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Search results - "10.09"
27750816_527063031009880_2590155927822439707_n.jpg
5 viewsAntonivs Protti
coin1009.JPG
Elagabalus, Antioch, Syria32 viewsCuirassed bust right / SC, D above, e below, all in wreath.ecoli
179Hadrian__RIC2b.jpg
0003 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis81 viewsReference
Strack 1; RIC III 3; C. 1009; RIC II, 2b

Bust B1

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan standing, delivering globe to Hadrian standing, left facing him; both are laureate and togate and hold rolls in their left hands.

2.89 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
479_Hadrian_RIC2.jpg
0004 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis94 viewsReference.
Strack 1; RIC III 4; C. 1009b; RIC II, 2

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC.
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis, holding globe between them, and each holding a volumen.

3.12 gr
18 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
VHC05-coin.jpg
05- CANADA, 1 CENT, KM7.20 viewsSize: 25.5 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 4,100,100.
Grade: PCGS MS64 RB. (Cert. # 10095298).
Comments: Acquired in a trade from Don Rupp, 06/2009.
lordmarcovan
rjb_2010_01_58.jpg
100910 viewsAntoninianus
Milan
Issue 2
LEG VIII AVG VI P VI F
G 1009
mauseus
1009_P_Trajan_RPC1709.jpg
1916 AEOLIS, Myrina Trajan Ae 14 Bust Roma11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1916

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΑ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΝ
Laureate head of Trajan, right

Rev. ΘΕΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ ΜΥΡΙ
Turreted and draped bust of Roma, right

2.20 gr
14 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 262.jpg
59-12 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)41 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de atrás.
Rev: "P T MR P COS" (Error de acuñación, debería decir "PM TR P COS") - Marte con ropaje y casco militar de pié a izquierda, su manto flota detrás, portando una rama de olivo en mano de brazo izquierdo extendido y lanza invertida en derecho. * (Estrella) en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1ra.Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah, Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #262b Pag.90 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7890 Pag.646 - BMCRE #1009/10 - Cohen Vol.IV #201 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #201 Pag.137 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_262b_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-12 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)15 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de atrás.
Rev: "P T MR P COS" (Error de acuñación, debería decir "PM TR P COS") - Marte con ropaje y casco militar de pié a izquierda, su manto flota detrás, portando una rama de olivo en mano de brazo izquierdo extendido y lanza invertida en derecho. * (Estrella) en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1ra.Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah, Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #262b Pag.90 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7890 Pag.646 - BMCRE #1009/10 - Cohen Vol.IV #201 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #201 Pag.137 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_352_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-26 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 x 24 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SAECVLI FELICITAS" - Emperador laureado con vestimenta militar, de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando una lanza transversal en mano derecha y globo en la mano del brazo izquierdo extendido.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión Fin 271 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus - Balkiz Turquía.

Referencias: RIC Va #352 (C) P.305, RIC2 Temp.#2925, Sear RCTV III #11605 P.429, Cohen VI #223 P.200, Göbl#316 a0, CBN #1137, Hunter p.cxvii, La Venera. 10093/105, BNC Paris #1137/49, Normanby #1284
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Aureliano RIC 352.jpg
96-26 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)32 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 x 24 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SAECVLI FELICITAS" - Emperador laureado con vestimenta militar, de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando una lanza transversal en mano derecha y globo en la mano del brazo izquierdo extendido.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión Fin 271 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus - Balkiz Turquía.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #352 Pag.305 - Cohen Vol.VI #223 Pag.200 - LV.#1510 - Göbl#316 a0 - La Venera. II.1/10093 (13 ex.)
mdelvalle
sear_1009.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100923 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Constans with longbeard and moustache stg, facing , wearing crown and chlamys, holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) K above. CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 655-8 CE
Sear 1009 DO 77-8
22mm 5.05gm
2 commentswileyc
4010093.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 350-320 BC 22mm 8.57g 7h27 viewsPegasos flying right.Rev helmeted head of Athena right,cock to left.Grant H
Sicily_Akragas_SNG-ANS3_1009_gf.jpg
Akragas17 viewsAkragas. 420-410 BC. Hemidrachm (2.07 gm). Eagle standing l. atop hare. / Crab, tunny l. below. ⤹ A-K-P-A around. VF. CICF 2005 Ponterio 134 #1368. SNG ANS 3 #1009; SNG Cop 1 #57-58; SNG Lloyd 826; HGC 2 #104; BMC 2 p. 12, #65.
2 commentsAnaximander
SidePamphylia.jpg
Anchor, Seleukid type277 viewsSide, Pamphylia, Asia Minor, 333 - 187 B.C.
10094. Silver tetradrachm, S 5432 var, VF, 16.2g, 29mm, 0o, obverse head of Athena right in a crested Corinthian helmet, countermarked with a Seleukid type anchor; reverse Nike advancing left holding wreath, pomegranate in left field, KL-E below (magistrates name); sold.
1 commentswhitetd49
AntoSeg2-1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1009a, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Pius sacrificing)24 viewsÆ Sestertius (22,35g, Ø 33mm, 6h). Rome, AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right, aegis.
Rev.: VOTA SVSCEP DECENN III around, COS IIII in ex. S | C, Emperor standing left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod.
RIC 1009a; BMCRE 2070; Cohen 1119 v.; Strack 1172; App. IV 102a; Banti 527 (1 spec., no aegis).
Ex Pecunem Auction 32 by Gitbud & Naumann, June 2015.

This type was issued at the end of 20 years reign - a very rare event during the Roman Empire - and vows were undertaken to the gods for continuation in the third decennium: VOTA SVSCEPta DECENNalia III.

This is an unrecorded bust type with aegis. Four snakes are there attached to the line of the aegis in front of the medusa head.
Charles S
01009AB.jpg
ATTICA, ATHENS, 125-124 BC61 viewsTetradrachm, 29mm, 16.78g
"Tripod" type New Style, THEODOTOS as 3rd magistrate, "A" Month

O: Head of Athena wearing triple crested Arthenian helmet ornamented with Peasos and foreparts of horses
R: Owl stg r facing an upturned amphora, Tripod in LF, ΜΕ under amphora, 3 Magistrates POLEMON ALKETES THEOLTOS, all surrounded by wreath

Thompson 466a (s.o.d.)

Ex Freeman & Sear
2 commentsAZRobbo
20171009_121737.jpg
CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS. 268-270 AD. Antoninianus9 viewsObv. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate head left
Rev. IVNO R-EGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre; peacock standing left at feet.
References: RIC V 212;
19mm, 2.8 grams, brown patina.
Canaan
0160-520.jpg
Commodus, Antoninianus94 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO COMMODO Radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Eagle facing, head left
3.17 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 93, Cohen #1009, RCV #9480
in qblay's catalog : CO01/A023
Ex. Gorny & Mosch
2 commentsPotator II
1009899.JPG
Constantinopolis 23 viewsConstantinopolis Commemorative AE3/4. 332-333 AD. CONSTANTINOPOLIS, laureate, helmeted & mantled bust left holding sceptre over shoulder/ Victory standing left on foot of prow with sceptre and leaning on shield, TR dot P in ex.Trier
RIC VII 543
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
corinth_stater.png
Corinth Stater65 viewsGreece. Corinth. Stater, ca 405-345 BC. Obv. Pegasos flying left; below Ϙ. Rev. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet; laurel wreath right. Ravel 1009. Pegasi I, 427. AG. g. 8.33 mm. 22.002 commentsNick T
20171009_115241.jpg
Diocletian AE Ant "Jupiter" Diocletian AD 284-305 AE Antoninianus13 viewsObv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
Rev: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM/ Emperor standing right holding scepter and receiving victory on a globe from Jupiter. Exe: XXI./ (gamma)
Cyzicus mint: AD 288, Cohen 33; RIC V-2 306; Sear 12635.
21mm, 4.13 grams
Canaan
EB1009_scaled.JPG
EB1009 Mary / Isaac II7 viewsIsaac II Angelus, billon aspron trachy, Constantinople mint, 1185-1195 AD.
Obverse: MP-Θ[V] to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing, holding before her the nimbate head of infant Christ facing left.
Reverse: [I CAA KI OC] to left, [ΔEC ΠO TH C] to right, Isaac, standing facing on the left, crowned, wearing divitision, loros and sagion, and holding cross-headed sceptre and akakia, crowned by hand of God in upper right field.
References: SB 2003, BMC 19-31.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 3.894g.
EB
Hadrian_Athena.jpg
Emmett 0925 - Hadrian Æ Drachm of Alexandria. Athena 28 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Hadrian. A.D. 117-138. Æ drachm (33 mm, 24.99 g). Year 14 (A.D. 129/30). Laureate bust right / Athena standing left, holding Nike and shield. Köln 1009; Dattari 1632; Milne 1286; Emmett 925.14, Kampmann-Ganschow 32.481 1 commentsmattpat
1009.jpg
galatia0014 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Pisidia

Obv: PIVS AVG ANTONINVS, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ANTIOCH GEN COL C, Tyche standing left holding branch and cornucopia.

SNG France 1178
Charles M
ISLANDS_of_THRACE__Thasos_(4).jpg
GREEK, ISLANDS of THRACE / Thasos145 viewsCirca 500-480 BC. AR Stater (19mm, about 8.14 g). Satyr running right, carrying off protesting nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 2; SNG Copenhagen 1009; HGC 6, 331. VF, toned, minor roughness.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection
3 commentsSam
98000419.jpg
GREEK, Thrace, Thasos, AR stater circa 500-480 BC 21mm 9.11 g69 viewsSatyr advancing facing right,carrying off protesting nymph.Rev Quadripartite incuse square.
Le Rider Thasiennes 2,HPM PL.X,3-5,HGC 6.331,SNG ASH 3643-50,SNG COP 1009,Asyut 104.
ex The New York sale Auc 32,lot 105 1-8-14
Grant H
Hadrian_-_adoptio.jpg
Hadrian - AR denarius7 viewsRome
117 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis, holding globe between them, and each holding a volumen.
PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
RIC II 2c, RSC II 1009
ex Lucernae
Johny SYSEL
64~0.jpg
Hadrian Denarius - Two Emperors (RIC II 2c)83 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 117 AD
3.12g

Obv: Laureate draped bust of Hadrian (R)


Rev: TRAJAN AND HADRIAN standing holding scrolls and passing Globe between them.
PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AUG F PM TRP COS PP


RIC II 2c RSC 1009c
1 commentsKained but Able
81637q00.jpg
Hadrian Drachm Alexandria, Athena reverse52 views81637. Bronze drachm, Dattari 1632, Geissen 1009, Choice VF, Alexandria mint, 26.146g, 35.2mm, 0o, 129 - 130 A.D.; obverse AVT KAI TPAINOC A∆PI[...], laureate and draped bust right; reverse Athena standing left, Nike in extended right, resting left on shield, date LI∆ across field;3 commentscliff_marsland
20171009_132000.jpg
HADRIAN. 117-138 AD. AR Denarius . Struck circa 119-125 AD.21 viewsObv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev. P M TR P COS III, FEL P R in exergue, Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
RIC II 120; Strack 64d; BMCRE 266; RSC 600.
18mm, 3.08 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
1001ade.jpg
India. Independent Kingoms. Ahmadnagar. Murtaza Nizam Shah II AH 1007 - 1016 (AD 1598-1607). 17mm, 9.5g. Ahmadnagar Mint. Copper 2/3 Falus AH 1009 (AD 1601).17 viewsoneill6217
JC_452-2_NavN_Pic.jpg
Julius Caesar Denarius - Cr 452/244 viewsJulius Caesar Denarius. Traveling military mint, 48-47 BC. Laureate head of Pietas right, LII behind (resembling TII) (= 52, Julius' age in 48 BC) / CAESAR, trophy of Gallic arms, axe surmounted by an animal's head on right. Crawford 452/2; Sear 11; Sydenham 1009.

Ex- Clain-Stefanelli collection
3 commentsAldo
4505002.jpg
KINGS of MACEDON. Demetrios I Poliorketes. 306-283 BC. AR Tetradrachm26 views27mm, 17.19 g, 5h
In the name and types of Alexander III. Amphipolis mint. Struck circa 294-290 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, thunderbolt above Z; dolphin below throne.
Newell –; Price 501; Ehrhardt 55; HGC 3, 1009 var. (unlisted mint). VF, toned, a couple tiny metal flaws on obverse.
1 commentsLeo
1284_245_Marcius.JPG
M. Marcius Mn.f. - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²133 BC
¹134 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; modius to the left
(XVI)
Victory in biga right holding whip and reins; two heads of grain below
M__(MAR)_C
RO_MA
¹Crawford 245/1, Sydenham 500, RSC I Marcia 8, Russo RBW 1009, SRCV I 122
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,80g
ex Aurea
ex UBC Gold und Numismatik

Issue commemorates moneyer's father Mn. Marcius who set price of grain as one as per modius in 154 BC.
Johny SYSEL
20171009_130643.jpg
Macrinus, AE19 of Antioch, Syria. AD 217-218. 11 viewsObv. AVT K M O C MAKRINOC CE, laureate head right.
Rev. Large SC within laurel wreath, delta above, epsilon below.
BMC 383.
20mm, 4.12 grams.
Canaan
markianopolis_sev_alex_AMNG1009var(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 32. Severus Alexander, HrJ (2014) 6.32.36.09 (plate coin)35 viewsSeverus Alexander, AD 222-235
AE 25, 8.93g, 24.66mm, 30°
struck under governor Tib. Julius Festus
obv. AVT KM AVR CEVH - ALEZANDROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP TIB IOVL FHC[TOV MARK]IANPOLITWN (WN ligate)
Homonoia, in girded double chiton, stg. facing, head l., holding cornucopiae in
l. arm. and patera in outstretched r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1013
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1783 (cites AMNG but doesn't differentiate between different breaks!)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.32.36.9 (plate coin)
F+, deep brown-green patina
Jochen
1000.jpg
PROBUS RIC 376 E1 BUST PARMA SHIELD42 views OBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 4.38g
RIC: 376
COLLECTION NO. 1009
NOTE: VERY RARE (ESPECIALLY FOR TICINUM) AND DESIRABLE BUST TYPE WITH SMALL, ROUND (PARMA) SHIELD !!!
2 commentsBarnaba6
RIC_625_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0625 Domitianus42 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII CENS PER P P - Laureate head right.
Rev. : COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC S C - Domitian standing left, sacrificing over altar; to left victimarius slaying bull, whose head is held by kneeling figure; flute player and lyre player standing right; in background six-column temple, wreath in pediment.
Struck in Rome 88 a.D. - AE / As - mm 29,45 gr 13,34 die axis 6
RIC 625 (C) - BMCRE 438 - Paris 469-470
ex CNG Auction 84 lot 1009 - ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger Auction unknown lot 2419
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
R712_100902_SERMARINI.JPG
RIC 71213 viewsEx John Aiello, Malloy LXvrtsprb
P1100950a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian17 views
Aurélianus d' Aurélien :

24 mm 3,7 g

Avers : IMP C AURELIANUS AVG

Revers : ORIENS AVG

Exergue : ?/_//XXI

Atelier : Cyzique

Officine : 2 ? 3 ? 4 ?

Emission : 9
Vamp
P1100927a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian22 viewsAurélianus d' Aurélien

20 mm 3.1 g

Avers : IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG (Buste radié à droite, avec cuirasse)

Revers : CONSERVAT AVG (Sol debout, levant la main droite et tenant un globe de la main gauche, le pied droit posé sur un captif en habit oriental assis à gauche, les mains liées dans le dos)


Atelier : Antioche

Émission : 5

Officine : 2

Date : printemps 274 – début 275

Le captif au revers commémore les victoires d’Aurélien sur Palmyre qui permit de réintégrer la partie orientale de l’empire, qui s’ était séparée de Rome après la défaite de Valérien I contre les Perses en 260. Après avoir vaincu Palmyre en 272, la ville fut détruite en 273 après une seconde révolte. La légende du revers montre aussi qu’ Aurélien se place sous la protection du Soleil. Le développement de ce culte va aboutir à une forme de monothéisme qui favorisera l’implantation du christianisme au siècle suivant. Ce culte eut beaucoup de succès dans de nombreuses régions de l’empire et dans les armées du Danube et d’Orient. Aurélien vénérait particulièrement le Soleil.
Vamp
P1100923a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian20 views
Aurélianus d' Aurélien :

21 mm 3,3 g

Avers : IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG (Buste radié à droite, avec cuirasse)

Revers : SOLI INVICTO (Sol debout à gauche, levant la main droite et tenant un globe de la main gauche, le pied droit posé sur un captif en habit oriental assis à gauche, les mains liées dans le dos; de l'autre côté, un autre captif en habit oriental assis à droite, tête tournée en arrière)

Exergue : */–//SXXT

Atelier : Ticinium

Officine : 2

Emission : 2

Date : juin – septembre 274
Vamp
0160-520~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, COMMODUS, Consecration antoninianus - RIC 9393 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO COMMODO Radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Eagle facing, head left
3.17 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 93, Cohen #1009, RCV #9480
in qblay's catalog : CO01/A023
Ex. Gorny & Mosch
Potator II
P1100908a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus8 viewsAntoninien de Gallienus Diamètre : 21 mm Poids : 3.6 g
Avers : GALLIENVS AVG (Buste drapé et cuirassé )
Revers : AETERNITATI AVG. Etoile dans le champ à gauche ... Atelier d' Antioche
Date : 263 - 234
RIC 630
Vamp
P1100910a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus10 viewsAntoninien de Gallien : Diamètre : 18 mm : Poids : 2,9 g
Avers : GALLIENVS AVG Tête radiée de Gallien à droite (O).
Revers : ABVNDANTIA AVG/ B | Abundantia (l’Abondance) drapée, debout à droite, déversant le contenu d'une corne d'abondance.
Date : 265-267 | Atelier : Rome | RIC.157 - MIR 574a
Vamp
P1100975a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PROBUS22 viewsPROBUS (Marcus Aurelius Probus)
Diamètre : 20 mm | Poids : 4,1 g
Atelier : ROME, Emission : 6, Officine : 6
Date : 281
RIC : 215 | HO : 636
Vamp
P1100969a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Probus, Antoninianus12 viewsDiamètre : 24 mm | Poids : 4,5 g
Avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG
Revers : SALVS AVG // ΓXXI. Salus (La Santé) debout de face tournée à droite, drapée, nourrissant un serpent qu'elle tient dans ses bras.
Atelier : TICINIUM, Emission : 6, Officine : 3, Date : 279 AD
RIC 413, 555 -> 558, 560 -> 565 ?
Vamp
P1100973a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Probus, Antoninianus13 viewsDiamètre : 23 mm | Poids : 3,3 g
Avers: IMP PROBVS PF AVG
Revers : FIDES MILITVM // R foudre ε
Atelier : ROME, Emission : 6, Officine : 5
Date : 281
RIC 169
Vamp
P1100912a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Salonina, Antoninianus 10 viewsAntoninien Salonine :

Cornelia Salonina Femme de Gallien, mère de Valérien II et de Salonin - Augusta (253-268)

Poids : 2, 9 g

Diamètre : 22 mm

Date : 263-264

Nom de l'atelier : Rome

Degré de rareté : R2




Titulature avers : SALONINA AVG.
Description avers : Buste diadémé et drapé de Salonine à droite vu de trois quarts en avant posé sur un croissant (L15).
Traduction avers : “Salonina Augusta”, (Salonine augusta).


Titulature revers : CONCORD AET// RP.
Description revers : Concordia (la Concorde) assise à gauche, tenant une patère de la main droite et une double corne d'abondance de la main gauche.
Traduction revers : “Concordia Aeterna”, (La Concorde éternelle).


Historique : Salonine, la femme de Gallien, semble avoir reçu le titre d'augusta en 253 quand son mari était associé au pouvoir par Valérien Ier. Elle a perdu au moins deux de ses enfants, Valérien jeune et Salonin. Elle est assassinée en même temps que son mari. Salonine passe pour avoir eu des sympathies chrétiennes.(CGB.fr)


RIC 2, C 25, MIR 544p. RIC.2 - RSC.25 MIR.36/544 p (15 ex.)
Vamp
P1100965a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tacitus10 viewsAvers : IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Revers : CLEMENTIA TEMP
Marque : Δ//XXI
Diamètre : 23 mm | Poids : 3,4 g
Atelier : Antioche, Emission : 3, Officine : 4
Date : janvier – juin AD276
RIC : 210
Vamp
caesardenarius.png
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL - Julius Caesar - AR Denarius65 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.71g; 20mm).

Obverse: Head of Venus facing right; LII behind.

Reverse: Trophy with Gallic shield, carnyx and axe; CAESAR below.

References: Crawford 452/2; Sydenham 1009; HCRI 11; RSC 18.

Provenance: Ex Student/Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (15 May 2015) Lot 407]; ex Glendining's October 1965, Lot 22.

The Roman numeral LII behind the goddess' head on the obverse of this coin is accepted as a reference to Caesar's age at the time of the issue. There is some disagreement on the identity of the obverse goddess. Crawford identifies her as Venus, who is often depicted on Caesar's coins. Sear, in History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, suggests Clementia (clemency) as the goddess, and a reference to Caesar's fairness to his countrymen following the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus.
4 commentsCarausius
Julius Caesar~0.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORS, Julius Caesar636 viewsR5384
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL: Julius Caesar, as dictator (49-44 BC). Silver denarius (4.04 gm). Mint moving with Caesar, 48–47 BC. Female head (Clementia?) right, wearing diadem, oak wreath and pearl necklace, numeral LII (52) behind / Trophy of Gallic arms consisting of a horned helmet, shield, mail cuirass, and carnyx, axe surmounted by animal´s head to right, CAE-SAR across lower field. Crawford 452/2. Sydenham 1009. CRI 11.

The obverse type, which probably depicts Clementia (clemency), symbolizes Caesar's leniency toward defeated enemies. The LII behind her head may indicate Caesar’s age (52) when these coins were struck. The reverse symbolizes Caesar's long years of campaigning in Gaul, where he cemented his reputation as a military commander of genius.
2 commentsgoldcoin
CsIIDO77a.jpg
Sear 1009 - Follis - 655-656 AD (Year 15) - Constantinople mint - 1st officina11 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 655-656 AD (Year 15)
Condition: Fair/Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: Illegible legend
Constans standing, facing, bearded, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, long cross; in left, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, ///; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, first officina
DO 77a; Sear 1009
3.26g; 19.9mm; 15°
Pep
Thasos_50~0.jpg
Thasos, Thrace19 views525-463 B.C.
Silver Stater
7.75 gm, 23 mm
Obv.: Nude ithyphallic satyr advancing right carrying off protesting nymph, her right hand raised
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square

Le Rider Thasiennes 5;
HGC 6, 331;
Sear 1746;
BMC Thrace p. 218, 24;
[SNG Copenhagen 1009-11]
Jaimelai
trajanoaguila.JPG
Traianus aureus79 viewsObserve: IMP. TRAIANO AVG. GER. DAC. P.M. TR.P.
Reverse: COS. V P.P S.P.Q.R. OPTIMO PRINC.
Weight: 7,2 gr.
Calicó: 1009 E.3
1 commentsCorduba
commodo.jpg
Traianus Decius Restitution for Traianus39 viewsMint of Rome
DIVO COMMODO - Radiate head right
CONSECRATIO - Eagle
ref: RIC 93 - Cohen 1009
1 commentsbyzancia
MARCSE01-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 750, for Marciana, Sestertius of AD 113-117 (Elephant biga)128 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.87g, Ø33mm, 6h), Rome mint. Struck AD 113-117.
Obv.: DIVA AVGVSTA MARCIANA, draped diademed bust of Marciana facing right.
Rev.: EX SENATVS CONSVLTO (around), S C (in ex.), Statue of Marciana seated on elephant biga advancing left.
RIC (Trajan) 750 [R3]; Cohen 13; BMC 1086; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 104:61
ex Künker Auktion 204; exemplar der Auktion Fritz Rudolf Künker 136, Osnabrück 2008, Nr. 1009.

This type was issued to commemorate the funeral and consecration in AD 112 of Ulpia Marciana, the sister of Trajan, mother of Matidia, grandmother of the empress Sabina. Like Trajan's wife Plotina, she refused the title of Augusta when it was offered to her when Trajan became emperor, but accepted it in AD 105, together with Plotina. She died in AD 112 and was immediately consecrated
3 commentsCharles S
caesar.jpg
Traveling Caesar14 viewsJulius Caesar Denarius. Traveling military mint, 48-47 BC. Laureate head of Pietas right, _LII behind (= 52, Julius' age in 48 BC) / CAE-SAR, trophy of Gallic arms, axe surmounted by an animal's head on right. Crawford 452/2; Sear 11; Sydenham 1009. RSC 18. Sear RCV I 1400.kaitsuburi
Album-354_2.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate, al-Andalus: Hisham II ibn al-Hakam, 1st reign (366-399 AH / 976-1009 CE) AR Dirhem, Qurtubah Mint (Album-354.2)23 viewsSpongeBob
RPC_Viminacium_Philip_II_Pick_120.JPG
Viminacium (Moesia Superior). Philip II (Caesar, 244-247 A.D.; Augustus 247-249 A.D.) (Marcus Julius Severus Philippus) 36 viewsPick 118 var., Martin 2.28.2, Varbanov 156 (unlisted variant), Boric-Brescovic 1009 & 1012, Jekov 40 (unlisted variant)

AE dupondius, 22-23 mm., die alignment 330°

Dated year 8 (247-248 A.D.).

Obv: IMP MM IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind.

Rev: P M S C—OL VIM, AN VIII in exergue, Moesia standing, between a bull and a lion.

Stkp
SeverusAlexanderRIC70RSC325s.jpg
[1009a] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.83 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 70, RSC 325, S -, EF, Rome mint, 2.803g, 20.7mm, 0o, 227 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing from patera in right over a tripod, scroll in left; cameo-like obverse with toned portrait and legend and bright fields, slightly frosty surfaces, details of head on reverse figure unstruck, slightly irregular flan. Ex FORVM.

In this year Ardashir invaded Parthia and established the Sassanid Dynasty, which claimed direct descent from Xerxes and Darius. The Eastern power grew stronger and the threat to the Romans immense.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SevAl.jpg
[1009b] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.110 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 19, S -, aF, Rome, 2.806g, 20.0mm, 0o, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing left cloak over arms, holding long scepter and thunderbolt. Nice portrait. Ex FORVM.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).


De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
 
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