Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "048"
image01048.jpg
20 viewsSpongeBob
000_1048.JPG
55 viewsvercingetorix
Otacilia_hippo.jpg
62 viewsOtacilia Severa, wife of Philip I (A.D. 244-249), Silver Antoninianus, Rome mint, fourth officina, A.D. 248, diademed draped bust of Otacilia right, on crescent, OTACIL SEVERA AVG, rev., SAECVLARES AVGG, hippopotamus standing right, IIII in exergue, (RCV 9160; RIC 116b),

Ex Superior Ruby Part 2 Sale, June 17 through 22, 1974, lot 1048.
Ex. Dr. Charles L. Ruby Collection
Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson
Ex: Kirk Davis Catalog of Ancient Coins, No. 61, Lot 84

Note: The Ruby collection was purchase in 1971 by Superior Galleries for $1,000,000 and sold in three auctions. This coin was sold in auction two of the three auctions. This coin is pictured in the catalog and sold for $95.00.
1 commentspaul1888
DSC04848.jpg
23 viewsAntonivs Protti
26220158_1959752130951362_4907604801198644477_n.jpg
5 viewsAntonivs Protti
4170542.jpg
12 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Ć 'Lakshmi plaque' (9.5x14.5mm, 1.18 g). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / [Railed swastika]. Ruhuna H.48; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
4170541.jpg
15 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Ć 'Lakshmi plaque' (11x22mm, 2.84 g, 6h). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / Railed swastika. Ruhuna H.40; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
Tiberius_and_Livia_RPC_1568.jpg
3 Tiberius and Livia17 viewsTiberius & Livia
AE24 of Thessalonica

Tiberius, Laureate head right / Livia, Head right.

RPC 1568. aF
RI0048
Sosius
Domitian_wreath.jpg
RIC 0048 Domitian denarius143 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Laureate head right

TR P COS VII DES VIII
Curule chair, wreath above

Rome, September 13-December 31, 81 AD

3.5g

RIC 48 (C)

Ex- RM Collection, Ex-Calgary Coin
8 commentsJay GT4
00001x00~11.jpg
25 viewsROME. Claudius, with Messalina. AD 41-54
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.16 g, 12h)
TI CLAUDIUS CAESAR
Bare head of Claudius left
MESSALINA
Draped bust of Messalina right
Rostovtsew –

Ex London Ancient Coins 60 (14 February 2017), lot 362
Ardatirion
00009x00_copy.jpg
17 viewsATTICA, Athens
PB Tessera. (15mm, 4.00 g)
Struck circa 200-263 AD
Helmeted head right
Blank
Lang & Crosby 246

The style of the bust on this token closely matches one discovered in the Stoa at the Athenian Agora, firmly dated to the mid 3rd century AD.
Ardatirion
Athens_token.jpg
30 viewsATTICA, Athens
PB Tessera. (24mm, 7.60 g)
Struck circa 50-200 AD
Helmeted head of Athena right
Boukranion
Lang & Crosby 251

Ardatirion
00001x00~4.jpg
60 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 10.36 g, 6 h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1837.
Laureate head of Liberty right; above, E. PLURIBUS UNUM on ribbon; thirteen stars around; 1837
MILLIONS FOR DEFENCE. Within wreath: NOT/ ONE/ CENT/ -/ FOR TRIBUTE
Rulau HT 48; Low 28
Ardatirion
0048.jpg
0048 - Denarius anonymous 115-4 BC61 viewsObv/ Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X; below, ROMA.
Rev/Roma seated r. on pile of shields, holding spear; before, she-wolf r. suckling twins; two birds in the field.

Ag, 22.0mm, 3.93g
Moneyer: anonymous.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 287/1 [dies o/r: 82/102] - Syd. 530 - RCV 164 - RSC 176 - Calicó 58 - BMCRR Italy 562
ex-Numismática y Arqueología J. Antonio Salvador
2 commentsdafnis
Tiberius(14-37AD)_AE-Sest__CIVITATIBVS_ASIAE_RESTITVTIS_TI_CAESAR_DIVI_AVG_F_AVGVST_P_M_TR_POT_XXIIII_S-C_RIC-48_BMC-70_C-3_Rome-22-23-AD_Q-001_6h_36-37mm_24,48ga-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!106 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!
avers:- CIVITATIBVS-ASIAE-RESTITVTIS, Tiberius laureate, seated left, foot on stool, holding patera and sceptre, border of dots.
revers:- TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, border of dots.
exerg:S/C//-- , diameter: 36-37mm, weight: 24,48 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: circa 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC I 48, BMC-70, C-3, Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
DSC07044_obv_01_DSC07048__rev_01JPG.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows36 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
014p_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE-16,_Lydia,_Maeonia,_Menekrates,_strategos_,_Nero_r_,_RPC_3015,_Q-001,_0h,_16-16,5mm,_3,09g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Lydia, Maeonia, RPC 3015, AE-16, Męn (Lunus), standing left, #158 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Lydia, Maeonia, RPC 3015, AE-16, Męn (Lunus), standing left, #1
avers: NЄPΩИ KAIΣAP, Laureate head right.
reverse: MAIONΩN MENEKPATOYΣ / ЄΠ TI KΛ, Męn (Lunus), standing left, holding pine cone and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-16,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axes: 0h,
mint: Lydia, Maeonia, date: 65 A.D., ref: RPC 3015, BMC 35,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-245_CP-48_H-333_Q-001_1h_8,8mm_0,17g-s.jpg
022. H-333 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-333, CNH CP.-048, U-245, AR-Obolus, Rare! #01117 views022. H-333 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-333, CNH CP.-048, U-245, AR-Obolus, Rare! #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding orb and cross, circle on each side; border of dots.
reverse: Eagle advancing left, head right, a circle of dots around the head; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8,8mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: 1h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-233, CNH CP.-048, Unger-245, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMITIANVS-AVG-P-M_T_RP-COS-VII-DES-VIII-P-P_Roma-RIC-II-18_RIC-new-48_81-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_18mm_3,31g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Wreath on a curule chair, #191 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Wreath on a curule chair, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMITIANVS-AVG-P-M, Laurate head right.
revers:- TR-P-COS-VII-DES-VIII-P-P, Wreath on a curule chair.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,31g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 81 A.D., ref: RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, p-156,
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMITIANVS-AVG-P-M_TR-P-COS-VII-DES-VIII-P-P_Roma-RIC-II-18_RIC-new-48_81-AD_Q-002_axis-7h_17,5mm_3,27g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Wreath on a curule chair, #294 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Wreath on a curule chair, #2
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMITIANVS-AVG-P-M, Laurate head right.
revers:- TR-P-COS-VII-DES-VIII-P-P, Wreath on a curule chair.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,27g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 81 A.D., ref: RIC 0048, RIC II(1962) 0018, p-156,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Marc-Aurelius_AR-Den_M-ANTONINVS-AVG_PROV-DEOR-T-RP-XVI-COSIII_RIC-III-48_C-517_Rome--AD_Q-001_6h_17,5-18,5mm_3,01g-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0048, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROV DEOR TR P XVI COS III, Providentia standing left,95 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0048, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROV DEOR TR P XVI COS III, Providentia standing left,
avers:- •M•ANTONINVS AVG, Bare head right.
revers:- PROV DEOR TR P XVI COS III, Providentia standing left, holding globe and cornucopia.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date:161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-048, p-217, C-517,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_048ab_img.jpg
044 - Antoninus Pius Sestertius - RIC III, p. 112, 643 19 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right
Rev:- TIBERIS S-C, Tiber, crowned with reeds, reclining left, leaning on urn, which pours out water, resting right hand on boat and holding reed.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 140-144
Reference:– Cohen 819, RCV 4237. RIC III, p. 112, 643 (rare).
maridvnvm
RI_048w_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius AE As - RIC 704c34 viewsĆ As
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head left
Rev: TR POT COS II, Knife, sprinkler, ewer, lituus, and simpulum.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 140
Reference:– RIC III 704c.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
GI 048a img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius AE18 - Ares - Philippopolis50 viewsObv:– AVT AI AΔPIA ANTΩNEIN, bare head right
Rev:– ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN, Ares / Mars standing left, holding spear in left hand; shield leaning against him
Minted in Philippopolis
Obv. legend and bust type variant of Varbanov 786 (Bulgarian ed.) (which is AVT AI ADPI ANTWNEINOC, Head laureate r.)
maridvnvm
RI 048j img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius (as Caesar) - Hadrian RIC 05140 viewsObv: IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS, Bare head right
Rev: TRIB POT COS, Diana standing right, holding bow & arrow
Minted in Rome. January 1st to February 28th A.D. 138
Ref:– BMC (Hadrian) 1006. RIC (Hadrian) 447a. RSC 1058. 14 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_048ad_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius (as Caesar) - RIC II (Hadrian) 44831 viewsObv:- IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS, Bare head right
Rev:- TRIB POT COS, Minerva,standing left, holding Victory in right hand, left hand rests on shield on ground to side, spear rests on left arm
Minted in Rome. February 25th to July 10th A.D. 138
Reference(s) – Cohen 1060. RIC II (Hadrian), p. 294 448 (C). BMC 1007
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048ac_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius (as Caesar) - RIC II (Hadrian) 450 22 viewsObv:- IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS, Bare head right
Rev:- TRIB POT COS, Concordia,standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Minted in Rome. February 25th to July 10th A.D. 138
Reference(s) – Cohen 1061. RIC II (Hadrian), p. 294 450 (C). BMC 1010, Strack 408.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048y_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius - RIC 04030 viewsObv: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS, bare head right
Rev: AVG PIVS P M TR P COS II P P, Modius with corn ears.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 139
Reference:– BMC 79 (4 corn ears and poppy, L. A. Lawrence). RIC III 40 (corn ears and poppy). RSC 103.

This coin doesn't show the poppy as per the BMC/RIC examples.
maridvnvm
RI 048h img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 05197 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Bare head facing right
Rev:– TR POT COS II, Pax standing left, holding branch in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 139
Reference RIC 51
maridvnvm
RI_048x_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius - RIC 06926 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head right
Rev: GENIO SENATVS, Genius of the Senate standing facing with branch and rod.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 140 - 143
Reference:– RIC III 69. RSC 398
maridvnvm
RI_048z_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius - RIC 080a19 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS PIVS P P TRP COS III, laureate head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM, winged thunderbolt.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 140-143
Reference:– BMC 225. RIC III 80a. RSC 681
maridvnvm
RI_048l_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 13731 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Thunderbolt on decorated altar
Minted in Rome. A.D. 138
Reference:– RIC 137. RSC 345. BMC 536.
maridvnvm
RI_048ae_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 18813 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIII, laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 149-150
Reference(s) – RIC 188; RSC 264
maridvnvm
RI 048f img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 219117 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– COS IIII, Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 152 - 153
Reference RIC 219
maridvnvm
RI_048af_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 22113 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding grain-ears & resting hand on modius
Minted in Rome. A.D. 153
Reference(s) – RIC 221. RSC 290
maridvnvm
RI_048ag_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 22213 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 152-153
Reference(s) – RIC 222, RSC 270, BMC 790
maridvnvm
RI 048c img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 23166 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding two corn ears and resting left hand on modius, filled with corn ears, set on prow
Reference RIC 231
maridvnvm
RI 048a img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 290a63 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head facing right
Rev:– TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST / COS III, Octastyle Temple of Divus Augustus, with cult images of Augustus and Livia inside
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 158-159
Reference RIC 290a
maridvnvm
RI 048d img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 293 Note 296 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III, COS IIII below, Pius veiled and togate, standing left sacrificing with patera over tripod
Reference RIC 293 Note 2
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 048b img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 294b56 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III / COS IIII, Pius himself is shown on the reverse, veiled, sacrificing over a tripod altar
Date Minted – 159 A.D.
Reference RIC 294b
maridvnvm
RI_048ah_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC III (Aurelius) 43813 viewsDenarius
Obv:- DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- CONSECRATIO, four tiered funeral pyre surmounted by quadriga
Minted in Rome. A.D. 161
Reference(s) – RIC III (Aurelius) 438, RSC 164a, BMC 60. RD (164)
maridvnvm
RI 048i img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius dupondius - RIC 80720 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– S C, Nude Mars advancing right, bearing trophy & spear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 145-161
Reference:– Cohen 752. RIC 807
maridvnvm
RI 048e img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius dupondius - RIC 99092 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXI, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– FORTVNA OBSEQVENS COS IIII / S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 157 - 158
Reference RIC 990 (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048o_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Ae AS - RIC 910 var 20 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev: ANNONA AVG COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding modius on low base and vine branch (?); to left basket of fruit
Minted in Rome. A.D. 153
Reference:– BMC P. 322 * var. (Bust type). Cohen 44 var (same). RIC III 910 var (bust type)
maridvnvm
RI_048u_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Ae Sestertius - RIC 789 24 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right
Rev: TR POT COS [IIII / ITALIA], S-C, Italia, towered, draped, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae in right hand and sceptre, nearly vertical in left.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 145-161
Reference(s) – BMC 1719. Cohen 472. RIC III 789 (Rated S) citing Cohen.
maridvnvm
RI 048k img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, AE Sestertius, RIC 778 35 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P.P. TR P COS IIII, Laureate head right
Rev: S-C, Mars walking right., holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 146
Ref:– BMC 1705. RIC 778
maridvnvm
RI_048r_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 00917 viewsObv: IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS, bare head right
Rev: AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II, Minerva standing left, holding Victory, left hand resting on shield and a spear rests against left arm
Minted in Rome. A.D. 143-144
Reference:– BMC 12. RIC III 9. RSC 66
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048m_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 01123 viewsObv: IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS, Bare head left
Rev: AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 138
Reference:– RIC 11. BMC 17 Note. Strack 16. Cohen 76 (citing M. Hamburger - 6F)

RIC rates it as scarce citing the Cohen example. Not present in BMC also citing Cohen. RSC citing Cohen and Strack. This would all seem to confirm that it is quite a scarce coin, depending on what other examples have come to light since.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048p_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 02310 viewsObv: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS, Bare head right
Rev: AVG PIVS PM TR P COS II, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– BMC 53. RIC III 23. RSC 84.
maridvnvm
RI_048v_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 054b28 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right
Rev: TR POT COS II, clasped hands holding caduceus and grain-ears.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 138-139
Reference:– BMC 112. RIC III 54b. RSC 873

3.40g, 18.16mm, 180o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048q_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 11224 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right
Rev: IMPERATOR II, Winged Caduceus between two crossed cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 143-144
Reference:– BMC 501. RIC III 112 (Rated Scarce). RSC 451.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048n_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 15118 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Lauereate head left
Rev: TR POT COS IIII / LIB IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding vexillum & cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 145
Reference:– RIC 151. RSC 490.
maridvnvm
RI_048t_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 18913 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIII, laureate head right
Rev: COS IIII, Genius standing left holding patera & corn ears
Minted in Rome. A.D. 149-150
Reference:– RIC III 189. RSC 219
maridvnvm
048-BC-C_Vibius_Cf_Cn_Pansa_Caetronianus_Rep_AR-Den_IOVIS_AX-VR-_Cr-449-1a_Syd-947_Vibia-18_Rome_48-BC_Q-001_4h_17,5-18,5mm_2,96g-s.jpg
048 B.C., C.Vibius Cf. Cn. Pansa Caetronianus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 449/1a, Jupiter Axurus seated left,135 views048 B.C., C.Vibius Cf. Cn. Pansa Caetronianus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 449/1a, Jupiter Axurus seated left,
avers: Mask of Pan right, PANSA below. border of dots.
reverse: IOVIS•AXVR•before, C•VIBIVS•C•F•C•N behind, Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding a plate in right hand, sceptre in left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,96g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 449/1a, Sydenham 947, Sear, CRI 20, Vibia 18,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den_L_HOSTILIVS-SASERNA_Crawford-448-3_Syd-953_Rome_48-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_3,93g-s.jpg
048 B.C., L.Hostilius Saserna, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing faceing,224 viewsL.Hostilius Saserna (48 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing,
avers: Head of Gallia right, Gallic trumpet (carnyx) behind.
reverse: L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.
exergue: - /-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,93g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, CRI 19, Hostilia 4,
Q-001
8 commentsquadrans
Clodius-Albinus_AR-Den_D-CLODIVS-AL-BINVS-AES_PROVID-AVG-COS_RIC-IV-I-1a-P44_C-58_Rome-193-AD_R_Q-001_11h_17-18mm_2,79g-s.jpg
048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 001a, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left, Rare!,127 views048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 001a, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left, Rare!,
avers: D CLODIVS AL BINVS (C)AES, Bare head right.
reverse: PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 2,79g, axis: 11 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 193 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 1a, p-44, C-58, S,
Q-001
quadrans
048_Clodius-Albinus,_RIC_IV-I_1c,_AR-Den_,_D_CL_SEPT_ALBIN_CAES,_PROVID_AVG_COS,_Rome,193_AD,_Rare,_Q-001,_6h,_16,5-18mm,_2,42g-s.jpg
048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 001c, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left, Rare!60 views048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 001c, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left, Rare!
avers: D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right.
reverse: PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left holding wand over globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,0mm, weight: 2,42g, axis: 6h ,
mint: Rome, date: 193 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 1c, p-44, C-55, Rare!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Clodius-Albinus_AR-Den_D-CL-SEPT-AL-BIN-CAES_ROMAE-AE-T-ERNAE_RIC-IV-I-11a-P45_C-61_Rome-193-94-AD_R_Q-001_5h_16,5-17mm_2,68g-s.jpg
048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 011a, Rome, AR-Denarius, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left, Rare!,119 views048 Clodius Albinus (193-196 A.D. Caesar, 195-196 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 011a, Rome, AR-Denarius, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left, Rare!,
avers: D CL SEPT AL BIN CAES, Bare head right.
reverse: ROMAE AE T ERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding Palladium and spear.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 5 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 193 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 11a, p-45, C-61, S-,
Q-001
quadrans
arles21.jpg
048 Constantine I. AE38 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: P*AR
hill132
Ferd-II__(1619-1637AD)_AR-Den_FER_II_D_G_R_I_S_A_G_H_B_R__PATRONA-HVNGARI__1629_K-B_U-917a_C3-303_H-1204_Q-001_7h_14,1mm_0,51g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #0185 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #01
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross). The year 1629 on the top of the shield, K-B crossed the field.
reverse: PATRONA-HVNGARI•, Madonna sits with child on her left arm.
diameter: 14,1mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1629 A.D.,
ref: Unger-917a, CNH-3-303, Huszár-1204,
Q-001
quadrans
048_Ferdinand_II_,_(1619-1637_A_D_),_AR-Groschen_(9-denar),_U-909,_CNH-3-290,_H-1191,1623_AD,_Q-001_4h_20,3mm_1,86g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!119 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned, draped bust right.
reverse: VIIII/KB/GROS•REGN/HVNG:NOV•/DENARIO/1623, Between Crowned Hungarian shield and crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 20,3mm, weight: 1,86g, axis: 4h,
exergue, mint mark: KB//--, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1623 A.D.,
ref: Unger-909, CNH-3-290, Huszár-1191,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_V_183_Probus.jpg
048. Probus A.D. 276-282. AE Antoninianus. 82 viewsAE Antoninianus. Rome mint.

Obv: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev: ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
Ex: R(wreath)Δ.
21 mm, 3.39 g
RIC V, Part 2, 183

EF
1 commentsLordBest
LarryW1913.jpg
0488 Maurice Tiberius, 582-60219 viewsAV tremissis, 17.8mm, 1.49g, EF, flat strike, 180deg,
Constantinople mint, 583 - 602 A.D.
d N TIbE-RI P P AVC, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORI MAVRI AVS, cross; CONOB in exg
Sear 488; DO 14
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
48a.jpg
048a Caracalla. AR Denarius26 viewsobv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT laur. head r.
rev: MONETA AVG Moneta std. l. holding scales and cornucopiae
hill132
48b.jpg
048b Caracalla. AR tetradrachm19 viewsobv: laur. drp. bust r.
rev: eagle std. head l.wreath in beak star between legs
hill132
48c.jpg
048c Caracalla. AR denarius18 viewsobv: ANTONINIVS AVGVSTVS laur. drp. bust r.
rev: PONTIF TR P III nude Caracalla as Sol, std. l. holding globe
and scepter or spear
hill132
48d.jpg
048d Caracalla. AR antoninianus14 viewsobv: ANTONINIVS PIVS AVG GERM radiate drp. cuir. bust r
rev: VENVS VICTRIX Venus std. l. holding victory and spear,
leaning on shield set in helmet
hill132
48e.jpg
048e Caracalla. AR denarius21 viewsobv: ANTONINIVS PIVS AVG laur head r.
rev: PONTIF TR P XII COS III Caracalla galloping l. trampling foeman
hill132
Civil_Wars_RIC_I_121.jpg
09.5 Civil Wars RIC I 12149 viewsCivil Wars. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Southern Gaul mint. 69 A.D. (2.97g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: FIDES, above EXERCITVVM, below clasped hands. Rev: FIDES, above,PRAETORIANORVM, blow, Clasped r. hands. RIC I 121; RCV 2048.

This is thought to be an issue by pro Vitellian forces in southern Gaul for the purpose of influencing Otho’s Praetorians in the capital. In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band to sway the loyalty of Otho’s forces, and this type of coin would have been “bribe” money for that purpose.
1 commentsLucas H
rjb_2018_11_01.jpg
1048cf11 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “[IMP (C?)] M CARAVSIVS [....]”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Victory walkiing left
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 1048-9)
mauseus
603_P_Hadrian_eastern.jpg
105 Hadrian Denarius 128 AD Seven stars Eastern Mint36 viewsReference. very rare
RIC - . C. - . BMC - (cf. S. 380, 26-27 and Taf. 70, 4 und 6). Strack - (cf. Taf. XVIII, *50).

Obv: HADRIAИVS AVGVSTVS P. (SIC)
Laureate head right, draped on left shoulder.


Rev: COS III.
Seven stars within crescent.

3.03 gr
19 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
011_Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-031_C1-048_H-040_Q-001_2h_10,6mm_0,43g-s.jpg
11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./a2.08./22., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #0190 views11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./a2.08./22., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #01
avers: +C AL M N, cross with dots in the angles, border of dots.
reverse: +LADLA RE, or Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,6mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-040, CNH I.-048, Unger-031,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.10./a2.08./22.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-031_C1-048_H-040_Q-002_h_mm_g-s.jpg
11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./b2.04./39., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #0174 views11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./b2.04./39., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #01
avers: +C AL M N, cross with dots in the angles, border of dots.
reverse: +LADLA RE, or Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-040, CNH I.-048, Unger-031,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.10./b2.04./39.,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_RESTITVT-O-RBIS_star_XXIP_Bust-F_RIC-733_p-96_Alf-57-No-_Siscia-5th-emiss_-278AD_Q-001_11h_22,5mm_4,59ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0057.0048, *//XXIP, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 733, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVT ORBIS, Female and Emperor, #1 79 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0057.0048, *//XXIP, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 733, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVT ORBIS, Female and Emperor, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B/F).
reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS, Probus standing left on right, holding globe and sceptre, facing Orbis to left, holding wreath.
exergue: *//XXIP, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,59g, axes: 11h,
mint: Siscia, 5th. emission, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 733, p-96, Alföldi 0057.0048,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 130ap img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 04825 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVID DEOR, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopia; at foot, globe
Minted in Lugdunum (no marks), Emission 1, from October to December A.D. 275
References:– Bastien ??. RIC 48 Bust Type C

A double struck reverse gives an odd depiction of Providentia.
maridvnvm
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #179 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #277 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_SARMATIA-DEVICTA_SIRM_RIC-VII-48-p-475-c3_C-x_Sirmium_th_-off__324-5-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19-20mm_3,03g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #1,81 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #1,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1,B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-48, p-475,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_SARMATIA-DEVICTA_SIRM_RIC-VII-48-p-475-c3_C-x_Sirmium_th_-off__324-5-AD__Q-002_axis-6h_18-19,5mm_3,18g-s~0.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #2,119 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #2,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1,B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-48, p475,
Q-002
quadrans
RI 155m img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 155r img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 163e img.JPG
163 - Helena - RIC VIII Constantinople 048 (AE4)33 viewsObv:– FL IVL HELENA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– PAX PVBLICA, Pax, standing left, holding staff and branch
Minted in Constantinople. CONSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VIII Constantinople 48 (S)
maridvnvm
179_Honorius_(_393-423_A_D_),_Roma,_RIC_X_1357P,_AE-4,_Nummus,_D_N_HONORIVS_P_F_AVG,_VICTORIA_AVG_G,_P-,RM,_410-23_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_11-11,3mm,_1,11g-s.jpg
179 Honorius ( 393-423 A.D.), Roma, RIC X 1357P, P/-//RM, AE-4, Nummus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory walking left, Rare! #189 views179 Honorius ( 393-423 A.D.), Roma, RIC X 1357P, P/-//RM, AE-4, Nummus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory walking left, Rare! #1
avers: D N HONORIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG G, Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm branch, P in the left field.
exergue: P/-//RM, diameter: 11,0-11,3 mm, weight: 1,11g, axes: 6h,
mint: Roma, date: 410-423 A.D., ref: RIC X Roma 1357P, Sear 21048, Late Roman Coins 732, C 39, LRBC 828-30, Rare!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
17k-Constantine-Aqu-048.jpg
17k. Constantine: Aquileia.18 viewsAE3, 320, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG / Helmeted bust of Constantine.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCI / Standard with VOT XX on it, captive, seated on ground on either side. S in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: AQP
2.63 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #48; PBCC #751; Sear #16323.
Callimachus
1004861.JPG
19 Constantius Gallus97 viewsConstantius Gallus, Caesar 351-354 AD. AE 3. DN CONSTAN-TIVS NOB CS, bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust rt. / FEL TEMP- REPARATIO, no beard, Phrygian helmet, reaching. SMK[]
Cyzikus 107
Randygeki(h2)
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201163 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2012.JPG
201243 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2014.JPG
201453 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
3290481.jpg
202. Septimius Severus53 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Ć As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
20k-Constantine-Sir-048.jpg
20k. Constantine: Sirmium.18 viewsAE3, 324 - 325, Sirmium mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SARMATIA DEVICTA / Victory advancing, holding trophy and branch, captive seated on ground at right.
Mint mark: SIRM
2.83 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #48; PBCC #802; Sear #16286.
Callimachus
22048.jpg
22048 Licinius I/Jupiter19 viewsLicinius I/Jupiter
Obv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG,
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN,
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left.
I in right field.
ANT in Exergue
Mint: Antioch 19.0mm 4.0 g
RIC VII Antioch 17; Sear 15253. R3
2 commentsBlayne W
1048_P_Hadrian_RPC2764_2.jpg
2762 CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian Ć 22 Demeter 9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2764/2; Ziegler 109; SNG BN -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΑΔΡΙΑΝω ΚΑΙСΑΡΙ СΕ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. СΥΕΔΡΕωΝ
Demeter seated l., holding ears of corn in her r. hand and lighted torch in left

7.34 gr
22 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection; Hauck and Aufhäuser 20, 16 Oct. 2007, lot 307
okidoki
1047_P_Hadrian_RPC-.jpg
2768A CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian Ć 17 Artemis standing9 viewsReference.
RPC III -; Ziegler -; SNG BN -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -; Asia Minor Coins online -; apparently unpublished.

Obv. ΑΥΤOKPA ΑΔΡΙΑИΟС.
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. СYЄ - ΔΡЄ.
Artemis standing left, holding pomegranate and sceptre.

4.45 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection; ex auction Künker 20, lot 206 October 1991
okidoki
p_048.JPG
3 Constans 35 viewsCONSTANS AE2 Centenionalis. 348-351 AD. DN CONSTANS PF AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier leading a young barbarian from hut, spear pointing downwards, between soldier's legs CONSI* in ex.Randygeki(h2)
RIC_13a_Denario_Pertinax_FORO.jpg
39 - 02 - Pertinax (31/12/192 - 28/3/193 D.C.)32 viewsAR Denario 16 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES P HELV - PERTIN AVG" -Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VOT DECEN TR P COS II" - Emperador togado y velado, estante a der., sacrificando con Pátera sobre un Altar/Trípode a der. y portando rollo en izquierda.

Acuńada: 2da. Emisión Ene.-Mar. 193 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC IVa #13a (R2) Pag.8 – Sear RCV II #6048 Pag.429 - Cohen Vol.III #56 Pag.396 - Salgado II/1 #4003.e Pag.67 - BMCRE V #24/5 Pag.4 - RSC III #56 Pag.2
mdelvalle
392_P_Hadrian_Emmett905.jpg
5424 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Sarapis-Ammon25 viewsReference. Rare
Emmett 895.8; RPC III, 5424; Dattari-1481; Milne-1048; Köln-858; BMCSup-2792A; COP-302; Frankfurt-37

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AUT KAI TRAI ADRIA CEB
Laureate head r. with aegis; in front, crescent

Rev. L-H
Draped bust of Sarapis-Ammon to right, wearing taenia and kalathos.

12.84 gr
23 mm
1 commentsokidoki
Theodosius-I-Cyz-14c.jpg
70. Theodosius I.22 viewsAE 2, 383, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG / Helmeted bust of Theodosius, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM / Theodosius standing on ship, raising right hand. Victory seated at helm.
Mint mark: SMKΓ
5.73 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #14c; LRBC #2550; Sear #20482.
Callimachus
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
2550377.jpg
93. Manuel I Comnenus28 viewsEMPEROR OF TREBIZOND
Manuel I Comnenus.
1238-1263. AR Asper (20mm, 2.41 g, 7h).
O: Manuel st. facing, wearing crown and loros and holding labarum and akakia; (star) /M/И/ (star) to outer l., two stars to inner l., star to inner r., O/K/H to outer r; above to r., crowning manus Dei R: St. Eugenius standing facing, wearing nimbus crown and holding long cross; O/A/ΓI to outer left, star to inner left, (star)/ЄV/ΓЄ/(NH) to right.

Cf. Retowski 91-2; SB 2601.

Near EF, toned, a few light scratches.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
Sicily_Abakoinon_SNG-ANS3_895_gf.jpg
Abakainon14 viewsAbakainon. 420-410 BC. AR Litra (0.60 gms). Laureate bearded head of Zeus r. ⟲A-B-A-K. / Boar stdg r. ⟲IИIA. gVF. FUN Show 2015. SNG ANS 3 #895; HGC 2 #9; BMC 2 #2; SNG Cop -.1 commentsAnaximander
Alaisa.JPG
Alaisa, Sicily40 viewscirca 340 BC
AE22 (22mm, 9.06g)
O: Griffin springing left.
R: Horse prancing left; [KAINON] in ex.(?)
HGC 2, 509 (as Kainon); SNG ANS 1169; Hunter 165,1; Sear 1048; BMC 2 29,6
ex Jack H. Beymer

My first ancient coin.
Enodia
v_048.JPG
Alexander III32 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 BC
Bronze Hemitetartemorio Cyprus

Obverse:Head of Alexander the great as Herakles,wearing lions skin
Reverse:Club and quiver between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ

10.88mm 1.45gm



PRICE bronze
maik
a_048.JPG
Alexander III 31 viewsAlexander the Great
Ae 1/2 Amphipolis 325-310 B.C

Obverse:Macedonian shield with thunderbolt at center
Reverse:B-A ;Macedonian helmet; monogram below.

15.88mm 4.12gm

Price 413
Struck under Antipater, Polyperchon or Kassander
maik
73~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 022.04814 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA AVG
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/V//XXI
WEIGHT 3.52g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 661
ALFOLDI 022.48
COLLECTION NO. 603
Barnaba6
69~3.jpg
ALFOLDI 041.03713 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVG
BUST TYPE: B1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/T//XXI
WEIGHT: 3.72g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21mm
RIC 706
ALFOLDI 041.037
COLLECTION NO. 1048
NOTE: SCARSE BUST TYPE
Barnaba6
82~3.jpg
ALFOLDI 048.00121 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: P M TRI P COS III P P
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIQ
WEIGHT 3.61g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 21mm
RIC 616
ALFOLDI 048.001
COLLECTION NO. 943
Barnaba6
1073.JPG
ALFOLDI 073.0485 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIT
WEIGHT 4.18g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC 776
ALFOLDI 073.048 (5 ex.)
COLLECTION NO. 1073
EX H. SCHEINER COLLECTION
Barnaba6
CB8E8A13-5A14-4B99-8DED-87048010583B.jpeg
Anonymous Issue of Nabatea? c. 135-104 BC.10 viewsObverse: Helmeted head of Athena right. Reverse: Nike standing left, holding cornucopia and wreath. Celticaire
IMG_0069.JPG
Antiochos III 222–187 BC. AE1821 viewsAntiochos III 222–187 BC.
Obv. Lauriate head of Apollo right.
Rev. BAΣІΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY Tripod with monograms to L and R.
Ref. HGC. V9 266, SC 1048, 1054
Lee S
IMG_9993.JPG
Antiochos III the Great4 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 222-187 BC. Ć Antioch mint. Laureate head right of Antiochos III as Apollo / Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding bow and testing arrow; SC 1048.1e; SNG Spaer 561
ecoli
Antiochus_III~2.jpg
Antiochus III, 223 - 187 B.C.11 viewsSeleucid Kingdom, Antiochus III, 223 - 187 B.C. Bronze AE 23.4~26mm., 11.66g, 0°, Antioch on the Orontes mint, c. 204 - 197 B.C. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo, with features of Antiochus III, right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Apollo seated left on omphalos, examining arrow in right, resting left on grounded bow, symbols left. Houghton 1048(1), SNG Spaer 561
Ref : http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=231908, http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=225801
ddwau
048.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol38 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.84 gm, 11.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
1048539l.jpg
Arakan25 viewsSpongeBob
20180219_204840.jpg
Ariobarzanes III., 63-52 BC. AR Drachm. Mazaca.35 viewsObv .: Diademed King's Head to the right.
Rev .: BAΣIΛEΩΣ APIOBAPZANOY Athena stands to the left, holding Nike, spear and shield, monogram in front of it.   Condition: almost very fine,minor scratches.
Dimensions: 4,43g, 15mm. BMC: 1.
2 commentsCanaan
148.jpg
Asklepios, hld. serpent-staff222 viewsPHRYGIA. Acmoneia. Nero. Ć 20. Circa A.D. 65. Obv: (NEPWNACE)BACTOИ-AKMONE(IC). Laureate head right, aegis on chest; above crescent; beneath winged caduceus (not visible); Countermark before. Rev: (CEP)OYHNIOYKAΠITWNO(CKAIIOYΛIACCEOYHPAC), EΠI APX TO Г in field to right. Zeus enthroned left, in right extended hand holding phiale over owl, resting left arm on sceptre. Ref: BMC 43; SNG Cop 29; RPC 3176. Axis: 330°. Weight: 4.27 g. Magistrate: L. Servinius Capito (archon). Third issue. CM: Asklepios standing, holding serpent-encircled staff, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 9 mm. Howgego 241 (12 pcs). Note: There was a local cult of Asklepios. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
10480996_703350213035226_8998503194079486291_n.jpg
Augustus 33 viewsAugustus AE 25 As, of leaded bronze, from Colonia Patricia (Corduba), Spain. 19/18-2 BC. PERM CAES AVG, laureate head left / COLONIA PATRICIA in two lines within wreath. SGI 16, RPC 129, Lindgren 87.1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
00484.jpg
Augustus (RPC I 131, Coin #484)20 viewsRPC I 131, AE Quadrans, Colonia Patricia (Cordova), 15 - 14 BC.
Obv: PER CAE AVG Bare head left.
Rev: COLO PATR Patera above aspergillum, jug, and lituus.
Size: 15.0mm 2.30gm
MaynardGee
120.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC-AD 1449 viewsPHOENICIA, Berytus.

AE16, 16.21mm (3.79 gm).

CAESAR, laureate head left / Dolphin and tripod in wreath. Struck 27 BC-AD 14.

RPC I, 4537; BMC Phoenicia, 047-048; Rouvier, 487; Lindgren, 2251.
socalcoins
307_Aurelian_Oriens.jpg
Aurelian - AE silvered antoninianus8 viewsCyzicus
spring – end 274 AD
Issue 9
radiate, cuirassed bust right
IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG
Sol advancing left, stepping on captive, raising hand and holding globe
ORIE_N_S AVG
XXI
RIC V-1, 360 Cyzicus
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/3048
3,99g
Johny SYSEL
Azes.jpg
Azes - AE16 viewsTaxila
58-12 BC
humped bull right; (MP) above; shi under head
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩИ ΜΕΓΛΟΥ
AZOY
lion right; monogram above
Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatasa
Ayasa
MIG 850, Sen 102.100
11,32g 26mm
Johny SYSEL
Azes_tetra.jpg
Azes - AR tetradrachm10 viewsTaxila
58-12 BC
king on horse rising hand holding whip
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩИ ΜΕΓΛΟΥ
san
AZOY
Zeus with rod holding Nike
Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatasa
monogram / M / dhram
Ayasa
MIG 854i, Sen 105.340T
8,86g
Johny SYSEL
Barbarous_Imitation,_AE-3,_VICTORIA_LAETAE_PRINC_PERP_type,Q-006,_6h,_15,5-17mm,_2,01g-s.jpg
Barbarous Imitation, AE-3, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP type, #1191 viewsBarbarous Imitation, AE-3, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP type, #11
avers: IIIIIIIIIIIII III, Confusing text, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: H III III II ИИ, Confusing text, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading "VOT/PR" imitation on cippus.
exergue: -/-// Confusing text, diameter: 15,5-17,0mm, weight:2,01g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: , ref: ,
Q-011
1 commentsquadrans
048~3.JPG
Basse et moyenne Vallée du Rhône - Allobroges, denier DVRNACOS//AVSCRO, -75/-509 viewsDenier, argent, 1,93 g, 16 mm.
Av./ Tęte casquée ŕ droite, DVRNACOS devant.
Rv./ Cavalier ŕ droite, AVSCRO dessous.
Réfs : Dicomon, VDR-5762 ; LT 5762 ; Depeyrot type 109.
Gabalor
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS286.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.21 viewsBruttium, Kroton. 500-450 BC. AR Stater (6.78 gm) w/ medium flan. Delphic tripod with three lion's foot legs, ϘPO-TOИ to l. & r. (retrograde). / Incuse eagle flying r. Good VF. Pegasi VI #87. SNG ANS 286; Dewing 499v (retrograde legend); HGC 1 1447; HN Italy 2095; SNG Cop 1766; SNG Fitzwilliam 757.Christian T
MISC_Bulgaria_Stratsimir.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire, Vidin Kingdom. Ivan Stratsimir (1356-1396)13 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 11/10.1.3; Raduchev & Zhekov 1.14.6; cf. Youroukova & Penchev 107; Ljubić III, 2; cf. Moushmov 7542.

AR Groši/grosh (described in older references as a half groši/grosh); Third Chronological Group, variant B; Vidin mint; struck circa 1380-1385; .74 g., 17.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field, all within beaded circle, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Rev.: Nimbate Ivan Stratsimir wearing domed crown seated facing, holding scepter decorated with a lily forming a trefoil (with the lily depicted in heraldic manner; i.e., the central petal stands upright but the side petals bend downward) in his right hand and an akakia in his left, axe between his feet, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Ivan Alexander divided his kingdom between his two sons. Ivan Stratsimir received Vidin. In 1365, the Hungarian King Louis I of Anjou captured Vidin. Sratsimir and his family were held captive in Croatia for four years but in 1369 Sratsimir was restored to his throne under Hungarian overlordship. After the Ottoman invasion in 1388, he was forced to acknowledge Ottoman overlordship and garrisons. In 1396 Sratsimir and his subjects aligned themselves with the anti-Ottoman Crusade led by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxemburg. The crusade ended in disaster at the battle of Nikopol on September 25, 1396. By the end of 1397 Sultan Bayezid I approached Vidin and, assured by the promise of his safety, Ivan Stratsimir came out to meet him. On the order of Bayezid I, Ivan Stratsimir was arrested and conveyed to Bursa, while the Sultan confiscated the contents of the Vidin treasury. Sratsimir's fate is unknown. Vidin was likely annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1397, but at least part of the realm remained under the control of Sratsimir's son and heir Constantine II.
Stkp
Sear-96.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justin I (518-527 CE) Ć Follis, Cyzicus, IY 4 (Sear 96; DOC 41)7 viewsObv: D И IVSTINVS PP AVG; Bust of Emperor facing right, diademed in cuirass and paludamentum
Rev: Large M, K - Y across field, cross above; INςΔ in exergue
Dim: 34 mm, 16.26 g.
Quant.Geek
2390481.jpg
C. Servilius C.f. 53 BC. AR Denarius64 viewsC. Servilius C.f. 53 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.84 g, 7h). Rome mint. Head of Flora right, wearing flower wreath; lituus behind / Two soldiers standing vis-ŕ-vis, each holding a shield and short sword upright. Crawford 423/1; Sydenham 890; Servilia 15. VF, toned, slightly off center.

Ex CNG Auction 239 Lot 481
2 commentsPhiloromaos
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-004_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0168 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048, Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-001_10mm_0,14ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0188 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in a frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10mm, weight: 0,14g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-003_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0165 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in the frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-002_11mm_0,17ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0184 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in the frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55.,
Q-001
quadrans
CalabriaOwl2.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Drachm150 viewsHead of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with Skylla preparing to hurl a stone

Owl standing to right on olive branch, head facing; ZOR (magistrate) to right, TAP to left.

3.07g

Circa 281-276 BC.

Vlasto 1048. McGill 135, Cote 348, Sear 367v.
8 commentsJay GT4
CaraStobe166.JPG
Caracalla, AE 23 Diassaria25 viewsIMP C M AV AИTOИINV/S
Bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, right
STOBEN/S MVNICIVM
Nike advancing left with wreath and palm
Josifovski 334 (V51, R53) corrected legends
Kuzmanovic Collection 623 corrected legends
CNG 355 L269
Blundered and unusual legends
whitetd49
00487q00.jpg
Carausius12 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAV(SIVS P F AVG); Radiate and draped and cuirassed bust right
FORTVNA AVG; Half-length bust of Fortuna right, holding olive branch, flower behind, all within laurel-wreath.
uncertain Mint
RIC 792
Julianus of Pannonia
00481q00.jpg
Carausius13 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
APOLLINI CO AV; Griffin walking to left
Ex: MSC
Camolodunum
RIC 193
Julianus of Pannonia
00486q00.jpg
Carausius12 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG; Radiate and draped bust to right.
EXPECTATE VENI; Britannia standing right holding trident, clasping hand of emperor standing left holding spear.
Ex: RSR
Londinium
RIC 605var.
Julianus of Pannonia
00480q00.jpg
Carausius17 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
LEG II PARTH; Centaur advancing left, holding rudder and globe
Ex: ML
Londinium
RIC 62
Julianus of Pannonia
00484q00.jpg
Carausius13 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VBERETAS A; Cow stg. right being milked.
Ex: RSR
Londinium
RIC: --
Julianus of Pannonia
00482q00.jpg
Carausius15 viewsAE-Antoninianus
Ov: IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG; Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rv: LLTTIIA; Galley with seven oarsmen to right.
Ex: OPR
Rotomagus
RIC --
Julianus of Pannonia
00483q00.jpg
Carausius9 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VICTORI AV; Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palmbranch.
Ex: -
uncertain mint
RIC 1020
Julianus of Pannonia
00485q00.jpg
Carausius8 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
PAX AVG; Pax stg. left, holding scepter and branch.
Ex: BRI
probably early London mint. (BRITANNIA)
RIC 1087
Julianus of Pannonia
QING LI.jpg
CHINA - QING LI53 viewsCash Coin, Northern Song Dynasty. Emperor Ren Zong - Qing Li Reign (1041-1048). H-16.128. S-504.dpaul7
2250483.jpg
Claudius II RIC V-1 Cyzicus 251 ( var ) 56 viewsAE 20 mm 3.5 grams 268-270 AD
OBV :: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG. Radiate head right with 2 pellets below. Aegis on left shoulder . snake erecting from the Head of Medusa on right.
REV :: VICTORI-A-IE GOTHIC. Trophy with 2 seated, bound captived on either side
EX :: none
Minted in Cyzicus
REF :: RIC V ( 1) 251 Var ( variation due to the 2 pellets below, the Aegis, and the snake )
EX white mountain collection
EX CNG auction 225 lot 483
Purchased 01/2010
Johnny
CLAUD2-2-ROMAN~0.jpg
Claudius II, RIC V(1)-048 Rome11 viewsAntoninianus
Rome mint, 268-270 A.D.
20mm, 4.07g

Obverse:
IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GENIVS EXERCI
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
rubadub
20180208_111048.jpg
Claudius, 41-54. As (Copper, 29mm, 9.45 g ), Rome, 50-54. 16 viewsObv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P Bare head of Claudius to left.
Rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA / S - C Libertas standing facing, her head turned to right, holding pileus in her right hand and extending her left.
References: BMC 204. BN 230. Cohen 47. RIC 113.
1 commentsCanaan
1048.jpg
coelavarb29254 viewsElagabalus
Coela, Thrace

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: AEL MVNI COEL A. Galley prow right, cornucopia above.
18 mm, 3.90 gms

Varbanov 2925
Charles M
2034_2035.jpg
Commodus, Denarius, TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP2 viewsAR Denarius
Commodus
Cesar: 166 - 167AD
Augustus: 167 - 192AD
Issued: 181AD
19.0 x 17.5mm
O: M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: TR P VI IMP IIII COS III PP; Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 430: B9, O48, R253, T147.
RSC 806; BMC 63, RIC 17.
edgars2010 272420488678
10/20/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
39671_Maximian_antoninianus,_RIC_VI_Antioch_60b,_F,_Antioch.jpg
CONCORDIA MILITVM, ANT in ex, RIC VI 60b Antioch27 viewsMaximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC VI Antioch 60b, F, Antioch mint, 3.048g, 20.1mm, 0o, 296 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presenting Victory on globe to Maximian, star over A, ANT in ex; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
4130482.jpg
CONSTANTINOPLE: Leo I26 viewsLeo I. AD 457-474. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.46 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 10th officina. Struck AD 462 or 466. D N LEO PE RPET AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield with horseman motif / VICTORI A AVGGG, Victory standing left, holding long, jeweled cross in right hand; star to right; I//CONOB. RIC X 605; Depeyrot 93/1. VF, “X” graffito on obverse, a few light marks on reverse.3 commentsMolinari
CONTIUS2-37-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantius II, Cyzicus RIC VIII-048(Γ)30 viewsAE4
Cyzicus mint, 347-348 A.D.
15mm, 1.78g
RIC VIII-48

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right.

Reverse:
VOT
XX
MVLT
XXX
SMKΓ
Legend within wreath.
rubadub
DUCHY ATHENS 1.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #170 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4

This view is with no lighting effects. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
DUCHY ATHENS 2.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #260 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4.

This view is with lighting effects to show the coin better. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
Crusades-378.jpg
Crusaders: Bohémond III (1163-1201) AR Denier, Antioch (Metcalf, Crusades-378)50 viewsObv:+ BOAИVHDVS, helmeted and mailed head left; crescent before, star behind
Rev:+ AИTI:OCHIA, cross pattée; crescent in second quarter
1 commentsSpongeBob
048~1.JPG
Dauphiné, Louis I (1409-1415), Dauphins de Viennois, France.3 viewsDenier, 0,64, frappe incuse, atelier non visible

D/ + LVDOVICVS, grand lis dans le champ (côté non visible)
R/ + DALPhINVS, croix

Poey d'Avant n° 4940
Gabalor
RI 048j img~0.jpg
Diana175 viewsAnontinus Pius Denarius (As Caesar under Hadrian)
Obv: IMP T AEL CAES ANTONINVS, Bare head right
Rev: TRIB POT COS, Diana standing right, holding bow & arrow
Minted in Rome. A.D. 138
Reference:– BMC 1006. Cohen 1058. RIC 447a [hadrian]
maridvnvm
6166_6167.jpg
Diocletian, Tetradrachm, NO LEGEND, Dikaiosyne7 viewsBI Tetradrachm
Roman Provincial
Alexandria, Egypt
Diocletian
Augustus: 284 - 305AD
Issued: 285 - 286AD
19.0mm 6.30gr 0h
O: A K Γ OYA ΔΙΟΚΛΗΤΙΑΝΟC CεΒ; Laureate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
Exergue: L, left field; B, right field. (Year 2)
Alexandria Mint
Milne 4769; BMC 2488; Curtis 1968.
sculptor17/Glenn Terry 292455048273
2/25/18 3/14/18
Nicholas Z
00489q00.jpg
Diocletianus under Carausius10 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P AVG; Radiate and cuirassed bust to right.
VIRTVS AVGG / S P in Fields; Soldier standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield.
Ex: C
Camolodunum
RIC 30; Webb 1249
Note: Minted under the reign of the usurper Carausius
Julianus of Pannonia
SCBC-865(1).jpg
Early Anglo-Saxon, Kingdom of Northumbria: Ćthelred II (ca. 841-850) Ć Styca Phase II, Group A, Eoferwic (York) Mint (SCBC-865; Pirie, Guide 3.10g var)5 viewsObv: +EDIΓRED REX around central cross pattée
Rev: +ΓEOFτИ around central cross pattée

SpongeBob
SCBC-866.jpg
Early Anglo-Saxon, Kingdom of Northumbria: Ćthelred II, 1st reign (ca. 841-850) Ć Styca Phase II, Group A, Eoferwic (York) Mint (SCBC-866; Pirie, Guide 3.10d)8 viewsObv: +EDELRED REX around central six-limbed cross
Rev: +LEOFDEτИ around central cross pattée with pellets in quarters
SpongeBob
SCBC-865.jpg
Early Anglo-Saxon, Kingdom of Northumbria: Ćthelred II, 1st reign (ca. 841-850) Ć Styca Phase II, Group Cii, Eoferwic (York) Mint (SCBC-865; Pirie, Guide 3.26n)7 viewsObv: +EDIΓRED RE–X around central cross pattée
Rev: +VEИDEΓBERH around central pellet-in-annulet
SpongeBob
EB0048b.JPG
EB0048 Zeus / AX monogram8 viewsAchaean League (Unidentified), Hemidrachm, 196-146 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: Large AX monogram, (various symbols), dolphin below, all in wreath.
References: -.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 2.33g.
EB
EB0173b_scaled.JPG
EB0173 Griffin / Horse9 viewsAlaisa, SICILY, AE 21, ca. 340 BC.
Obverse: Griffin springing to left.
Reverse: Horse prancing left.
References: SG 1048, BMC 2, no. 6.
Diameter: 21.5mm, Weight: 9.38g.
EB
EB0258b_scaled.JPG
EB0258 Griffin / Horse3 viewsAlaisa, Sicily, AE 25, Circa 340 BC.
Obverse: Griffin running left, locust below.
Reverse: Horse galloping left, bridle trailing; KAINON in exergue, star above.
References: SNG ANS 1169ff,1175-1178; Sear 1048 sim.
Diameter: 25mm, Weight: 9.623g.
EB
EB0480_scaled.JPG
EB0480 Septimus Severus / Neptune19 viewsSeptimus Severus, AR Denarius, 209 AD.
Obv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: PM TRP XVII COS III P P, Neptune standing left, nude but for chlamys draped over left shoulder and right forearm, right hand resting on upper right leg, right foot on rock, long trident vertical in left hand.
References: RIC IV 228, RSC III 529, BMCRE V 3, Hunter III 69, SRCV II 6346.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.123 grams.
1 commentsEB
EB0481_scaled.JPG
EB0481 Julia Domna / Laetitia24 viewsJulia Domna, AR Denarius, ca 198 AD.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and rudder.
References: RIC 561 (Rome) or, more likely RIC 641 (Laodicea).
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.44 grams.
Coins of Julia Domna from the Laodicea mint can be identified by the loop coming up from her drapery at the neck.
2 commentsEB
EB0482_scaled.JPG
EB0482 Julia Domna / Felicitas18 viewsJulia Domna, AR Denarius, 206 AD.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA Draped bust right.
Rev: FELICITAS Felicitas standing, head left, holding short caduceus and long sceptre.
References: RIC IV 551; Sear 6581; RSC 47.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.25 grams.
EB
EB0483_scaled.JPG
EB0483 Julia Domna / VENVS GENETRIX9 viewsJulia Domna, AR Antoninianus, 216 AD.
Obv: IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, diademed and draped bust right on a crescent.
Rev: VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left.
References: RIC IV 388A; RSC 211; Sear 7098.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 4.926 grams.
EB
EB0484_scaled.JPG
EB0484 Caracalla / MARTIPRO-PVGNATORI13 viewsCaracalla, AR Denarius, 210-213 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right.
Rev: MARTI PRO - PVGNATORI, Mars walking left, holding spear and trophy.
References: RIC IV 223, BMCRE 87; RSC 150.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 2.729 grams.
EB
EB0485_scaled.JPG
EB0485 Caracalla / RIC IV 8814 viewsCaracalla, AR Denarius, 207 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: PONTIF TR P X COS II, Mars advancing right holding spear and trophy.
References: RIC IV 88.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.399 grams.
EB
EB0486_scaled.JPG
EB0486 Caracalla / MARTIPROP-VG-NATORI9 viewsCaracalla, AR Denarius, 210-213 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right.
Rev: MARTIPROP VG NATORI, Mars walking left, holding spear and trophy.
References: RIC IV 223, BMCRE 87; RSC 150.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 3.259 grams.
EB
EB0487_scaled.JPG
EB0487 Caracalla / Concordia16 viewsCaracalla, AR (poss. Fourree) Denarius, 210 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: PONTIF TR P XIII COS III, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae.
References: RIC IV 116A.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.147 grams.
EB
EB0488b_scaled.JPG
EB0488 Caracalla / Serapis14 viewsCaracalla, AE As, 213 AD.
Obv: [ANTONINVS PIVS] AVG BRIT, Laureate head right.
Rev: [P M TR P XVI] COS IIII P P S C, Serapis standing left, holding sceptre.
References: RIC IV 505.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 9.619 grams.
EB
EB0489_scaled.JPG
EB0489 Caracalla / Providentia12 viewsCaracalla, AE As, 210-213 AD.
Obv: [AN]TONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: [PRO]VIDENTIAE DEORVM around, S-C across fields, Providentia, draped, standing left, holding wand in right hand over globe and sceptre in left hand.
References: RIC IV 519.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 9.631 grams.
EB
EB0502_scaled.JPG
EB0502 Severus Alexander / Jupiter Seated19 viewsSeverus Alexander, AR Denarius, 225 AD.
Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right
Rev: IOVI VLTORI, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre.
References: RIC IV 144; RSC 95.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.048 grams.
1 commentsEB
edipen.jpg
Edward I (1272 - 1307 A.D.)40 viewsAR Penny
O: + ЄDWR’ ANGL’ DИS’ hУB, crowned and draped facing bust.
R:  / CIVI | TAS | LOИ | DOИ, long cross pattée; trefoils in quarters.
1.43g
19mm
 SCBI 39 (North), 60; North 1015; SCBC 1386.
4 commentsMat
483c.jpg
emesa001c4 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: … M ...ANTW..., radiate head right.
Rev: [MHTP-OKOΛЄMICΩN around, HΛIA above] →ΠVΘIA, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
22 mm, 7.79 gms

BMC 21; Lindgren-Kovacs 2048
Charles M
1582.JPG
emesa001c_210 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Radiate head right.
Rev: MHTP..., Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
21 mm, 4.00 gms

BMC 21; Lindgren-Kovacs 2048
Charles M
475.jpg
emesa001c_var6 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ...ANTWN..., laureate head right.
Rev: MHTP-OKOΛЄMICΩN around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
23 mm, 7.90 gms

BMC 21 variant (bust type); Lindgren-Kovacs 2048 variant (same)
Charles M
Trajan_euthenia~0.jpg
Emmett 0486 - Trajan AE Drachm, Alexandria, Egypt, Euthenia28 viewsTrajan, 98-117 AD, bronze drachm of 35 mm, 21.58 grams. Struck at the mint of Alexandria in Egypt.
Obverse: Laureate bust of Trajan to right.
Reverse: Euthenia reclines to left on sphinx.
Emmett 486, Kampmann – Ganschow 27.321
mattpat
FH-G-048_(0s).jpg
FH-G-04811 viewsbronze AE21
- Unk
- Zeus seated left holding Nike and sceptre, cross below, P to left

7.60gm / 21.05mm

Notes: Dec 24, 15 - Coin is un-attributable at this time because of encrustations. Rev. is very crude and may be a tribal/barbarian issue
Jonathan P
048~8.JPG
François Ier Roi de France (1515-1547) - Liard8 viewsLiard ŕ l'F, billon, 0,67 g
X sous la croix pour l'atelier de Villefranche.
A/ + FRAN D G FRANCO REX, F couronné.
R/ + SIT NOMEN D B V A, croix.
Réfs : Duplessy 930
Gabalor
048A.jpg
Gallienus Antoninianus73 viewsGöbl MIR 1634i, SRCV 10290 var (various mintmarks), RIC V 651 var (same) Antioch, AHG 407 (this coin); 265 A.D.
3.531g, 21.8mm, 180o
GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right, helmeted, spear in right, resting left hand on shield set on ground
Notes: From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus.
Not recorded in RIC without either a branch or SPQR in exergue.
MIR records only 2 examples of this variety
Rare
Ex: Malloy Antiquities, FORVM
3 commentsMark Z
coin_1_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / FIDES MILIT AE/Bi. antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)23 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder/ FIDES MILIT, Fides Militum standing left, holding vexillum and long scepter, MP or MD in exergue.

AE3, 17mm, 1.27g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus. Fides was the Roman goddess of trustworthiness and good faith. Fides Militum = "Military confidence" or "Army's loyalty". Sceptres, often two to three foot ivory rods topped with a globe or an eagle, were introduced by Augustus as a symbol of Rome's power. They would be carried by emperors while riding in chariots to celebrate military victories and thus a scepter is a symbol of emperor's leadership and victory. Vexillum -- ensign of a section of legion. MD may mean Mediolanum mint, MP may mean Mediolanum pecunia (coin) or Mediolanum mint, prima officina (workshop #1). Either way, it was probably minted at Mediolanum.

Very similar to a coin (with MP mintmark), listed at WildWinds with references to RIC V-1, Milan 481K; Goebl 1370a; Sear 10214. http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gallienus/RIC_0481.jpg

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. The son of emperor Valerian and his wife Mariniana. Born c. 218. Co-emperor with his father since Oct 253. His sons Valerian II and Saloninus were named his co-emperors and heirs, but both died early (Valerian II in 258 and Saloninus in 260). His father was infamously captured after the Battle of Edessa by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I, also in 260, leaving Gallienus a sole ruler. His whole career was spent dealing with innumerable invasions and revolts, which speaks to his credit, because despite this he managed to stay in power for so long. Famous for his military reforms and the first decree of tolerance of Christianity. Despite this some martyrologies mention his as a persecutor, probably mistaking him for his father's actions during their joint reign. Infamous for losing Gaul and Palmyra. Died in Sept 268 in Mediolanum as a result of yet another military coup, Fides Militum finally failed him. Succeeded by one of his generals Claudius Gothicus, later known as Claudius II. There were some rumors that Claudius was the one who murdered Gallienus, but this was never proved.
Yurii P
Demo-80.jpg
Gepids: Uncertain King (454-552) AR Quarter Siliqua, Sirmium (MEC-1; Demo-80; Stefan-2; COI, p. 43, Fig. 22; Gennari-111b)14 viewsObv: D N VƧ(M over W)VISTΛIWS P P Λ[VC], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: (star) IИMVIT + IROИVΛ, Theoderic monogram

Imitation of a Ravenna mint Quarter Siliqua of Theoderic in the name of Justinian I

Quant.Geek
Ghaznavid_DoubleDirham.jpg
Ghaznavids: Mawdud ibn Mas’ud (1041-1048) AR Double Dirham (Unpublished)29 viewsSpongeBob
00480-Gratian.JPG
Gratian11 viewsGratian AE2
23 mm 4.23 gm
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
Gratian standing left, raising kneeling female figure
John Campbell
IMG_0485[1].JPG
Greece, Corinth230 viewsApril 2011pitbull
IMG_0486[1].JPG
Greece, Corinth -- April 2011197 viewspitbull
Trikka,_Thessaly.jpg
Greek - Thessaly, Trikka12 viewsMetal/Size: AR17; Weight: 2.88 grams; Denomination: Hemidrachm; Mint: Trikka, Thessaly; Date: 440-400 BCE; Obverse: The hero Thessalos, nude but for a petasos and cloak tied at neck, holding band around head of forepart of bull moving right. Reverse: ΤΡΙ-Κ-ΚΑI-Ο-И, forepart of bridled horse right within shallow incuse square. References: BCD Thessaly #768v; SNG Cop. #263-265; HGC 4, #311; Sear #2226.museumguy
photo03a.jpg
Greek, Thrace, Mesembria, Alexander III, AR tetradrachm.77 views Mesembria mint (Thrace). Struck 250-175 BC. Obv.: Head of Herakles right in lionskins. Rev.: Zeus seated left with eagle & scepter; IДИ and Corinthian helmet left, monogram under throne.2 commentsseleukoy
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l-_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-49var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #166 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #267 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
hungary_solomon.jpg
HUNGARY - Solomon102 viewsHUNGARY - Solomon (1063-1074) Silver Coin. Obv.: +REX SALOMOИI Bust facing, cross in left hand. Rev.: In 3 lines: +PA / NON / IA Reference: Huszar #17, Unger #10.dpaul7
HUN_Geza_I_Huszar_18.JPG
Huszár 18; Tóth-Kiss 8.1 sigla b5.5/7; Unger 12; Réthy I 23; Frynas H.7.1; Adamovszky A28v3; Kovács pp.124-12660 viewsHungary. Duke Géza (Duke, 1064-1074; King, 1074-1077).

AR denomination unknown (per Huszár and Adamovszky) or denar (per Tóth-Kiss, Unger, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) (average .70 g, 17-19 mm.); .76 g., 18.72 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + DVX MVONVS or MAGNVS, Cross.

Rev: + PANONAI (decaying legend, with the P shaped as a D), Cross with wedges

The obverse legend is deciphered either as + DVX MVONAS (per Huszár, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) or + DVX MAGNVS (per Réthy). The former interpretation deciphers all A/V letters consistently as inscribed (so that the fifth letter is a V and the eighth is an A) and assumes that the sixth letter is an O. The latter interpretation inverts the second and third A/V letters (so that the fifth letter is an A and the eighth is a V), and assumes that the sixth letter is a G. Tóth-Kiss and Kovács explain that Magnus was the Christian given name of Géza. According to Adamovszky, the standard legend reads MVONAS but there is a variety in which it reads MAGNVS.

Struck in Esztergom, 1064-1074 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative).

From 1048-1074 a third of the kingdom was ruled by the duke, who issued autonomous coinage on a heavier weight standard than the royal coinage. Upon becoming king, the weight of his coinage was reduced to the royal standard.

Huszár rarity 6, Toth-Kiss rarity 120, Unger rarity 30, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Istvan_II_Huszar_45.jpg
Huszár 45; Toth-Kiss 12.3 sigla a1.2/3; Unger 35; Réthy I 51; Frynas H.10.2; Adamovszky A64; Kovács pp. 184 ff.47 viewsHungary. István/Stephen II (1116-1131)

AR denar (average: .55 g., 12-13 mm.), .49 g., 12.96 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + CEHΛИVS REX, small cross, with wedge in each angle.

Rev: + LΛDLΛVS RE, small cross, with wedge in each angle.

Struck in Esztergom.

Huszár rarity 9, Toth-Kiss rarity 40, Unger rarity 35, Frynas rarity N.

Ladislaus/László I (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions such as this.
1 commentsStkp
Roger_k.jpg
ITALY, Normans in Calabria. Roger I. 1072-1101.7 viewsĆ Trifollaro, 29x25mm, 8.2g, 11; Mileto, c. 1098-1101.
Obv.: ROC ERIVS COME +S . Knight with triangular shield and conical helmet, holding flag on long pole, on horse standing left.
Rev.: + MARIA MATER DИI . Enthroned nimbate Virgin holding on lap Christ child, nimbate and in swaddling clothes right.
Reference: CNI XVIII pg. 287, 15; Biaggi 1583; MEC 14, 93; Sambon 876 / 17-141-151
John Anthony
048~6.JPG
Jean II, dit Jean le Bon, Roi de France (1350-1364) - Ecu d'or8 viewsEcu d'or ŕ la chaise, or, 4,04 g, seconde émission (juin 1351).
A/ + IOHANNES DEI GRA FRANCORVM REX, Roi assis dans une stalle gothique de face, tenant une épée et l'écu de France.
R/ + XPC VINCIT XPC REGNAT XPC IMPERAT, croix fleuronnée dans un quadrilobe orné, cantonnée de trčfles.
Réfs : Duplessy 289a
Gabalor
BarbPrutahWeb.jpg
Jewish War Year 2 irregular bronze prutah38 viewsJewish War, 66-70 AD, irregular bronze prutah, 16.1 mm, 2.92 gm. Dated "year 2", struck 67/68 AD.
O: Amphora crude style and legend.
R: Vine leaf on tendril, crude style and legend.
Unique obverse die, Hendin-1360b, MCP 048 with R67

A scarcer irregular issue bronze coins of the Jewish War. Some believe that these were struck at a second mint, moving with the army. Recent data suggests that these were made at secondary quasi-official mints and accepted in circulation as regular coins.

"The most amazing thing is the high number of irregular dies (56 obverse & 74 reverse dies!) vs. the extreme rarity of irregular dies for the prutah of the 3rd year. Something important happened in the production of these prutot between the 2nd and the 3rd years of the revolt. Has an illegal workshop been closed after year 2? Or was there apprentice engravers employed at the regular mint on year 2 who were no longer employed on year 3?" - JPFontanille
Nemonater
kainon.jpg
Kainon (Alaisa?), Sicily, c. 340 B.C. AE 25, Griffin & grasshopper/ horse10 views“Kainon” (Alaisa?), Sicily, c. 340 B.C. AE 25, SGCV I 1048, aVF, Alaisa? mint, 10.706g, 21.7mm, 105o, c. 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, grasshopper below; reverse, horse prancing left, [KAINON] in ex. This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by mercenaries in the region. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Kainon~0.jpg
Kainon, griffin & grasshopper/ horse9 views'Kainon,' Sicily, c. 340 B.C. Bronze AE 25, SGCV I 1048, F, Alaisa? mint, 9.166g, 22.9mm, 0o, c. 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, grasshopper below; reverse , horse prancing left, KAINON in ex, star above. Ex FORVMPodiceps
3D2FD934-2E0A-4048-8689-49A2A4C3E2AD.jpeg
Kingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant7 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant
Acre mint. Third phase . 3.9 g.
Corrupted Arabic legends both sides.
CCS 5
Ex Artemide aste XXVII Lot 549 ; Ex Numismatica Tintinna 81
Vladislav D
00048Q00.JPG
Kings of Macedon. Amphipolis. Philip II. 359-336 BC. (Circa 315-294 BC - Kassander)16 viewsTetradrachm

24 mm, 14.62 g

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.

Reverse: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (FILIPPOU, "of Philip"). Youth, holding palm frond, riding horse right. Controls: Below horse, Λ above torch; dolphin right below raised foreleg.

SNG ANS 807; HGC 3.1, 988
Nathan P
0048.jpg
L. Saufeius Denarius11 viewsRRC 204/1
152 b.c.
L.SAVF ligated

Bought from "HD Rauch" Auction #84, Lot #199 in 2009
Norbert
Latin_rulers_s2048.jpg
Latin Rule, Sear 204829 viewsByzantine Empire, Latin Rule, 12 April 1204 - 25 July 1261 A.D. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, SBCV 2048, DOC IV, pt. 2, 34, VF, Constantinople mint, 2.008g, 23.9mm, 180o, obverse facing bust of Christ Emmanuel, bearded and nimbate, in tunic and kolobion, scroll in left; reverse , emperor standing facing, wearing stemma, divitsion, and chlamys, labarum-headed scepter in right, globus cruciger in left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
sear_2048.jpg
Latin rulers of Constantinople; Trachy; Sear 204817 viewsLATIN RULERS OF CONSTANTINOPLE, A.D. 1204-1261. Ć Trachy, 17mm; Small module, Hendy type E, Sear BCV 2048.Podiceps
5833_5834.jpg
Licinius I, Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI2 viewsAE Follis
Licinius I
Augustus: 308 - 324AD
Issued: 313AD
21.0mm 5.30gr
O: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: SOLI INVICTO COMITI; Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe.
Exergue: ST
Ticinum Mint
Aorta: 631: B8, O18, R53, T68, M13.
sjbcoins 401048277977
1/10/16 1/29/16
Nicholas Z
LITHUANIA_1520_HALF_GROSCHEN_SIGISMUND_II.jpg
LITHUANIA - Sigismund II Augustus20 viewsLITHUANIA - Sigismund II Augustus (1548-1572) Silver 1/2 Grosch, 1520. Obv.: Mounted knight with raised sword rides left. + MOИETA SIGISMVAИDI : 1520 (all with retrograde N'S) Rev.: Spread eable, MAGИI : DVCIS : LITVAИIE Reference: ID #124:37dpaul7
D-021-048v.jpg
Louis II de Montpensier (1560-1582), Liard- 158091 viewsAtelier de Trevoux
+ L . P . DOMBAR . D . MONTISP . E, Grand L couronné. Le E est la marque du graveur Ennemond Farbot
+ DNS ADIVTOR . MEVS . 1580, croix florencee
0.96 gr
Ref : Divo Dombes # 48v, PA # 5129v, Mantellier # 29v
Voir Monnaies XXII # 457, un exemplaire identique, décrit comme unique
Potator II
048~4.JPG
Louis XVI, Roi de France (1774-1788) - 1/5 d'écu5 views1/5 d'écu au buste habillé, argent, 5,82 g.
Lettre R sous l'écu pour Orléans.
A/ LUD XVI D G FR ET NAV REX, buste du Roi ŕ gauche.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM 1787.
Réfs : Droulers 619 (375.172 ex.)
Gabalor
Thourioi_didrachm.jpg
LUCANIA, Thourioi75 viewsHead of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with Skylla holding rudder over shoulder

Bull butting right; below, dolphin right in waves.

Lucania, Thourioi

Circa 400-350 BC

7.35g

HN Italy 1794b; SNG ANS 1048.

Ex CNG 385, Lot: 48, Ex-Steve P collection
2 commentsJay GT4
014p_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE-16,_Lydia,_Maeonia,_Menekrates,_strategos_,_Nero_r_,_RPC_3011,_Q-001,_0h,_16-16,5mm,_3,09g-s~0.jpg
Lydia, Maeonia, 014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), RPC 3015, AE-16, Męn (Lunus), standing left, #168 viewsLydia, Maeonia, 014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), RPC 3015, AE-16, Męn (Lunus), standing left, #1
avers: NЄPΩИ KAIΣAP, Laureate head right.
reverse: MAIONΩN MENEKPATOYΣ / ЄΠ TI KΛ, Męn (Lunus), standing left, holding pine cone and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-16,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axes: 0h,
mint: Lydia, Maeonia, date: 65 A.D., ref: RPC 3015, BMC 35,
Q-001
quadrans
nysa_caracalla_SNGaulock3048(rev)_unbekannt.jpg
Lydia, Nysa, Caracalla, SNG von Aulock 3048 (rev. only ), probably unpublished34 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 23, 6.62g
obv. AVT [KM] - AVR [CE] ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NYCA - EWN
Kore/Persephone, clad in long chiton and peplos, head dropped, stg. l., holding
in r. hand long knotted staff (scepter?), with lowered l. hand holding garment
at her hip.
SNG von Aulock 3048 (rev. only!); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; probably unpublished
very rare, VF, green patina

Kore/Persephone attitude is a bit inflected. She looks melancholy. Then this should be a depiction after her rape by Hades. She is no more the carefree maiden picking flowers on a meadow with her playmates. A valley near Nysa was the place where according to the myth the abduction has been happened.
1 commentsJochen
10482199_758024524234461_6995696604986559527_n.jpg
Macrinus34 viewsMacrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Bronze provincial as, McAlee 736; Hunter III, 243 - 244; BMC Galatia p. 200, 403 ff. var (busts); SNG Cop 234 var (same), aF, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, weight 2.175g, maximum diameter 17.8mm, die axis 180o, obverse AYT KAI M O CE MAKPINOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Macrinus, from the front; reverse KAI M O ∆IA ANTΩNEINOC, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Diadumenian, seen from the front, S - C flanking across field; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; very rare bust variant;

The Battle of Antioch. After Macrinus foolishly cut legionary pay, Legio III Gallica hailed Elagabalus as emperor on 16 May 218. Macrinus sent cavalry but they too joined Elagabalus. Macrinus finally abandoned his pay cut and paid a bonus, but it was too late. Legion II Parthica defected. General Gannys, the commander of Elagabalus' forces, decisively defeated Macrinus was just outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Macrinus shaved off his hair and beard and fled, disguised as a member of the military police. He was recognized by a centurion at Chalcedon on the Bosporus, taken back to Antioch and executed.
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Marcus_Aurelius_Winged_Thunderbolt.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Winged Thunderbolt25 viewsMarcus Aurelius, Macedon, Koinon, 161 - 180 AD, 25mm, 14.6g, Varbanov III 3048,
OBV: KAICAP ANTWNEINOC, bare head right
REV: KOINON MA-KEΔONΩN, winged thunderbolt
Romanorvm
Maximianus_Alexandria_Nike_LZ.jpg
Maximian - Alexandria5 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 291 - 28 Aug 292 AD
laureate, draped and cuirased bust right
MAΞIMI_ANOC CEB
Nike with wreath and palm branch advancing right
L_* / Z
Milne 5031, Curtis 2101, Geissen 3319, SNG Cop 1048, BMC 2580
7,09 g
Johny SYSEL
00488q00.jpg
Maximianus under Carausius23 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; Radiate and cuirassed bust to right.
PAX AVGGG; Pax stg. left, holding scepter and branch. S ¦ P in fields.
Ex: MLXXI
Londinium
RIC
Julianus of Pannonia
Maximian_5031.jpg
Maximianus, Nike, year 7; Milne 503117 viewsMaximianus, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 5031, Curtis 2101, Geissen 3319, SNG Cop 1048, BMC Alexandria 2580, VF, Alexandria mint, 7.801g, 18.7mm, 0o, 29 Aug 291 - 28 Aug 292 A.D.; obverse “ΜΑΞΙΜΙ−ΑΝΟ”C C“ΕΒ”, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse, Nike flying right, wreath in right, palm over shoulder in left, L - Z (year 7) across fields, star right. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Screenshot_2019-04-04_18_38_03.png
Medieval France, King Jean II le Bon, Billon Piefort Gros Tournois ŕ la queue.7 viewsParis 1350-1364 A.D. 3.20g - 27.2mm, Axis 10h.

Obv: + BIИIDICTV:SIT:nOmЄ:DHI:nRI:IhV:XPI: / (crown) IOhAnn ES REX, - Latin cross pattée.

Rev: (crown) TVRONVS CIVIS - châtel tournois within border of twelve lis.

Dy.300B.
Christian Scarlioli
Middlesex_1048.jpg
Middlesex 104814 viewsObv: TOM TACKLE IS RICH - FOR KING AND COUNTRY, a sailor brandishing a cutlass.

Rev: TOM TACKLE IS POOR - MY COUNTRY SERVD, a sailor on crutches with a wooden leg begging.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Tom Tackle 1048
SPQR Coins
MILAN_-_MEDIEVAL.jpg
MILAN - Gian Galeazzo Visconti88 viewsMILAN - Gian Galeazzo Visconti, as duke. 1395-1402. AR Grosso (24mm, 2.3 g). Obv.: Coiled serpent eating a man (or, as some say, a Basilisk), flanked by G-3, all within quadrilobe. + GALIAZ · VICECOES · D · MEDIOLAИI
Rev.: St. Ambrose mitred, nimbate, seated, holding scourge and crozier; annulet in left field. S AMBROSIVS (AMB ligate) MEDIOLAN. Reference: Casellotti 2.
1 commentsdpaul7
10500483.jpg
Mithradates II37 viewsSeleukia on the Tigris mint. Struck circa 119-109 BC. Sellwood 24.5; Sunrise 282; Shore 68.

Ex. CNG 105, Lot 483
2 commentsThatParthianGuy
500489.jpg
Mithradates II20 viewsRhagai mint. Struck circa 109-96/5 BC. Sellwood 27.1; Sunrise 293; Shore 85.2 commentsThatParthianGuy
IMGP0048Mith3brcombo.jpg
Mithradates III. 57 - 54 BC21 viewsAE 14, 2,2gr., 14,28mm;
Sellw.40.19, Shore 207;
mint: Ekbatana, axis : 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklet w/ central medallion;
rev.: horse’s head, right, framed by 7-line illegible legend;

ex: Canmoose, CAN.
Schatz
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2013)8_26_35_4corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.35.05 (plate coin)15 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 10.79g, 26.78mm, 15°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT K] M AVR - AN[TWNEINOC]
Laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN PRO (PR ligate)
in upper l. field one below the other C IC / TR
in r. field ON
Nemesis-Aequitas in long garment and mantle stg. l., holding goad in l. arm and in
extended r. hand scales; no wheel; over l. shoulder strange longish object with knob.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1962 (1 ex., Milano); object over her l. shoulder not mentioned!
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4048 (= AMNG 1962)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.35.5 (this coin)
scarce, F/F+, dark green patina, patina damage on obv.

The unknown object seems to be a measuring rod.
Jochen
nikopolis_gordianIII_AMNG2048.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 36. Gordian III, HrHJ (2018) 8.36.05.01 (plate coin)33 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 29, 9.6g, 28.65mm, 180°
struck under governor Sabinius Modestus
obv. AVT.K.M.ANTW.GORDIANOC. AVG (AVG ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP CAB MODECTOV NI - KOPOLEITWN PR / OCIC in r. field (WN and PR ligate)
Demeter, in long garment, puff of garment over r. arm, stg. facing, head l., holding grain-ears and poppy in outstretched r. hand and long flaming torch in l. hand.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2048 (2 ex., Athens, Vienna)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4134
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.36.5.1 (plate coin)
about VF, interesting traces of smoothing actions on rev.

Nice depiction of the torch!
Jochen
048~0.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Petit bronze au démos VOLCAE // AREC, -60/-4013 viewsBronze, 1,83 g, 18 mm.
Av./ Tęte ŕ droite, couronne devant, VOLCAE derričre.
Rv./ Démos debout ŕ gauche, palme ŕ gauche, AREC ŕ droite.
Réfs : Dicomon, VLC-2677 ; LT 2677 ; Depeyrot, type 142.
Gabalor
00488.jpg
Nerva (RIC 9 var, Coin #488)16 viewsRIC 9 var, AR Denarius, Rome, 97 AD.
Obv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P Laureate head right.
Rev: SALVS PVBLICA Salus seated left holding ears of corn.
Size: 18.4mm 3.16gm

RIC 9 has the obverse text IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P instead of ... TR P II COS ....
I have also seen this coin attributed as RIC 33, whose description perfectly matches this coin but is shown only as an aureus.
MaynardGee
048-01.jpg
Orodes II, Tetradrachm46 views14.89 gr1 commentsPotator II
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47gx-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), 140 viewsAs a "chocolate paper" copy of the original coin !!!
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.),
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0

I used on this thread :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=110289.msg673332#msg673332
1 commentsquadrans
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ-ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!141 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.). Extremely Rare!
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
1 commentsquadrans
00480Q00.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Mehmed V. 20 Kurush. Dated RY 9 (AD 1917)14 views(36 mm).Constantinople mint (in Turkey), OC 35-012-0. Pere 1046; KM 780.Ruslan K
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_24.jpg
PAMPHYLIA, Aspendos.90 viewsPAMPHYLIA, Aspendos. Circa 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; ИF between.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right , EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left , triskeles to right; all within pelleted square border.
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; SNG France 101 (same obv. die).
Max Dia 22.5 mm, 10.46 gr, die axis 1h , VF., rare , scattered marks under tone.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.

Sam
RI 048h img~0.jpg
Pax (with cornucopia)212 viewsDenarius
Obv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Bare head facing right
Rev:– TR POT COS II, Pax standing left, holding branch in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Rome, A.D. 139
References:– Cohen 857a, RIC 51

Another example of Pax but this time seen with cornucopia instead of staff
maridvnvm
0170-210.jpg
Pertinax, Denarius - *165 viewsRome mint, AD 193
IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right
VOT DECEN TR P COS II, emperor sacrificing left, with patera held over tripod altar
2.98 gr, 17 mm
Ref : RIC # 13a, Cohen # 56, RCV # 6048
Ex Harlan J. Berk
3 commentsPotator II
tyros_gallienus_Rouvier2048cf(Maesa).jpg
Phoenicia, Tyros, Gallienus, Rouvier 2048 cf. (Maesa, rev. only), unpublished?30 viewsGallienus, AD 253-268
AE 27, 14.52g, 27.33mm, 0°
obv. IMP CP LIC GALLIENVS AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. [COL] TVRO ME - [T]
Dido, in long double chiton and himation over l. arm, wearing stephane, stg. l. on galley sailing l., holding
aphlaston in l. arm and reaching with r. hand to a person bending l. over side of prow; at her r. side a
second small person stretching hand to Dido; below galley murex shell
ref. cf. Rouvier 2048 (Maesa, rev. only); unpublished?
about VF, devices highlighted by sand patina

A nice and interesting issue. There are some different variants of this type: Dido accompanied by different persons, galley sailing l. or r. Meaning?
For more information take a look at the article about Dido in the Mythology Thread.
1 commentsJochen
type_I.jpg
Principality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment) 161 viewsPrincipality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment)
Struck circa 988-1010
Obverse : Duke in the hat with pendants. Cross with a long handle in the right hand. Next to the left shoulder - the symbol of princely power - the trident ( Royal symbol of Rurick ). Legend: "ВЛАДИМИРЪ А СЕ ЕГО С". or similar
Reverse: Nimbate bust of Jesus Christ. On the sides legend "ИС ХС".
Sotnikowa/Spasski Type I
Vladislav D
type_III.jpg
Principality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment) 349 viewsPrincipality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment)
Obverse :Vladimir enthroned holding scepter and orb . legend ВЛАДИМИРЪ НА СТОЛЕ or similar .
Reverse: Vladimir's tamgha ( Royal symbol of Rurick ). legend А СЕ ЕГО СРЕБРО or similar .
Sotnikowa/Spasski Type III
Vladislav D
type_IV.jpg
Principality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment) 437 viewsPrincipality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment)
Struck circa 1014-1015 .
Obverse :Nimbate figure of Prince Vladimir enthroned holding cross in left hand. His right hand is on his chest . legend ВЛАДИМИРЪ H or similar .
Reverse: Vladimir's tamgha ( Royal symbol of Rurick ) . legend А СТОЛЕ А СЕ ЕГО СРЕБРО or similar .
Sotnikowa/Spasski Type IV
Vladislav D
00048.jpg
Probus (RIC 706, Coin #48)12 viewsRIC 706 (C), Silvered AE Antoninianus, Siscia, 280 AD.
Obv: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PAX AVG (XXIQ) Pax standing left holding olive branch and transverse scepter.
Size: 22.3mm 3.56gm
MaynardGee
5835_5836.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILIT, XXIQ 6 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 279AD
22.0mm 3.40gr
O: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: CONCORDIA MILIT; Probus standing right on left, shaking hands with Concordia.
Exergue: XXIQ
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 1853: B72, O79, R28, T98, M6.
RIC 666, Q; Cohen 162v; Sear 11967.
sjbcoins 401048283322
1/10/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
048~5.JPG
Provence - Comté de Provence, Charles Ier d'Anjou (1246-1285),France.5 viewsObole, argent, 0,50 g, Avignon.
A/ + K I SICIL REX, couronne dans le champ.
R/ + COM PVINCI, croix.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant 3969
Gabalor
048~7.JPG
Provence, principauté d'Orange, Guillaume IX de Nassau (1647-1650), France.9 viewsDenier tournois, cuivre, 1,15 g.
A/ GVILLEL D G PRI D, buste ŕ droite.
R/ DENIER TOVRNOIS 1651
Réfs : CGKL 784 f1
Gabalor
6047_6048.jpg
Provincial, Anchialus, Thrace, AE27, ΟVΛΠΑΙΝΩΝ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ22 viewsAE27
Roman Provincial
Anchialus, Thrace
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
27.0mm 8.20gr 0h
O: AV K Λ CεΠΤ CεVΗΡΟC; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: ΟVΛΠΑΙΝΩΝ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ; Septimius Severus, on horse, leaping right, holding spear.
AMNG I 476; Moushmov 2814; Varbanov 232.
treewalk123/John Tucker 132497115357
2/8/18 2/20/18
2 commentsNicholas Z
8675_8676~0.jpg
Provincial, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior, AE26, ΥΠ ΑγΡ ΓΑΛΛΟΥ 2 viewsAE26
Roman Provincial: Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
Magistrate: Aurelius Gallus
201 - 203AD
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 201 - 203AD
26.0mm 11.80gr 0h
O: Αγ Κ Λ CεΠΤ CεVΗΡΟC Π; Laureate head, right.
R: ΥΠ ΑγΡ ΓΑΛΛΟΥ ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛΙΤ ΠΡΟC ICT; River god Istros, reclining left on overturned urn, resting arm on prow of galley, holding water plants.
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior Mint
SNG Cop -; BMC -; Moushmov 993.
shaker303/Charles Hubbard 192881086048
4/12/19 5/14/19
Nicholas Z
0480-310np_noir.jpg
Quintillus, Antoninianus - *71 viewsMediolanum mint, AD 270
IMP QUINTILL[VS AVG], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
[M]ARTI PACI, Mars standing left, holding olive branch and spear
2.8 gr
Ref : RCV # 11447,
1 commentsPotator II
4672_4673.jpg
Quintullus, Antoninianus, VIRTVS AVG11 viewsAE Antoninianus
Quintullus
Augustus: 270AD
Issued: 270AD
18.5mm
O: IMP CM AVR CL QVINTVLLVS AVG; Radiate, draped bust, right.
R: VIRTVS AVG; Virtus standing left, raising right hand on shield, left hand holding spear.
Exergue: B, right field.
Rome Mint
RIC V-1 Rome 35 var.; Cohen 73; Sear 11456.
Aorta: 95: B7, O3, R54, T48, M3.
First Light Numismatics 104800
3/7/17
Nicholas Z
RIC_48_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0048 Domitianus29 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Curule chair; above, wreath
AR/Denarius (19.27 mm 2.66 g 6 h) Struck in Rome 81 A.D. (4th Group)
RIC 48 (C), BMCRE 18-19, RSC 570
Ex Inasta Auction 51 lot 322
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_483_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0483 Domitianus35 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev: VICTORIAE AVGVSTI / S C (in field), Victory standing left, inscribing sheld set on trophy to left and holding palm
AE/Dupondius (26.66 mm 11.090 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A.D.
RIC 483 (C), BMCRE unlisted, BNF 413
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_486_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0486 Domitianus25 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev : FIDEI PVBLICAE / S C, Fides standing right, with corn ears and plate of fruits
AE/As (29.76 mm 10.28 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A D
RIC 486 (C2), BMCRE 385, BNF 415
ex Inasta Auction 7 lot 132
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_486v_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0486A Domitianus40 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev : FIDEI PVBLICAE / S C, Fides standing left, with plate of fruits and corn ears
AE/As (29.88 mm 10.34 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A D
RIC 486 var (inverted attributes of Fides on reverse)
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_487_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0487 Domitianus56 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev : FORTVNAE AVGVSTI / S-C in field; Fortuna standing left, with rudder and cornucopiae
AE/As (29.04 mm 10.55 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A.D.
RIC 487 (R3), BMCRE, BNF unlisted
ex ACR Auctions E-Auction 31 Lot 404
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_489v_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0489v Domitianus17 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GEM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev: IOVI CONSERV / S C (in field); Jupiter standing left, with thunderbolt and sceptre
AE/As (26.84 mm 10.281 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A-D-
RIC 489 (R2) variant (GEM instead of GERM on obverse), BMCRE-BNF unlisted
ex Emporium Hamburg Auction 77 lot 436
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Julia_Soaemias_01.jpg
RIC 4b, p.048, 243 - Julia Soaemias, Venus Caelestis 22 viewsJulia Soaemias
AR Denar
Obv.: IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right;
Rev.: VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left, holding apple and scepter, at her feet a child
Ag, 3.56g, 19.2mm
Ref.: RIC IVb, p.48, 243
shanxi
1047_P_Hadrian_RPC-~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, HADRIAN, CILICIA, Syedra. Ć 17 Artemis standing39 viewsReference.
RPC III -; Ziegler -; SNG BN -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -; apparently unpublished.

Obv. ΑΥΤOKPA ΑΔΡΙΑИΟС.
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. СYЄ - ΔΡЄ.
Artemis standing left, holding pomegranate and sceptre.

4.45 gr
17 mm

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection; ex auction Künker 20, lot 206 October 1991
okidoki
04816q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa, Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58452 viewsAgrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero

Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58, SRCV I 556, superb EF, weight 10.34 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields; bold high relief strike on a large flan with no wear, beautiful green patina, extraordinary portrait, spectacular!

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.

7 commentsJoe Sermarini
048A~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus Silvered Antoninianus67 viewsGöbl MIR 1634i, SRCV 10290 var (various mintmarks), RIC V 651 var (same) Antioch, AHG 407 (this coin); 265 A.D.
3.531g, 21.8mm, 180o
GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right, helmeted, spear in right, resting left hand on shield set on ground
Notes: From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus.
Not recorded in RIC without either a branch or SPQR in exergue. MIR only records 2 examples of this variety
Rare
Ex: FORVM
Mark Z
b31-048.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julia Soaemias, RIC IV/2 No 24338 viewsSilver Denarius 20mm, 3.5g
Obv: IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG
Rev: VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated with apple and sceptre.
RIC IV/2 No 243, Sear No 7720

1 commentsplmurphy
0170-210~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PERTINAX denarius RIC 13a57 viewsRome mint, AD 193
IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right
VOT DECEN TR P COS II, emperor sacrificing left, with patera held over tripod altar
2.98 gr, 17 mm
Ref : RIC # 13a, Cohen # 56, RCV # 6048
Ex Harlan J. Berk
Potator II
39454349_1739792912785029_5363187243756290048_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Divus Constantine AE follis (347-348 AD), Antioch mint8 viewsRoman Imperial, Divus Constantine AE follis (347-348 AD), Antioch mint

DV CONSTANTINVS P T AVGG, Veiled head right.

VN-MR to either side of Constantine, standing right, togate and veiled. Mintmark SMANZ.

RIC VIII Antioch 112
Gil-galad
39182381_283704872417870_5460970029744914432_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Julia Domna AR Denarius.10 viewsRoman Imperial, Julia Domna Denarius.

IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.

IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left with patera and sceptre, Peacock at foot to left.

RIC 560, RSC 97, Sear RCV 1841
Gil-galad
Screenshot_2019-05-30_15_56_35.png
Roman Imperial, Probus as Augustus, AE Antoninianus.13 viewsLugdunum 278-279 A.D. 3.87g - 21.8mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG - Radiate, cuirassed bust right.

Rev: TEMPO-R FELICI - Felicitas standing right with caduceus and cornucopiae. Mintmark I.

RIC V-II 104; Cohen 713; Sear 12048.
scarli
Fibula-048_Silvered_Openwork_Q-001_35x35mm_12,98g-s.jpg
Roman Plate, Silvered Openwork Plate Fibula, Complex shape Fibula #048,69 viewsRoman Plate, Silvered Openwork Plate Fibula, Complex shape Fibula #048,
size: 35x35mm,
weight: 12,98g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
0048LG.jpeg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L Lucretius Trio, AR Denarius49 viewsL Lucretius Trio Denarius. 74 BC. Laureate head of Neptune right, trident over shoulder, numeral above / L LVCRETI TRIO in two lines, infant Genius riding dolphin right.

This coin may refer to an ancestor, C. Lucretius Gallus, who in 181 BC was created duumvir navalis, and later commanded the fleet against Perseus of Macedon.
1 commentsFabiusMaximus
17214_0480_1_lg.jpg
Roman, HADRIAN236 views2 commentsbenito
R666_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
RPC - Thrace, Bizya, Faustina II, Artemis8 viewsFaustina Junior
Thrace, Bizya
AE23
Obv.: ΦΑVСΤΕΙИΑ СΕΒΑСΤΗ, Draped bust right.
Rev.: ΒΙΖVΗΝΩΝ, Artemis standing left, holding torch and arrow over stag to left
Ae, 7.25g, 23mm
Ref.: RPC IV online 9308.
shanxi
Peter%20I.jpg
RUSSIA - Peter I17 viewsRUSSIA - Peter I (1689-1725) "The Great" Cu Kopeck., 1712. Obv.: Horse-mounted St. George with spear riding right. Mintmark МД (Kadashevsky Mint) below horse. Legend translates as Tsar Peter Alexeyevich. Reverse: Denomination: КО/ПИЙКА at center, with date АЩВI (1712) below. Legend - Ruler of All Russia. Reference: Bitkin - 2003 Edition, Volume I - #3427-1.A.dpaul7
MISC_Russia_Ivan_IV_GK_77.jpg
Russia. Ivan IV Vasilyevich, The Terrible (1530-1584)16 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov 77 (Knight die 5, text die 5), Group V; Melnikova 1-19/23

AR wire kopek; Pskov mint, struck ca. 1547, .61 g., 14.43 mm. max., 0◦

Obv: Horse rider with spear, ПС (= ПСКОВ = ПЛѢСКОВЪ [archaic] = Pskov), below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in five lines, ЦРЬ[И] / КНSЬ[В] / ЕЛIКII[В] / AНЬВС[Е] / IAРУС[И] (Czar and Grand Duke Ivan of all Russia).
Stkp
MISC_Russia_Mikhail_Fyodorovich_GK_338.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1665)15 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov 338 (Knight die 1, text die 10), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1614. .49 g., 12.46 mm. max., 180◦

Obv: Horse rider with spear, MOC / [KBA] (=Moscow) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in six lines, ЦРЬ-I[BE] / Л-KIKИS[Ь] / МИХЯI[ЛO-Ф] / EДО[POBIЧ] / Ь-BCEѦ-P[W] / • C[IИ] (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
MISC_Russia_Mikhial_Fyodorovich_kopek_2.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1645) 7 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov __ (Knight die 10 or 12, text die __), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1617 or 1618. .53 g., 13.64 mm. max., 180

Obv: Horse rider with spear, m (= moneyer's mark) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in five or six lines, roughly: ~ / ЦРЬIBE / ЛIKIИKHS / МИХЯIЛO / ФEДОPOBIЧЬ BCEѦ PW CIИ (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
MISC_Russia_Mikhail_Fyodorovich_kopek_3.jpg
Russia. Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov (1613-1645)5 viewsGrishin-Kleishnikov __ (Knight die 8 or 11 or 13-21 or 23 or 26-38, text die __), Group I

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, struck 1616-16__. .48 g., 13.20 mm. max., 0

Obv: Horse rider with spear, °/m (= moneyer's mark) below.

Rev: Cyrillic legend in five lines, roughly: ~ ЦРЬIBE ЛIKIИKHS МИХЯIЛO ФEДОPOB / I ЧЬ BCEѦ / PW CIИ (Czar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fyodorovich of all Russia).
Stkp
wirekopk2.jpg
Russia. Peter I "the Great" 1689 - 1725. Silver-wire kopeck ND.14 viewsRussia. Peter I "the Great" 1689 - 1725. Silver-wire kopeck ND. Crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip / 6-line legend engraved in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.29 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
MISC_Russia_Peter_I_kopeck_1701_Moscow.jpg
Russia. Peter I Alekseevich, the Great (1689-1725)19 viewsGrishin-Kleshchinov __ (Knight die __, text die __), Group __

AR wire kopek; Moscow mint, dated 1701 (Variety IV; ЯѱЯ): .24 g., 11.66 mm. max., 90◦

Obv: Knight on horseback with spear, ~ / ЯѱЯ (= 1701) below.

Rev.: Cyrillic legend in six lines,~ / [ЦР]Ь-И-[ВЕ] / [ЛИ]КІИ-К[НЯ] / [ЗЬ]-ПЕТPЬ-[A] / [ЛЕ]ЗИЕB[ИЧЬ] / [ВС]ЕЯ-[РѠ] / [ССІИ](= Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of All Russia)
2 commentsStkp
silverire.jpg
Russia. Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). c. 1701 A.D. Silver wire kopek. 9 viewsRussia. Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). c. 1701 A.D. Silver wire kopek. Crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip, date mark "ЯΨЯ" ("1701") under the galloping horse, dotted circular line / 6-line coin legend in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.28 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
Spasski-81_6.jpg
Russia: Boris Feodorovich Godunov (1598-1605) AR Kopek, Moskva (Спасский 81/6)19 viewsObv: Boris on horseback to right; MO below, O to upper right field
Rev: Cyrillic inscription in five lines - ЦРЬIВЕЛ \\ IКИКНSЬ \\ БОРIСЪθЕ \\ ДОРОВIЧЬВ \\ СЕЯРУСI (ЦАРЬ И ВЕЛИКИЙ КНЯЗЬ БОРИС ФЕДОРОВИЧ ВСЕЯ РУСИ; Tsar and Grand Duke Boris Feodorovich of All Rus)
Dim: 15 mm, 0.65 g, 10 h
1 commentsQuant.Geek
GK-79.jpg
Russia: Ivan IV Vasilyevich Grozny (1547-1584) AR Kopek, Pskov (Клещинов-Гришин 79)10 viewsObv: Ivan IV on horseback to right; ΓP below
Rev: Cyrillic inscription in five lines - ЦРЬИ \\ КНSЬВЕ \\ ЛИКIИBA \\ НЪВСЕЯ \\ РУСИ (Царь и Князь Великий Иван всея Руси; Tsar and Grand Prince Ivan of all Rus)
Dim: 13 mm, 0.70 g, 11 h

Quant.Geek
048.JPG
RUTENES - Drachme au sanglier, -75/-505 viewsDrachme, argent, 2,22 g, 15 mm.
Av./ Tęte ŕ gauche.
Rv./ Sanglier ŕ gauche, cercle dessus et dessous le Sanglier
Réfs : Dicomon ... ; Lopez CL033 (cette monnaie)
Gabalor
048~2.JPG
RUTENES - Obole ŕ la chevelure en S, -100/-504 viewsObole, argent, 0,39 g, 9 mm.
Av./ Tęte ŕ gauche, chevelure en S.
Rv./ Croix bouletée au centre, cantonnée d'une lunule en 1 et 4, d'une olivette en 2, possibilité d'une hache en 3.
Réfs : Lopez 2011, CL-103 (cette monnaie).
Gabalor
048n.jpg
S (lunate sigma)155 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Caracalla. Ć 26. A.D. 209-217. Obv: ANTΩNEINOC-AVΓOVCTO(C). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIA-NΩN. Aesculapis standing facing, head left, holding serpent-encircled staff. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 965. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.97 g. CM: S (lunate sigma) in circular punch, 7 mm. Howego 809 (47 pcs). Note: While the latest coin bearing this countermark listed by Howgego was issued for Gordian III, considering that other coins bearing denominational countermarks were issues as late as Hostilian, the countermark was likely not applied until the time of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
eanred-eadwine-1a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Eadwine)36 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Eadwine
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ib
O: +EAИRED REX
R: +EADVI.ИI
Motif: 1a/1

Eadwine, or Eadvini, was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers, and his coins are usually made of good silver. Early moneyers of Eanred are somewhat more scarce than the later ones. Eadwine is not known to have coined for Eanred's predecessors or successors, but he did coin for Archbishop Eanbald II. Blundered versions of his name also appear on some irregular stycas of the later c.850 period.

This coin is unlisted in Pirie, but is struck with the same reverse die as Pirie 76-77.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 618), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-eadwine-3a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Eadwine)10 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Eadwine
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Phase Ib
O: +ЄɅNɅED ɅЄX
R: +EADVIИI
Motif: 5/5

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanred-herred.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Herreth)34 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie 103
Phase Ib
O: +EAИRED REX
R: +HERRED X
Motif: 1/1

Herreth was an early moneyer for Eanred. He is not known to have coined for Eanred predecessors or successors. His names, usually blundered, appears somewhat frequently on irregular stycas of c.850.

Ex- Leodis Hammered Coins, PAS: SWYOR-11C9F2
Nap
eanred-aldates.JPG
S.862 Eanred (Aldates)20 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria (810-841)
Moneyer: Aldates
1.09 g, 12 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +EAИRED RE
R/ +AlDAτES
Motif: 1/1

Aldates was a moneyer of Eanred during the second phase of his reign. Aldates (also sometimes called Gadutels or even Badigils ?) did not coin for another monarch. Nice corrosion colors on the reverse.
The moneyer's name has a rounded L, like coins of Alghere for Aethelred II.
Droger
aethelred-ii-cynemund-2a.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Cynemund)30 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Cynemund
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDIΓRED REX
R: +CVИEMVᚾD
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay, Carpe Diem Numismatics, Sotheby's April 22-23 1999 (lot 225 [part]), L.R. Stack, Spink Auction 56 (lot 752 [part]), E.M. Norweb, C.W. Peck, EMC 1016.0076/1030.0120
1 commentsNap
edilred-monne.JPG
S.865 Aethelred II (Monne)32 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria, first reign (841-844)
Moneyer: Monne
1.25 g, 12 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +EDILRED X
R/ +MOИNE⁖ (retrograde)
Motif: 4/1

Droger
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-11b.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)29 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Leofthegn's "Special" motif: hound on reverse
O: +EDILRED REX
R: LEOF DEG И
Motif: 1a/fantastic animal, triquetra

The most impressive imagery to find itself on a styca. Despite a nearly universal preference for "plain-ness" and simplicity on the styca coins, a certain moneyer called Leofthegn (literally "beloved retainer") produced a small and remarkable series of coins with "special designs." These include the letters Alpha and Omega, and a variety of different types of crosses. But by far the most impressive is this one, featuring a creature looking backwards with the moneyer's name in three rows. This creature may be meant to be something of a revival of the "fantastic animal" design of the earlier 8th century coins of Aldfrith, Eadberht, Alchred, Aethelred I, and Aelfwald. Unfortunately, the artistic inclinations shown by this Leofthegn were not copied by his contemporaries, and the coin remains unique therefore in the styca series.

Only one die is known for this coin, and it is quite rare.

Ex- CNG Triton XXI, Dr. JDR, SNC 2/1993, Spink Auction 1, RC Lockett, T Bliss
Nap
SC-2007a.jpg
Seleukid Empire: Antiochos VI Dionysos (144-142 BCE) Ć Serrate, Antioch on the Orontes (SC 2007a; HGC 9, 1048)21 viewsObv: Radiate and diademed head of Antiochos VI right
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛNTIOXOY in two lines above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY in two lines below; Panther standing left, with broken spear in jaws; to right, ΣTA above cornucopia
Quant.Geek
540_Greek__.jpg
Seleukid King of Syria. Antioch on the Orontes. Antiochos VI Dionysos.144-142 BC. Serrate AE22 viewsReference.
SC 2007a; HGC 9, 1048.

Obv.
Radiate and diademed head of Antiochos VI right

Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛNTIOXOY in two lines above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ΔIONYΣOY in two lines below, ΣTA above panther's back.
Panther standing left, with broken spear in jaws; to right, cornucopia to right.

4.79 gr
17 mm
2 commentsokidoki
Serbia_AR-gross_Vukasin-Mrnjavcevic-1365-1371_MJ-16_Q-001-_0_00g.jpg
Serbia, Vukasin-Mrnjavcevic, (1365-1371 A.D.), AR-Denar (Dinar), Jovanovic 16.17.,178 viewsSerbia, Vukasin-Mrnjavcevic, (1365-1371 A.D.), AR-Denar (Dinar), Jovanovic 16.17.,
avers:- ВБХА/БАБЛГ0/БЂРИНН/ЌРЛВЛБ/КАШБ ( In Christ our God pious King Vukasin )
revers:- Christ enthroned ,following Venetian grossi
exe: -/-//--, diameter:18mm, weight: ,axis: h,
mint: ,date: 1365-1371 A.D., ref: Jovanovic 16.17.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Jovanovic-2.jpg
Serbia: Prince Stefan Lazarević (1389-1402) AR Dinar (Jovanović 2; Иванишевић 42.12; Ljubića T.XIII 31-32)36 viewsObv: CON-SVE; Helmet surmounted by two bovine horns on left
Rev: S-SO; Christ, nimbate, seated facing upon throne without back; right hand raised in blessing, left holds Gospels
SpongeBob
01048AB.jpg
SICILY, KAMARINA, 420-405 B.C84 viewsAE tetras, 10mm, 3.0g

O - Head of Athena left, wearing crested helmet
R - KAMA; owl standing left, head facing, lizard in left field, three pellets in exergue

SNG ANS 1229
1 commentsrobertpe
009~1.JPG
Syracuse, Sicily82 views405-400 B.C.
Slavey Replica of Kimon Signed Silver Tetradrachm
16.78 gm, 28 mm
Obv.: Head of Arethusa facing three-quarters left wearing pearl earrings and necklace; hair flowing in loose tresses; across her forehead ampyx with the signature KIMΩN. Around her, four dolphins emerging from curls. APEΘOSA above, outside linear border. In field left, ΣΩ (savior).
Rev.: Quadriga at speed with prancing horses driven left by chiton-clad charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left; above, Nike flying right to crown him.
ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue.

Stamped СЛАВЕИ (Slavey in Cyrillic) on edge.

Ancients.info Slavey GK-0944
4 commentsJaimelai
065_1.jpg
Syracuse, Sicily83 views317-289 B.C.
Slavey Replica of Agathokles Silver Tetradrachm
16.42 gm, 30 mm
Obv.: Head of Arethusa facing left wreathed in grain leaves, wearing triple pendant earrings and pearl necklace; Around her swim three dolphins.
Rev.: Quadriga with prancing horses driven left by chiton-clad charioteer, holding kentron in right hand and reins in left; above, Nike flying right to crown.
ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue, AI mongram below.

Stamped СЛАВЕИ (Slavey in Cyrillic) on edge and engraved in exergue line.

Ancients.info Slavey GK-0971
1 commentsJaimelai
4360481.jpg
T. Carisius12 viewsMoneyer issues of Imperatorial Rome. T. Carisius. 46 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.71 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of Juno Moneta right / Implements for coining money: anvil die with garlanded punch die above, tongs and hammer on either side; all within laurel wreath. Crawford 464/2; CRI 70; Sydenham 982a; Carisia 1a; Type as RBW 1614. VF, toned, small pin hole on obverse below Moneta’s bust.

From the Andrew McCabe Collection, purchased from Peus Nachf., with old German collection ticket.

The apparent punch die on this type may be a cap of Liberty, and the lower die a generic anvil. The cap-shaped object is wreathed like a Dioscurus cap, which is the same cap worn by Vulcan, the god of metal-working. An analogue can be seen in the Scribonius Wellhead issue, RRC 416, which displays four different symbols, not three. Even rarer than the sought-after anvil is the Scribonius with a cap of Liberty, a variety not listed by Crawford. The scene on this coin may thus represent Vulcan’s generic metal-making workshop, but with the placement of the cap above the anvil, it may also be intended to allude to minting even if a punch die is not directly shown.

RRC p. 475 notes one reverse die of this issue with legend T. CARISIV (Amsterdam) as per this coin. Richard Schaefer obtained a photograph of the Amsterdam example and compared it to other examples in his Republican Die Project. In fact, reverse die matched examples to the Amsterdam coin prove the final S of CARISIVS did exist, but the die was filled at a later state. This CARISIV variety from a different die pair seems to have been caused by the same phenomenon. There is a trace of a final letter S. [Andrew McCabe]

Ex-CNG
ecoli
20170413_104849.jpg
The Hasmoneans, Alexander Jannaeus, Yehonatan, 103-76 BC, Lepton.45 viewsObv: Upside down anchor, BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY (of King Alexander) around.
Rev: Star of eight rays surrounded by diadem; paleo-Hebrew between the rays (Yehonatan the King).
Reference: Hendin 469.
15mm, 2.11 grams
2 commentsCanaan
Anan.jpg
The Widow's Mite - Mark 12: 41-4439 views 41Καὶ καθίσας κατέναντι τοῦ γαζοφυλακίου ἐθεώρει πῶς ὁ ὄχλος βάλλει χαλκὸν εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: καὶ πολλοὶ πλούσιοι ἔβαλλον πολλά: 42καὶ ἐλθοῦσα μία χήρα πτωχὴ ἔβαλεν λεπτὰ δύο, ὅ ἐστιν κοδράντης. 43καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: 44πάντες γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύοντος αὐτοῖς ἔβαλον, αὕτη δὲ ἐκ τῆς ὑστερήσεως αὐτῆς πάντα ὅσα εἶχεν ἔβαλεν, ὅλον τὸν βίον αὐτῆς.

41 Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury. Many who were rich cast in much. 42 A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins,* which equal a quadrans coin.† 43 He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, 44 for they all gave out of their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on.”
Mark 12: 41-44

41Sedl si naproti chrámové pokladnici a díval se, jak do ní lidé vhazují peníze. A mnozí bohatí dávali mnoho.
42Přišla také jedna chudá vdova a vhodila dvě drobné mince, dohromady čtyrák.
43Zavolal své učedníky a řekl jim: „Amen, pravím vám, tato chudá vdova dala víc než všichni ostatní, kteří dávali do pokladnice.
44Všichni totiž dali ze svého nadbytku, ona však ze svého nedostatku: dala, co měla, všechno, z čeho měla být živa.“
Mk 12, 41-44

Judaean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 1152 or 1153, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse star of eight rays surrounded by diadem, crude barbaric style, sometimes surrounded by a barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (barbaric and blundered), anchor upside-down in circle
Bohemian
00480.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 25b, Coin #480)12 viewsRIC 25b (C), AE2, Cyzicus, 383 - 388 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: VIRTVS EXERCITI (SMKB); Emperor standing right, holding labarum and globe, left foot on captive.
SIZE: 23.6mm 5.06g
MaynardGee
446048779.JPG
Thessalian League38 views196-146 B.C.
AE 6.53 gm, 19 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and about to hurl spear
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, monogram to right
Sear 2237; B.M.C. 7, p.5, 50,51
1 commentsJaimelai
45y64_048.JPG
Thrace, Maroneia AE19mm (8.0g). 76 viewsObverse: Head of Dionysos, wreathed in ivy
Reverse: Dionysos standing left holding bunch of grapes and thyrsos.
2811
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
titus_denarius.png
Titus under Vespasian Fourée Denarius28 viewsTitus under Vespasian Fourée Denarius

Obverse:
T CAES IMP VESP POИ TR POT CENS
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse:
NEP RED
Neptune standing left, resting foot on globe, holding acrostolium and scepter
1 commentsHarry G
048~9.JPG
Troisičme République - Cérčs - 50 centimes - 1872 A5 viewsArgent, 18 mm, 2,45 g
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de Cérčs ŕ gauche.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE / 50 CENT 1872 dans une couronne de feuillages
Réfs : F-189.3 (4.243.047 ex.)
Gabalor
Album-3511_1.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate, Arab-Byzantine: Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan (661-680 CE) Ć Fals, Damascus (Album-3511.1; SICA I, 577; DOCAB-57; Walker 4-5)17 viewsObv: Emperor seated on throne, facing, wearing long robe and crown with cross; in right hand he holds a cross-tipped scepter, sloping over right shoulder; in left a globus cruciger; in field right, downwards ΛЄO; to left, bird above T
Rev: Large m; cross above; below, pseudo-Ω with central pellet; X/Ч (retrograde)/II to left, AИO to right; ΔAM in exergue
SpongeBob
2870480.jpg
Valens Solidus43 viewsAD 364-378. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.38 g, 12h). Treveri (Trier) mint. Struck AD 374-375. Rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Two emperors seated facing, holding globe between them; behind and between them, Victory standing with outspread wings, palm below; TROBS. RIC IX 17e.3; Depeyrot 43/2. wavy flan, pierced, causing a crack at edge. TLP
5048_5049.jpg
Valens, AE3, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE3 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 364 - 367AD
18.0mm 2.36gr
O: DN VALENS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (Dot)ASISC
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 837: B4, O7, R17, T43, M13.
zurqieh_dubai 291430467762
6/26/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
00486.jpg
Vespasian (RIC 109, Coin #486)37 viewsRIC 109, AR Denarius, Rome, 77 - 78 AD.
Obv: CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG Laureate head right.
Rev: IMP XIX Sow and three piglets.
Size: 20.6mm 3.28gm
1 commentsMaynardGee
RI 048f img~0.jpg
Vesta234 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius
Obv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, Laureate head facing right
Rev:– COS IIII, Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium
Minted in Rome, A.D. 152 - 153
References:– Cohen 197, RIC 219

Vesta originally started out as a household spirit and she was later personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the staure of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of Vesta her flame was kept alive by Vestal Virgins.
maridvnvm
Domitianus-Denar-KranzStuhl-RIC_IIn_48.jpg
VIII - DOMITIANUS -c- Denar RIC II˛ /04846 viewsA) IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Laureate head right

R) TRP COS VII DES VIII PP
Wearth on curule chair

Weight: 3,33g; Ř: 18mm; Reference: RIC II˛/48
ROME mint, struck:: 81
1 commentssulcipius
KopekD.jpg
Wire Kopeck of Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). 1598 - 1605 A.D.24 viewsWire Kopeck of Tsar Peter I Alekseevich (Peter The Great). 1598 - 1605 A.D. crowned horseman carrying a spear with a pointed tip, date mark "ЯΨЯ" ("1701") under the galloping horse, dotted circular line. 6-line coin legend engraved in old cyrillic "ЦРЬИBE / ЛИКIИKHЯ / ЗЬПЕТРЬЯ / ЛЕЗIЕВИЧЬ. / ВCEЯРω / ССIИ" ("Tsar and Grand Prince Peter Alekseevich of Entire Russia").
Weight: 0.4 gram
Mint: Moscow
oneill6217
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
   
310 files on 1 page(s)