viewsA very good, sensitive portrait especially for a provincial issue. The entire coin and description may be seen in whitetd49 Severan gallery.whitetd49
aelfwald-i-1.jpg
S.851 Ælfwald I74 viewsSceat of Ælfwald I, king of Northumbria 779-788
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 851
Booth type A
Abramson 73-10
Chapman C1
O: +AΓEFDLAV (to be read 'AΓEF VALD', partly retrograde)
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ælfwald I was a little-known king of Northumbria during the turbulent late 8th century. He was descended directly from Eadberht, and probably had a greater claim to the throne than his predecessor, Æthelred I. Æthelred, of the house of Moll, he (or perhaps his regent) was recorded as being harsh, and was deposed in 779; he was probably a child during his first reign and was exiled rather than put to death. Ælfwald was king for nearly a decade, though nearly nothing is known about him. He met his end through assassination, as did many of the rulers of his time. His sons were later put to death by Æthelred after his restoration.

Despite a relatively long reign, coins of Ælfwald are quite rare, they seem to be more so than Alchred, though slightly less rare than the animal type of Æthelred's first reign. His name is spelled in various ways on his coins, sometimes with a few runic letters (but not all in runic). They can be found with the beast facing left or right.

This coin appears to be from the same dies as EMC 1004.0183 and EMC 2008.0086.

Ex- Keith Chapman
Nap
salonina100409.jpg
Salonina, Venus43 viewsAntoninianus, 23-24mm; 2.91g

SALONINA AVG
draped bust right wearing stephane

VENVS-FELIX
Venus seated left, holding scepter & Apple, child at feet

RIC 7 [joint reign]; RSC 115; Sear 10655.
Cologne mint
arizonarobin
9789549903_0563757332_o.jpg
Sb 1004 - Constans II-2 viewsSégusiaves
Sear1004.jpg
Sear 100447 viewsConstans II (641 - 668 CE) Follis, weight 5.9g, diameter 23mm. Constantinople mint, fifth officina, struck in 643-4 CE (regnal year 3). Abu Galyon
Sear_1004_[2].jpg
Sear 100420 viewsConstans II (641 – 668 CE) Follis, weight 4.23g, diameter 25mm; Mint of Constantinople, third officina, struck in 643/4 [= regnal year III]. Overstruck on a follis of Heraclius of type Sear 810.Abu Galyon
CsIIDO5a(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 1st officina28 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ][?]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, first officina
DO 5a (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
4.45g; 24.9mm; 195°
Pep
CsIIDO5b(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 2nd officina23 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: - [
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, second officina
DO 5b (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
5.33g; 25.8mm; 210°
Pep
CsIIDO5c(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 3rd officina31 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ] -
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 5c (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
7.33g; 25.2mm; 180°
Pep
CsIIDOC5d(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 4th officina49 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ]PR - COS'
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left, /N/; In exergue, NO; To right, I/II; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
DO 5d (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
5.31g; 23.3mm; 180°
Pep
CsIIDO5e(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 5th officina39 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IPR - COS'
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left, /N/; In exergue, NO; To right, II/I; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, fifth officina
DO 5e (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
4.69g; 25.7mm; 195°

Overstruck on a clipped Sear 808 or 809 (Heraclius Follis, Constantinople)
(N)NO on reverse
Pep
coin1004.JPG
Severus Alexander, Antioch 8 viewsecoli
BMC_610_AE_Tetras_HIERON_II_SIRACUSA.jpg
SIRACUSA - Sicilia - Italia13 viewsHierón II (275-215 A.C.)
AE Tetras 19.1 mm - 6.0 gr

Hieron II fue tirano y Rey de Siracusa, entre el 270-215 A.C.
Su gobierno conllevó 50 años de paz y prosperidad, convirtiéndose en una de las capitales más famosos de la antigüedad. Amplió el teatro y construyó un inmenso altar. La figura literaria Teócrito y el filósofo Arquímedes vivieron bajo su gobierno. Después de luchar contra los Mamertini en Messana, con el tiempo se alió con Roma.

Anv: Cabeza vistiendo diadema de Poseidón, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: Tridente muy ornamentado con delfines en ambos lados. "IOΡΩ / NOΣ", debajo, dividida por el mango del tridente y "ΣΩ debajo a la derecha.

Acuñación: 268 - 218 A.C.
Ceca: Siracusa - Sicilia - Italia

Referencias: B.M.C. (Sicily) #610 Pag. 218 - HGC 2 #1550 - SNG ANS #1004 - SNG Cop #856 - Sear GTV I #1223 Pag.126 - SNG München #1409 - Calciati #197 Pag.398 (R1/21)
mdelvalle
skione_50.jpg
Skione, Macedonia18 views424-421 B.C.
Silver Hemiobol
0.39 gm, 6 mm
Obv.: Male head right, wearing tainia
Rev.: ΣKI around Corinthian helmet right within incuse square
BM No.2002,0101.1177; BM No.1891,1004.5
[SNG ANS 714-5]
[SNG Cop 319]
Jaimelai
Taras_Facing_Athena.JPG
Taras, Calabria86 views302-228 BC
AR Diobol (12mm, 1.05g, 10h)
O: Head of Athena facing slightly right, wearing triple crested helmet decorated with Skylla.
R: Herakles standing right, strangling the Nemean lion; club above amphora to left, ΕΥP between legs.
Vlasto 1438; Cote 597; SNG Cop 1004; HN Italy 1062
Very Scarce
From the Frank James collection. ex Spinks; ex Walter Holt; ex Roma Numismatics

Facing heads do not occur often on Tarentine coinage, and the Athena with triple-crested helmet motif has always captivated me, so i am very happy to add this scarce type to my collection.
2 commentsEnodia
Mesembria_Price_1003.jpg
Thrace, Mesembria, ca. 200-190 BC, AR Tetradrachm - in the name of Alexander III the Great40 viewsHead of Herakles right, with the features of Alexander the Great (?), wearing a lion skin headdress.
ΒΑΣIΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus enthroned left, legs draped, confronting eagle held on outstretched right arm and grasping lotus-tipped scepter, crested Corinthian helmet with cheek guards facing right before, ΔIOΣK in exergue.

Price 1003; Waggoner “The Propontis Hoard” Revue Numismatique 1979, 30 (same obverse die). The same reverse die as that of this coin was re-cut by erasing the name ΔIOΣK while adding a monogram beneath the throne and was used to strike Propontis Hoard 31, Price 1005. Mesembria ca. 200-190 BC.

(31 mm, 16.85 g, 12h).
Eukratides Numismatics; ex-CNG 42, 29 May 1997, 245.

One of nine known examples of Price 1003 and the only one from this reverse die, which was re-cut to Price 1005.

Price in describing this emission noted, ”The Mektipini and Propontis hoards document the chronology of the chronology of the late third and early second century BC. In particular they pinpoint the dramatic issues of Dioskouridas, with the very fine portrait, apparently of Alexander in the guise of Herakles as an issue of the 190’s BC.”

As indicated by Price, this is one of the few Alexandrine issues where there is a possibility that the portrayal of Herakles might have been based on a portrait of Alexander the Great. For whatever reason this portrayal was restricted to a single obverse die that was used to strike all known examples of Price 1003 and 1004.
1 commentsn.igma
20171004_124859.jpg
Trajan AR Drachm of Bostra, Arabia.25 viewsObv. Laureate bust right, slight drapery.
Rev. Arabia standing left holding branch and bundle of cinnamon sticks; at feet, camel left.
References: ANSMN 20 (1975), 14-17; SNG ANS 1153-1155.
1.96g, 17mm, 5h. As found condition.
1 commentsCanaan
Carac1stCaes.jpg
[1004a] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 2, gF, Rome, 2.662g, 17.2mm, 0o; type from his first issue as Caesar., 196 A.D. Obverse: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva with aegis on breast, standing left, holding spear in left and resting right on shield on the ground; well centered on a tight flan; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.31 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaracallaStobiMoushmov6553.jpg
[1004c] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D. 22 viewsMACEDON, Stobi (?), Caracalla. A.D. 198-217. Æ 25 mm.

Æ; Cf. AMNG II, p. 113, 15; cf. Moushmov 6553; 25 mm, 7.15 g; F, Macedon, Stobi; AD 198-217; Obverse: [??] MAUR ANTONINIUS, Laureate head right; Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. Ex Nemesis.

Beginning with coin #1004a (in my collection, Severan Era) and continuing through coin #1004b and finally #1004c the portraits of Caracalla change, and this change is more profound than the differing styles of celators. The face on the obverse of these coins is not only one of a boy growing into manhood. Viewed together, we see how these various engravers create a portrait of transformation of someone who moves from innocence to (in the Stobi coin) the depiction of a man who looks cruel and capable of murdering his own brother.

Perhaps this seems fanciful, but look at the Stobi portrait closely. This man, Caracalla, did arrange for the murder his brother, Geta, and if historical accounts are valid, he did so as his brother sought refuge in the arms of his mother, Julia Domna:

"Antoninus persuaded his mother to send for
him and his brother and have them come along to her house with a view to
being reconciled. Geta without distrust went in with him. When they were
well inside, some centurions suborned by Antoninus rushed in a body.
Geta on seeing them had run to his mother, and as he hung upon her neck
and clung to her bosom and breasts he was cut down, bewailing his fate
and crying out: '"Mother that bore me, mother that bore me, help! I am
slain!!"'
(Cassius Dio. Dio's Rome, Vol VI. trans. Herbert Baldwin Foster. New York: Pafraets, 1905. )

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, better known as Caracalla, was the son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, born in 188 A.D. He was named Caesar in 196 and Augustus in 198. Shortly before his death, Severus advised his sons, "Agree with each other, give money to the soldiers and scorn all other men." But the brothers hated each other and soon Caracalla had Geta murdered and massacred thousands suspected of supporting him. Although a capable military commander, the actual running of the government was left to his mother. He gradually slipped more and more into paranoia and delusions of grandeur before being murdered on his way to an Eastern campaign aimed at fulfilling his belief that he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great. Macrinus was the Praetorian prefect during the reign of the murderous Caracalla. Macrinus arranged Caracalla's assassination and he and his son Diadumenian seized power and were accepted by the senate (Joseph Sermarini).

Marcus Opellius Macrinus was the first emperor who was neither a senator nor of a senatorial family at the time of his accession. His 14-month reign was spent entirely in the East, where he proved unable to maintain the influence gained in the region by the campaigns of his predecessor, Caracalla, nor was Macrinus able to shake the suspicion that he was responsible for Caracalla's murder. . .

Shortly before the campaigning season was to begin, Caracalla paid a visit to a temple near Carrhae. The emperor was accompanied by a hand-picked corps of bodyguards. The guards returned with Caracalla's murdered body along with the body of one of the guards and a story that the dead guard killed the dead emperor. Not everyone was convinced, but Macrinus was able to translate his authority as praetorian prefect into that of emperor, being proclaimed by the troops on 11 April 217. Macrinus soon named his son, Diadumenianus, as Caesar and heir.
Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler. De Imperatoribus Romanis. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/macrinus.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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