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Search results - "(Maria"
DenSerratoMarioCapito.jpg
36 viewsDenarius Serratus - 81 BC. - Rome mint
C. MARIVS C.f. CAPITO - Gens Maria
Obv.: CAPIT CIIII . Bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol (torque) below chin.
Rev.:Plowman with yoke of oxen plowing left, same numeral above. In ex., C MARI C.F. / S C.
Gs. 3,7 mm. 19,2
Crawf. 378/1c, Sear RCV 300, Grueber (symbol torque) 2875.



Maxentius
Habsburg_RDR_Taler_1780_Maria_Theresia_Polierte_Platte.jpg
31 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich

Haus Habsburg

Maria Theresia, 1740-1780

Taler 1780 (Silber)

Vs.: Büste nach rechts

Rs.: Gekrönter Doppeladler

Gewicht: 28,2g

Durchmesser: 41,5mm

Erhaltung: fein getönt, Polierte Platte-

Posthume Prägung aus den 1970er Jahren, vorallem hergestellt für den Export in die USA _2691
Antonivs Protti
RDR_Österreich_Böhmen_Maria_Theresia_1_Kreutzer_1761_P_Prag_Kartusche.jpg
17 views
Österreich

Böhmen

Maria Theresia 1740-1780

1 Kreutzer

1761 P

Münzstätte: Prag

Vs.: Büste von Maria Theresia n. r.

Rs.: Nominal über Jahr und Prägestättenbuchstabe, das Ganze in Kartusche

Literatur: Herinek 1607

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich

Metall: Kupfer

24-25 mm, 9,43 g 1999
Antonivs Protti
Maria_Tudor1.jpg
7 views*Alex
sb1874_20mm175g.jpg
Michael VII, Ducus Miliaresion12 viewsObverse: EN TOVTW NIKATE MIXAHL S MARIA, cross crosslet on globus resting on
three steps, x at center of cross, pellet within crescent on shaft;
in field to left, facing bust of Michael, bearded, wearing crown and
jeweled chlamys; to right, facing bust of Maria, wearing crown and
loros; triple border
Reverse: MIXAHL KAI MARIA PICTOI RACILEIC PWMAIWN in
five lines; -+- above and below; triple border.
Mint:Constantinople
Date: 1071-1078 CE
SB 1874, DO 6
20mm, 1.75g (clipped)
wileyc
egal_gerizim_neapolis,_samaria.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm 8.88 g
O: Bust right
R: Mt. Gerizim with arched colonnade, roadway, shrines, altar and temple; "A" Countermark
NEAPOLIS, SAMARIA
laney
mt_gerizim.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS20 views218-222 AD
AE 21.5 mm max; 9.99 g.
O: Laureate bust right.
R: Mount Gerizim with colonnade and steps leading to temple.
Samaria, Neapolis
laney
samaria_caesarea_maritima.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER?--SAMARIA, CAESAREA MARITIMA32 views222-235 AD
AE 21.5 mm; 10.96 g
O: Laureate bust right
R: Eagle with wreath held in wings, [SPQR] within
Samaria, Caesarea Maritime mint
laney
gerizim_blk_res.jpg
(0251) TREBONIANUS GALLUS OR VOLUSIAN? (Mt. Gerizim)28 views251-253 AD
AE 25.5 mm 10.87 g
O: Bust right;
R:Mount Gerizim surmounted by Samaritan temple and altar, stairway to temple, colonnade below, all supported by facing eagle with wings spread
Samaria, Neapolis
laney
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Mary_(1382-1387,_-1395_AD)_Queen_of_Hungary,_(Chronica_Hungarorum)-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria (Mary) of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.), (Chronica Hungarorum)63 views031 Mária, (Maria (Mary) of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.), (Chronica Hungarorum)
quadrans
Maria,_H-565,_C2-113,_U-441,_mARIE_D_R_VnGARIE,_S_LADIS_LAVS_R,_A,_1382_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_14,5-15mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1120 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1
avers: ✠ mARIЄ•D•R VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in a circle of dots, the lily on each side and above, the border of dots.
reverse: S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/A//--, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár(by Pohl), date: 1382 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-565, CNH-2-113, Unger-441., Pohl-111, Rare!
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maria-(1382-1387(1395)_AD)_U-443-l-var-1_C2-116_H-569_cross-mARIA_R_VnGARI_cross-mOnETA_mARIE_S_Q-001_7h_14mm_0,44g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01114 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA•mARIЄ, Patriarchal cross (inside of border of dots) with dots each corner, border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mARIA•R•VnGARI, Crown in circle of dots, mint-master's mark (S) below, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//S, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Syrmien?, (by Pohl), date: 1386-1395A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-443-l., CNH-2-116, Huszár-569, Pohl-114-11,
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01110 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
056_Jozsef_II_,_(1780-1790_A_D_),_AR-halb-Thaler,_U-III-1324a,_H-1875,_A-Wien,1789_AD,_Q-001_0h_33,8mm_14,02g-s.jpg
056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A, 114 views056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A,
avers: IOS II•D•_G•R•IMP•S•A•_G•H•B•REX•A_•A•D•B•& L•, Two winged Angel holding Hungarian Crown over the Hungarian Shield.
revers: S•MARIA_MATER DEI_ A _PATRONA HUNG•1789•X, Crowned Madonna (Virgin Marie) seated, child (Jesus) on the left arm.
diameter: 33,8mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//A, mint: Wien, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III 1324a, Huszár-1875,
Q-001
quadrans
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
Mary_Tudor___as_found.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England4 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.

*Alex
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_-unofficial_mint,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_25,5mm,_2,47g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01138 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: Illegible legend instead of "REX BELA REX STS", Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 2,7g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, unknown sigla in exergue right site, lying retrograde "S".
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-002_9h_27,0mm_3,04ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01113 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-003_10h_26,5mm_3,50ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #0199 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_a1_7-8,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_9h,_26mm,_2,79g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01120 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,79g, axis:9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.07./008.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-0x1_axis-10h_27,0mm_3,22g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01151 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.23./024.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-005_4h_26,0mm_2,56g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01154 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a10.01./183.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_d1c1_2-334,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_0h,_26,5mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01131 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./d1c1.01./334.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_k3_1-258,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5mm,_2,33g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01135 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 2,33g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./k3.01./258.,
Q-001
quadrans
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"40 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
StUrbainCharlesVLorraineMarriage.JPG
1678. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, marriage to Eleanora Maria of Austria. 42 viewsObv. Head of Charles V right CAROLVS V D G DVX LOT MAR D C B G
Rev. Head of Eleanora Maria left ELEAN MAR AVSTRIACA REGINA POL DVCISSA LOT C B G
WM 50mm
LordBest
William___Mary_Farthing_1694.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3453

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
Blindado
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*Alex
junlia_domna.JPG
201a. Julia Domna68 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
grk.jpg
30 Drachma Silver Coin Constantine and Anna Maria - 1964170 viewsObverse: Constantine and Anna Maria looking left.

Reverse: Double-headed eagle, year 1964 above, 30 drachmas below.

Size: 30mm
Wt: 12.0 gms
Dino
Nicest__black.jpg
364/1d Q. Antonius Balbus27 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus. Ar Serrate Denarius. Rome Mint. 83-82 BC. (3,89 g) Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind. Rev: Victory in quadriga right; H below; in exergue, Q·ANTO·BALB / PR.
Syd 742 b; Bab. 1; BMC 2757; Crawford 364/1d

Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor in Sardinia. Before leaving for Sardinia, this issue was struck by order of the Senate which was dominated by members of the Marian party to pay the army preparing to resist the return of Sulla. The reverse imagery reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus. Sulla was victorius, and in 82 BC, Q. Antonius Balbus was removed from from his seat as praetor by L. Philippus and slain.
1 commentsPaddy
553_P_Hadrian_RPC3958.jpg
3958 SAMARIA Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian AE 28 Hadrian plowing20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3958; Kadman 27; De Saulcy 1; BMC 54

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIANO CAES AVG
Laureate and draped (seen from rear) bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. COL I FL AVG in ex. CAESARE[NS]
The emperor, as founder, standing right, plowing with pair of yoked oxen; above, Nike flying left, presenting wreath to emperor.

17.04 gr
28 mm
12 h
okidoki
336_P_Hadrian_SNG_ANS_769_.jpg
3960 SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian AE 23 Tyche standing15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3960; SNG ANS 769; Kadman, Caesarea 26; Rosenberger 23; De Saulcy 4; BMC 64

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIANO CA AVG
laureate and draped bust right

Rev. CIF AVG CAESAR
Tyche of Caesarea standing left, foot on harbor god his head, bust of Hadrian in right and scepter in left

7.47 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
560_P_Hadrian_RPC3962.jpg
3962 SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian AE 15 Lion32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3962; Kadman 30; BMC p. 21, 76 and pl. III.9; CNP II p. 102, 30; De Saulcy p. 123, 5corr. (Av.); Lindgren & Kovacs 2415; SNG ANS 773.

Obv. [IMP TR] [HAD]RIANO CA [A]
Laureate head right.

Rev. C I F A C (Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
Lion walking right; above, serpent

2.47 gr
15 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Schulten, Auction, Cologne, 22-23 April 1985, lot 467; ex Frank Sternberg, Auction 33, Zurich, 18-19 September 1997, lot 87, A.K. Collection: Coin ID C011 from Lot no. 559
okidoki
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
1005_P_Hadrian_RPC5568.jpg
5568 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Mars, wearing crested Corinthian helmet37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5568; D1271 = Staffieri; Emmett 810.10

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ= year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Helmeted half-length nude bust left of Mars (Ares), seen from behind, wearing crested Corinthian helmet

12.87 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection. Ex Münz Zentrum 29 (27 April 1977), lot 126; Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1271.

In the aforementioned article by Giovanni, he compares the reverse of this coin to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa (Fig. 7 in his article).
See G.M. Staffieri, ‘Sulla testimonianza di un Ares policleteo nella monetazione imperiale alessandrina’, NAC 22 (1993), pp. 187-99, where the design is compared to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa.
4 commentsokidoki
1006_P_Hadrian_RPC5845.jpg
5845 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis54 viewsReference.
RPC III 5845/2; Köln 1084; Dattari (Savio) 1946 (this coin); K&G 32.554; Emmett 1042.17; Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 69 (this coin)

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and presenting globe; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l.,
holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡ/ΙΑ/ΝΟΝ

23.82 gr
34 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection, purchased from Renzo Canavesi, Sagno, 1996. Ex Renzo Canavesi Collection (Sagno); Dr. Piero Beretta Collection (Milan); Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1946.

A rare variety with Sarapis holding a globe instead of saluting the emperor. The authors of RPC cite two coins: this coin, and the one in the Köln collection. There is also an example in the Ashmolean Museum collection (Milne 1380).
8 commentsokidoki
65-Mary-Tudor.jpg
65. Mary Tudor.15 viewsGroat, 1553-1554; London mint.
Obverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI / Crowned bust, left.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: pomagranate after first word on both sides.
2.13 gm., 24 mm.
North #1960; Seaby #2492.
Callimachus
72-William-Mary.jpg
72. William & Mary.13 viewsShilling, 1693.
Obverse: GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA / Jugate busts, right.
Reverse: MAG BR FR ET HI REX ET REGINA / Four crowned shields with intertwined W and M in each angle, also one numeral from the date (1693) in each angle.
5.98 gm., 25 mm.
Seaby #3437.
Callimachus
Q_Balbvs.jpg
82-83 BC* Q ANTONIUS BALBUS103 viewsLaureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind

Victory in quadriga right; I below horses, Q ANTO BALB/PR in two lines in exergue.

Rome, 83 BC

3.99g

Crawford 364/1d; Sydenham 742b; Antonia 1. Sear 279

Lustrous Choice VF. Slight Flan flaw (weight reduction) on obverse in field.

ex-ANE

Anti Sullan Issue Struck by Order of the Senate SC.
Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor of Sardinia. Before leaving for Sardinia, this issue was struck by order of the Senate which was dominated by members of the Marian party to pay the army preparing to resist the return of Sulla. The reverse imagery reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus. Sulla was victorius in the battle of the Colline gate, and in 82 BC, Q. Antonius Balbus was removed from his position as praetor by L. Philippus and killed.

New photo of the very first denarius I bought.


5 commentsJay GT4
218.jpg
A in rectangular punch146 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Elagabalus. Ć 22. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAVPA-NTWNINOC. Laureade, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (ΦΛNEACΠOΛCVPΠAΛ). Mt. Gerzim, consisting of two rocky masses; the left surmounted by temple approached by stairway; the right has altar on summit. Ref: BMC 95; Sear GIC 3122. Axis: 30°. Weight: 11.38 g. CM: A in rectangular punch, 2 x 3 mm. Howgego 666 (37 pcs). Note: The "A" may stand for (Severus) Alexander. Collection Automan.Automan
0068.jpg
A. Postumius Albinus. Denarius43 viewsRRC 372/2
81 BC

Obverse: HISPAN, Veiled head of Hispania r
Reverse: ·S·N – ALBIN Togate figure standing l., raising hand; to l., legionary eagle and to r., fasces with axe.

Issued when Rome had won the supremacy in Italy but was still fighting the last of the Marians in Spain.

....and so the magistrate has been iddentified as the praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus who had gone to further Spain in 180 and had his term prorogued into 179. He fought two major battles with the Vaccaei, killing a reported 35,000. (....) If the magistrate on the coin is the victorious praetor, his century old triumph over the Lusitanians was especially relevant in 81, for ir was among the Lusitanians where Sertorius found the greatest support. (Harlan)

The moneyer is assumed to be a grandson of the consul of 110 and a son of the moneyer of 96 (Crawford)
--
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 78; Lot 635, 26 - 27 May 2014
3 commentsNorbert
358.jpg
akko00112 viewsElagabalus
Akko Ptolemias, Samaria

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: COL PTO Tyche, holding rudder and cornucopia, standing left, crowned by Nike on column; all within tetrastyle temple.
26 mm, 7.50 gms

Kadman 171; Nomos, Obolos Web Auction 8, Lot 426
Charles M
Hendin-1169.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Herodian Kingdom: Herod I (40 BCE-4 CE) Ć 8 Prutot, Uncertain mint in Samaria, RY 3 (Hendin 1169; TJC 44)28 viewsObv: Helmet with cheek guards surmounted by star; above to either side, palm branch
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOY; tripod lebes; in left field, L Γ; in right field, monogram
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Hendin_1170.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Herodian Kingdom: Herod I (40 BCE-4 CE) Ć Prutah, Uncertain mint in Samaria, RY 3 (Hendin 1170; TJC 45)10 viewsObv: Shield with decorated rim.
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOY, crested helmet; in left field, date (L Γ); in right field, monogram

From the Dr. Patrick Tan Collection
Quant.Geek
Sydenham_519_19mm,_4_40_grams_113_B_C__Cr_79_1.jpg
Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Alexander_IV.jpg
Antiochus IV 175 – 164 B.C. 6 viewsAntiochus IV 175 – 164 B.C. Ae 14.4~14.9mm. 3.03g. (Samaria (?) or imatative issue). Obv: Radiate, diademed head of Antiochus IV r., one diadem end falling straight behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border. Mark of value X behind head. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, goddess, Nicephorus seated left, on high backed throne, holding Nike, bird at feet, dotted border. Control mark under throne. SC 1491.ddwau
Antiochus_IV~8.jpg
Antiochus IV 175 – 164 B.C.6 viewsAntiochus IV 175 – 164 B.C. Ae 15.1~16.0mm. 2.86g. (Samaria (?) or imatative issue). Obv: Radiate, diademed head of Antiochus IV r., one diadem end falling straight behind, the other falling forward over shoulder, fillet border. Mark of value X behind head. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, goddess, Nicephorus seated left, on high backed throne, holding Nike, bird at feet, dotted border. Control mark under throne. SC 1491.ddwau
66a.jpg
antipatris0016 viewsElagabalus
Antipatris, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, holding small bust and scepter, within tetrastyle temple; below, river-god swimming left.
16 mm, 5.6 gms

Rosenberger 1; Sofaer 3
Charles M
1434.jpg
antipatris001_210 viewsElagabalus
Antipatris, Samaria

Obv: ...K M AVP ANTWN..., Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, holding small bust and scepter, within tetrastyle temple; below, river-god swimming left.
17 mm, 6.41 gms

Rosenberger 1; Sofaer 3
Charles M
FRANCIS I HRE AUSTRIA.jpg
AUSTRIA - Francis I103 viewsAUSTRIA - Francis I (reigned with wife Maria Theresa 1740-1765) copper Kreuzer, 1762, Vienna mint. KM #2007. dpaul7
Austria_One_Kreutzer_1765_img.jpg
Austria, 1 Kreutser, 1765136 viewsObv:- M THERES D G R I G H B R A AUST, Bust of Maria Theresa right
Rev:- EIN / KREUTZER/ 1765 . / H within werath
Minted in Hermannstadt mint.

Part of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.
maridvnvm
Marie_Theresa_Education_Institute,_1779.JPG
Austria, Austrian Netherlands. Maria Theresia, Palace of the Nation, 1779.87 viewsObv. Draped bust MARIA THERESIA AUG LOTH BRAB LIMB DUX M S I signed T V B
Rev. View of the Palace of the Nation THEMIDI TUTELARI S P Q B EXTRUI CURAVIS MDCCLXXIX
WM32
LordBest
Marie_Theresa_Austrian_Netherlands,_1744.JPG
Austria, Austrian Netherlands. Maria Theresia, The Homage of Brussels, 1744.45 viewsObv. Draped bust MAR TH D G R HUNG BO D BRAB C FL INAUGURATA
Rev. Clasped hands over altar HAEC ARA TUEBITUR OMNES FIDES PUBLICA
WM37.
LordBest
maria_theresa_a_res.jpg
AUSTRIA, HUNGARY, BOHEMIA ETC. (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE)-- MARIA TERESA16 views1717 - 1780
ruled 1740 - 1780
Sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma; Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress
Struck 1762
1 Kreutzer 25 mm; 10.49 g
Kremnitz, Hungary mint
laney
ESCALIN_-_MARIA_THERESA.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Maria Theresa58 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Maria Theresa (1740-1780) Silver Escalin, 1750. Obv.: Rampant lion left holding sword and shield; MAR TH D G R IMP G HUN BOH R Rev.: Crowned arms, date below. ARCH AUS DUX BUR etc. Ref.: KM-4.dpaul7
064~0.JPG
Auvergne - Evęché du Puy, XIe - XIIe sičcles, France.9 viewsDenier, argent, 1,08 g, 21 mm.
A/ +MONETA, croix.
R/ SCE MARIAE (rétrograde), croix ŕ six branches.
Réfs : PA 2231.
Gabalor
022~6.JPG
Auvergne, évęché de Clermont Ferrand, denier, XI sičcle.11 viewsDenier, argent, 0,94 g, 18 mm.
A/ +.ARVERNA., VRBS dans le champ.
R/ +S'EA.MARIA, croix cantonnée de deux points en 1 et 4.
Réfs : Duplessy 828
Gabalor
003~8.JPG
Auvergne, évęché de Clermont Ferrand, denier, XI sičcle.9 viewsDenier, argent, 1,05 g, 21 mm.
A/ +.ARVERNA., VRBS dans le champ.
R/ +SEA.MARIA, croix.
Réfs : PA 2241
Gabalor
035~5.JPG
Auvergne, évęché de Clermont Ferrand, denier, XII sičcle.9 viewsDenier, argent, 0,91 g, 18,5 mm.
Av./ +S MARIA, tęte de la vierge couronnée.
Rv./ +VRBS ARVERNA, croix cantonnée d'un lys au second canton.
Réfs : PA-2246.
Gabalor
031~6.JPG
Auvergne, Evéché de Clermont, monnayage anonyme (XIIčme sičcle), France.6 viewsDenier, argent, 1,04 g.
A/ SEA MARIA, buste de face.
R/ + VRBS ARVERNA, croix bouletée, cantonnée de quatre trčfles liés au centre.
Réfs : Boudeau 379 ; Poey d'Avant, 2253.
Gabalor
065~5.JPG
Auvergne, Evéché de Clermont, monnayage anonyme (XIIčme sičcle), France.4 viewsObole, argent, 0,45 g.
A/ SEA MARIA, buste de face.
R/ + ARVERNA, croix bouletée, cantonnée de quatre trčfles liés au centre.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant, 2257.

Gabalor
Gabalor
Nicephorus-III_(1078-1081)_AR-Miliareson_Sear-1886-p-373_Q-001_6h_22-23mm_1,52g-s.jpg
B 057 Nicephorus III. Botaniates (1078-1081 A.D.), SB 1886, AR-Miliareson, Constantinopolis, Rare !203 viewsB 057 Nicephorus III. Botaniates (1078-1081 A.D.), SB 1886, AR-Miliareson, Constantinopolis, Rare !
avers: EN TOVTω NIKATE NIKHΦ KAI MAPIA, cross-crosslet on globe resting on three steps, X in centre, dot in crescent on shaft, crowned busts of Nicephorus, bearded and wearing jewelled chlamys on left, and Maria wearing loros, on right.
revers: - + - /NIKHΦP/KAI MAPIA/ΠICTOI RA/CIΛEIC Pω/MAIωN in five lines;
–+– above, –o– below; triple border.
exe:-/-//- • -, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 1,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date:, ref: SB-1886, p-373, Rare !
Q-001
quadrans
greek101606_01.jpg
Barbaric Imitation of Severus Alexander Provincial26 viewsBarbaric Imitation copying Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Caesarea, Samaria
Legend in wreath seems to be mirrored.
Legitimate Pattern coin is a Bronze AE 23 Caesarea mint, IMP C SEV AL-EXAND, laureat, bare bust right seen from behind; reverse C I F AV F C CAE METROP (or similar), S P Q R, within wreath supported by eagle
Scotvs Capitis
bavaria_max_ii_patrona_maria.jpg
BAVARIA - Maximilian II211 viewsBAVARIA - Maximilian II (1848-1864) AR 2 Gulden, 1855. Commemorates the restoration of the Madonna Column in Munich. Obv.: MAXIMILIAN II KOENIG V. BAYERN, bust of king right. Rev.: Madonna column, and legend around. The Madonna is the patron of Bavaria. KM-465.dpaul7
BCC_J35_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3517 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY]
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
17mm. 2.33gm. Axis:90
Hendin III 505
v-drome
BCC_J36_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3614 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria,
and Idumaea. Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:[HPω∆OY] Bunch of grapes,
vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY] Tall military
helmet, facing, w/ crest and
cheek straps. Caduceus, below left.
Irregular, crude type, very rare
15mm. 1.15gm. Axis:0
cf. Hendin III 505, TJC: 73e, 73f
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
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BCC_J42_Archelaus_Prow.jpg
BCC J4210 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria,
and Idumaea.
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:[HPω]
Prow of galley, to left
Rev:EΘN, with wreath around.
13.5mm. 1.34gm. Axis:180
Hendin III 506
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
treb_gallus_neapolis.png
BCC rgp13 (BCC 14)104 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Trebonianus Gallus 251-253CE
Obv:ΑΥT ΚΑΙ Γ ΟΥΕ(or I) TΡΕΒ
ΓΑΛΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹ laur. head rt.
Rev:ΦΛ ΝΕΑϹ/ΠΟΛΕWϹ/ΕΠΙ
ϹΗΜΟΥ/ΝΕΝ(sic)WΚΟ/ΡΟΥ
Inscription in five lines, Mt. Gerazim with temples, above.
Crescent and star to right and left.
AE25mm. 12.52gm. Axis: 0

(click on pic for higher resolution)

I believe this inscription refers to the
granting of privileges related to the
religious precinct known as Neokoros,
to the city of Neapolis-Samaria. As far
as I can tell, Neapolis was the only city
in this region granted such a status.
This elegant inscription contains an extra
"N" in the fourth line, which I have not
seen on any other on-line published coin
of this type. The profiles of Mt. Gerazim
represented on coins of Neapolis have
been used by archaeologists to help
locate the remains of this important
temple complex. Any other information
or ideas on this topic would be welcome.
I do not have access to RPC or other major
reference works at this time. The reverse die
for this coin is not listed in Harl's "Coinage
of Neapolis in Samaria" ANSMN 29, 1984.
The obverse is very similar to Harl's A26,
but with a slight discrepancy with regard
to his inscription as described.
1 commentsv-drome
philip_I_neapolis.png
BCC rgp14x140 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip I 244-249CE
Obv:IMP C M IVL PHILIPPO
P F AVG laur. draped bust rt.
Rev: COL SERG NEAPOL
Eagle with spread wings below
Mt. Gerizim, showing colonnade
and stairs to temple compound.
AE29mm. 17.1g. Axis :180
Harl's obverse die A6, rev. unlisted?
Extremely Rare
These coin types were used by archaeologists
in the 1950's and 60's to locate the remains
of the temple complex by comparing the profile
of the mountain to the surrounding terrain.
Surface find, Caesarea Maritima, 1976.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
3 commentsv-drome
philip_II_Neapolis.png
BCC rgp15 (BCC 16)99 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip II 247-249CE
Obv:IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS
AVG laur. draped bust rt.
Rev:[COL SE]RG NEAPOL
Wreath encl. image of Mt. Ger-
azim, colonade, and stairs to
temple. Eagle below, hd. lt.
AE29mm. 17.9g. Axis :180
Harl's obv. die A19 (with M)
rev.die P7? die break.
1 commentsv-drome
philip_neapolis_hygieia.jpg
BCC rgp2228 viewsRoman Provincial BCC rgp22
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip I 244-249CE
Obv:IMP M IVL PH[ILIPPVS AVG]
Radiate draped bust rt.
Rev: COL SER/G [NEAPOL]
Hygieia standing right, holding serpent,
facing Asclepius seated left, Mt. Gerizim above.
AE27mm. 15.09g. Axis :180
Not listed in SNG ANS, or Rosenberger.
Possible reference: Harl 9 / BMC Palestine 125,
but Asclepius seated, not standing.
v-drome
neapolis_ela_BCC_rgp29_.jpg
BCC rgp2934 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv:AVT K M AV ANTWN[INOC]
Laureate head right.
Rev: ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟΛΕ[WC]
Bust of Serapis right.
half denomination
AE16mm. 6.28gm. Axis:180
Rosenberger 47
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elagabalus_C_M_Neapolis.jpg
BCC rgp3119 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv:[AYT K M ] AYP ANTΩN[INOC]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
C/M “A” in incuse square.
Rev: [ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟ] CΥΡ ΠΑΛ
Mt. Gerazim with stairs, temple and colonnade.
Poss. ref.: Rosenberger 36
countermark: Howgego 666
21mm. 12.65 gm. Axis:330
v-drome
avr_neapolis.jpg
BCC rgp3424 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Marcus Aurelius 161-180 CE
Obv:[ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙCΑΡ ΜΑΡ] ΑΥΡΗΛ ΑΝΤ[WΝΙ..]
Radiate head right.
Rev:ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟΛΕ[WC CΥΡΙΑC ΠΑΛΑΙ]
Nude Apollo standing facing, head left,
holding laurel branch and bow.
In field, date: [ET g]
17x18mm. 2.56gm. Axis:0
RPC on-line temp #4016
v-drome
volusian_neapolis_rgp34.jpg
BCC rgp3520 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Volusianus 251-253 CE
Obv:[ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Γ ΟΥΙ ΤΡΕΒ ΟΥΟΛΟΥCΙΑΝ]
(Radiate, draped, and cuirassed) bust right.
Rev: ΦΛ ΝΕΑC / ΠΟΛΕWΣ / ΕΠΙCΗΜ / ΝΕΟΚΟΡ / [ΟΥ?)
Eagle with spread wings, looking left, supporting tabula ansata
with Greek inscription in four lines. Mt. Gerazim above.
23.5mm. 8.54gm. Axis :180
Possible references: Harl 141 Var. (no OY?), or Sofaer pl. 60, 245.
v-drome
Domitian_Sebaste_BCC_rgp49.jpg
BCC RGP4925 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Sebaste, Samaria
Domitian 81-96 C.E.
Obv: [IMP DOMIT CAESAR]
Laureate head right
Rev:CΕΒΑCΤΗΝWΝ
Upright dagger
10.5mm. 0.91gm. Axis:330
Rosenberger 11, RPC 2230
v-drome
Bela_III_a_b.jpg
Béla III. scyphate AE follis154 viewsSANCTA MARIA
1172-1196 A.D.
Tibsi
BHM 710.JPG
BHM 0710. The Duke of Gloucester elected Chancellor of Cambridge University, 1811.108 viewsObv. Draped, cuirassed bust of the Duke of Gloucester right, H R H WILLIAM FREDERICK DUKE OF GLOUCESTER
Rev. Inscription within closed wreath of laurel and roses ELECTED MARCH 26 INSTALLED JUNE 29 MDCCCXI, around: CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

WM48. BHM 710.

William Frederick, second Duke of Gloucester (1776—1834), son of William Henry the first Duke, and Maria, Dowager Countess of Waldegrave. The second Duke served as colonel of the 1st foot-guards in Flanders in 1794 and was promoted to Major-General in 1795. His advancement continued, finally being promoted Field-Marshal in 1816. He was appointed Privy Councillor in 1806 and Governor of Portsmouth in 1827. -from British Historical Medals 1760-1960, Volume I, pp. 173
LordBest
Bramsen 0952.JPG
Bramsen 0952. Mariage a Paris avec Marie-Louise, 1810.268 viewsObv. The busts of the Emperor Napoleon laureated, and the Empress Marie Louisa crowned with a diadem. ANDRIEU. F. DENON D
Rev.Napoleon and Marie Louisa, full lengths, he habited in the Roman costume, with the imperial paludamentum clasped over his right shoulder; their right hands are joined, and with his left he embraces her shoulder, in the attitude of conducting her to the altar, on which burns the vestal flame: on the plinth of the altar, which is circular, is represented the bow and quiver of arrows of Cupid, crossed, with the torch of Hymen erect.
On the base, JOUANNIN F.
Legend, NAPOLEON EMP. ET ROI. M. LOUISE D'AUTRICHE.
Exergue, I AVRIL MDCCCX. DENON D

Struck to commemorate the wedding of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria in 1810
LordBest
Bramsen 1091.JPG
Bramsen 1091. Le Roi de Rome, 1811.225 viewsObv. Profile busts of the Emperor Napoleon, and the Empress Maria Louisa; the head of the Emperor encircled with a wreath, that of the Empress is adorned with the imperial diadem as worn by the former Queens of France; under the head of Napoleon or exergue, the name of the artist and designer, ANDRIEU F. DENON D.
Rev. Bust of the infant son of Napoleon; on base of the bust, ANDRIEU F.
Legend, NAPOLEON FRANCOIS JOSEPH CHARLES ROI DE ROME.
Exergue, XX MARS MDCCCXI.

Struck to commemorate the birth of Napoleon II in 1811.
LordBest
Bramsen unknown.JPG
Bramsen ????. Mariage a Paris avec Marie-Louise, 1810. 233 viewsObv. Confronting busts of Napoleon I and Marie Louise. NAPOLEON GALL IMP ITALIIAE REX M LVDOVICIA FRANC AUST IMP FIL AA. HARNISCH
Rev. Turreted goddess insribing on shield supported by cupid, torches either side. FELICIBVS NVPTIIS. VOTA PVBLICA. VINDOB X1 MARTII MDCCCX
Silvered white metal 48mm

A beautiful medal struck to commemorate the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria in 1810. Struck at Vienna.
My very first Napoleonic medal. ex-HJB it was sold as a restrike but is in fact an original strike as the Vienna mint did not restrike these medals.
LordBest
222.jpg
Bust right (laureate)124 viewsSAMARIA. Sebaste. Julia Soemias or Julia Maesa. Ć 20. Obv: Draped bust right; countermark below chin. Rev: COL▪L▪SEP▪SEB-(ASTE) or similar. Scene of rape of Persephone: Hades in galloping quadriga right, carrying Persephone in right arm, above horses Eros flying right; below overturned basket (?). Ref: BMC 16 or 18. Axis: 235°. Weight: 10.75 g. CM: Laureate (?) bust right, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego 141 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Marius_Capito.jpg
C. Marius C.f. Capito - AR denarius serratus5 views˛Praeneste
ąRome
˛82 BC
ą81 BC
draped bust of Ceres with corn wreath right
controlmark to the right: running horse
CAPIT.CXXXV
ploughman conducting yoke of two oxen
CXXXV
C·MARI·C·F / S·C
ąCrawford 378/1c, SRCV I 300, Sydenham 744b, RSC I Maria 9
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,06g
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
C__Marius_C_f__Capito.jpg
C. Marius C.f. Capito - Maria-9129 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Marius C.f. Capito. 81 B.C. AR Serrate Denarius (3.86 g, 19.5 mm). CAPIT • XXXXI behind draped bust of Ceres right, wreathed in corn, symbol below chin. / Plowman steering yoke of oxen left, XXXXI above; C • MARCI • C • F / SC in ex. Crawford 378/1c; Sydenham 744b; RSC Maria 9; RCV 3009 commentsBud Stewart
zb~1.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO37 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.

benito
00capito4.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO32 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3,83 grs. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn-wreath. C MARI C F CAPIT XXVIII / Husbandman left ploughing with yoke of oxen. XXVIII above. SC and grasshopper in exergue.
Craw. 378/1b. RSC Maria 8.
benito
00capito4~0.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO26 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3,83 grs. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn-wreath. C MARI C F CAPIT XXVIII / Husbandman left ploughing with yoke of oxen. XXVIII above. SC and grasshopper in exergue.
Craw. 378/1b. RSC Maria 8.

benito
cmari.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO72 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol (jellyfish) before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue. Border of dots.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.
1 commentsbenito
Caesarea_Maritima_AE_of_Commodus,_177-192_AD.JPG
Caesarea Maritima AE of Commodus, 177-192 AD39 viewsCommodus
Caesarea Maritima, Samaria
AE – 177-192 AD
IM COMMODVS ANTONINVS
laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
COL P R MA F AVG CAESAR
draped bust of Serapis r.
SGI 2056, RPC 6324
Ardatirion
IMG_4455.JPG
Caesarea Maritima, Samaria. Herennius Etruscus. (251 AD). AE 25mm53 viewsO:Draped bust of Herennius Etruscus r., radiate; MES Q ERENET AVG CO DECIO CAES
R: In center above, Tyche standing facing, veiled, holding scepter and small bust, her foot over prow of galley; below, two female figures sacrificing birds over altar flanked by two bulls; COL P F AV F CAES METROP (the first Flavian Augustan colony, Caesarea, metropolis). Ros. 144. Kad. 176. Sofaer pl. 32,150.
1 commentsMaritima
coin61.JPG
Caesarea Maritima, SAMARIA; Volusian20 viewsSAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Volusian. 251-253 AD. Ć 22mm, 13.7g Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Volusian on horseback galloping right, holding spear. Rosenberger 187. ecoli
IMG_3949.JPG
CAESAREA, LUCIUS VERUS 57 viewsSamaria, Caesarea Maritima. LUCIUS VERUS
Obv.: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: COL PRIMA FL AVGVS CAESAREA, Nike advancing left holding wreath and palm branch
Kadman 54
amibosam
IMAG1266.jpg
Caesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD). 28 viewsCaesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD). AE30 mm
O: Draped bust of Trajan Decius r., laureate; IMP C C MES Q TRA DECIVS AVG
R: Apollo standing l., holding branch and resting elbow on tripod entwined by serpent; COL PR F AVG F C CAES METR P S P (the first Flavian Augustan colony, Caesarea, Metropolis, in Syria Palestina). Sofaer pl. 29,110. Kadman (Caesarea) 133. Rosenberger 119. Rare
Maritima
IMAG1607.jpg
Caesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD).22 viewsCaesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD). AE30 mm
O: Draped bust of Trajan Decius r., laureate; IMP C C MES Q TRA DECIVS AVG
Rev: COL P F AVG F CAES METP R S P AL.
Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Maritima
203c.jpg
caesarea001a2 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: IMP C M..., Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: S P Q R within wreath supported by eagle.
20 mm, 8.50 gms

Kadman (Caesarea Maritima) 86
Charles M
371c.jpg
caesarea068-16 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: IM C M AVR ANTON[INVS]. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL I F AV /PFL above, CAESAR in exergue. Founder plowing right behind two oxen, victory flying left to crown him.
21 mm, 8.60 gms

Sofaer 74 variant (bust type)
Charles M
1755_Roma_#1.jpg
caesarea0711 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: ...ANTON. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [COL...] →CAES. Tyche standing facing within tetrastyle temple, holding bust and sceptre, resting foot on harbour-god; statues between the temple's columns.
17 mm, 5.32 gms

Sofaer 71, Kadman 80-81, Roma Numismatics E-Sale 60, Lot 480 (this coin)
Charles M
1251c.jpg
caesarea073-14 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: IM C M AV ANTON. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL I FLA [AV F C CAESA]. Bust of Serapis right.
22 mm, 8.23 gms

Sofaer 73
Charles M
234a.jpg
caesarea073-210 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: ...ANTON. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [COL I FLA AV F C] CAESA. Bust of Serapis right.
20 mm, 7.14 gms

Sofaer 73
Charles M
122.jpg
caesarea074-13 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL I [FLA AV F C CAESA]. Bust of Serapis right.
20 mm, 7.29 gms

Sofaer 74, Rosenberger 72
Charles M
1315c.jpg
caesarea074-23 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL I FL[A AV F C CAESA]. Bust of Serapis right.
23 mm, 6.83 gms

Sofaer 74, Rosenberger 72
Charles M
1757_Roma_#3.jpg
caesareapanias0330 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea Panias, Samaria

Obv: AVT K M ANTѠNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: KAI ΠAN CЄB I AVC, Pan standing facing within niche cut into the rock, playing the flute and leaning against tree trunk; below, cave with fence in front, pedum to left. [syrinx] to right, [CKΓ] (date) in exergue.
27 mm, 14.57 gms

Sofaer 33, Rosenberger 47, Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 60, Lot 482 (this coin)
Charles M
1330.jpg
caespan0275 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea Panias, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: KAIC ΠAN…, across fields, KA/…, Tyche standing right holding rudder on globe and cornucopia.
21 mm, 5.78 gms

Sofaer 27
Charles M
5.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria19 viewsQuarterdeck
Mainmast shrouds
Juancho
4.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria17 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
3.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria14 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
2.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria16 viewsLength: 280mm
Height: 285mm
Beam: 80mm

Scale 1:110
Juancho
1.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria51 viewsModel of the Carabela Santa Maria,
self-made, took me a few years for the completion.
5 commentsJuancho
7.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria19 viewsForecastle deck
Foremast shrouds
Hawse-holes
Anchor
Juancho
6.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria12 viewsBulkhead
Windlass
Waist hatchway
Juancho
Caracalla_Neapolis~0.jpg
Caracalla - Neapolis, Samaria7 viewsAR tetradrachm
215-217 AD
laureate head right
AVT KAI AN_TΩNINOC CE
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, altar below
ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC T Δ
obv.: Prieur 1702 / rev.: Prieur 1701
11,9g
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
CARASE02.jpg
Caracalla, sestertius of AD 210, two emperors crowned by Victories36 viewsObv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust of Caracalla facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIAE AVGG (around) S C (in ex.), Caracalla and Geta clasping hands above tripod altar, both holding spears, each crowned by Victory.
RIC -; Cohen -
ex Henzen (1995, "found during dredging in Lagliari harbour, Sardinia" ).
The reverse has been badly double struck but the representation can clearly be seen.

This type is not listed in RIC nor Cohen. Cohen reports a medallion of Caracalla with the same reverse representation. The same reverse is listed in RIC, Cohen and BMC but only for Geta and Septimius Severus. Another related type is listed in RIC 459 (R2) and Cohen 28: Caracalla and Geta clasping hands and holding spears, being crowned by Apollo and Hercules, minted A.D. 210.

A sestertius of Caracalla with the same reverse was in the Santamaria sale of 1938 but was overlooked for inclusion in RIC. It was purchased by Curtis Clay in 1967 and is in the British Museum since 1993. Thus this coin is the second specimen known of this type for Caracalla.
Curtis Clay noted that the obv. and rev. dies of this specimen are both different from the Santamaria-BM specimen. The rev. die was entirely new to him and unknown in combination with a Geta obv. either; the obv. die of this coin is known with TR P XIII (thus dating this coin to AD 210): three emps. sacrificing rev. dies, one being BMC pl. 62.1. (That BM coin has been tooled, and the tribunician number altered to XIIII.).
1 commentsCharles S
V3-Columbian.jpg
Columbian Exposition Half Dollar45 viewsColumbian Exposition Half Dollar, 1893

The first US commerative coin was the Columbian half dollar. C.E. Barber designed the obverse showing the bust of Columbus and G.T. Morgan the reverse with Columbus' flagship, the Santa Maria above two hemispheres.

1983, 1,550,405 minted.

Reference: KM 117
Daniel Friedman
Q_Marius_Quadrans.jpg
Cr 148/4 - Q Marius Quadrans15 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Q. MARIUS
Ć Quadrans, ~189-180 BC, 7.64g

Head of Hercules r., wearing lion’s skin; above, three pellets. / Q·MARI Prow r.; before, three pellets and below, ROMA.

Maria 4. Sydenham 367c. Crawford 148/4.
Very rare. VG/aFine.

Thanks to Andrew McCabe for his help IDing this coin.
RR0024
Sosius
Roma484.jpg
Cr 364/1b AR Denarius Serratus Q. Antonius Balbus 11 viewsRome, 82 BCE (3.71g, 20mm, 11h)
o: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind, O below
r: Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; Q•ANTO•BALB PR in two lines in ex
Crawford 364/1b. Antonia 1a
Banker's mark near chin obverse
Striking as Praetor, he was a Marian who was slain after the Sullan victory.
PMah
Maria_9_Denarius.jpg
Cr 378/1c - Maria 9 Fouree Denarius20 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Fouree Denarius (2.9g), 81 BC
C Marius C f Capito, Moneyer.

CAPIT and numeral, bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol below chin / Plowman with yoke of oxen plowing l., numeral above, C MARI C Fi below, SC in ex.

Maria 9, Syd 744b, Cr378/1c.
RR0020
Sosius
Croatia_Italy_Vacation_067_opt.jpg
Croatia, Pula - Chapel of St. Maria Formosa376 viewsThree naived basilica from the 6th century ADLegatus
IMG_2.JPG
Diadumenian,SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. 217-218 CE. AR 46 viewsCaesarea Maritima. Diadumenian. 217-218 CE. AR Tetradrachm 13.58g.
OBV:Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
REV:Eagle standing facing, head left, wreath in beak, on torch with entwined serpent; bucranium between legs. Prieur 1680
Maritima
LouisXIV1667.JPG
Divo 101. 1667, Le Canal des deux mers194 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS XIIII REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Neptune parting land with trident MARIA JUNCTA FOSSA A GAR AD PORT SETIUM MDCLXVII

Commemorates the "Canal des deux mers", a canal linking the Atlantic with the Mediterranean ciathe city of Cette (Sete).
LordBest
LouisXIV1680.JPG
Divo 180. 1680, Marriage du Dauphin avec Marie-Anne de Baviere.203 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. The Cardinal of Bouillon centre, marrying the Dauphin Louis left and Anne Marie of Bavaria right, temple behind VICTORIA ET PACE AUSPICES MARIE ANNA BAVAR?? LUD DELPH NUPTA? MDCLXXX

Commemorates the mariage of the Dauphin Louis to Anna Marie of Bavaria in 1680.
LordBest
DomitianLXF.jpg
Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF85 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, “tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.”

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
Neapolis-Domitian.jpg
Domitian, (81-96 CE), Æ Neapolis (Shechem).41 viewsBronze of Domitian, (81-96 CE), minted in Neapolis in Samaria.

Obverse: AYTOK ΔOMITIANOΣ KAIΣAPΣEBA; Laureate head of Domitian, r.
Reverse: ΦΛΑ ΟΥΙΝΕΑ ΠΟΛΙΣΑ ΜΑ; Palm tree; below LAI 82/3 CE)

Reference: SNG ANS 962

Added to collection: October 29, 2006
Daniel Friedman
EINBECK_SILVER.jpg
EINBECK33 viewsEINBECK - AR Mariengroschen, 1551. Obv.: Cross, overlaid with crowned E. MONETA NOVA EIMBEC : 51 Rev.: Radiant madonna and child; MARIA MATER CRISTI Reference: Saurma #2114. dpaul7
Neapolis-Elagabalus.jpg
Elagabalus, (212-222 CE), Æ Neapolis85 viewsBronze of Elagabalus, 212-222 CE, minted in Neapolis in Samaria.

Obverse: AVTKMAVP ANTωNINOC; Draped bust right, laureate
Reverse: ΦΛNEACΠOΛΕωCVP ΠAΛ (Flavia Neapolis); Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple and alter, colonnade below mountain, small star or sun above, unknown letter in ex.

Reference: SNG ANS 997-1005, Rosenberger 37-39

Added to collection: August 27, 2006
3 commentsDaniel Friedman
esammtORweb.jpg
Elagabalus, SNG ANS 99726 viewsNeapolis, Samaria mint, Elagabalus 218-222 A.D. AE, 21.5mm 11.22g, SNG ANS 997
O: AVT K M AVP ANTΩINOC, Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right (* A in square punch countermark)
R: ΦΛNEACΠ CVP ΠAΛ Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple and altar; stairway leads to temple, colonnade below mountain.
* Howgego 666 is the A countermark referenced (page 237) where 32 of the 37 countermarks are on Neapolis coins of Elagabalus, the others being J.Maesa (3), J.Soaemias (1) and Macrinus (1).The A is suggested as Alexander, possibly revalidating the coins of Elagabalus in that reign after the damnatio of Elagabalus. Mauseus
casata137ec
enk.jpg
Enkolpion36 viewsEnkolpion, 11.-12.Jhdt. Byzantinisch, Bronze. Gesamthöhe mit Scharnier und Öse 6cm. Reliquienkreuz: zweiteilig, durch Scharnier verbunden. Hoher figürlicher Reliefdekor. VS: Gekreuzigter Christus, mit dem Colobium bekleidet. RS: Maria Orans. Intakt. Schöne dunkelgrüne Patina.
Alexios
faustina100409.jpg
Faustina Junior, Neapolis49 viewsFaustina Junior
Samaria, Neapolis

FAVCTEINA CEB EY CE CEBAQUIGA
draped bust right

F L NEACPOLEW CYPIAC PALACT
Facing cult statue of Artemis Ephesia, holding two scepters topped with doves,
flanked by stags
date across L and R field

BMC 62, Ae 23-24mm; 6.84g
1 commentsarizonarobin
FR_2ND_REP_5_FR_MARIANNE.jpg
FRANCE - Second Republic86 viewsFRANCE - Second Republic (1848-1852) AR 5 Francs, 1849-A. KM #761.1.dpaul7
france_medaillon.jpeg
France: Military medaillon21 viewsMédaille d'istruction militaire dans son écrin offerte par le ministére de la guerre je pense en 1870. Signée H Dubois. Obv.: Helmeted bust of Marianne (personification of France) right. Rev.: Soldier standing, facing, holding flag, pile of arms before. Group of soldiers at bayonet drill in background left. Ex Barry & Darling, ex areich. Photo credit areichPodiceps
France_milit_Token~0.jpg
France: Military Token, Late 19th Century46 viewsFrance military token (bronze, 28mm), undated, but most likely from the later part of the 19th century.
obv.: Helmeted bust of Marianne (personification of France) right.
rev.: Soldier standing, facing, holding flag, pile of arms before. Group of soldiers at bayonet drill in background left.

ex Barry & Darling
areich
_T2eC16F,!)!E9s2f!GJMBRce9(s14!~~60_58.jpg
Frankreich Medaille 1962 (Silber, vergoldet) von Borrel12 viewsVs.: Büste der Marianne nach links
Rs.: Für L.Fournier, gestiftet vom Arbeitsminister
Gewicht: 10,0g. Durchmesser: 27mm
Erhaltung: zaponiert, vorzüglich _913
Antonivs Protti
_T2eC16Z,!)kE9s4,BE(iBRce9Bv02g~~60_58.jpg
Frankreich Medaille o.J. um 1900 (Bronze)18 viewsVs.: Kopf der Marianne nach rechts, davor Getreideähren
Rs.: Leeres Gravurfeld
Rand: BRONZE Gewicht: 62,8g
Durchmesser: 49mm
Erhaltung: kl.Kratzer, Rdf., zaponiert, sehr schön _1565
Antonivs Protti
FR020fac.jpg
Freiburg im Breisgau, 1425-1559, Coat of arms, Madonna with child14 viewsFreiburg im Breisgau
AR Plappart or Plappert
1425-1559 AD
Obv.: ​MON;NO;FRIBVRG;BRISGAVD, raven (the coat of arms of Freiburg)
Rev.: AVE.MARIA:GRAT. P., Madonna seated with child
AR, 23.3mm, 1.90g
Ref.: Freiburger Münzen und Medaillen No. 23, Becker p.21, Jubiläumsschrift des Freiburger Münzsammelvereins 1997, No.23/24, Berstett 229
shanxi
freiburg_fac_001.jpg
Freiburg im Breisgau, 16th cent., Coat of arms, Madonna with child23 viewsFreiburg im Breisgau
Groschen
16th cent. AD
Obv.: ​*MON: NOVA. FRIBVRG. EN: BRISGO, raven or eagle (the coat of arms of Freiburg)
Rev.: AVE MARIA. GRATIA. PLENA, Madonna seated with child
AR, 2.36 g
Ref.: Berst. 141a var., Schulten 897, Rommel 17.
Ex Collection Dr. Lutz
Ex Münzhandlung Sonntag
shanxi
asper_k.jpg
Genoese Caffa, Filippo Maria Visconti, r. 1421-14355 viewsAR Asper, 14.93 mm x 0.8 grams
Obv.: DV_M.D.:CAF; The arms of Genoa in a beaded oval of four arches, one dot to right of portal
Rev.: Small Jujid tamga with 3 dots. Circular Arabic legend that is not visible, السلطان العادل محمد خان (The Just Ruler, Muhammad Khan)
Ref.: Similar to Retowski, Genoese-Tartar Coinage, no. 14
From the FitzNigel Collection
John Anthony
HEINRICH_III_1039-1056__Pfennig_Dbg__838__Ehrend_2__26.jpg
Germany and Holy Roman Emperor HEINRICH III 1039-1056A.D. AR Pfennig 33 viewsGermany and Holy Roman Emperor HEINRICH III 1039-1056A.D. AR Pfennig
Royal mint at the city of Speyer.
+SCA MARIA Half-length portrait of Mary with hands raised , in front of her the head of the Christ Child.
+SPIRA CIVITAS Church, in CH / ON
Dannenberg 838
Vladislav D
Geta_ebay_unito.jpg
Geta, denarius (211 AD), R/TRP III Cos II PP32 viewsGeta denarius, Rome mint
AR, 3,0 gr, 18,5 mm, S
D/ P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
R/ TR P III COS II P P, Janus standing facing left & right, holding spear & thunderbolt
RIC 79, RSC 197
Provenienza: Berardengo collection (Rome Italy, november 2012); ex André Riegert collection (Hombourg, Alsace, France, 18/9/2001); ex Jaime Ramentol Noria collection (Corca, Girona. Espana, 2011), ex Maria Isabel Argente Susin collection (Santa Cristina Corca, Girona Espana, 4/11/2012)
paolo
217.JPG
Gouvernement de Défense Nationale - 10 centimes, épreuve de Strasbourg4 views.Bronze, 30,5 mm, 9,57 g
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste de Marianne ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // 10 CENTIMES 1870 BB
Réfs : Gad. 261
Gabalor
GR_1698_Half_Crown.JPG
Great Britian, William & Mary, Joint Reign, 1689 - 169421 viewsObv: GVLIELMVS . ET . MARIA . DEI . GRATIA, draped busts of William and Mary facing right.

Rev: MAG . BR . FR . ET . HIB . REX . ET . REGINA . 1689, royal arms of Great Britain, crown above.

Silver Half Crown

14.5 grams, 33.03 mm
SPQR Coins
MenSaitta.JPG
GREEK, Lydia, Saitta, 200 - 269 AD35 viewsObv: Head of Men Agrotheios in Phrygian cap right, crescent behind.
Rev: Apollo standing left
Ref: BMC 16 | 19.12 mm | 4 grams

"agrotheios" - Men Axiottenos, most frequent surname of Men in Lydia, cult only in Maionia, main deity of Saitta. Probably from a toponym Axitta, Axiotta or Axietta. Lit.: Maria Paz de Hos, Die lydischen Kulte im Lichte der griechischen Inschriften, Bonn 1999. Often spelled Aziottenos in error because of a confusion between X and Z. - Jochen
Sylvianus
230.jpg
H in circular punch143 viewsUncertain mint, possibly SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima (Judaea Capta coinage). Titus (?). Ć 18. Early 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 4.81 g. Note: The identification of the coin as belong to the Judaea Capta series depicting Titus is based on the countermark. CM: H in circular punch, 5 mm (punch may be broken). Howgego 832.1 (1 pc). Collection Automan.Automan
hacksilber.jpg
Hacksilber13 viewsHacksilber cut fragment, cf. Gitler Hacksilber 18 (Samaria, late 4th c. B.C.); Meshorer-Qedar 1991 pl. 41, 235 (same); Ingot Hoard pl. 3, 22 (Egypt), F, chisel cut on two sides from a small disk (dump), weight 2.523 grams, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, c. 6th - 4th Century (or earlier) B.C.

Similar cut fragments from disc ingots are found across the Levant, Holy Land, and the entire Mediterranean. Reputedly this piece was found in Israel. An old typed dealer or collector tag, hand marked "1998" in pen, notes:

"Israelite, AR cut fragment of an ingot, 9th to 6th century BCE, irregular form, showing two chisel cuts at edge. Porous. Cf. Meshorer, Samaria for a similar hoard. 100. Found in a recent hoard of similar pieces.“

ex. FORVM Ancient Coins (description & photo)
cmcdon0923
coins_066.JPG
Hadrian AE17 of Caesaria Maritima, Samaria.30 viewsHadrian AE17 of Caesaria Maritima, Samaria. IMP TRA HADRIANO CAE, laureate draped bust right / CIF AVG CAESAR, Apollo standing left holding serpent, tripod to right. SNGANS 771 Antonio Protti
Caesarea-Hadrian.jpg
Hadrian, (117-138 CE), Æ, city coin of Caesarea Maritima in Samaria29 viewsBronze of Hadrian, 117-138 CE, 17 mm. Struck at the mint of Caesarea Maritima in Samaria, 117/138 CE.

Obverse: IMP TRA HADRIANO CAE; Laureate and draped bust right.
Reverse: CIF AVG CAESAR; Apollo standing left holding serpent, tripod behind.

Reference: SNG ANS 771, Kadman 29 (reverse only).

Added to collection: September 9, 2006
Daniel Friedman
Tiberias-Hadrian.jpg
Hadrian, (117-138 CE), Æ, city coin of Tiberias28 viewsBronze of Hadrian, 117-138 CE, 6.34 grams, 22.1 mm. Struck at the mint of Tiberias in Samaria Year 101 = 119/20 CE.

Obverse: AVT TPA AΔPIANW KAIC CEB; Laureate bust right
Reverse: TIBEP KΛAVΔ; Tyche (the city goddess) standing left, right foot on prow, holding bust in right hand, standard in left; date (L-AP) across field.

Reference: Rosenberger 13, BMC 31, SNG ANS 1114

Added to collection: August 28, 2006
Daniel Friedman
221.jpg
Head and galley162 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Ć 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark (1). Rev: worn smooth, countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.63 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 ? (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs) or possibly 410 (15 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. The size of the countermark places it somewhere between 409 and 410. Collection Automan.Automan
220.jpg
Head and galley131 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Ć 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of bust right; countermark (1) before. Rev: Worn smooth; countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.98 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 5 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. Collection Automan.Automan
219.jpg
Head and galley124 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea) Titus (?). Ć 21. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark (1) on head. Rev: Inscription illegible. Nike standing right, inscribing on shield; countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312(?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.21 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 5 x 3.5 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. Collection Automan.Automan
217.jpg
Head of emperor right (possibly NE behind)155 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Domitian. Ć 24. A.D. 86/87 (year 15). Obv: (AYTOKPATΩPΔOMITIANOΣKAIΣAP)ΣEBAΣTOΣГEP or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on head. Rev: ΦΛAOYI-NEAΠ-(ΣAM) or similar in three lines, LEI beneath. Crossed cornucopiae. Ref: RPC 2224 (1 pc!). Axis: 180°. Weight: 14.24 g. Note: Since the second letter of the date line, although resembling an "E" rather than an "A", is heavily worn it is difficult to say wheather this coin was struck in year 11 (LAI) or year 15 (LEI) based solely on that letter. The obverse legend seems to end "ГEP", though, which is not the case on coins of year 11. The coins of year 15, though, are extremely rare. CM: Head of emperor right (possibly letters NE behind), in rectangular punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 32 ? (7 pcs). Note: There does not seem to be space enough for the letters "NE" (which probably refer to Neapolis rather than Nerva) behind the head. Howgego 32 is, however, applied to most of these coins. Collection Automan.Automan
215.jpg
Head right (laureate)129 viewsSYRIA, SAMARIA, or JUDAEA (?).Uncertain mint. Uncertain Flavian (?) emperor. Ć 25. Circa A.D. 69-96 (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Laureate head left; countermark on chin. Rev: Inscription illegible. Worn nearly smooth. Weight: 11.30 g. CM: Laureate head right, in rectangular punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 132 (13 pcs) or Howgego 133 (17 pcs) ? Collection Automan.Automan
214.jpg
Head right (laureate)142 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus. Ć 24. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: (AYTOKPTITOΣKAIΣAP). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (IOYΔAIA-C-E-AΛWKYIAΣ). Captive, with arms tied behind back, crouching right to left of foot of trophy, shield to right of trophy. Ref: RPC 2313; Sear GIC 784. Axis: 330°. Weight: 10.84 g. CM: Laureate head right, in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 133 (17 pcs). Note: The countermark may have been applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
213.jpg
Head right (laureate)165 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus. Ć 24. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: (AYTOKPTITOΣKAIΣAP). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (IOYΔAIA-C-E-AΛWKYIAΣ). Captive, with arms tied behind back, crouching right to left of foot of trophy, shield to right of trophy. Ref: RPC 2313; Sear GIC 784. Axis: 330°. Weight: 12.57 g. CM: Laureate head (bust?) right, in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 133 (17 pcs). Note: The countermark may have been applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
216.jpg
Head right (laureate)150 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea. Domitian. Ć 27. Circa A.D. 92. Obv: IMPCA-ESDOMITAVG-(GERMTRPXI). Radiate head right, with aegis; countermark before. Rev: (IMPXXI)COS(XVICENSPP). Palm-tree. Ref: RPC 2307. Axis: 30°. Weight: 15.10 g. CM: Laureate head right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 119 (18 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
H486 (01).jpg
Hendin-486 / 1169 (01)461 viewsHerod I - 8 prutot (dated year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
7.76 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
4 commentscmcdon0923
H486 (02).jpg
Hendin-486 / 1169 (02)150 viewsHerod I - 8 prutot (dated year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
8.38 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
1 commentscmcdon0923
H486_[03].jpg
Hendin-486 / 1169 (03)13 viewsHerod I - 8 prutot (dated year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
7.03 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
2 commentscmcdon0923
H487.jpg
Hendin-487 / 1170 (01)109 viewsHerod I - 4 prutot (dated year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
4.07 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
1 commentscmcdon0923
H487_[02].JPG
Hendin-487 / 1170 (02)23 viewsHerod I - 4 prutot (dated year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
5.3 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
cmcdon0923
H488 (01).JPG
Hendin-488 / 1171 (01)51 viewsHerod I - 2 prutot (Date not in die, but probably struck year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
3.05 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
cmcdon0923
H488 (02).JPG
Hendin-488 / 1171 (02)50 viewsHerod I - 2 prutot (year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
2.76 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
cmcdon0923
H488_(03).jpg
Hendin-488 / 1171 (03)37 viewsHerod I - 2 prutot (year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
2.58 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
cmcdon0923
H489.JPG
Hendin-489 / 1172 (01)55 viewsHerod I - prutah (year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
2.64 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
cmcdon0923
H489_[02].JPG
Hendin-489 / 1172 (02)42 viewsHerod I - prutah (year 3 = either 40BC or 37BC)
2.27 grams

The dating of these coins is subject to debate. Some say that because Herod was appointed Tetrarch of Samaria by Marc Antony in 42BC, that "year 3" would correspond to 40/39BC. Others feel that because Herod was appointed King of Judaea by the Roman Senate in 40BC, that "year three" should then represent 37BC. In all reality, the debate will most likely never be settled conclusively, one way or the other.
1 commentscmcdon0923
lg_etrus_caesaraea.jpg
Herennia Etruscilla, Samaria, Caesarea28 viewsHerennia Etruscilla (Augusta)
Samaria, Caesarea
AE 6.91g / 20mm / -
ERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG - Bust right
COL PF AVFC CAE METROP - Bust of turetted Tyche, door in crown, draped l. shoulder,
Ref: Ros-134
Scotvs Capitis
AntipasHalfUnit.jpg
Herod Antipas Half Unit84 viewsHERODIANS. Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE). Tiberias Mint, Ć half denomination, 19.4mm, 5.3 g.
O: TIBE PIAC in two lines within wreath.
R: HPΩΔOY TETPAPXOY (Herod Tetrarch), vertical palm branch, L to left, ΛZ to right, (RY 37 = 33/34 CE)
Hendin-1212 in GBC 5; ex. Hendin; ex. Teddy Kollek Collection; Menorah Coin Project ANT 15, Die 02/R12; Sear certificate.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was brought up in Rome with his brother Archelaus.

In Herod’s will, Antipas had been named to receive the kingship, but Herod changed his will, naming Archelaus instead. Antipas contested the will before Augustus Caesar, who upheld Archelaus’ claim but divided the kingdom, giving Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea. “Tetrarch,” meaning ‘ruler over one fourth’ of a province, was a term applied to a minor district ruler or territorial prince.

Antipas married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But on one of his trips to Rome, Antipas visited his half brother Herod Philip, the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II (not Philip the tetrarch). While visiting, he became infatuated with Philip’s wife Herodias, who was quite the ambitious woman. He took her back to Galilee and married her, divorcing Aretas’ daughter and sending her back home. This insulting action brought war. Aretas invaded and Antipas suffered major losses before receiving orders from Rome for Aretas to stop.

According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.

It was Herod Antipas’ adulterous relationship with Herodias that brought reproof from John the Baptizer. John was correct in reproving Antipas, because Antipas was nominally a Jew and professedly under the Law. This would lead to John's murder being schemed during a celebration of Antipas' birthday.

On the last day of Jesus’ earthly life, when he was brought before Pontius Pilate and Pilate heard that Jesus was a Galilean, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas who happened to be in Jerusalem. Herod, disappointed in Jesus, discredited him and made fun of him, then sent him back to Pilate, who was the superior authority as far as Rome was concerned. Pilate and Herod had been enemies, possibly because of certain accusations that Herod had leveled against Pilate. But this move on Pilate’s part pleased Herod and they became friends.
Nemonater
Herod_Archelaus.jpg
Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.31 viewsHerod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, 4 BC-6 AD, Bronze Prutah of 16.1 mm, 2.48 grams. ( Under the first Roman emperor Augustus { Reign ; January 16, 27 BC – August 19, 14 AD } )
Obverse: HPω∆OY (of Herod) Bunch of grapes.
Reverse: EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field.
Reference: Hendin 1196.

“Swear to me, young women of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or by the does of the field, that you won’t awaken or arouse love before its proper time.” Song of Solomon.

Given as a souvenir to a very dear friend and a Bible Teacher Mr. John DelRicci . (10/13/2017)
1 commentsSam
Herodwithscriptcopy.jpg
Herod I (the Great)111 viewsHerod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Ć 8 Prutot, 22mm, 5.82 g. Samaria mint. Dated RY 3 (40 BCE). O: Ceremonial bowl (lebes) on tripod; date L Γ (Year 3) to left, monogram to right. Greek Inscription: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOΥ (of King Herod.) R: Military helmet with cheek guards and straps, star above, palms flanking. Meshorer 44; Hendin 486; RPC I 4901.


Although there is debate over exactly what year “Year 3” refers to, the monogram TP may well indicate the third year of Herod’s tetrarchy. Josephus writes that Mark Antony appointed Herod as tetrarch (TETPAPXHΣ) in 42 B.C.E., which would bring us to 40/39 B.C.E. This is also when Herod was crowned as King of Judaea by the Roman Senate with the approval of Octavian (soon to be Augustus.)

This dating helps to explain the meaning of the obverse image of a soldier’s helmet. Although Herod was appointed as king, the Hasmonaean king, Mattathias Antigonus, was still ruling over Judea and did not recognize Roman authority. Herod would therefore have to raise an army, which he did, and, after a three month siege, conquered Jerusalem in 37 B.C.E.


Although Herod accomplished a great deal during his thirty-year + reign, including the building of massive palaces and amphitheaters and enlarging the temple, he is most remembered as a jealous, paranoid murderer, willing to do anything to maintain his political power.

Herod ordered the death of his Hasmonaean wife Mariamne and her brother Aristobulus. Later he had his two sons by Mariamne killed as well. This effectively eliminated the most serious threats to his power in Judaea. Caesar Augustus observed that it was safer to be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son. His wickedness reached its peak years later when, in fear of a rival king, he ordered the killing of all the boys two years of age and under in Bethlehem.

The Bible writer Matthew records Jesus’ birth taking place, “in the days of Herod the king.” A star led astrologers to Herod proclaiming the birth “of the one born king of the Jews.” The resulting slaughter of these children fulfilled the prophesy at Jeremiah 31:15, “This is what Jehovah has said, ‘In Ra′mah a voice is being heard, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping over her sons. She has refused to be comforted over her sons, because they are no more.’”
4 commentsNemonater
Hiempsal.jpg
Hiempsal II - Horse galloping87 viewsObverse: Veiled head of Demeter r., wreathed with corn
Reverse: Free running horse r., Punic H below, palm tree behind
Date : c. 106-60 BC
Reference : Mazzard-81, Muller-48
Weight : 6.87g
Acquired: 29/04/04

Comments : AE 20, Hiempsal II. was the son of Gauda, the half-brother of Jugurtha. In 88 B.C., after the triumph of Sulla, when the younger Marius fled from Rome to Africa, Hiempsal received him with apparent friendliness, his real intention being to detain him as a prisoner. Marius discovered this intention in time and made good his escape with the assistance of the kings daughter. In 81 Hiempsal was driven from his throne by the Numidians themselves, or by Hiarbas, ruler of part of the kingdom, supported by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian party in Africa. Soon afterwards Pompey was sent to Africa by Sulla to reinstate Hiempsal, wh
1 commentsBolayi
bela iii std.jpg
HUNGARY - Bela III447 viewsHungary -- Bela III, 1172-1196 AD - FLAT COPPER Obv. MARIA SANCT, the Virgin Mary standing . Reverse: Bela III nad Stephan IV seated facing, holding orb and scepter - REX BELA REX STS .27 mm, 2.27 g. Obverse: Virgin Mary seated, facing, holding scepter SANCTA MARIA.
dpaul7
mary hung TWO.jpg
HUNGARY - MARIA160 viewsHUNGARY - Queen Maria (1383-1395) AR Denar. Husz. 569. Obv.: CROWN, "+mARIE D R VGARIE"/Patriarchal cross, "+ mOnETA mARIE R".dpaul7
mary of hungary.jpg
HUNGARY - Maria189 viewsHungary - Maria (1385-1395) AR Denarius. Crowned M "REGINA UNGARI"/ Double cross,"MONETA MARIE". Hus. 566 var. Toned VF.
dpaul7
1765.jpg
Hungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB.89 viewsHungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB. M. THERESA. D: GR. IMP. GH. HU. BO. REG, bust right within wreath / PATRONA REGNI HUNGARIA 1765, Madonna seated on thrown facing, infant Jesus in her left arm, throne flanked by branches, value on mantle below.

KM 366.1
oneill6217
Huszár-72.jpg
Hungary: Belá III (1172-1196) Follis (Huszár-72, Unger-114)41 viewsObv: SANCTA—MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.
Rev: REX BELA on left, REX STS on right; Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.
SpongeBob
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-1.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-1, Unger 442a, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/171 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .49 g., 15.02 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Mária (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Mária 's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Zsigmond's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, struck without a privy mark in the reverse fields, was probably struck in Buda (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among 302 coins struck in Buda (Pohl 112-1). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 260 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, all of which are listed by Toma as being among 271 Buda issues (Pohl 112-1). The cross on this coin is apparently Toma B (wide cross with split ends), which is linked to Toma's crowned Ms a-d; the crowned M appears to be Toma c. Toma notes 96 coins with the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszár_566,_Pohl_112-1_2.jpg
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-1, Unger 442a, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/823 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .65 g., 13.98 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross. pellet below.

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Mária (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Mária 's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Zsigmond's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, struck without a privy mark in the reverse fields, was probably struck in Buda (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among 302 coins struck in Buda (Pohl 112-1). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 260 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, all of which are listed by Toma as being among 271 Buda issues (Pohl 112-1). The cross on this coin is Toma C (wide cross with split ends and pellet below), which is linked to Toma's crowned Ms c-h; the crowned M appears to be Toma e. Toma notes 14 coins with the C/e combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-2, Unger 442f, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5176 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .41 g., 14.00 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mOnETA MARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, lilies in fields.

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with lilies in both reverse fields, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau, now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists eight variations among 93 coins struck in Kassa with two lilies (Pohl 112-2). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 36 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among 79 Kassa issues with two lilies (Pohl 112-2). This coin appears to bear that B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are small pellets between words on both the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-3.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-3, Unger 442g, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/1726 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .52 g., 15.5 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGInE • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, lily in left field.

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a lily in the reverse left field, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau, now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among just four coins struck in Kassa with a lily in the left field (Pohl 112-3). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 3. Toma notes one coin with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among four Kassa issues with a lily in the left field (Pohl 112-3). This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl. The legend combination depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas differs in that there are no small pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-7.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-7, Unger 442c, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate II/231 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .50 g., 14.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, star below

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a star below the M, was struck at an unidentified mint (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation, Toma 3, among just nine coins with the star privy mark (Pohl 112-7). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 3.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among nine coins with the star privy mark (Pohl 112-7). This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl. The legend combination depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas differs in that there are no pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar566_Pohl_112-__pellet.png
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-_, Unger 442-, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.516 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .72 g., 14.60 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, pellet below

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a pellet below the M, is not recorded by Huszár, Pohl or Unger and is not represented in Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard.

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 54 coins with this combination, none with the pellet privy mark.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard. This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse. This coin bears an unrecorded mintmark.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1_v_.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-1 var., Unger 443a var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var.13 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 14.95 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: + mARIE • D • R • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letters A], crown with interior cross hatching.

Rev: + mO ... n ... mARIE • REI [Gothic-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets [overstrike].

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The precise legend combination on this coin cannot be discerned due to the reverse over-strike.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). Neither the crown nor the cross comport with any recorded by Toma.
Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ. This coin is an unusual variety both in terms of the cross-hatching on the obverse and the style of crown and cross
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4_Rupp_9.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., cf. Rupp 43/926 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .40 g., 14.08 mm. max, 180°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIA • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with CM below

Rev: ...OnETA ... [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar; double-struck], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4). This coin appears to bear the A/b combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. Due to the double-striking of the cross side of this coin, most of the legend is undecipherable. From the few letters that can be discerned, that side, like the crown side, appears to read, + mOnETA mARIA (or a variant). If so, this coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas, nor by Toma. It is, however, recorded by Rupp.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4.JPG
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 Tab XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends)178 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .56 g., 15.24 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + REGInE • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with CM below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm (Pohl 114-4). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, eleven with this mark but different legend combinations (Toma plate III/15-17). This combination is represented with a different mark from Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_1.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-5 var., Unger 443e var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Toma plate III/3 var. Probably a contemporary counterfeit.17 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .45 g., 15.88 mm. max., 270°

Obv: +mOnIE...R VnGARIE [unconventional-style letter A and other letters], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE [unconventional-style letters A and other letters], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). Coins with a letter h privy mark below the crown were struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma. Although many letters are indistinct, the style of many letters is unconventional and the legend on the crown side appears to be bungled. This suggests that the coin is a contemporary counterfeit.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-8.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-8 var., Unger 443h var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 var. (legend and privy mark) Plate XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A 23 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .54 g., 14.36 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + REGIn... VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with K below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A; letter T stylized to resemble a letter m], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter K below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the coins of this type struck at Körmöcbánya, but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the this privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, Toma A/b, appears on the single coin with this mark (Pohl 114-8). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the K mark (Pohl 114-8) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, three with this mark, one which may bear this legend combinations. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-1, Unger 443a, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.438 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.23 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: + mARIE : D • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with pellet above.

Rev: + mOnETA : mARIE : RE : [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among two coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The legend combination on this coin is not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among the two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin is Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross a is linked only with crown A).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
2 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-10.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-10, Unger 443k, Réthy II 116 Frynas H.26.4, Toma Plate III/9-10 var. (legends)54 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.06 mm max. 90°

Obv: + MARIA • ... nGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter n below.

Rev: + M...ETA • MARIA, Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter n privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just two coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, A/b, occurs among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_114-13.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-13, Unger 443n, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.424 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 13.84 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + mARIA • R • vnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter V below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter V privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyvärad/Värad (now Oradea, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-13) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-14.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-14, Unger 443q, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Tomar Plate III/13 var. (legends)29 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .57 g., 13.33 mm. Max., 0°

Obv: + M...D G R VGARIE [antiqua-style letter A without interior bars], Open crown with lily below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE R V [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross with pellet below.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the lily privy mark below the crown, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) in 1386-1995 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14), but this coin does not comport with that variation.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, D/d, occurs among the ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma D/d (crown D is linked only with cross d and vive versa), or a variant of cross d with shorter cross arms

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-16~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-16, Unger 443p, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Rupp 42/4-6 var. Tab XV/430 (legends and privy mark), Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends and privy mark)27 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .58 g, 14.6 mm. max, 270°

Obv: + REGIn...V...RIE, Open crown with letter O below

Rev: + MOnE...MARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter O privy mark below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint in 1386-1389 (per Pohl). This appears to be a variation of the privy mark.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-16) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, but not this mark (Toma plate III/15-17). Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.430 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .50 g., 14.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: [+] mARIA • R • VnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below.

Rev: + mOnET... RIA [antiqua-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-2). The legend combination on this coin appears to be Toma 5.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen identified coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.423 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.33 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE D G R VGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below

Rev: + m ... ARIE R V [antiqua-style letter A], Patriarchal cross, pellet below

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The obverse legend is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/c (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross c is linked only with crown B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-3.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-3, Unger 443c, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .49 g., 15.12 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with interior cross hatching. A with an interior crossbar below.

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Patriarchal.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A with interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists just one coin with the A with interior bar privy mark (Pohl 114-3). The legend combination on this coin is not recorded by Toma.
Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-5, Unger 443e, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/3 var. (legends)21 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 16.07 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + mARIE • D R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without and with interior bars], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE • R • VI [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter h privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-6.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-6, Unger 443f, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/4 var. (legends)19 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 15.05 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with I below

Rev: . . . mOnETA • mAR . . . [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter I privy mark below the crown, was struck in an unidentified mint in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, two of which occur among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.415 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 15.52 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS [retrograde letter s] below.

Rev: . . . OnETA • mARI... [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl). A retrograde letter s within the mark is not recorded by Huszár, Pohl and Unger.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.46 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE • R • V [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-9, Unger 443j, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4164 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .43 g., 14.8 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + MARIE • R • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with m below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE [Gothic-style letter A; letter T stylized to resemble an m], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter m below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint ca. 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the Huszár 566 struck at Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) (Pohl 112-2) and on those of this type struck at Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia), but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the letter K privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists no coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-9).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-46.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-46, Unger 451ζ, Réthy II 125A57 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, I-C flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck at Kassa (now, Košice, Slovakia) by Jacobus and Christianus before 1410 (per Pohl), who also states that they were joint kammergraffen at Kassa under Maria from 1385-1387, suggesting that this coin was struck early in Sigismund’s reign.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Bela_III_Huszar_72.JPG
Huszár 72; Toth-Kiss 16.5 var. sigla 0.1/1; Unger 114; Réthy I 98-100; Frynas H.15.24; Adamovszky A223 ff.114 viewsHungary. Béla III (1172-1196)

AE denomination unknown (average: 2.88 g., 22.5-27.5 mm.), 3.10 g., 26.41 mm. max., 270°

Obv (concave): REX BELA (on left, running counterclockwise)-REX STS (on right, running clockwise), Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.

Rev (convex): SANCTA-MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.

Struck in Esztergom. Struck 1172-1182 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative).

Note: “The financially unsuccessful attempt at minting copper coins was carried out exactly as its prototype, the Byzantine coppers. On these copper coins the stiff representation of the two royal figures recalls Byzantine icons, and the symmetry prevailing in the design creates a favorable impression. This direct adoption of the Byzantine model, as well as the whole attempt at coining copper money, may be ascribed to the fact that King Béla III spent a long period of time at the Byzantine court” (Huszár 1963, at 9-10).

Huszár rarity 1, Toth-Kiss rarity 20, Unger rarity 8, Frynas rarity C. Unrecorded variety with unusual ELA in BELA and retrograde first S in STS, as confirmed by József Géza Kiss via personal email communication on December 14, 2018.
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Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 (contemporary counterfeit).15 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526)

AR (contemporary counterfeit) denar, .33 g., 15.46 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: [LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI] * 1525, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon [bungled and retrograde legend and date].

Rev: [PATRONA] * – * [VNGAR]IE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B in fields [bungled and retrograde legend].

Type struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger & Gyöngyössy). Officially struck coins bearing this privy mark struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, the kammergraf appointed by Queen Maria in 1524, who continued in office until 1545 (per Pohl).

The silver content of this coin appears to be comparable to that of the inflationary currency referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova” (Huszár 846, Pohl 258, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A). Four hundred denars, each weighing on average 0.49 g., were struck form an Ofner mark of silver and had an average fineness of 0.250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 8 DM (re official emission).
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Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525.21 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526). AR denar, .55 gr., 15.29 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-19.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 53 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1525_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 49 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 55 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
Stkp
Roger_k.jpg
ITALY, Normans in Calabria. Roger I. 1072-1101.7 viewsĆ Trifollaro, 29x25mm, 8.2g, 11; Mileto, c. 1098-1101.
Obv.: ROC ERIVS COME +S . Knight with triangular shield and conical helmet, holding flag on long pole, on horse standing left.
Rev.: + MARIA MATER DИI . Enthroned nimbate Virgin holding on lap Christ child, nimbate and in swaddling clothes right.
Reference: CNI XVIII pg. 287, 15; Biaggi 1583; MEC 14, 93; Sambon 876 / 17-141-151
John Anthony
IMG_1406.JPG
Italy, Rome, Temple of Venus and Roma173 viewsThis is largest roman temple and it was designed by emperor Hadrian himself. Temple was finished by Antoninus Pius and repaired by Maxentius after fire. In 850 after earthquake pope Leo IV built Santa Maria Nova over ruins. In 1612 after renovation church was renamed to Santa Francesca Romana.Johny SYSEL
Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Majencius front and back.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Majencius front and back100 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio38 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the temple of Venus and Roma.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the temple of Venus and Roma42 viewsThe Temple of Venus and Roma (Templum Veneris et Romae in Latin) was the largest temple in Ancient Rome. It was located at the far east side of the Forum Romanum, near the Colosseum. It was dedicated to the goddesses Venus Felix (Venus the Happy) and Roma Aeterna (Eternal Rome). The designer was emperor Hadrian. Construction works on the temple started in 121 AD and though it was inaugurated by Hadrian in 135 AD, the building was finished in 141 AD under Antonius Pius.

The building measured 110 meters in length and 53 meters in width. It was placed on a stage measuring 145 meters in length and 100 meters in width. The temple itself consisted of 2 main chambers (cellae), where the cult statue of the god was, in this case the statues of Venus, the goddess of love, and Roma, the goddess of Rome, both of them seated on a throne. The cellae were placed symmetrically back-to-back. Roma's cella was faced west, looking out over the Forum Romanum, Venus' cella was faced east, looking out over the Colosseum. Each cella had its own line of 4 columns at the entrance. At the west and east sides of the temple (the short sides), 10 white columns were placed and at the south and north sides of the temple (the long sides) 18 white columns were placed. All of these columns measured 1.8 meters in width, making the temple very imposing to see.

Within Venus' cella, there was another altar where newly wed couples could make sacrifices. Right next to this altar stood gigantic, silver statues of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina.

In order to build the temple, which is placed on the remains of Nero's Domus Aurea, the statue of Nero, the Colossus, had to be moved. They placed it near the amphitheatre, which became known as the Colosseum shortly afterwards.

Hadrian's most brilliant architect, Apollodorus, wasn't impressed by his emperor's architectural skills. He made a scornful remark on the size of the statues within the cellae. He said that they'd surely hurt their heads if they tried to stand up from their thrones. He was banned and executed not long after this.

A serious fire in 307 AD caused major damage to the temple. It was restored by emperor Maxentius. Unfortunately, a gigantic earthquake at the beginning of the 9th century destroyed the temple once again. Around 850 though, Pope Leo IV ordered the building of a new church, the Santa Maria Nova, on the ruins of the temple. After a major rebuilding in 1612 this church was renamed the Santa Francesca Romana. This church has incorporated Roma's cella as the belltower.

Over the years, most of the columns around the temple have disappeared. Nowadays, only a few are still standing where they used to be, others that have gone missing have been replaced by buxus trees.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Venus_and_Roma"
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the temple of Vesta and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum The Basilica of Majencio and the temple of Castors46 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 viewsPantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely intact and which has been in continuous use throughout its history.

History
The original Pantheon was built in 27 BC under the Roman Republic, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building. The inscription reads M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this."

In fact, Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80, and the Pantheon was completely rebuilt in about AD 125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed, with the text of the original inscription (referring to Agrippa) added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome.

Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who travelled widely in the east and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a sort of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names.

In AD 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints (Santa Maria ad Martyres), which title it retains.

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. The only loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored several times.

During the reign of Pope Urban VIII, the Pope ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Chamber for various other works. (It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating the baldachin above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[1]) This led to the Latin proverb, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini" ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [family name of Urban VIII] did").

Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi and two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Vittorio Emanuele's Queen, Margharita.

Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon. This has aroused protests from time to time from republicans, but the Catholic authorities allow the practice to continue, although the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage [2] is in charge of the security and maintenance. The Pantheon is still a church and Masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly for weddings.

Structure
The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (8 in the first rank and 16 in total) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), open to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same (43 metres), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could house a sphere 43 metres in diameter). The dome is the largest surviving from antiquity, and was the largest dome in western Europe until Brunelleschi's dome of the Duomo of Florence was completed in 1436.

It may well be noted that the proportions of the building are in discord with respect to the classical ideal. Most evident is the rather large pediment, which appears far too "heavy" for the columns supporting it. The reason for this was the expectation that the building would be much taller than it actually is, which would effect larger columns. However, by the time the pediment was built, it was realised that the proposed height was unrealistic, and so the builders had to settle with a building somewhat out of proportion.

The composition of the Roman concrete used in the dome remains a mystery. An unreinforced dome in these proportions made of modern concrete would hardly stand the load of its own weight, since concrete has very low tensile strength, yet the Pantheon has stood for centuries. It is known from Roman sources that their concrete is made up of a pasty hydrate lime; pozzolanic ash from a nearby volcano; and fist-sized pieces of rock. In this, it is very similar to modern concrete. The high tensile strength appears to come from the way the concrete was applied in very small amounts and then was tamped down to remove excess water at all stages. This appears to have prevented the air bubbles that normally form in concrete as the material dries, thus increasing its strength enormously.

As the best preserved example of monumental Roman architecture, the Pantheon was enormously influential on European and American architects from the Renaissance to the 19th century. Numerous city halls, universities and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure. Examples of notable buildings influenced by the Pantheon include Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia, Low Library at Columbia University, New York, and the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

John Schou
JET_Ave_Maria_Gracia.jpg
Jeton, AE, 4.99 g., 26.66 mm max.., undated.9 viewsProbably minted at Tournai, Belgium, ca. 1415-1497.

Les Jetons du Moyen Âge, Claude Roelandt, Stéphan Sombart, Michel Prieur no. 584 var. (reverse letters); Rouver __.

Obv: Shield with arms of France (tree fleur de lis), large annulet flanked by pellets above, three pellets to each side. AVE MARIA ◦ GRACIA.

Rev: Triple-stranded straight cross fleuretty within four-arched tressure, P - O - O - O in external angles.
Stkp
judaea_herodesI_Hendin487.jpg
Judaea, Herodes I the Great, TJC 4514 viewsHerodes I the Great, 37 - 4 BC
AE - Prutah, 3.84g, 19.02mm
Samaria, 40 BC (year 3)
obv. [BASI]LEWS HRW[DOY]
Military helmet with cheeks
in l. and r. field LG (year 3) - monogram P
all in dotted circle
rev. decorated round shield, ornaments around
all in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 487; TJC 45
F, sand patina
Jochen
JUD_Herod_Archelaus_Hendin_1197.jpg
Judaea. Herod II Archelaus (4 B.C.-6 A.D.), Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea.5 viewsHendin (4th ed.) 506 (5th ed.) 1197, Meshorer TJC 72, Meshorer AJC II, 240, 5.

AE Half prutah, 1.07 g., 13.56 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: Prow of war galley facing left, HPω (for HPωΔΟY).

Rev: EΘN (Ethnarch), surrounded by wreath.

The galley refers to Archelaus' voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus' younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus appealed to Rome and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome (per AJC).
Stkp
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
211.jpg
KAI and laureate head127 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima. Nero. Ć 22. A.D. 68 (year 14 of the reign of Nero). Obv: (NEPΩNKAIΣAPΣEBAΣTOΣ). Laureate head right, star in front; countermark (1). Rev: (KA)IΣA(PIAHΠPOΣΣEBAΣTΩΛIMENI) or similar, LIΔ in field. Figure (Tyche?) standing left, holding human bust and standard; countermark (2) on figure. Ref: RPC 6842; Sear GIC 629. (Axis: 360°). Weight: 10.24 g. CM(1): KAI in rectangular punch, 8 x 5 mm. Howgego 543 (18 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/68, before the city became colony under Vespasian, to validate coins of Nero. CM(2): Laureate head right, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 115 (12 pcs). Note: Likely applied at the same time as countermark (1). In fact, Howgego notes that it may well be the case that all coins bearing countermark (1) also bear countermark (2) and vice-versa. Collection Automan.Automan
212~0.jpg
KAI and laureate head113 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima. Nero. Ć 23. A.D. 68 (year 14 of the reign of Nero). Obv: (NEPΩNKAIΣAPΣEBAΣTOΣ). Laureate head right, star in front; countermark on head (1). Rev: (KAIΣAPIAHΠPOΣΣEBAΣTΩΛIMENI) or similar, LIΔ in field. Figure (Tyche?) standing left, holding human bust and standard; countermark (2) on figure. Ref: RPC 6842; Sear GIC 629. Axis: 360°. Weight: 10.49 g. CM(1): KAI in rectangular punch, 8 x 6 mm. Howgego 543 (18 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/68, before the city became colony under Vespasian, to validate coins of Nero. CM(2): Laureate head right, in circular punch, 4 mm. Howgego 115 (12 pcs). Note: Likely applied at the same time as countermark (1). In fact, Howgego notes that it may well be the case that all coins bearing countermark (1) also bear countermark (2) and vice-versa. Collection Automan.Automan
KIEV_DENAR.jpg
KIEV - Vladimir Olgerdovich39 viewsKIEV - Vladimir Olgerdovich (1362-1394). Denarius, Type II, Obv.: Tamgha in shield. Rev.: I S, legend (Gum 440; Kot type II, I/D 10:10). Rare!

Vladimir Olgerdovich (Belarusian: Уладзімер Альгердавіч, Lithuanian: Vladimiras Algirdaitis, Ukrainian: Володимир Ольгердович; died after 1398) was a son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk. He was Grand Prince of Kiev from 1362 to 1394. His sons Ivan and Alexander started the Belsky and Olelkovich families.

After the battle of Blue Waters in 1362, the Principality of Kiev fell permanently into the hands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is believed that Vladimir was installed in Kiev right after the battle and replaced Fiodor of Kiev. Vladimir conducted independent politics and minted his own coins. Initially the coins were heavily influenced by the numismatic traditions of the Golden Horde and copied symbolism from coins minted by Khans Jani Beg and Muhammad Bolak. However, later the coins replaced the Tatar symbols (i.e. tamga) with letter K (for Kiev) and a cross (for Eastern Orthodox faith). This could indicate that for a while the Principality still had to pay tribute to the Horde. These were the first coins minted in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

In late 1384, Vladimir's troops detained Dionysius I, Metropolitan of Moscow, who died in captivity a year later. This was part of the power struggle between Dionysius, Pimen, and Cyprian for the title of Metropolitan of Moscow.

When Jogaila became King of Poland in 1386, Vladimir swore loyalty to him. After the 1392 Ostrów Agreement, Vytautas became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and began to eliminate regional dukes replacing them with appointed regents. This campaign could have been launched to discipline disloyal dukes, but turned into a systematic effort to centralize the state. In 1393, Vytautas confiscated Volodymyr-Volynskyi from Feodor, son of Liubartas, Novhorod-Siverskyi from Kaributas, Vitebsk from Švitrigaila. In 1394, Vytautas and Skirgaila marched against Vladimir, who surrendered without a battle. Skirgaila was installed in Kiev while Vladimir received the Duchy of Slutsk–Kapyl. Vladimir was last mentioned in written sources in October 1398.
dpaul7
1~4.PNG
King William III and Queen Mary II3 viewsKing William III and Queen Mary II - 1694 - Thick Flan Halfpenny

Obverse: co-joined profile busts with GVLIELMVS ET MARIA legend.

Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding a spear and an olive branch, her left arm rests on a shield decorated with the combined crosses of St. George and St. Andrew; around, BRITANNIA
discwizard
39312_00759a00_c.jpg
KM 32.x1 viewsObverse: Marianne facing right, with laurel branch, date in exergue

UNION FRANÇAISE
1947
P.TURIN

Reverse: Grain sprigs below denomination

FÉDÉRATION INDOCHINOISE
1 PIASTRE

Engraver: Pierre Turin
vrtsprb
739_311_Scipio_Asiaticus.JPG
L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus - AR denarius serratus6 viewsłSardinia or Massalia region
ąRome
˛104 BC
ą106 BC
laureate head of Jupiter left
dot over T behind
Jupiter in quadriga right, hurling thunderbolt, holding reins and scepter
L·SCIP·ASIAG
ąCrawford 311/1c, SRCV I 188, RSC I Cornelia 24
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
łMark Passehl
3,4g
ex Lucernae

Moneyer was the great-grandson of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, consul 190 BC who together with Eumenes II of Pergamum defeated Antiochus III the Great. He belonged to the Marian party in Sulla's first civil war and Sulla's second civil war. He was appointed consul in 83 BC with Gaius Norbanus. In this year Lucius Cornelius Sulla returned to the Italian Peninsula, and advanced against the consuls. He defeated Norbanus in Italy, but seduced the troops of Scipio to desert their general. He was taken prisoner in his camp along with his son Lucius, but was dismissed by Sulla uninjured. He was, however, included in the proscription in the following year, 82 BC, whereupon he fled to Massilia, and passed there the remainder of his life. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
081n.jpg
Laureate (?) head right192 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea (?). Domitian. Ć 18. A.D. 81-96. Obv: Inscription obliterated. Laureate (?) head right; countermark on neck. Rev: Inscription obliterated. Tyche standing or seated left (?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 3.80 g. Note: The coin was sold in a lot of 4 pieces, at least 2 of which were from Caesarea. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 3 x 4 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
226.jpg
Laureate (?) head right122 viewsSAMARIA. Uncertain mint (Caesarea Maritima?). Titus (?). Ć 20. 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 7.59 g. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: Probably applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
227.jpg
Laureate bust right106 viewsSYRIA or SAMARIA (?). Uncertain mint. Titus or Domitian (?). Ć 23. 70s-80s A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on head. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 10.78 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego 133 ? (17 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
MOD_up_to_1899-Riga,Livonia-3.jpg
Livonia1 viewsSilver Shilling, 1538

Minted in Riga, Livonia

NGC AU 50

Terra Mariana (Land of Mary) was the official name for Medieval Livonia which basically comprises present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207, and was bordered by the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland on the north-west, Lake Peipus and Russia to the east, and Lithuania to the south.

Livonia was inhabited by various Baltic and Finnic peoples, ruled from the 12th century by an upper class of Baltic Germans. Over the course of time, some nobles were Polonized into the Polish–Lithuanian nobility or became part of the Swedish nobility during the period of Swedish Livonia (1629–1721) or Russified into the Russian nobility.

This coin was minted in Riga which to today is the country of Latvia.

Purchased on eBay

My cost $26
Richard M10
IMG_4766.JPG
MACRINUS. 217-218. Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. AE-26 53 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218. Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. AE-26
Caesarea Maritima, Judaea.IMP CAE MACRINVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, with long beard
Rev. COLI FL AVF C / CAESAR Togate and veiled city founder ploughing to r. with bull and cow yoked
1 commentsMaritima
1aurelio_unito.jpg
Marco Aurelio, sesterzio (157-161 d.C.)29 viewsMarco Aurelio, sesterzio, Roma, 157-161 d.C.
AE, gr 19,3, mm 29,0, MB-
D/ ANTONINVS AVG TR P XX(VII?), busto laureato a dx
R/ IMP VI COS III / S C, Giove sul trono a sin. con Vittoriola e scettro.
RIC 1064; C. 248
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 luglio 2007, numero catalogo 51); ex collezione Maria Carmela Picciau, Assemini Cagliari (fino al 2007)
paolo
aurelius_cm_k.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, AD 161-18023 viewsĆ27, 12.6g, 12h; Samaria, Caesarea Maritima.
Obv.: AVRELIO CAES ANTON AVG P F; Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: COL PRIMA FL AVG CAESAREA; Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing calathus.
Reference: RPC IV online 6317; SNG Copenhagen 7; BMC 79-82.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
coin9_jpg.jpg
Maria Denarius 16 viewsC Marius C f Capito Denarius. 81 BC. CAPIT and numeral, bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol below chin / plowman with yoke of oxen plowing left, same numeral above, C MARI C Fi below, SC in ex. Syd 744b, Cr378/1c. Britanikus
YHWH.jpg
Maria Di Medici Jeton52 viewsMARIA. D. GR. FRANC. AND. NAVA. REG, 16 NB 08 in exergue.
Coat of arms half of France and quartered of Medici, and of Austria, surrounded by a crown half of laurel and half of palm

SERVAT DATAM 1608 in exergue
Two intertwined hands as a sign of trust between a palm and an olive branch. Above, the name JEHOVAH in Hebrew (YHWH) , whose rays penetrate dense clouds.

5.24g, 28mm

"Mary of God's Grace Queen of France and Navarre"

"He protects those who trust him."

Maria was born at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, Italy, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora survived to adulthood.

Maria is not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family referred to as the 'cadet' branch. She does descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. Nonetheless this 'cadet' branch produced every Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1537 to 1737, and the kings of France from Louis XIII in 1601 to Louis XVI in 1793.

She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The wedding ceremony in Florence, Italy (to which Henry did not turn up, marrying her by proxy) was celebrated with 4,000 guests and lavish entertainments. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

Maria was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court.

Her daughter, Henrietta Maria was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. Henrietta Maria, in turn, was mother of two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
2 commentsJay GT4
Maria_Bagrationi_Byzantine_Empress.jpg
Maria of Alania Byzantine empress by marriages to emperors Michael VII Doukas and Nikephoros III Botaneiates (aka Maria-Martha of Georgia of Bagrationi royal dynasy)42 viewsMaria of Alania (born Martha, Georgian, 1053-1118) was Byzantine empress by marriages to emperors Michael VII Doukas and Nikephoros III Botaneiates. At the time of her marriage, Georgian Maria was one of only two non-Byzantine princesses to marry a Byzantine heir and the only one to give birth to an heir.

Anna Komnene, in her medieval biographical text Alexiad, describes the beautiful Georgian princess Maria of Alania: "...after Michael Ducas' deposition, when he had advised the latter's successor, Nicephorus Botaniates, to take her in marriage, because she came from another country and had not a crowd of kinsfolk to give the Emperor trouble, and he had told Botaniates a great deal about her family and personal beauty, and often praised her to him. And certainly she was as slender of stature as a cypress, her skin was white as snow, and though her face was not a perfect round, yet her complexion was exactly like a spring flower or a rose. And what mortal could describe the radiance of her eyes? Her eyebrows were well-marked and red-gold, while her eyes were blue. Full many a painter's hand has successfully imitated the colors of the various flowers the seasons bring, but this queen's beauty, the radiance of her grace and the charm and sweetness of her manners surpassed all description and all art. Never did Apelles or Pheidias or any of the sculptors produce a statue so beautiful. The Gorgon's head was said to turn those who looked upon it into stone, but anyone who saw the Queen walking or met her unexpectedly, would have gaped and remained rooted to the spot, speechless, as if apparently robbed of his mind and wits. There was such harmony of limbs and features, such perfect relation of the whole to the parts and of the parts to the whole, as was never before seen in a mortal body, she was a living statue, a joy to all true lovers of the beautiful. In a word, she was an incarnation of Love come down to this terrestrial globe."

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_of_Alania
Joe Sermarini
D-024-128a.jpg
Marie de Montpensier (1608-1627), Douzain - 161343 viewsAtelier de Trevoux
+ MARIA . P . DOMBAR . D . MONTISP . (coeur), Ecu de Bourbon couronné, dans le champ, deux M couronnés
+ DNS . ADIVT : ET . REDEM . MEVS . 1613, Croix echancrée cantonnée de couronnes
1.93 gr
Ref : Divo Dombes # 128a (meme coin d'avers, 2° exemplaire décrit), PA # 5161v, Boudeau # 1073
Potator II
1815parma.jpg
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma (1814 - 1847 A.D.)9 viewsITALY, Parma (Duchi)
AR 5 Lire
O: MARIA LUIGIA PRINC. IMP. ARCID. D'AUSTRIA, 1815, Diademed bust left.
R: PER LA GR. DI DIO DUCH. DI PARMA PIAC. E GUAST.5. LIRE, Crowned and mantled coat-of-arms
Milano mint
25g
Pagani 5; Davenport 204; KM (C) 30.
Mat
legioxxiiLG.jpg
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C.62 viewsMARCUS ANTONIUS (Marc Antony) AR silver legionary denarius. Legion XXIII. 18mm, 3.5g. Struck at a military mint, likely Patrae, 32-31 BC. Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley sailing. Reverse: LEG XXIII, eagle between standards. Ex Incitatus.

Legion XXII, the 22nd, is the second-last legion in the series and one of the scarcer types of the regular numbered legions.

Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) (January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter and the loyal friend of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator, despite his blood ties, through his mother Iulia, to the branch of Caesars opposed to the Marians and murdered by them. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian (Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate.

The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter.

For anyone tempted to laud Marcus Antonius, to Antony's great shame read what Plutarch wrote about what Antony did to Cicero:

Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
maryqs.jpg
Mary I of Scotland (1542 - 1567 A.D.)47 viewsScotland
AR Bawbee
O: MARIA · D · G · R · SCOTORVM: A crowned thistle, 'M' to its left and 'R' to the right.
R: OPPIDVM · EDINBVRGI, Saltire behind a crown, flanked by a cinquefoil on each side.
Edinburgh mint
21mm
1.78g
SCBC 5432
4 commentsMat
1056_bela_compl.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Hungary, Bela III of Arpad, AE Scyphate Follis, AD 1172-119626 viewsObverse: + SANCTA-MARIA Madonna, nimbate, seated left, holding infant Jesus and flower.
Reverse: R_EX BELA-R_EX STS; Kings Bella and Stephen seated facing on throne.
Franz-Josef M
Mikael_miliaresion.jpg
Michael VII Ducas AR Miliaresion. Sear 187426 viewsMichael VII Ducas AR Miliaresion. Constantinople. 1,8g, 22mm. ΕΝ ΤΟΝΤW ΝΙΚΑΤΕ ΜΙΧΑΗΑ ΚΑΙ ΜΑΡΙΑ, cross crosslet on globus resting on three steps, x at center of cross, pellet within crescent on shaft; in field to left, facing bust of Michael, bearded, in crown & jewelled chlamys; to right, facing bust of Maria, in crown & loros; triple border /ΜΙΧΑΗΛ / ΚΑΙ ΜΑΡΙΑ / ΠΙΧΤΟΙ ΒΑ/ΣΙΛΕΙΣ ΡW/ΜΑΙWΝ in five lines; above & below inscription, -.-; triple border. DO 6. Sear 1874.Podiceps
hungary-taler-004.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Hungary - 1 Taler, 1782954 viewssilver coin with 27,85 grams
Ruler: Josef II (1765 - 1790)
(B) Kremnitz mint
Obv.: Coat of arms of Hungary - IOS II.D.G.R.IMP.S.A.GHB.REX.A.A.D.B.&.L.
Rev.: Crwned madona with sceptre and the baby Jesus - S.MARIA MATER DAI (B) PATRONA HUNG.1782 . X .
Huszar: 1869, Dav.: 1168
1 commentslincon r2
hungary_maria_theres.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), HUNGARY, Maria II Theresa, AE Denar.14 viewsObv: HUNGARIAE•PATRONA•. Madonna seated facing holding infant Jesus, all surrounded by nimbus.
Rev: M•THERESIA•D•G•R•IMP•HU•PO•REG•1768. Crowned coat of arms.
Franz-Josef M
IMG_4483.JPG
Neapolis, Samaria. Faustina Jr., wife of Marcus Aurelius (138 - 161 AD).19 viewsNeapolis, Samaria. Faustina Jr., wife of Marcus Aurelius (138 - 161 AD).
AE (27.1 mm).
Bust of Faustina Junior r.; ΦΑΥCΤΕΙΝΑ CΕΒ ΕΥCΕ CΕΒΑ ΘΥΓΑ
Tyche wearing kalathos, standing facing looking l., holding cornucopia, and resting on rudder; ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟΛΕWC CΥΡΙΑC ΠΑΛΕCTI (Flavia Neapolis in Syria Palestina); in field, date: ΕΤ ΠΖ (year 87 = 158/9 AD). Sofaer pl. 48,46.
Maritima
coin24~0.JPG
Neapolis, Samaria; Elagabalus25 viewsElagabalus AE24 of Neapolis, Samaria. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple and altar; stairway leads to temple, collonade below mountain. ecoli
370~0.jpg
neapolis094-17 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTWNεINOC. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [ΦΛ] NEAC ΠO · CVP·ΠAΛ·. View of Mt. Gerizim; below in front, a colonnade with two arched entrances; the left one leads to a stairway on left, flanked by a series of shrines or altars on the slope; the stairway leads to a temple seen in three-quarter view; another flanked by trees leads from the colonnade to an altar on top of the hill to the right. In exergue, Π.
25 mm, 12.10 gms

Sofaer 94
Charles M
1093.jpg
neapolis094-24 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANT[WNεINOC]. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΦΛ NEAC ΠO · CVP·ΠAΛ·. View of Mt. Gerizim; below in front, a colonnade with two arched entrances; the left one leads to a stairway on left, flanked by a series of shrines or altars on the slope; the stairway leads to a temple seen in three-quarter view; another flanked by trees leads from the colonnade to an altar on top of the hill to the right. In exergue, Π.
22 mm, 8.65 gms

Sofaer 94
Charles M
3c.jpg
neapolis094-36 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AVT [K M AVP] ANTWNINO. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. Countermark: A in incuse square.
Rev: ΦΛ NEAC [ΠO · CVP]·ΠAΛ·. View of Mt. Gerizim; below in front, a colonnade with two arched entrances; the left one leads to a stairway on left, flanked by a series of shrines or altars on the slope; the stairway leads to a temple seen in three-quarter view; another flanked by trees leads from the colonnade to an altar on top of the hill to the right. In exergue, Π.
23 mm, 12.54 gms

Sofaer 94. For countermark, Howgego 666
Charles M
939.jpg
neapolis094-43 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTWNINOC. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΦΛ NEAC [ΠO · CVP·]ΠAΛ·. View of Mt. Gerizim; below in front, a colonnade with two arched entrances; the left one leads to a stairway on left, flanked by a series of shrines or altars on the slope; the stairway leads to a temple seen in three-quarter view; another flanked by trees leads from the colonnade to an altar on top of the hill to the right. In exergue, Π.
24 mm, 13.47 gms

Sofaer 94, Rosenberger 39
Charles M
899.jpg
neapolis094_55 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: View of Mt. Gerizim; below in front, a colonnade with two arched entrances; the left one leads to a stairway on left, flanked by a series of shrines or altars on the slope; the stairway leads to a temple seen in three-quarter view; another flanked by trees leads from the colonnade to an altar on top of the hill to the right. In exergue, uncertain letters.
23 mm, 11.44 gms

Sofaer 94, Rosenberger 39
Charles M
1232.jpg
neapolis111-15 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AY KAI MAP ANTΩNEINOC CEB. Laureate head right.
Rev: [ΦΛ NEAC ΠOΛEWC]. Tyche standing facing, looking left, holding cornucopia and rudder.
19 mm, 7.00 gms

Sofaer 111
Charles M
400c.jpg
neapolis112-13 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: ΦΛ NEAC ΠO .... Winged Nemesis standing left, holding scepter and pointing at her mouth.
16 mm, 2.50 gms

Sofaer 112
Charles M
123.jpg
neapolis1165 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: ...ANTWN.... Laureate draped cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΦΛ NEAC ΠOΛEWC. bust of Serapis right.
16 mm, 5.06 gms

Sofaer 116, Rosenberger 47
Charles M
gaza.jpg
Nero, Caesarea, Samaria10 views54 - 68 AD, dated year 14 = 68 AD
AE21 (20.4 - 21.2 mm), 9.97 g
Laureate head right /
male figure standing left.
RPC I - 4862
Pekka K
228.jpg
NYΣA102 viewsSAMARIA. Nysa-Scythopolis (?). Nero (?). Ć 21. A.D. 66/67 (?). Obv: (NEPWNKΛAYΔIOΣKAIΣAPΣEB...). Laureate head of Nero right; countermark on neck. Rev: (NYΣA, LPГ in field). Tyche standing left. Ref: RPC 4834 (?); Spojkerman 4 (?). Axis: 360° ? Weight: 8.46 g. Note: The identification of the coin is based on the countermark; all identifiable specimens listed by Howgego bearing this countermark are of Nero from Nysa-Scythopolis. CM: NYΣA, in rectangular punch, 11 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 555 (8 pcs). Note: The countermark was applied to valiadate coins of Nero. Collection Automan.Automan
L_Nerva.jpg
P. Licinius Nerva - AR denarius6 viewsRome
˛112 BC
ą113-112 BC
bust of Roma left wearing helmet, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman; crescent above
ROMA
(XVI)
two citizens casting ballots in the Comitium, attendant handing voting tablet to one citizen, screen behind surmounted by marker with initial "P" representing the voting tribe
P·(NE)RVA
ąCrawford 292/1, SRCV I 169, Sydenham 548, RSC I Licinia 7
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aurea

Issue probably commemorates enclosure of voting place introduced in 145 BC by moneyer's ancestor Licinius Crassus tribune of the Plebs in order to prevent disagreements and favoritism. Other possibilities are: Lex Maria de suffragiis 119 BC which restricted bridges leading to the ballot box in order to prevent from inspecting voting tables and lobbying which was introduced by C. Marius tribune of the Plebs, or lex agraria from 111 BC which should have reconsiled land disputies related to the lex Licinia Sextia from 367 BC, however this would have shifted date of the issue by two years later.
Johny SYSEL
persian_imitative_obol.jpg
Persian Empire, Imitative obol35 viewsPersian Empire, Gaza, Samaria, or Judaea. c. 375-333 B.C. Imitative of Athens AR obol. 8/7mm, .59 g. Hendin 1011. Obverse: helmeted head of Athena right, olive leaves on helmeted, eye in profile. Reverse: AOE, owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind. Ex Forvm.1 commentsLucas H
PhilistiaOverstruck.jpg
PHILISTIA (PALESTINE), Overstruck Drachm32 viewsPHILISTIA (PALESTINE), Uncertain mint. Mid 5th century-333 BC. AR Drachm (15mm, 3.95 g, 12h). Imitating Athens. Rotated 145 degrees and overstruck with same dies.
O: Helmeted head of Athena right, with profile eye
R: Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig left; all within incuse square.
-Gitler & Tal IX.1D; HGC 10, –.

The Philistian coins belong to a stratum of autonomous municipal coinages that enabled daily trade without being noticed by the Persian administration. The Persian Empire did not care about the fiscal policy of its subjects, so long as the taxes were paid. Obviously, the provincials were free to choose their own coin-types. Like their Northern neighbors in Samaria and Jerusalem, the Philistians adopted the Attic coin standard, and a great many of their coins are imitations of the Attic coins circulating in the Levant.
1 commentsNemonater
PORTUGAL MARIA II X REIS 1850.jpg
PORTUGAL - Maria II89 viewsPORTUGAL - Maria II with Ferdinand II (1834-1853) Cu 10 Reis, 1850.
Obv: MARIA II DEI GRATIA around crowned arms of Portugal.
Rev.: PORTUGAL ET ALGARBIORUM REGINA 1850 around value X in wreath.
Reference: KM-41.
dpaul7
Goa_˝_Pardao_KM189.jpg
Portuguese Inda, Goa: Maria I and Pedro III 1786 ˝ Pardao (KM#189, Gomes-06.04)19 viewsObv: Conjoined heads of Maria I and Pedro III facing right, date below
Rev: Crowned arms
SpongeBob
Goa_˝_Tanga_KM197.jpg
Portuguese India, Goa: Maria I 1787 1/2 Tanga (KM#197, Gomes-18.01)13 viewsSpongeBob
q_antonius.jpg
Q Antonius Balbus Denarius 82/83 bc95 viewsSilver denarius serratus, SRCV I 279, Sydenham 742b, Crawford 364/1a, RSC I Antonia 1, VF, Rome mint, 83 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind; reverse Victory in a quadriga right, wreath in right and reigns and palm frond in left, letter below horses, Q ANTO BALB / PR in ex (ANT and AL in monogram);

Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party and issued this coinage by special decree of the Senate to prepare for opposition to Sulla's return to Rome. In 82 B.C. he was appointed praetor in Sardinia. He was driven from Sardinia by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. Sulla prevailed and the Victory on the reverse of this type was proven a false hope. -- The Coinage of the Roman Republic by Edward A. Sydenham
2 commentsAdrian S
0047.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus, Denarius12 viewsRRC 364/1c
83-82 b.c.

"The issue presumable forms part of the preparations made to resist the return of Sulla; the symbolism of victory and triumph clearly reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus, as Praetor deputed to strike the issue, and his associates." (Crawford)

"Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in B.C. 82 was appointed praetor in Sardinia, from whence he was driven by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. (Livy, Epit. 86)" (Grueber, British Museum I)

ex B. Peus nachf. Auct 398, lot 340
Described as:
Republikanische Prägungen Denar. Q. Antonius Balbus 83/82 v. Chr. 3.81 g. Kopf des Jupiter, Stz. A und Punkt / Victoria in Quadriga. Cr. 364, 1c; Syd. 742a. Sehr schön
Norbert
171.JPG
Quatričme République - Bazor - 100 francs - 1954 essai5 viewsCupro-nickel, 24 mm, 5,96 g
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste de Marianne ŕ droite tenant un flambeau.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 100 FRANCS, ESSAI, 1954, bouquet d'épis et de branches d'olivier.
Réfs : F-450.1
Gabalor
233.JPG
Quatričme République - Guiraud - 10 francs - 1950 essai.4 viewsBronze-aluminium, 3,03 g, 20 mm.
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de Marianne ŕ gauche.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // ESSAI/10 FRANCS/1950, coq ŕ droite.
Réfs / F.363.1
Gabalor
199~0.JPG
Quatričme République - Guiraud - 20 francs - 1950 essai.7 viewsBronze-aluminium, 4,11 g, 23,5 mm.
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de Marianne ŕ gauche.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // ESSAI/20 FRANCS/1950, coq ŕ droite.
Réfs / F.402.1
Gabalor
082~5.JPG
Quatričme République - Guiraud - 50 francs - 19585 viewsBronze aluminium, 27 mm
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, tęte de Marianne ŕ gauche, couronnée d'une branche d'olivier portant fruit, ornée d'une cocarde, signé G. GUIRAUD derričre.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // 50 / FRANCS / 1958 encadré des différents, coq debout ŕ droite au-dessus d'une branche de laurier.
Réfs : F-425.14
Gabalor
070~4.JPG
Quatričme République - Guiraud - 50 francs - 19505 viewsBronze aluminium, 27 mm
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, tęte de Marianne ŕ gauche, couronnée d'une branche d'olivier portant fruit, ornée d'une cocarde, signé G. GUIRAUD derričre.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // 50 / FRANCS / 1950 encadré des différents, coq debout ŕ droite au-dessus d'une branche de laurier.
Réfs : F-425.3
Gabalor
360.JPG
Quatričme République - Guiraud - 50 francs - 1950, essai5 viewsBronze-aluminium, 8,05 g, 27 mm.
Av./ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de Marianne ŕ gauche.
Rv./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE // ESSAI/50 FRANCS/1950, coq ŕ droite.
Réfs / F.425.1
Gabalor
Antoninus_Pius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161. Marcianopolis mint. 35 viewsAntoninus Pius, 138 - 161. Marcianopolis mint. AE 19, 5.33g, 19,0 mm. Fine. Obv: bare head right, AUT AI ADRI[A?] - ANTWNEINO. Rev: bunch of grapes on stem with leaf to left, MARIANO-POLEIT[WN]. Ref: SNG Righetti 219 (Septimius Severus), BMC -, S -, Lindgren -, SNG Cop -, Moushmov-. POSSIBLY UNPUBLISHED2 commentsBard Gram O
1005_P_Hadrian_RPC5568~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Mars, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, RPC 556846 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5568; D1271 = Staffieri; Emmett 810.10

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Helmeted half-length nude bust left of Mars (Ares), seen from behind, wearing crested Corinthian helmet

12.87 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection. Ex Münz Zentrum 29 (27 April 1977), lot 126; Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1271.

In the aforementioned article by Giovanni, he compares the reverse of this coin to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa (Fig. 7 in his article).
See G.M. Staffieri, ‘Sulla testimonianza di un Ares policleteo nella monetazione imperiale alessandrina’, NAC 22 (1993), pp. 187-99, where the design is compared to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa.
3 commentsokidoki
bpP1H5Samaria.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Severus Alexander, Caesarea, Samaria41 viewsObv: IM C SEVER ALEXANDER
Laureate bust, right.
Rev: C I F AV F C CAE METROP
Eagle standing, facing with head left and wings spread, supporting wreath containing SPQR.
Ae, 3.6 gm, 23.1 mm, 221-35 AD, Sear (GIC) 3374
Massanutten
CassiusTripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Cassius, AR Denarius - Crawford 500/133 viewsRome, The Imperators.
C. Cassius Longinus. 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.38g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Smyrna.

Obverse: C. CASSI – IMP; tripod with cauldron and laurel fillets.

Reverse: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/1; HCRI 219; Sydenham 1308; BMCRR (East) 79; Cassia 14.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 121; P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 168.

This coin was struck for Cassius, one of the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, when Brutus and Cassius met in Smyrna, circa early 42 BCE. The tripod obverse type was borrowed from a slightly earlier Aureus produced for Cassius by his legate, M. Aquinus. The tripod may reference Cassius’ membership in one of the sacred colleges. Cassius was elected to the augurate in 57 BCE, to which the implements on the reverse of this coin certainly allude. The coin was produced on Cassius’ behalf by P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, who also produced coins for Brutus at the same time. For more information on Spinther, see my example of his Brutus denarius at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-145289

Until the discovery of a large, mint-state, hoard in the early 2000’s, this was one of the rarest types in the Roman Republican series. While recent hoard examples of the type are scarce, old provenanced examples, like this, remain extremely rare.
2 commentsCarausius
00cmari.jpg
Roman Republic, C.Marius C.f. Capito171 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol ( jellyfish) before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
Not in Banti, BMCRR, with that number and symbol combination.
1 commentsbenito
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Roman Republic, Gens: Maria, C. Marius C.f. Capito, AR Serrate Denarius.19 viewsRome 81 B.C. 3.37g - 18mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: CAPIT CXXXVIII - Wreathed and draped bust of Ceres right, shoe of comic actor below chin.

Rev: CXXXVIII / C·MARI·C·F / S·C - Ploughman with a yoke of oxen left.

Crawford 378/1c; Syd 744b; B. Maria 9.

Provenance: UK Metal Detecting find on private farmland near Buckfastleigh Devoning.
scarli
4425066l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Appuleius Saturninus, AR Denarius - Crawford 317/216 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Appuleius Saturninus, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ROMA in exergue.

Reverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ·V below; L·SATVRN in exergue.

References: Crawford 317/2; Sydenham 580 (R6); BMCRR 1561-3; Appuleia 3.

Provenance: Ex P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 150.

The type is one of an interesting series of three types by Saturninus, two of which depict Saturn as a naming pun. The first of the three types is a standard Roma head/quadriga; the second has Roma heads on both sides of the coin; the third (this coin) has quadrigae on both sides of the coin. The letter control marks on this double-quadriga type are unique to each die.  Crawford attributed Saturninus' coinage to 104 BCE; but H.B. Mattingly, in Essays Hersh (1998), argues for a slightly later date based on a consensus that Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE. 

Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE and Tribune of the Plebs in 103 and 100 BCE. He was a supporter of Marius and as Tribune he engaged in a series of aggressive political maneuvers including introducing land grants for Marius’ veterans. During an election, he arranged the brutal murder of the political rival of one of his allies, and this proved to be his downfall. Cornered and captured by a militia assembled by Marius himself, Saturninus and his conspirators were ultimately killed by a lynch mob.
1 commentsCarausius
15609102152135298521374562440152.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Marius, AE As - Crawford 148/124 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Marius, 189-180 BCE.
AE As (31.17g; 32mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Janus; I (mark of value) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; Q.MARI above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 148/1; Sydenham 367 (R7); BMCRR 822; Maria 1.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 22; Bombarda Collection; NAC 9 (16 Apr 1996) Lot 587.

This is a particularly fine example of this scarce type. Not much is known of the moneyer beyond his coins. He is likely NOT an ancestor of Gaius Marius who would later serve seven consulships and challenge Sulla.
1 commentsCarausius
Republic.jpg
Roman Republican Bronze Semis16 viewsA Roman Republic bronze semis, minted in Rome in 91 BC. 22mm, 4.9g. This was minted during one of my favorite periods of history, between the Marian Reforms and the fall of the Republic

Obverse: the diademed head of Saturn with a value mark "S" behind.

Reverse: the prow of a Roman war galley, with the value mark "S" above and ROMA below.

Attribution: Sear 901
chuy1530
RPC1941_(2).jpg
RPC-1941-Vespasian67 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.19g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: (T) ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠ KAIΣ ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY; Laureate Head of Titus, r.; in r. field, B
RPC 1941 (2 spec.).
Acquired from Agora Numismatics, June 2017.

A RPC group 2 tetradrachm attributed to Antioch, but style wise very similar to Alexandria. RPC speculates the Alexandria style tetradrachms were either struck in Alexandria and then shipped to Antioch, or less likely Alexandrian mint workers were sent to Antioch and produced the coins there. Kevin Butcher speculates these Alexandria style tetradrachms were ordered by the southern Syrian cities from the Alexandria mint for circulation in that part of the province. Of note, Galilee, Samaria, and Judaea were a part of the province of Syria at the time. Interestingly, these tetradrachms in which Titus' portrait is featured on the reverse may have been circulating in the very region where he commanded the legions fighting the Jewish War. Most likely they were struck during the massive military build up before the siege of Jerusalem, providing strong evidence of the important role Titus Caesar held at the time.

This regnal year 2 type is more commonly seen with a star behind Titus' portrait on the reverse. This is the rarer variant lacking the star.

Struck in superb 'Alexandria' style. Normally these come much cruder.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
mary-1a.jpg
S.2492 Mary I47 viewsGroat of Mary I (1553-1558)
First issue (1553-1554)
Mintmark: Pomegranate
O: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI
R: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA

Mary, daughter of Henry VIII by his first wife Catherine of Aragon, is a controversial figure in English history because of her religious persecutions against Protestants. She gets the moniker "Bloody Mary" because under her watch several hundred Protestants were burned at the stake. Mary's husband, Philip II of Spain, was also unpopular in England. Mary died childless and her sister Elizabeth undid pretty much all of her political and religious changes.

Coins of Mary take two flavors- in just her name prior to her marriage to Philip, and after 1554 with Philip's name. This coin belongs to the earlier issue. These coins frequently demonstrate large scratches across the queen's face, done intentionally as Mary was not liked in her time. This particular example is remarkable free of surface marks.

Ex- Heritage auction 3073 (lot 31062), Spink 11039 (lot 345), F Brady, Seaby, R Carlyon-Britton, WC Boyd
2 commentsNap
IMG_0007.JPG
Samaria Neapolis, Marcus Aurelius, AE 24 65 viewsNeapolis, Marcus Aurelius, AE 24 Dated CY 88, 159/60 AD
Obv.: [AVPHΛIOC] KAICAP ЄYCЄB CЄBY[IOC], laureate head right.
Rev.: ΦΛ ΝЄΑC ΠOΛЄ· CVPIAC ΠAΛЄCTINHC/ ЄT-ΠH, Mummiform Zeus Heliopolites standing facing, holding whip and grain ears; at feet, foreparts of bulls on either side; date across fields. Hendin 879
2 commentsMaritima
caes_maritim_hadrian_SNGans768.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea maritima, Hadrian, SNG ANS 76838 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE 23, 10.68g
obv. IMP TRAI - ANO CAES
bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. C I F AV - G CAESAR
Tyche of Caesarea, draped and turreted, stg.l., r. foot on prow, holding
sceptre in l. hand and bust of emperor in outstretched r. hand; harbour god
below
SNG ANS 768; Kadman 26; Rosenberger 23
about VF

C I F AVG CAESAR = Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea
Jochen
samaria_caesarea_maritima_nero_Rosenberger17.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea Maritima, Nero, Rosenberger 1748 viewsNero, AD 54-68
AE 20, 9.18g
struck 1st half of AD 68
obv. Head of Nero, laureate, r.
rev. Legend in 5 lines in oak-wreath:
EPI / OYECPA / CIANOY / KAICAR / ET LD (year 14)
Rosenberger 17; Meshorer (City Coins) 24
Very rare, F/about VF, lightbrown sand patina

This is not only a rare, but a very historical coin. Meshorer: " Of special interest is a type of coin...inscribed in Greek 'In the time of Vespasian, in Caesarea, Year 14 (of Nero)', indicating that already at this early stage in his life, when Vespasian was still an imperial legate in the Roman army, coins were issued with his name. This fact substantiates the story related both by Josephus and Sueton, namely that the people of Judaea foretold, while Nero was still reigning, that Vespasian would be proclaimed emperor of Rome.' (David Hendin)
Jochen
IMG_4139.JPG
SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Claudius. 41-54 CE. Æ 23mm 57 viewsSAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Claudius. 41-54 CE. Ć 23mm
OBV:Laureate head right
REV:Inverted anchor in wreath.
Kadman -; Rosenberger 1; SNG ANS 744; Meshorer 356 (Agrippa II); RPC I 4848.
Maritima
e~2.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. Domitian Ć24. Judea Capta24 viewsObv: DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head of Domitian left
Rev: anepigraphic, Athena standing left, supporting a trophy with her right hand and holding a spear & shield in her left hand.
24mm, 11.2gm.
RPC II 2305, Meshorer 392, Hendin 1455.


ancientone
20171006_105155.jpg
SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian. 117-138 CE. 11 viewsObv. Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev. Tyche of Caesarea standing left, holding bust of emperor and sceptre, foot on galley; harbor god at feet.
References: Kadman 26; Rosenberger 23; SNG ANS 768; Hendin.
20mm, 7.5grams.
Canaan
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Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. Trajan Decius AE24.29 viewsObv: IMP C C M Q TRA DECIVS AVG,radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL P F AVG FC CAES MET P S P, eagle standing right, head left, supporting wreath with head of Tyche in center .
Kadman 129
1 commentsancientone
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Samaria, Caesarea Maritima. Volusian.24 views A.D. 251-253. AE22. IMP C C VOLVSSINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. COL P F AVG F C CAES METR P R S PAL,emperor on horseback galloping right, holding spear. Kadman 228; Rosenberger 187;1 commentsancientone
MA_Caesarea.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea, Marcus Aurelius21 viewsMarcus Aurelius, 161-180 AD, AE 24
Obverse: Laur., dr., cuir., bust of Marcus Aurelius to right.
Reverse: Serapis wearing modius bust right, bronze of 23.2 mm, 13.27 grams.

S. 1680; BMC 27. 22, 83

1 commentsSkySoldier
Ceasarea.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea. Severus Alexander AE2449 viewsSeverus Alexander AE24 of Samaria, Caesarea.

Obv: IM C SEVER ALEXANDER, laureate head right
Rev: C I F AV F C CAE METROP..., eagle with wreath held in wings, SPQR within.
ancientone
CeasareaHerennia.jpg
Samaria, Caesarea. Herennia Etruscilla AE20.46 viewsObv: ERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG. Diad. and dr. bust r.
Rev: COL P F AV F C CAES METROP. Turreted bust of City-goddess r.
ancientone
Caesarea_samaria.jpg
Samaria, Caesaria Maritima. Apollo standing left holding serpent, tripod to right19 viewsHadrian, Caesaria Maritima, Samaria. AE 17mm, 5.5g; IMP TRA HADRIANO CAE, laureate draped bust right / CIF AVG CAESAR, Apollo standing left holding serpent, tripod to right. SNGANS 771. Podiceps
o5.jpg
Samaria, Ceasarea Maritima. AE248 viewsancientone
w20838.jpg
Samaria, Decapolis, Nysa-Scythopolis. Gordian III47 viewsAVT K M ANT GORDIANOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse NVC CKVTHOPO IEPAC V, Tyche seated left, nursing the infant Dionysos, date DT in field right. Nysa-Scythopolis mint, 12.88g, 25mm, issued 240-241 AD.

Nysa-Scythopolis (Beth Shean) was the center of Egyptian rule in the northern part of Canaan during the Late Bronze Period.

Spijkerman 58; BMC 10.
SkySoldier
IMG_3985.JPG
Samaria, Neapolis Elagabalus, (212-222 CE)26 viewsSamaria, Neapolis Elagabalus, (212-222 CE)
Obverse: AVTKMAVP ANTωNINOC; Draped bust right, laureate ( A in square punch countermark)
R: ΦΛNEACΠ CVP ΠAΛ Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple and altar; stairway leads to temple, colonnade below mountain.
Maritima
neapolis_domitian_Rosenberger1.jpg
Samaria, Neapolis, Domitian, Rosenberger 129 viewsDomitian, AD 81-96
AE 25, 15.62g
struck AD 82/83 (year 11)
obv. [AVTOK DOMITIANOS KAISAR SEBASTOS]?
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. FLAOYI / NEAPOLI / SAMARE / LAI(?) (year 11)
legend in lines in laurel-wreath
Rosenberger 1
scarce, F/VF, weak obv. but excellent rev.

I have completed the illegible parts of the legend referring to CoinArchives.
Jochen
R646__Elagabalus_Samaria_fac.jpg
Samaria, Neapolis, Elagabalus, Mount Gerizim11 viewsElagabalus
Samaria, Neapolis
AE 22
Obv.: AVT K M [AVP] ANTW[NINOC] , Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Rev.: ΦΛ NEAC - ΠOΛ CVP ΠAΛ, Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple, steps leading to temple, colonnade below
AE, 22.1 mm, 9.03g
Ref.: SNG ANS 1000, Rosenberger 39
Ex Tom Vossen, Netherlands
shanxi
neapol_sam_treb_gall_Rosenb113.jpg
Samaria, Neapolis, Trebonianus Gallus, Rosenberger 11359 viewsTrebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253
AE 24, 12.09g
obv. AVT KAI G OVI TREB GALLOC [CEB]
bust, draped [and cuirassed?], laureate, r.
rev. FL NEAC - POLEWS
Eagle stg. frontal, head l., wings spread, supporting cult image of Mt.Gerizim
with temple, shrines and gardens
Rosenberger 113; SNG 6, 1035
F+/about VF

The Mt.Gerizim is the holy mountain of the Samaritans. Neapolis is the todays Nablus.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
NeapolisSamariaMarcus.jpg
Samaria, Neapolis. Marcus Aurelius AE1626 viewsObv: Radiate bust r.
Rev: F L NEACPOLEW CYPIAC PALAI
ancientone
Neopolis.jpg
Samaria, Neapolis. Trebonianus Gallus AE2786 viewsSamaria, Neapolis. Trebonianus Gallus. 251-253 C.E. AE 27 mm (14.93 g). Laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / Eagle standing facing, supporting on wings Mt. Gerazim surmounted by temple and altar; stairway leading to temple, colonnade at base of mountain, star and crescent to right and left of temple. Rosenberger III p. 23, 113 (same obverse die); cf. Price and Trell 782; Meshorer -; SNG ANS 1035 (same obverse die)ancientone
nysa_scythopolis_gordianIII_Spijkerman59.jpg
Samaria, Nysa-Scythopolis, Gordian III, Spijkerman 5927 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 25, 1.2g
struck AD 240 (year 304)
obv. [AVT KM ANT - GORDIANOC CE]
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. NYC - C - KYQ IER ACV
Dionysos, nude, chlamys waving behind, advancing r., head l., holding thyrsos transversely in raised r. hand, holding r. hand on head of a small figure, kneeling r.; panther behind him stg. l., head r.
in r. field palmbranch(?), beneath date D - T (year 304 of Pompejan era)
Spijkeman 59; SNG ANS 1054 var. (in r. field bunch of grapes); BMC 12
Very rare, about VF

Haim Gitler suggests that the depiction is referring to the celebration of the Anthesteria, which occurs in spring and where the 3 years old children got a small vine jar. This seems to have been an initiation rite by which the children were admitted by the urban community.

Nysa is todays Bet-Shean in Israel.
Jochen
U29416F1HNQDPHHT.JPG
Samaria. circa 400-300 BC. Obol AR 9mm.26 viewsObv. Sidonian galley to left over waves.
Rev. Persian king fighting lion, O between.
References: Meshorer and Qedar 199; HGC 10, 399.
1 commentsCanaan
Comb22032018091513.jpg
Samaria. Lead seal. Approximately 4th-3rd century BC.60 viewsFigure in a long robe standing on the right and her standing naked figure (Ana?), Standing on the left, flanking Thymiaterion, all in temple vignette.
Typical of the motifs of Sami coins and seals is the adaptation of existing coin paintings and iconography, which dates back to the 4th century AD. v. In the Levant were in circulation. This lead seal probably imitates a late Persian depiction of a satrap and the deity Ana, as can also be found on the Tarsus Stateren (see SNG Levante 83).
15mm // 11,83g.
Ex. Lanz Numismatics.
3 commentsCanaan
titus_samaria.jpg
Samaria; AE 21 16 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Judea Capta, Caesarea, Samaria. Bronze AE 20, Hendin 743, RPC II 2311, SNG ANS 466, Meshorer 2, aVF, Caesarea mint, 7.404g, 21.4mm, 30o, as Caesar, 71-73 A.D.; obverse “ΑΨΤΟΚΠ ΤΙΤΟΧ ΚΑΙ”C“ΑΠ”, laureate head right; reverse “ΙΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛΩΚΥΙΑΣ”, Nike (Victory), nude to waist, standing right, foot on helmet, writing on a shield hung on a palm tree and also supported on her left knee. Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Samaria. Ex FORVMPodiceps
524.jpg
sepphoris017-18 viewsElagabalus
Sepphoris-Diocaesarea, Samaria

Obv: ...ANTWNεIN. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ACYΛ on left, AYT on right, ΔIOK in exergue. Zeus seated left in within tetrastyle temple with pediment decorated with a wreath, holding scepter in left hand and uncertain object in right hand.
24 mm, 10.47 gms

Sofaer 17, Rosenberger 16
1 commentsCharles M
SEV_ALEX-3-ROMAN.jpg
Severus Alexander, Roman Provincial Marcianopolis10 viewsAE15 Provincial
Marianopolis mint, 221-235 A.D.
15mm, 2.22g

Obverse:
M AVP CEV AΛEZANΔPO
Laureate and draped bust right

Reverse:
MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN
Hera standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
rubadub
sb1886_20mm_99g.jpg
Silver miliarense10 viewsObv: EN TOVTW NIKATE NIKHF KAI MARIA, cross-crosslet on globe resting on three steps, X in centre, dot in crescent on shaft, crowned busts of Nicephorus, bearded and wearing jewelled chlamys on left, and Maria wearing loros, on right
Rev:NIKHFR-KAI MARIA-PICTOI RA-CILEIC PW-MAIWN in five lines; –+– above, –o– below; triple border.
Mint: Constantinople
d\\Date; 1078-1081 AD
DO 6. Sear 1886.
ex: Forum
wileyc
_T2eC16N,!yEE9s5jE,bVBRbdfheyIQ~~60_58.jpg
Spanien Saragosa Medaille 1940 (Bronze)11 viewsVs: Kathedrale
Rs.: Maria, Mutter Gottes
Gewicht: 15,5g. Durchmesser: 32mm
Erhaltung: zaponiert, sehr schön _1239
Antonivs Protti
0_026.JPG
Spanish Cob 1 real (Santa Maria de La Consolacion)41 viewsSpanish Cob 1 real, recovered from the Santa Maria de La Consolacion

"She was heavily loaded with silver coins intended for Panama. Soon after leaving port she was pursued by two pirate ships commanded by the famous pirate Bartholomew Sharpe. To save the treasure from the pirates, the Spanish captain ran the ship aground on the rocks of Isle de Muerto (Island of Death), Ecuador in July of 1681. The Spanish then burned the ship, depriving the pirates of the valuable treasure. Enraged, the pirates landed and slaughtered 140 Spanish survivors."

"The Spanish treasure ship Santa Maria de la Consolocion left Callao, Chile in 1681, bound for Panama, where her precious cargo that was to be transported across the isthmus and then shipped onto Spain. Because of a delay in getting its silver coins from the mint in Potosi, Bolivia, she was forced to sail alone, after the rest of the South Sea Armada had departed. The lone galleon was soon attacked by a fleet of six British pirate ships. The captain attempted to defend his precious cargo by landing his ship on a small island named Isla de Muerto (Island of the Dead) in the Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The vessel accidentally hit a reef and began to sink. To prevent the treasure from falling into the hands of the pirates, the captain set the ship afire. The pirates, furious that the ship had been burned, captured and beheaded the estimated 350 passengers and crew of the ship. Neither the pirates, nor the returning Spaniards were able to recover the treasure from the shark infested waters. "
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
ricthdII460c.jpg
SRCV 21184 - Majorina de Valentinien III et Théodose II pour Cherson (437)8 viewsA l'avers DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG : Buste de l'empereur casqué ŕ droite, portant une lance et un bouclier.
Au revers CONCOR-DIA AGV : Les deux empereurs Valentinien III et Théodose II debout et tenant chacun une lance, une grande croix entre les deux. A l'exergue CONS.
Cette exceptionnelle émission aurait été frappée ŕ l'occasion du mariage ŕ Constantinople de Valentinien III avec la fille Théodose, Licinia Eudoxia. Ces monnaies auraient été émises ŕ Constantinople pour le compte de Cherson et sa région, en tout cas c'est ce que laisse penser l'étude de leur provenance.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée)
Ref : Sear 21184 - RIC X.460, Esty ES1, LRBC 2231, MIRB 71
3,61 g / 20-24 mm
Eric
ricvalIII461.jpg
SRCV 21302 - Majorina de Valentinien III et Théodose II pour Cherson (437)7 viewsA l'avers DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG : Buste de l'empereur casqué ŕ droite, portant une lance et un bouclier.
Au revers CONCOR-DIA AGV : Les deux empereurs Valentinien III et Théodose II debout et tenant chacun une lance, une grande croix entre les deux. A l'exergue CON.
Cette exceptionnelle émission aurait été frappée ŕ l'occasion du mariage ŕ Constantinople de Valentinien III avec la fille Théodose, Licinia Eudoxia. Ces monnaies auraient été émises ŕ Constantinople pour le compte de Cherson et sa région, en tout cas c'est ce que laisse penser l'étude de leur provenance.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée)
Ref : Sear 21302 - RIC X.461, Esty ES2, LRBC 2232
3,93 g / 25 mm
Eric
225.jpg
Standing figure hld staff (Poseidon?)129 viewsSAMARIA. Uncertain mint (Sebaste, Caesarea Maritima?). Titus or Domitian. Ć 21. 70s-80s A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; 2 countermark: (1) before face, (2) on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 6.78 g. CM(1): Standing figure, holding staff, in rectangular punch, 3 x 4 mm. Howgego 281 (5 pcs). Note: Possibly depicting Poseidon, symbolic of Legio X Fretensis. CM(2): possibly second application of same cm. Collection Automan.Automan
Louis_XIV_and_Maria_Theresa.jpg
Struck c.1667, Louis XIV and Marie-Thérčse, AE (Brass) Jeton7 viewsObverse: +LVD•XIIII•ET•MAR•THER•D•G•FRA•ET•NAV•REX•ET•REG. Busts of Louis XIV and Marie Therese facing one another. To the left, draped and laureate bust of Louis XVI facing right. To the right, draped bust of Marie Therese facing left, small crown on the back of her head.
Reverse: VINCIT•DVM•RESPICIT (The sun dissipates the clouds). Radiant disc of the sun with facial features parting billowing clouds below; in exergue, 1667.

Struck at Lisse, Netherlands
Die engraver: Unknown
Dimensions: 27mm | Weight: 6.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 13069

Marie-Thérčse, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, was born on the 10th of September 1638. She was also called Marie-Thérčse D'Autriche because the Spanish Kings of those days had a Hapsburg-Austrian origin and her name refers to that and not the home country were she was born and lived.
In 1660 Philip IV, and the entire Spanish court accompanied Marie-Thérčse to the Isle of Pheasants, in the Bidassoa, where she was met by Louis XIV and his court. She and Louis XIV were married in 1660, the marriage agreement being one aspect of the peace negotiations that took place between Spain and France during 1659 and 1660. On the day of her wedding, Marie-Thérčse wore a gown covered in the royal fleur-de-lys and it is said that her uncovered hair proved to be so thick that it was difficult to attach a crown to it. This might account for the odd positioning of the crown as it appears on her bust.
Jetons commemorating the marriage, bearing the busts of Louis XIV and Marie-Thérčse, were issued each year from 1660 through to 1673. Marie-Thérčse died on 30th July, 1683.
*Alex
man2.jpg
trachy44 viewsBillon trachy. IC - XC. Segnender Christus mit Evangeliar en face thronend, im Feld links ein Stern. Rs: Manuel in Loros mit Labarum und Kreuzglobus en face stehend, gekrönt von Jungfrau Maria, die neben ihm steht. Sear 1966. Alexios
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Trajan AE sestertius, Octastyle temple with portico on either side RIC 577v88 viewsTrajan. AD 98-117. Ć Sestertius (33mm, 22.90 g). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 107-111. Laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / Octastyle temple with portico on either side; in center, Jupiter seated; architrave adorned with figure of Jupiter and other figures; on roof, figure holding spear between two Victories; small altar before. RIC II 577 var. (no altar); BMCRE 863 note; RCV 3210, Cohen 549; Banti 287. Fair, patina stripped. Very rare with the altar before the steps.
The temple of Jupiter Victor was dedicated on the Palatine Hill 13 April 294 (or 293) BC. This octastyle Corinthian order temple makes its first numismatic appearance on denarii of Domitian struck in AD 94, probably marking the re-building of the temple after the devastating fire of AD 80. Trajan used the temple to symbolize his military victories at the time of his decennalia, at which time the large courtyard altar and side colonnades may have been added. Elagabalus later re-dedicated the building to his eastern god Sol-Elagabal, and in the 10th century the sacred site saw new use as the church of St. Maria de Palladio.
3 commentsmattpat
girazim_com.JPG
Trebonianus Gallus Neapolis, Samaria49 viewsAE 26 mm 10.3 grams 251-253 AD
OBV :: AVT KAI G OVI TREB GALLOC [CEB]
Laureate bust right
REV :: FL NEAC - POLEWc
Eagle Standing, wings spread, supporting Mount Gerazim. with temple, gardens and staiwell
EX :: none
minted in Neapolis, Samaria
Rosenberger 113; SNG 6, 1035, BMC 149, Hendin 882
Johnny
coin137.JPG
Troas, Alexandria; Commodus33 viewsAlexandria, Troas
Commodus
IMP CAI M AVR COMMOD AVG
Head of Commodus laureate r.
COL AVG TROAD
Horse feeding r.; behind, herdsman; tree on l.

Bellinger A202; cf. BMC 17, 68; cf. Aulock 7557.

According to Strabo, this site was first called Sigeia;around 306 BC Antigonus refounded the city as the much-expanded Antigonia Troas by settling the people of five other towns in Sigeia, including the once influential city of Neandreia. Its name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in memory of Alexander III of Macedon (Pliny merely states that the name changed from Antigonia to Alexandria). As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, becoming a "free and autonomous city" as early as 188 BC, and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance. In its heyday, the city may have had a population of about 100,000. Strabo mentions that a Roman colony was created at the location in the reign of Augustus, named Colonia Alexandria Augusta Troas (called simply Troas during this period). Augustus, Hadrian and the rich grammarian Herodes Atticus contributed greatly to its embellishment; the aqueduct still preserved is due to the latter. Constantine considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire.
Roman

In Roman times, it was a significant port for travelling between Anatolia and Europe. Paul of Tarsus sailed for Europe for the first time from Alexandria Troas and returned there from Europe (it was there that the episode of the raising of Eutychus later occurred). Ignatius of Antioch also paused at this city before continuing to his martyrdom at Rome.
ecoli
vestit.jpg
Vespasian (69 - 79 A.D.)58 viewsAntioch, Syria
AR Tetradrachm
O: AYTOKPAT KAIΣA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate head right.
R: (T) ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠ KAIΣ ETOYΣ NEOY IEPOY; Laureate Head of Titus, r.; in r. field, B=Year 2 ( 69-70 AD)
11.37g
25mm
RPC 1941 (2 spec.)., Cf. Prieur 107-107A

A RPC group 2 tetradrachm attributed to Antioch, but style wise very similar to Alexandria. RPC speculates the Alexandria style tetradrachms were either struck in Alexandria and then shipped to Antioch, or less likely Alexandrian mint workers were sent to Antioch and produced the coins there. Kevin Butcher speculates these Alexandria style tetradrachms were ordered by the southern Syrian cities from the Alexandria mint for circulation in that part of the province. Of note, Galilee, Samaria, and Judaea were a part of the province of Syria at the time. Interestingly, these tetradrachms in which Titus' portrait is featured on the reverse may have been circulating in the very region where he commanded the legions fighting the Jewish War. Most likely they were struck during the massive military build up before the siege of Jerusalem, providing strong evidence of the important role Titus Caesar held at the time.

This regnal year 2 type is more commonly seen with a star behind Titus' portrait on the reverse. This is the rarer variant lacking the star.
9 commentsMat
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Volusian Mount Gerizim694 viewsVolusian, Samaria, Neapolis, (biblical name Shechem) current Nablus, 25mm,
Rosenberger 125, BMC 161 (Palestinian pg. 73), 251 - 253 AD,
OBV: AVT KAI Γ OVI TPEB OVOΛOVCIAN, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: ΦΛ NEAC - ΠOΛEWC, Mount Gerizem, with temple and altar, supported between wings of eagle,
Harl, Museum Notes 29, 1984, pl. 14, 146 (same obverse die A33, new reverse die of same type). SNG ANS 1031 (same obverse die, misattributed to Trebonianus Gallus)
Romanorvm
080n.jpg
Winged thunderbolt155 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Domitian. Ć 26. A.D. 82/83 (year 11 of the era of Neapolis). Obv: (AYTOKΔOMI)-TIANOΣKAIΣAP(ΣEBAΣTOΣ). Laureate bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: ΦΛAOVI-N(EAΠOΛI-ΣAMAPE)-LAI in four lines. Legend within laurel-wreath. Ref: BMC 1-3. Axis: 180°. Weight: 17.14 g. CM: Winged thunderbolt, in rectangular punch, 3 x 6 mm. Howgego 475 (4 pcs). Note: The thunderbolt may refer to the cult of Zeus Hypsistos. Collection Automan.Automan
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Manuel1ComAR_Sear2601.jpg
[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1416)
• Alexios IV Megas Komnenos (1416–1429)
• John IV Megas Komnenos (1429–1459)
• David Megas Komnenos (1459–1461)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Trebizond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
JohnHyrcanusAntiochos7Lily.jpg
[18H451] Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., for the Seleukid King Antiochos VII106 viewsJohn Hyrcanus [for Antiochos VII]; Lily, AE, Hendin 451, 15mm, 2.92 grams; VF, Jerusalem; 182-180 B.C. This interesting coin was the precursor to the "prutah" which would subsequently be minted in Israel. Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Ex Zuzim Judaea.

Johanan [John] Hyrcanus
(d. 104 BCE)

Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Palestine. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him to agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew a tribute to the Greek emperor [133 BCE].

Within a few years, however, he took advantage of political turmoil in Syria following the death of Antiochus VII [129 BCE] to rebuild his forces, reclaim independence and extend Judean control over Palestine and Jordan. On the southern front he forced Judah's neighbors in Idumea [descendents of the Edomites] to accept Judaism and on the northern front he destroyed the rival temple at Shechem in Samaria.

Such triumphs made him the probable subject of messianic tributes by his fellow Judeans. But his own preference for Greek culture made him controversial in Jerusalem. When Pharisees challenged his right to be high priest, he switched his allegiance to the aristocratic Sadducee [Zadokite] party. Still, the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that other Zadokites probably rejected his leadership and left Jerusalem, labeling him the "wicked priest," who persecuted the priest whom they regarded as the "Teacher of Righteousness."

Copyright 2007, The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Published on The Jewish Virtual Library; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index.html


John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BCE - 104 BCE, died 104 BCE) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name "Hyrcanus" was taken by him as a regnal name upon his accession to power. His taking a Greek regnal name was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule, and a more pragmatic recognition that Judea had to maintain its position among a millieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture and communicated in Greek.

Life and work
He was the son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings, whose story is told in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, and in the Talmud. John was not present at a banquet at which his father and his two brothers were murdered, purportedly by his brother-in-law Ptolemy. He attained to his father's former offices, that of high priest and king (although some Jews never accepted any of the Hasmoneans as being legitimate kings, as they were not lineal descendants of David).

His taking a Greek regnal name - "Hyrcanus" - was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule. It reflected a more pragmatic recognition that Judea, once having attained independence, had to maintain its position among a milieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture. All subseqent Hashmonean rulers followed suit and adopted Greek names in their turn.

Achievements
John Hyrcanus apparently combined an energetic and able style of leadership with the zeal of his forebears. He was known as a brave and brilliant military leader. He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism, which was unusual for a Jewish leader; Judaism was not typically spread by the sword. He also set out to resolve forcibly the religious dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans; during his reign he destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim (although their descendants still worship among its ruins), which served further to deepen the already-historic hatred and rivalry between the two groups. Many historians believe that the apocryphal book of Jubilees was written during his reign; some would suggest even at his behest. Some writers, particularly Christian ones, have dated the division of Judaism into the parties of Pharisees and Sadducees to his era; most Jewish writers and some Christian ones suggest that this split actually well predates him. Some historians would go so far as to identify him, as a priest, predominantly with the Sadducee party, which was closely associated with the Temple worship and the priestly class.

Peak and decline of the kingdom
John Hyrcanus represented in some ways the highest point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. The restored Jewish "kingdom" approached its maximum limits of both territory and prestige. Upon his death, his offices were divided among his heirs; his son Aristobulus succeeded him as high priest; his wife as "Queen regnant". The son, however, soon came to desire the essentially unchecked power of his father; he shortly ordered his mother and his brothers imprisoned. This event seems to mark the beginning of the decline of the Hasmonean Dynasty; in just over four decades they were removed from power by the Roman Republic and none of them ever began to approach the level of power or prestige that had pertained to John Hyrcanus or his predecessors.

Modern Commemoration
Tel Aviv has a Yochanan Hyrcanus Street (רחוב יוחנן הורקנוס), as do several other cities in contemporary Israel. In the ealy decades of the 20th century, the Zionist historical perception of the Jewish past tended to approve of and revere strong warrior kings of both Biblical and later periods, and Hyrcanus' exploits earned him a place in that pantheon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hyrcanus


John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee. Not long after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. The Seleukid king, Antiocus VII, and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=922&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
HerodArchelausHendin505.jpg
[18H505] Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.17 viewsHerod Archelaus Prutah, Hendin 505, 17.9mm, 3.37 grams. VF/VF+, Reverse: Helmet; Obverse: Grapes, Heavy FULL weight, 4 B.C.E. - 6 C.E. A nice BOLD coin with a large flan and HEAVY weight. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

JUDEA: Bronze [prutah] of Herod Archelaus, 4 BC-AD 6. The obverse shows a bunch of grapes, with the name of Herod in Greek; the reverse has a helmet with cheek pieces, two crests (probably of horse's hair) on the left and on the right, and a small caduceus below (Banks, Florence Aiken. Coins of Bible Days. New York: Sandford J Durst Numismatics Publications, 1955. 86).

". . . the widow . . . . may have offered grape-and-helmet-adorned [prutah] of Herod Archelaus, the son of Herod the Great whose reign had inspired such fear in Joseph as to cause him to take Mary and the young child Jesus to Galilee instead of to Judea upon their return from Egypt (Banks, Florence Aiken. Coins of Bible Days. New York: Sandford J Durst Numismatics Publications, 1955. 97).

Son of Herod the Great, he inherited the southern part of his father's kingdom – Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea. Jerusalem was his capital. Augustus denied him the title king and gave him the title ethnarch, with a promise to name him king if he governed well. He was so unpopular with his subjects that Augustus deposed him, banished him to Gaul and annexed his territory (Joseph Sermarini).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
HerodArch.jpg
[18H506] Judean Kingdom, Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.15 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 506, VG, 1.40g, 15.2mm, 270o, Jerusalem mint, obverse H P W, prow of galley right; reverse EQN (Ethnarch), surrounded by wreath.

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, inherited the southern part of his father's kingdom – Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea. Jerusalem was his capital. Augustus denied him the title king and gave him the title ethnarch, with a promise to name him king if he governed well. He was so unpopular with his subjects that Augustus deposed him, banished him to Gaul and annexed his territory.

The galley refers to Archelaus' voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus' younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus appealed to Rome and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing or Rome. -- Ancient Jewish Coinage by Ya'akov Meshorer

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
DomJudCap~0.jpg
[18H749] Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Samaria28 viewsDomitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Samaria. Bronze AE 23, Hendin 749, BMC 42-52, SNG ANS 492- 494, F, Caesarea, 9.012g, 21.9mm, 0o, obverse IMP DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head left; reverse no legend, helmeted figure of Athena standing left, holding shield and spear, placing helmet on trophy, consisting of cuirass, two shields and spears, two crossed greaves at bottom.

Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. In 96 A.D. he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.

After Herod's death, Caesaria was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman Palestine for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish revolt and the Judaea Capta of Titus. Paul was delivered to Caesaria when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From Caesaria, Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in Caesarea (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to Caesaria where he was tried before Festus and King Agrippa (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13).

See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/index.asp?vpar=135&pos=0
Cleisthenes
tessera.jpg
Ć12 Tessera. Rome mint. Crescent and stars series.37 viewsĆ12 Tessera 0.70 g. Rome mint.
Obv: Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing calathus.
Rev: Three stars over crescent.

Tesserae frumentariae and nummariae were tokens given at certain times by the Roman magistrates to citizens, in exchange for which they received a fixed amount of wheat or money.
ancientone
     
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