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coin633.jpg
26 viewsIt is a copper lion of Mary Queen of Scots.
It is also known as a "hardhead", they were issued
1555-1560. It contains about 10% silver. they
were valued at three halfpence Scots, and were
equal in value to the french denier. The coin carries
the monogram FM, which appeared on her coinage
after her husband, the Dauphin, became Francis II
of France, on 10th July 1559. Francis died in 1560,
so this was issued within that period. Coin #633

cars100
Mysia_Kyzikos_edited.jpg
64 viewsMYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 525-475 BC. AR Diobol (0.63 gm; 12 x 10 mm). Forepart of boar left; tunny fish to right / Head of roaring lion left within incuse square. Von Fritze Group II, 9, pl. V, 10-11; SNG France 361-87.1 commentspaul1888
rjb_2011_04_11a.jpg
18 viewsPerge, Pamphylia
Mid 3rd to 1st cent. BC
Obv: Cult image of Artemis Pergaia in two-columned aedicula
or shrine, with eagle in pediment, wings spread.
Rev: "APTEMIΔOΣ ΠEPΓAIAΣ"
Quiver of Artemis, bow diagonally
behind.
SNG Cop 308; SNG France 3, 373-378; SNG Pfalz 221-223
mauseus
AE_Postumus_france.JPG
16 viewsAntonivs Protti
Frankreich_France_Napoleon_III__10_Centimes_1855_D_Lyon_Adler.jpg
29 views
Frankreich

Napoleon III. 1852-1870

10 Centimes

1855 D

Münzstätte: Lyon

Vs.: Napoleon III. nach links im Perlkreis

Rs.: Adler auf Bündel im Pelkreis

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

30 mm, 9,47 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Livia_prov.jpg
2.5 Livia, Wife of Augustus17 viewsJULIA AUGUSTA (LIVIA)
Cilicia
14-29 AD. Æ 23mm

Draped bust right / Tyche seated right, holding grain ears; river-god swimming right below.

RPC I 4013; SNG Levante 1238; SNG France -.
Rare. Only two specimens cited in RPC.
RI0041
Sosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army423 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
Gallienus_Perga~0.jpg
7 Gallienus32 viewsGALLIENUS
Æ 10 Assaria of Pamphylia, Perge/Perga, 253-268. AD

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; I (mark of value) before / Zeus seated left, holding phiale and scepter; eagle at feet to left.

SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. VF

Not in references, but identical coin sold in CNG 217, Lot 283
Sosius
coin644.jpg
CILICIA, Mallos. 2nd-1st centuries BC. Æ Coin #64448 viewsCILICIA, Mallos. 2nd-1st centuries BC. Æ (22mm, 10.88 g, 12h).
Head of Apollo right / Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; monogram to left.
SNG France -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -; SNG Pfalzer -; BMC 29. VF, brown patina. Scarce.
Coin #644
cars100
186.jpg
Г (incised)404 viewsPISIDIA. Ariassus. Julia Mamaea. Æ 25. A.D. 222-235. Obv: IOVΛIAMA-MEAC(EB...). Diademed and draped bust right; Incises countermark before. Rev: (A)PIACC(EΩN). Dioscuri standing naked, each infront of a horse, holding a spear; above star in crescent. Ref: BMC -; SNG France (3) -; SNG Aul -. Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.29 g. CM: Г (incised), incuse, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 778 (11 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
hugues-france-denier-orelans~0.JPG
Hugh Magnus: denier (Orléans)12 viewsHugh Magnus (Hugues de France in french) (1007-1025)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 12h
O/ +D-I DEXTRA BE; city gate with an H on the left, a V below, a G on the right and a O on the top
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée

Hugh was the elder son of Robert II (the Pious), second capetian king of the Franks (996-1031). Hugues was crowned as an associate king in 1017. However, he died before his father and consequently he never ruled. No other son of a king of France had been called Hugh.

The obverse legend is a Christian one: dei dextra benedictus (blessed on God's right). As usual for Orléans mint, the I after the L in Avrelianis is in the angle.
Droger
louis1-denier-quentovic.JPG
D.803 Louis the Pious (denier, Quentovic, class 2)17 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Quentovic, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.55 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 6h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ QVENTO / . / VICVS

Qventovic was a former port close to the English Channel in the northern part of France. It was a prominent trading place until it was abandoned, probably in the 11th century, because of Viking attacks.
Droger
louis1-obole-2xlegchret.JPG
D.abs Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)19 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (unknown mint in the south-east of France?, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.77 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 5 h

O/ +PISTIΛNΛ PI; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +OPISTIΛNΛ PE; cross pattée

This obol may be due to a double reverse error because of the absence of the sovereign's name and the legend repetition on both sides. However several dies were used to strike this type (I could find 3 obverse and 3 reverse dies), one side always bears 4 pellets as the other does not. One of the reverse dies is associated to the more typical obverse legend +HLVDOVVICVS I. Consequently an error does not seem to be likely. Because of hoard localizations, these obols seem to come from a single mint, in the south-east of France (Lyon, Arles?).
1 commentsDroger
lothaire1-denier-leg-ch.JPG
D.1176 Lothar I (denier)7 viewsLothar I, Holy Roman emperor (840-855), king of Middle Francia (843-855) and Italy (818-855)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, 84-855)

Silver, 1.09 g, 17-20 mm diameter, die axis 12 h

O/ +HLOTΛPIVS ΛGVS; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

Lothar I re-used the temple type, which had been made popular by his father Louis the Pious. However, it was minted by Lothar in much smaller quantities.
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charles2-gdr-curtisasonien.JPG
D.375 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 2, Courcessin?)35 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
GDR denier (Courcessin?, class 2, 864-875)

Silver, 1.43 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +GRΛTIΛ D-I REX; carolingian monogram
R/ +I.CVRTISΛSONIEH; cross pattée

In 864, Charles the Bald promulgated the edict of Pîtres, huge reform whose aim was to protect the kingdom from Viking raids. It also reinforced royal authority on minting, and created a new type of deniers . The new coins could be only struck at 10 mints (Palace, Chalon sur Saône, Melle, Narbonne, Orléans, Paris, Quentovic, Reims, Rouen and Sens). This limitation had never been applied, more than 110 mints struck the new coinage. This can be understood as a lack of control of the central autority. However it seems that several mints shared dies... Grierson and Blackburn proposed that only 10 main mints produced dies and partially outsourced coinage production ?
On the obverse is written GRATIA D-I REX (GDR) around a carolingian monogram. The alliance with Roman Church goes on... The reverse already existed for Class 1, with the mint name around a cross pattée.
Class 2 of Charles' coinage is made of these GDR deniers.

The precise localization of the mint in Normandie (north of France) is still not clear. According to Grierson and Blackburn, Courti(s) Sasonien(sis) may come from some groups of Saxons settled in northern part of Gaul.
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charles2-denier-bourges-emp.JPG
D.198 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 3, Bourges)27 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875-877)
Denier (Bourges, class 2, 876-877)

Silver, 1.47 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS IMP ΛVG; cross pattée
R/ +BITVRICES CIVIT; carolingian monogram

In 875, after the death of his nephew, the Emperor Louis II, Charles received the imperial crown.
The related coinage clearly shows the imperial title in a roman way, IMP AVG. This coinage may be undistinguishable from the one of Charles the Fat (885-887), when he assumed West Francia kingship (before being chased by Eudes, count of Paris and next king of the Franks).
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philippe1-denier-macon.JPG
Dy.081 Philip I: denier (Mâcon)31 viewsPhilip I, king of the Franks (1060-1108)
Denier (Mâcon, 2ond type)

Billon, 1.10 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 5h
O: +PIIIPVS RX; lozenge with 4 pellets
R: +MATISCON; S with 2 pellets

Although Mâcon (Bourgogne) was not in the royal domain, this denier was struck in the name of Philip I, king of France.
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louis7-denier-parisis-3eme.JPG
Dy.146 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type12 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type

Billon, 0.83 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 3h
O: LVDOVICVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
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louis7-denier-parisis-4t.JPG
Dy.148 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 4th type23 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 4th type

Billon, 0.90 g, diameter 18-20 mm, die axis 3h
O: +LVDOVICVS RE; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
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philippe2-denier-parisis.JPG
Dy.164 Philip II (Augustus): denier parisis (Paris)21 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier parisis (Paris)

Billon, 1.04 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 9h
O: PHILIPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PARISII CIVIS, cross pattée

Philip II's denier parisis is very similar to his father's.
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philippe2-denier-arras.JPG
Dy.168 Philip II (Augustus): denier parisis (Arras)15 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier parisis, 2ond emission (1191-1199, Arras)

Billon, 1.08 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 2h
O: PHI.LIPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: +ARRAS CIVIS, cross pattée with 2 lily flowers
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philippe2-denier-saintmartin.JPG
Dy.176 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)24 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)

Billon, 0.96 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 7h
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +SCS MARTINVS; châtel tournois

The livre parisis was a standard for minting coins (and for unit of accounts) inherited from the Carolingians.
In 1203, John (Lackland) lost Anjou to Philip II. The deniers minted at the Saint Martin abbey in Touraine were considered as very stable. So Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois (tournois means "of Tours", Tours is a French city in Anjou close to Saint Martin abbey) as a new standard denier and unit of account. Livre parisis and livre tournois coexisted for some time but the livre tournois quickly outstripped the livre parisis as a unit of account. Deniers parisis ceased to be struck a little more than a century later, but livre parisis existed till 17th century.
SCS MARTINVS means Sanctus Martinus (Saint Martin). The name of the abbey was temporarily kept on the deniers tournois, but was soon replaced by the name of the city of Tours.
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philippe2-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.177 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Tours)23 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Tours)

Billon, 0.92 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 10h30
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVI; châtel tournois

This is the first denier tournois, nearly with the standard and final legend TVRONVS CIVI(S).
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philippe2-denier-deols.JPG
Dy.178 Philip II (Augustus): denier (Déols)21 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier (1206-1207, Déols)

Billon, 1.18 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h
O: +REX FILIPVS; croix pattée
R: +Dε DOLIS; hexalpha (star) around a ringlet

Déols (in the Centre-Val de Loire, region of France) was not in the royal domain.This denier was struck by Philip II, as guardian of Denise of Déols. Surprinsigly, the king title (rex) arrives before the name of the king.
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philippe2-denier-laon.JPG
Dy.184 Philip II (Augustus): denier (Laon)20 viewsPhilip II, king of France(1180-1223) and Roger de Rosoi, bishop of Laon (1174-1201)
Denier (1180-1201, Laon)

Billon, 1.18 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 3h
O: +PHILIPVS REX; facing crowned head of the king
R: +R[OG]ERVS εPE; facing head of the bishop with miter

The denier was minted by both the king and the bishop of Laon (north of France, out of the royal domain at this time).
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louis8-9-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.187 Louis VIII (the Lion) or IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois19 viewsLouis VIII, king of France (1223-1226) or Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1223-1250)

Billon, 0.81 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h30
O: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVI; châtel tournois

The question of the attribution of this denier to Louis VIII or to the first part of Louis IX's reign is difficult. Indeed, Louis VIII only ruled for 3 years and both the father and the son have the same name...
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louis8-9-denier-tournois2.JPG
Dy.188 Louis VIII (the Lion) or IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois21 viewsLouis VIII, king of France (1223-1226) or Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1223-1250)

Billon, 0.70 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 11h
O: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONIS CIVI; châtel tournois

Just a slightly modified legend (TVRONIS instead of TVRONVS) with respect to the previous denier.
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louis9-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois57 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
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louis9-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.193A Louis IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois34 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1250-1270)

Billon (229 ‰), 0.95 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h30
O: +LVDOVICVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois

The difference between the deniers tournois of the first and second part of Saint Louis' reign is the absence or presence of an S at the end of CIVI(S) on the reverse.
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philippe3-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.202A Philip III (the Bold): Gros tournois 38 viewsPhilip III, king of France (1270-1285)
Gros tournois (1270-1280)

Silver (958 ‰), 4.04 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 1h30
O: inner circle: +PhILIPVS.REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BNDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONV.S.CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This type exactly continued the Gros tournois of Saint Louis, Philip's father.
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philippe3-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.204 Philip III (the Bold): denier tournois 18 viewsPhilip III, king of France (1270-1285)
Denier tournois (1270-1280)

Billon (299 ‰), 1.00 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 1h30
O: +PhILIPVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS.; châtel tournois

This is the exact continuation of previous denier tournois types.
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philippe3-denier-tournois-2.JPG
Dy.204 Philip III (the Bold): denier tournois 18 viewsPhilip III, king of France (1270-1285)
Denier tournois (1270-1280)

Billon (299 ‰), 0.85 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 11h
O: +PhILIPVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS.; châtel tournois

Another example of this type, quite hard to find in a very good state.
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philippe4-grostournois-orond.JPG
Dy.213 Philip IV (the Fair): Gros tournois with a round O37 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Gros tournois with a round O (1280-1290)

Silver (958 ‰), 4.07 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BNDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the Gros tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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philippe4-gros-tournois-olong.JPG
Dy.214 Philip IV (the Fair): Gros tournois with a long 032 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Gros tournois with long 0 (1290-1295)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.96 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 11h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BNDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVR0NVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The only difference between this emission and the previous one is the 0 in TVR0NVS, which is now long instead of round.
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philippe4-gros-tournois-lis.JPG
Dy.217 Philip IV (the Fair): Gros tournois with a long 0 and a lily26 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Gros tournois with long 0 and a lily (1298)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.98 g, diameter 27 mm, die axis 7h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS(ringlet)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BNDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVR0NVS*CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis
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philippe4-maille-tierce~0.JPG
Dy.219d Philip IV (the Fair): maille tierce with a round O23 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Maille tierce with round O (09/1306)

Silver (958 ‰), 1.27 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 11h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄn⋮DOmInI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis

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philippe4-denier-parisis-orond.JPG
Dy.221 Philip IV (the Fair): denier parisis with a round O 9 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (359 ‰), 0.94 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 7h
O: PhILIPPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: +PARISIVS CIVIS; croix pattée

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign).
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philippe4-denier-tournois-orond.JPG
Dy.223 Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a round O 16 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (299 ‰), 1.00 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the denier tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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philippe4-dernier-tournois-orond3.JPG
Dy.223A Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a round O 11 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (299 ‰), 1.10 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 7h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS•CIVISx; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the denier tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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philippe4-obole-tournois-orond.JPG
Dy.224 Philip IV (the Fair): obol tournois with a round O 7 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Obol tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (270 ‰), 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 2h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign).
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philippe4-denier-tournois-olong.JPG
Dy.225 Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a long 013 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with long 0 (1290-1295)

Billon (299 ‰), 0.92 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 9h
O: +PHILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVR0NVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

It is exactly the same type as the denier tournois with round O, but with a long 0, as for the Gros tournois.
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philippe4-double-parisis~0.JPG
Dy.227 Philip IV (the Fair): double parisis, 1st emission15 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Double parisis, 1st emission (1295-1303)

Billon (480 ‰), 1.28 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 11h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; leafy cross
R: +mOnETA DVPLEX: REGA/LIS under a fleur-de-lis

Philip had to face with extensive financial liabilities. He found money expelling Jews, Lombard bankers, arresting Templars and confiscating their properties. He also debased the French coinage and minted quite a large number of successive types and emissions of coins, with varying silver proportions.
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philippe4-double-parisis.JPG
Dy.229 Philip IV (the Fair): double tournois, 1st emission22 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Double tournois, 1st emission (1295-1303)

Billon (399 ‰), 1.21 g, diameter 21 mm, die axis 12h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée with one fleur-de-lis
R: +mOn DVPLEX REGAL: chatel tournois' pediment with 2 lis
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philippe4-tournois-simple.JPG
Dy.230B Philip IV (the Fair): simple tournois17 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Simple tournois (1295-1303)

Billon (399 ‰), 0.83 g, diameter 14-15 mm, die axis 6h
O: cross pattée with a symbol in each quadrant : P, h, I and a cross
R: chatel tournois' pediment with 2 fleur-de-lis
Droger
philippe4-obole-bourgeoise.JPG
Dy.233 Philip IV (the Fair): obole bourgeoise13 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Obole bourgeoise (1311)

Billon (270 ‰), 0.59 g, diameter 14-16 mm, die axis 6h
O: +PhILIP-PVS REX; latine cross interrupting the legend
R: BVRGENSIS, under a fleur-de-lis: nOV/VS
Droger
philippe5-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.238 Philip V (the Tall): Gros tournois 25 viewsPhilip V, king of France (1316-1322)
Gros tournois (1318)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.93 g, diameter 26mm, die axis 12h

O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS(hammer)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮
SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS(hammer)CIVIS; châtel tournois;
outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

At first sight, Philip V's gros tournois are very similar to his father's ones. However, the general style is quite different: Philip V's tournois have a stretched castle, thiner letters with more space between them (especially for TVRONVS CIVIS), n of nOmЄ is an n but not an N) and ⋮ instead of . between IhV and XPI. Moreover, it is commonly thought that a hammer (like here) or a crescent separating TVRONVS/CIVIS and PHILIPPVS/REX is a typical feature of Philip V.

Philip V's gros tournois are scarcer than Philip IV's. His reign was shorter and a silver lack prevented him from minting as much as he wanted. Philip had to forbid the production of silver items like dishes in order to keep silver for minting.
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charles4-maille-blanche-1ere.JPG
Dy.243 Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 1st emission7 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 1st emission (03/02/1324)

Silver (798 ‰), 1.82 g, diameter 22 mm, die axis 2h
O: inner circle: +kAROLVS(diamond)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT#8942nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANChORVm*; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis

The h of FRANChORVm is characteristic of the first emission.

Charles was the younger and third son of former king Philip the Fair. He was consequently not supposed to rule. However, as his two brothers successively died without any living son, he became king in 1322. Six years later, he also died without a male heir. So ended up the capetian senior line in 1328.
The legend began then... Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, had cursed King Philip the Fair and his descendants from his execution pyr in 1314. Was the curse finally efficient ?
Charles'cousin, his nearest parent, became then king of France as Philip VI.
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charles4-maille-blanche-2.JPG
Dy.243A Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 2ond emission22 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 2ond emission (07/1324)

Silver (798 ‰), 1.74 g, diameter 21-22 mm, die axis 10h
O: inner circle: +(spade)kAROLVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT(ring)nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm(ring); châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis, the top one being between 2 dots, which is characteristic of the 2ond emission




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charles4-maille-blanche-3eme.JPG
Dy.243D Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 3rd emission10 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 3rd emission (07/23/1326)

Silver (718 ‰), 1.64 g, diameter 22 mm, die axis 11h
O: inner circle: +kAROLVS(square)RE•X•; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT(ring)nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis, the top one being between 2 dots

The RE•X• on the reverse is characteristic of the 3rd emission. Most of the time, the top fleur-de-lis is also surrounded by two dots, similarly to the 2ond emission.



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charles4-double-parisis.JPG
Dy.244C Charles IV (the Fair): double Parisis, 3rd emission44 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Double parisis, 3rd emission (07/24/1326)

Billon (319 ‰), 1.10 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 3h
O: +kAROLVS REX(clover); crown with fleur-de-lis and a small ring below
R: +mOnETA DVPLEX; cross with fleur-de-lis

2 commentsDroger
philippe6-gros-couronne-1ere.JPG
Dy.262 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 1st emission7 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 1st emission (01/01/1337)

Silver (851 ‰), 2.51 g, diameter 25 mm, die axis 5h
O: inner circle: (ringlet)PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois under a crown, with 3 bullets inside; outer circle: a circlet of 11 fleur-de-lis

Philip VI is the first non direct capetian king. He was the cousin of the 3 previous kings.
The Gros tournois hadn't changed since its creation by Saint Louis. During Philip VI's reign, 3 new types of Gros were struck, with lighter weight and less silver. These monetary difficulties may be related to the premisses of the One Hundred Years' war and French military defeats.

The 3 bullets in the chatel (without any star below) are characteristic of the 1st emission.
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philippe6-gros-couronne-2eme.JPG
Dy.262A1 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 2ond emission30 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 2ond emission (10/31/1338)

Silver (639 ‰), 2.44 g, diameter 23 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: (ringlet)PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm(T); châtel tournois under a crown, with 3 bullets inside and a star below; outer circle: a circlet of 11 fleur-de-lis
(slightly double struck) reverse

The 3 bullets in the chatel and the star below are characteristic of the 2ond emission.
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philippe6-gros-couronne-3eme.JPG
Dy.262B Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 3rd emission25 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 3rd emission (01/29/1340)

Silver (559 ‰), 2.33 g, diameter 24 mm, die axis 3h
O: inner circle: PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois under a crown, with 2x inside and a ringlet below; outer circle: a circlet of 11 fleur-de-lis

As expected, the silver percentage is lower than for the previous emission.
The 2 x in the chatel (quite hard to distinguish !) and the ringlet below are characteristic of the 3rd emission.
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philippe6-gros-couronne-4eme.JPG
Dy.262C Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 4th emission17 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 4th emission (04/06/1340)

White billon (479 ‰), 2.16 g, diameter 24 mm, die axis 3h
O: inner circle: PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée and 4 ringlets at its boundaries; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois under a crown and 2 fleurs-de-lis, with a ring inside; a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis and a small cross

The silver content goes on lowering.
The ring in the chatel is characteristic of the 4th emission.
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philippe6-gros-lis.JPG
Dy.263 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la fleur de lis, 2ond emission ?11 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la fleur de lis (3 emissions between 1341 and 1343)

White billon (479 ‰), 2.50 g, diameter 24 mm, die axis 6h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS.REX; cross pattée with a fleur-de-lis in the NE quadrant; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; fleur-de-lis; outer circle: a circle of 10 fleur-de-lis

The 3 emissions are very similar, the weight is the only difference. This coin may belong to the 2ond emission.
Droger
philippe6-grosalaqueue.JPG
Dy.265 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la queue33 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la queue (09/27/1348 and 01/15/1349)

White billon (479 ‰), 3.33 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 6h
O: inner circle: (crown)PhILIP-PVS.REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois with 3 archs under a crown; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This Gros was struck at the end of Philip's reign and contains a quite small amount of silver.
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louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
limoges-denier-saint-martial.JPG
Saint Martial abbey: denier (Limoges)7 viewsSaint Martial abbey, Limoges, anonymous (1100-1150)

Silver, 1.14 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 3h

O/ +SES•MARCIAL; facing bearded bust of Saint Martial
R/ +LEMOVICENSIS; beaded cross with 2 pellets in each quadrant

Droger
marseille-obole-droite.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
marseille-obole-gauche.JPG
LT 681, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 225-100 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.59 g, 11 mm largest diameter, die axis 11h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, left, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A with small bullets in two of the quarters
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
gallienus_hier_kasta_a.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS15 views253 - 268 AD
Æ 21 mm., 9.05 g.
O: AYT K GALLHNOC CEB Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: IEROP KACTABAL Tyche seated left on rock, holding corn-ears; river god Pyramos swimming left below; D in right field
Cilicia, Hierapolis-Kastabala; SNG Levante 1599, SNG France 2247

laney
valerian_selene_anazarb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN I15 views253-260 AD
Dated CY 272 (253/4 AD)
AE Triassarion 22 mm; 9.43 g.
O: AVT K OV A ΛЄPIANOC, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Valerian right.
R: ANA(retrograde Z)APBOV MHT ЄT BOC, draped bust of Selene right, set on crescent; Г/Г to left; A/M/K to right.
Kilikia, Anazarbos mint
ref: Ziegler 815 (Vs2/Rs10); SNG France 2147; SNG Levante 1527; SNG von Aulock 5515
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Tarsoscilicia.jpg
*CILICIA, Tarsos. Æ24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche enthroned/Zeus Nikephoros40 viewsCILICIA, Tarsos. 164-27 BC. Æ24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche, turreted and veiled, holding grain ears in extended right hand, seated right on throne, right foot on the shoulder of the river god Orontes, who swims right below / TARSEWN, Zeus Nikephoros seated left; SAN/FILI in two lines to left. Cf. SNG France 1374; SNG Levante 979-80 var. (magistrates); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; BMC -. ancientone
volusianpisidia.jpg
*Pisidia, Antioch. Volusian AE22. Roma with captive34 viewsRoma w/ helmet seated r., statue in each hand : in front of her a captive kneeling, imploring ; ANTIOCHI OCL A S R
SNG France 3, 1307 ; Krzyzanowska, VI/17.
ancientone
valerianAntioch.jpg
-Pisidia, Antioch. Valerian I. AD 253-260.48 viewsÆ 22mm. Radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / ANTIO-C-H-I COL, S-R across field, vexillum surmounted by an eagle, between two standards. Krzyzanowska VII/18; SNG France 13162 commentsancientone
MYSIA,_Kyzikos,_002_Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD),AE-16_Bare_head_right_K-Y-Z-I,Torch_within_wreath,_RPC-I-2244,_BMC-210__Q-001_1h_15-16mm_2,59ga-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, RPC I 2244, AE-16, K-Y/Z-I, Torch, all within wreath, Rare ! 128 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, RPC I 2244, AE-16, K-Y/Z-I, Torch, all within wreath, Rare !
avers:- No legend, bare head right, border of dots.
revers:- K-Y Z-I in two lines to left and right of torch, all within wreath of corn-ears.
exe: K-Y/Z-I//--, diameter: 15-16mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 1h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, 002 Augustus, date: 63 B.C.-14 A.D., ref: RPC I 2244, SNG Tübingen 2277, BMC 210, SNG France 621, SNG von Aulock 7368,
Q-001
quadrans
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)92 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_207_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)39 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio 2.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 103 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_211_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 29 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
102155.jpg
012a. Domitia101 viewsDomitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 AD.

In 70, Domitia was married to Lucius Aelius Lamia, but she attracted the attention of Domitian, son of emperor Vespasian. Shortly afterwards she was taken from her husband and remarried with the future emperor. They had a son in the next year and a daughter in 74, both died young. Domitian was very fond of his wife and carried her in all his travels. In 83, Domitia Longina's affair with the actor Paris was disclosed. Paris was executed and Domitia received her letter of divorce from Domitian. She was exiled, but remained close to Roman politics and to Domitian.

CILICIA, Epiphanea. Æ 21mm (7.18 gm). Dated year 151 (83/84 AD). Draped bust right / Athena standing left, righ hand extended, left resting on shield; ANP (date) left. RPC I 1786; SNG Levante 1813; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, dark green patina, some smoothing. Very rare, only 1 specimen (the Levante specimen), recorded in RPC. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
0182.jpg
0182 - Denarius Geta 210-2 AC24 viewsObv/ P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head of Geta r.
Rev/ VICTORIAE BRIT, Victory standing l., holding crown and palm.

Ag, 19.8 mm, 2.80 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/68 – RIC IV.1/92 [S]
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 14, lot 709 (ex-Paul Francis Jacquier, auction 17, lot 464)
dafnis
184.JPG
02 - La Capelle, Aisne, France.17 viewsUnion Commerciale et Industrielle du Canton de la Capelle, Aisne
Aluminium, 25 mm
A/ UNION COMMle ET INDlle DU Cton DE LA CAPELLE, 1921
R/ 10 Cmes
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
Lodovicus-I__U-429-q_C2-94A_H-542_LODOVICCI_-R_-VnGAR_S_LADIS-LAVS_R_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.q., #01112 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.q., #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICCI•R•VnGAR, (Double C in the legend, legend error!), Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily on each side and above, border of dots.
reverse: S•LADIS LAVS•R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/F/B//-- were struck by Franciscus Bernardi (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-429q, CNH-2-094A, Huszar-542, Pohl-79-04-a.,
Q-001
quadrans
Hadrian_AE-quadrans_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III-P-P-Caduceus_RIC-II-734_Rome_132-134-AD_Q-001_6h_16-17mm_2,50g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !183 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !
avers:- HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Bust of Hadrian, laureate, right.
revers:- COS III P P, Winged, Caduceus.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 2,50g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 132-134A.D., ref: RIC-II-734-p-, Very Rare !
"BMC p. 464, *, citing Cohen 506 (Gréau Sale, 6 francs).
Strack 495b: two spec. in Vatican, one in Vienna." by Curtis Clay
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
032p_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Lycaonia,_Iconium,_BMC_4,_AE-16,_Q-001_5h_17,5-18,0mm_3,42g-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), BMC 4, AE-16, C - A / E - T /N - H, Winged caduceus,148 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), BMC 4, AE-16, C - A / E - T /N - H, Winged caduceus,
avers: - AΔΡIANOC KAICAΡ, bare head left .
revers: - KΛAYΔ EIKONIEΩN, Perseus standing half-right, naked, holding harpa and head of Gorgon.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:17,5-18,0mm, weight:3,42g, axis:5h,
mint: Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), date:117-138 A.D., ref: BMC 4, Aulock, Lykaonien 290-292; Imhoof KM 5; Waddington 4767; SNG France III, 2286.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario Tiberio RIC 26.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)108 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #5 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)86 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_30_1.jpg
04-14 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)91 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
1 commentsmdelvalle
483_P_Hadrian_.jpg
0500 MYSIA, Hadrianeia. AE 15 Pseudo-autonomous under Pius Ram11 viewsReference.
SNG Munich 4; RPC IV temp. 499/500; SNG von Aulock 1127; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -.

Obv:
Bare head and draped bust of Hermes right, with caduceus over shoulder.

Rev: ΑΔΡΙΑΝЄΩΝ.
Ram standing right.

2.18 gr.
15 mm.
okidoki
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01110 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1363b,_H-1943,_G-Nagybanya,1813_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,4mm_28,0gx-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813, 113 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813,
avers: FRANCISCVS I:D:G:AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN:BOH:GAL:REX•A:A: - LO:WI:ET IN FR:DVX •1813 •, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,4mm, weight: 28,0g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//G, mint: Nagybánya, date: 1813 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1943,
Q-001
quadrans
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1365a,_H-1947,_B-Kormocbanya,1826_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,0-39,7mm_28,2g-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B, 115 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B,
avers: FRANCISCVS I•D•G•AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN•BOH•LOMB•ET VEN• - GAL•LOD•IL•REX•A•A•1826•, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,0-39,7mm, weight: 28,2g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//B, mint: Körmöcbánya, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1947,
Q-001
quadrans
015~4.JPG
06 - Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France10 views5 francs, aluminium, 25 mm
A/ FRUITS6PRIMEURS // NICE // Fçois VIALE
R/ 5 F
Réfs : Elie 203.1
Gabalor
RI 064fi img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -82 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064fi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ft img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)48 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_132ft_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)9 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064cv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (6)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI PRAE ORBIS, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre, at feet eagle
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (6) (Rare), Cohen 240 (6 Francs)

2.87g, 17.33mm, 0o

Shares the same reverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Collection but his example has the more common COS II obverse die. One of the scarcer reverse types.
maridvnvm
033~11.JPG
07 - Annonay, Ardèche, France10 viewsUnion Commerciale et Industrielle, Annonay, Ardèche.
Aluminium, 26 mm
A/ ANNONAY / ARDECHE
R/ UNION COMMERCIALE & INDUSTRIELLE // 10 c 1918
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
011~8.JPG
07 - Annonay, Ardèche, France8 viewsUnion Commerciale et Industrielle, Annonay, Ardèche.
Aluminium, 23 mm
A/ ANNONAY / ARDECHE
R/ UNION COMMERCIALE & INDUSTRIELLE // 10 c 1918
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
210~2.JPG
08 - Charleville et Sedan, Ardennes, France.9 viewsChambre de Commerce de Charleville et Sedan, Ardennes.
Aluminium, 19 mm
A/ CHARLEVILLE & SEDAN / CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE / 1921
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1167 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1
avers: AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
reverse: CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergue: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Valerian_I_,_Pisidia,_Antioch,_AE-22_IMP_CAERAS_LL_OVNAHHIR_ANTIOC-HIO_CL__S_R_SNG_France_3-1316__Krzy__VII-35__Q-001_0h_21-22mm_4,24g-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle,121 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG France 3 1316, AE-22, S/R//--, ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle,
avers: IMP CAERAS LL OVNAHHIR, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ANTIO CHIO CL, Vexilium surmounted by eagle, between two standards. S-R between the masts.
exergue: S/R//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 4,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 253 A.D., ref: SNG France 3, 1316; Krzy. VII, 35.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater19 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
Blindado
Templo_4_columnas.jpg
1-1-1 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. – 14 D.C.)54 views MYSIA Pergamun
Procónsul PLAUTIUS SILVANUS

AE 19 mm 5.7 gr

Anv: ”ΣIΛBANON ΠEPΓAMHNOI” – Silvanus vestido con toga siendo coronado por una figura masculina vistiendo ropas militares y coraza.
Rev: ”ΣEBAΣTON (sobre el templo) ΔHMOΦΩN” (debajo) – Estatua de Augustus dentro de un Templo (tetrástilo)con 4 columnas y 3 escalones.

Acuñada: aproximadamente 1 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #2364 – SNG France #2016-21
mdelvalle
IMG_9226.JPG
102c. Marciana 10 views Mysia, Parium. Trajan. A.D. 98-117. AE 18. Rare.
Mysia, Parium. Trajan. A.D. 98-117. AE 18 (18.12 mm, 3.86 g, 7 h). TRAIANVS AVG, laureate head of Trajan right / PLOTINA ET MARCIANA AVG, confronted busts of Marciana and Plotina, both diademed and draped. Weber 5151; SNG France 1468. Fine, areas of original encrustation - "as found" - free of the C/M usually seen . Rare.
ecoli
169.JPG
11 - Carcassonne, Aude, France.8 viewsAude, Carcassonne, Union des Commerçants, 5 centimes.
Aluminium, 25,5 mm
Av./ CARCASSONNE 1917
Rv./ UNION DES COMMERCANTS // 10 cent
Réfs : Elie-20.2
Gabalor
031~10.JPG
11 - Carcassonne, Aude, France.14 viewsAude, Carcassonne, Union des Commerçants, 25 centimes.
Aluminium, 23 mm
Av./ CARCASSONNE 1917
Rv./ UNION DES COMMERCANTS // 25 cent
Réfs : Elie-20.3
Gabalor
278~0.JPG
11 - Montolieu, Aude, France17 viewsFrançois Ratie (épicerie, mercerie), Montolieu, Aude
Laiton, 21 mm
A/ FRANCOIS RATIE / MONTOLIEU
R/ 5 C
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXI-V_RIC-816var-p-106_Alf-96-No-170_Siscia_282-AD_Bust-and-Offic-NotinRIC_Q-001_axis-0h_22mm_4,00ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!155 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back, shield in front and a spear pointing forward. (E2/Gvar.)
reverse: VIRTVS PR OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,00g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 816 var, p-106 Bust and officina not in RIC, Alföldi 0096.0170, Rare!!!
Q-001
"- Quadrans' coin (titulature P AVG) is known to me by 2 other examples, both in Paris: one is the coin quoted by Alföldi 96, 170, the other belonged to the collection of the famous epigraphist H.-G. Pflaum, whose collection has been (partly) bought by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. These 3 coins have been struck from the same obverse die." by S. Estiot.
2 commentsquadrans
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France44 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
023~3.JPG
12 - Rignac, Aveyron, France12 views4 Kgs de pain, laiton, 23 mm
A/ BOULANGERIE ROUMEGOUS RIGNAC AVEYRON
R/ BON POUR 4 Kgs DE PAIN
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
244~0.JPG
12 - Viviez, Aveyron, France16 viewsBoulangerie Coopérative, Viviez, Aveyron
Laiton, 27 mm
A/ BOULANGERIE COOPERATIVE / VIVIEZ // 4 Kos
R/ 1931 / 250
Réfs : Elie 10.4
Gabalor
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.32 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
100~5.JPG
13 - Cassis, Bouches-du-Rhône, France9 viewsCasino de Cassis, Bouches du Rhône
Nickel, 23 mm
A/ CASINO DE CASSIS // 2
R/ CASINO DE CASSIS // 2
Réfs : - -
Gabalor
031~7.JPG
13 - Marseille, Bouches du Rhône, France11 views5 centimes, cuivre, 19 mm
A/ LADOUANIERE COOPERATIVE MARSEILLE
R/ 5 C
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
039~8.JPG
13 - Marseille, France11 views4 francs, laiton, 35 mm.
A/ J. ETCHEPARE - 4 Fs - MARSEILLE
Réfs : Elie 285.1
Gabalor
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England3 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
RI_132ye_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 084 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)24 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (//IIII) Emission 6, Officina 4. A.D. 278 - A.D. 279
Reference:– Cohen 334. Bastien –. Bastien Suppl. II 294B (this example). RIC 84 Bust Type F var (officina)

Paul Francis Jacquier - Auction 45 (2018) - Lot 1374
ex-Philippe Gysen Collection
Paul Francis Jacquier Auction 21 (1998), Lot 557

The only known example from this officina.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132tl img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 905 var - Bust Type F (Cyzicus) (P / XXI) 39 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (P in centre field, XXI in exe)
Reference:– RIC 905 var. Bust type F (Not listed in RIC with this very unsuaul bust type)

This is a very rare bust type for Probus from Cyzicus. Discussions with Dr. S. Estiot seem to indicate the following:-

"Effectively cuirassed busts seen from behind are very rare for Cyzicus series, CLEMENTIA TEMP, but strangely enough it appears that it has been fashionable for this series and for this officina P//XXI. I have listed 5 of these : 1 BM ; 2 Milan (coll. Laffranchi) ; 2 Private collection. Only one other example for another series : Q//XXI* : 1 Budapest."

I now have an additional two from different die pairs.
maridvnvm
RI 132ut img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 905 var - Bust Type F (Cyzicus) (P / XXI) 33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (P in centre field, XXI in exe)
Reference:– RIC 905 var. Bust type F (Not listed in RIC with this very unsuaul bust type)

This is a very rare bust type for Probus from Cyzicus. Discussions with Dr. S. Estiot seem to indicate the following:-

"Effectively cuirassed busts seen from behind are very rare for Cyzicus series, CLEMENTIA TEMP, but strangely enough it appears that it has been fashionable for this series and for this officina P//XXI. I have listed 5 of these : 1 BM ; 2 Milan (coll. Laffranchi) ; 2 Private collection. Only one other example for another series : Q//XXI* : 1 Budapest."

I now have an additional two from different die pairs.
maridvnvm
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England9 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France6 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France26 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France30 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
522_P_Hadrian_RPC1499.jpg
1499 MYSIA. Cyzicus. Hadrian Ae 19 Vase.9 viewsReference. Extremely rare
RPC 3, 1499.1; SNG France 647 = Waddington 729

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1499/2/

Obv: ΚΑΙ СΕΒ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΥ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΥ.
Laureate and cuirassed bust left.

Rev: K - Y / Z - I (retrograde).
Vase.

2.74 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
1067_P_Hadrian_RPC1505.JPG
1505 MYSIA. Cyzicus. Hadrian Emperor on horse9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1505/6; SNG France 643; BMC -; SNG Cop. -; SNG v. Aulock 7369 var

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡΑ ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΝ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΚΥ/ΖΙ
Emperor in military dress with r. hand raised, on horse r.

17.04 gr
30 mm
6h

Note.
ex Münzzentrum, Auktion 59, 1986, Los 1066
okidoki
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS24 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England45 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
1188_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1550B MYSIA. Lampsacus Hadrian, Priapus standing13 viewscf RPC III, -- 1550 Trajan; same SNG France 1272; BMC Mysia -, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop

Obv. AΔIANOC KAICAP
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right

Rev. ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝωΝ
ithyphallic Priapus standing left, right hand raised, left hand on hip

1.55 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
Priapus or Priapos was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his absurdly oversized permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism. He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Statues of Priapus were sometimes placed on boundaries and hung with signs which threatened sexual assault on trespassers.
FORVM coin
okidoki
1594_Elizabeth_I_Sixpence.JPG
1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
064~7.JPG
16 - Cognac, Charente, France11 viewsEpicerie Dalidet, Cognac, Charente.
Aluminium, 23 mm
A/ EPICERIE J. DALIDET COGNAC 1922
R/ BON POUR 10 c EN MARCHANDISES
Réfs : 15.2
Gabalor
100~8.JPG
16 - Jarnac, Charente, France13 viewsMercerie et Tissus, E. Jallon, Jarnac, Charente.
Aluminium, 23 mm
A/ MERCERIE & TISSUS / E. JALLON / JARNAC (CHte) / 1922
R/ BON POUR 10 c EN MARCHANDISES
Réfs : 20.2
Gabalor
1176_P_Hadrian_pseudo.jpg
1608C LYCAONIA. Iconium (as Claudiconium). Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Claudius to Hadrian 41-138 AD, Wreath10 viewsReference
Aulock, Lykaonien 251; SNG France 2277; RPC II, 1608C

Obv.
Winged head of Medusa facing.dotted border

Rev: KLAY / ΔΕΙΚΟ / ΝΙΕWΝ.
Legend in 3 lines within wreath.

1.90 gr
15 mm
6h
okidoki
M.Aurelius RIC890.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 163-164 AD45 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M (laureated bearded head right)
rev: VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III (Victory standing right holding trophy a captive Armenian at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC 890 (S), Cohen 984 (12 Francs 1878), BMC 1092
21.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

History: After the death of Antoninus Pius the parthian king, Vologaesus III run over Armenia in 161 AD. The Expeditio orientalis was started the next year from Capua,Italy. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus were entrusted with command of the legions while Marcus Aurelius conducted affairs of the state back in Rome. The 5 year campaign (161 – 166 AD) against Parthia proved to be as decisive as any war in recent Roman history. A Roman candidate once again sat the Armenian throne and Parthia had been thoroughly defeated. This coin commemorate the end of the first phase of the Parthian War.
berserker
1639_Receipt_of_Spain_37.jpg
1639 Receipt from Spain134 viewsDate: AD 1639, personal receipt, scarce
This is an old receipt dated AD 1639 for payment in the amount of 66 Ducados & ½ of vellón. It is from Spain during the reign of Philip IV (AD 1621-1665).

During the 17th century the power of Spain declined sharply and parts of its great empire broke away. The Dutch won a great naval victory at the Battle of the Downs in AD 1639. Spain finally recognized Dutch independence in 1648. In 1640 Portugal rebelled against Spanish rule. Spain formally recognized Portuguese independence in 1668. Meanwhile in 1635 a war began between France and Spain. In 1643 a Spanish army tried to invade France but was utterly defeated. Then in 1655 England joined France against Spain. Eventually by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Spain was forced to cede territory to France. In the late 17th century Spanish power continued to decline. At the beginning of the century Spain was able to dominate Europe. By the end of the century it had ceased to be a great power.
2 commentsNoah
464_P_Hadrian_RPC1653.jpg
1653 MYSIA, Miletopolis Hadrian, Athena bust12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1653; SNG France 1312; BMC 10 var. (pag. 92);SNG Cop. - (vgl. 251), SNG v.Aul. -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ
Laureate, bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. ΜΕΙΛΗΤΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ
helmeted and cuirassed bust of Athena, right.

5.81 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
assarion: an assarion, a farthing (one tenth of a drachma).
okidoki
1~0.JPG
1655 - Etats de Vitré 11 viewsMgr de la Molle Houdencour
6,43g
27 mm
argent
POTIVS. MORI. QUAM. FEDARI .
"Plutôt la mort que le déshonneur"
Hermine passant à gauche dans un champ semé d'hermines .
IECTONS. DES. ESTAZ (Z à l'envers, rétrograde). DE. BRETAGNE .
Écu écartelé de France et de Bretagne surmonté de la couronne mi-ducale,
mi-royale, entre deux branches d'olivier
Daniel 14
PYL
Louis XIV 1672 Prise de douze villes en Hollande.JPG
1672, Prise de douze villes en Hollande781 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right LVD MAG FRA ET NAV REX PP, CHERON on bust truncation.
Rev. The King in the guise of Sol, radiating light, seated right in a heavenly chariot pulled by three horses, surrounded by clouds. Around are aerlia views of twelve towns and forts captured in Holland SOLIS QVE LABORES on scroll above central design, the names of all twelve towns/forts around.

AE63. Engraved by Charles Jean Francois Cheron. ORIGINAL STRIKE, very rare.

Charles Jean Francois Cheron (1635-1698), one of the most distinguished artists of the school of Jean Warin, was born at Nancy and was trained by his father, Jean-Charles Cheron, engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine. Cheron went to Rome and became engraver of medals for Clement IX and Innocent X. Cheron's style in his Roman medals is of remarkable boldness, and his medals of Pope Clement IX and of Bernini are grandiloquent and among the finest Italian medals of the period. He returned to France in 1675 and was employed by Louis XIV at the Medal Mint at Paris for about twelve years, where he contributed several medals to the medallic series of the monarch, the Histoire Metallique. His medals are considered to be in an international baroque style.
11 commentsLordBest
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY11 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*Alex
1675_Charles_II_AE_farthing.JPG
1675 CHARLES II AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1675 in exergue.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3394

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.
*Alex
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"40 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
1683.JPG
1683 - États de Vitré14 viewsLouis XIV
argent
7,18g
28mm
. LVDOVICVS . . MAGNVS. REX.
Tête nue du roi à droite, non laurée, col nu.
en dessous signé : H.B. (Hercule Le Breton)
. IETONS . DES . ESTAZ . DE . BRETAGNE .
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, dans une couronne formée de deux branches de laurier
à l’exergue : .1683.
Daniel 27
PYL
louis_XIV_daniel_31.JPG
1687 - États de Saint-Brieuc15 viewsLouis XIV
argent
6,78g
28mm
LVDOVICVS . . MAGNVS. REX
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature HB
. IETONS . DES . ESTAZ . DE . BRETAGNE .
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, dans une couronne formée de deux branches de laurier
à l’exergue : .1687.
Millésime avec surcharge grossière d’un 7 sur un 5
Jeton percé puis rebouché.
Daniel 31
PYL
1693.JPG
1693 - États de Vannes7 viewsLouis XIV
7,10g
28 mm
argent
LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Sur un piédestal, statue équestre de Louis XIV à droite
cheval au pas
à l’exergue signature T.B.
.IETONS. DES. ESTAZ. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l’exergue : .1693.
Daniel 43
PYL
1695.JPG
1695 - États de Vannes7 viewsLouis XIV
6,77g
28 mm
argent
LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Sur un piédestal, statue équestre de Louis XIV à droite
cheval au pas
à l’exergue signature T.B.
.IETONS. DES. ESTAZ. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l’exergue : .1695.
Daniel 44
PYL
LM_1697_0800_H.jpg
1697 8 Reales8 views1697 8 Reales
Lima, Peru
King Carlos II
Assayer: H (Francisco Hurtado)
26.53 grams
Sedwick type: L13
The date under the cross appears to exhibit a 7/6 overdate.
cmcdon0923
accolade_1.JPG
1699 - États de Vannes 12 viewsLouis XIV
7,10g
27 mm
argent
LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX.
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu mais trce de haut de cuirasse et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature T.B
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue une accolade
Daniel 47
PYL
accolade_2.JPG
1699 - États de Vannes 4 viewsLouis XIV
6,55g
27 mm
argent
LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX.
"Louis le Grand Roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature T.B
IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue une accolade
Daniel 48
PYL
accolade_3.JPG
1699 - États de Vannes12 viewsLouis XIV
6,91g
27 mm
argent
LVDOVICVS. MAGNVS. REX.
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu mais trce de haut de cuirasse et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature T.B
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue une accolade
Daniel 47
PYL
223~1.JPG
17 - La Rochelle, Charente-Maritime, France.9 viewsSociété du Commerce, la Rochelle, Charente-Maritime
Fer nickelé, 23 mm
A/ Ste DU COMMERCE LA ROCHELLE / 5 Ces 1917
R/ - - -
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
1701.JPG
1701 - États de Nantes6 viewsLouis XIV
6,16g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS. REX.
"Louis le Grand Roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature R
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1701
Daniel 52
PYL
1707.JPG
1707 - États de Dinan13 viewsLouis XIV
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1707 à l'exergue
Daniel 62
PYL
1709_2.JPG
1709 - États de Saint-Brieuc9 viewsLouis XIV
6,71g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.JETTON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1709 à l'exergue
Daniel 64
PYL
1709.JPG
1709 - États de Saint-Brieuc8 viewsLouis XIV
6,85g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.JETTON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1709 à l'exergue
Daniel 64
PYL
1711.JPG
1711 - États de Dinan15 viewsLouis XIV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue .1711.
Daniel 66
PYL
1715.JPG
1715 - États de Saint-Brieuc 12 viewsLouis XIV
6,75g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX .
"Louis le Grand Roi"
Buste à droite de Louis XIV signé TB
IETONS DES ESTAS DE BRETAGNE
Écu écartelé de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé
à l'exergue 1715.
Daniel 71
PYL
1717.JPG
1717 - États de Dinan7 viewsLouis XV
6,60g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. D. G. FR ET. NAV. REX.
"Louis XV par la grâce de Dieu roi de France et de Navarre"
Tête laurée à droite de Louis XV avec le col drapé,
au-dessous signature I. B.
JETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE
Écu de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé et herminé
à l'exergue 1717.
Daniel 74
PYL
1722.JPG
1722 - États de Nantes6 viewsLouis XV
6,57g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste couronné à droite, en manteau d’hermine avec le collier de l’ordre du Saint-Esprit
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue .1722.
Daniel 76
PYL
louis_xv.JPG
1726 - États de Saint-Brieuc 11 viewsLouis XV
7,07g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX - CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très Chrétien"
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER. F.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1726.
Daniel 79
PYL
818_P_Hadrian_RPC1731.jpg
1731 MYSIA, Pergamun Hadrian, 118 AD Hermes standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1731/11; SNG France 2089; BMC 271-3

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1731/11/

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑ ΕΠΙ СΤ(Ρ) ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛ, ΤΟ Β (in field, l.)
Male figure (Hermes?) naked standing facing, head l., holding ram’s head in his outstretched r. hand, chlamys over l. arm

4.57 gr
21 mm
12h
okidoki
366_P_Hadrian.jpg
1733 MYSIA, Pergamum Hadrian, Telesphoros standing31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1733; SNG France 2093

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΠEPΓAM KAKEΦ TOB on left in feild.
Telesphoros standing facing, wrapped in long garments.

3.26 gr
16 mm
1 commentsokidoki
1734.JPG
1734 - États de Rennes 10 viewsLouis XV
6,74g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite du roi, laurée, avec un col drapé,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1734.
Daniel 87
PYL
1243_P_Hadrian_RPC1734.jpg
1734 MYSIA, Pergamun Hadrian 118 AD Telesphoros standing3 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1734; BMC 270, SNG France 2091-2

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ
Laureate, bust right, drapery on left shoulder, baldric strap around back of neck and across chest.

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑ СΤΡ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩ, ΤΟ Β (in field, r.)
Telesphorus wearing mantle with hood standing facing

1.75 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
1162_P_Hadrian_RPC1734.jpg
1734 MYSIA, Pergamun Hadrian 118 AD Telesphoros standing9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1734; BMC 270, SNG France 2091-2

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ
Laureate, bust right, drapery on left shoulder, baldric strap around back of neck and across chest.

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑ СΤΡ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩ, ΤΟ Β (in field, r.)
Telesphorus wearing mantle with hood standing facing

2.77 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
589_P_Hadrian_RPC1734.JPG
1734 MYSIA, Pergamun Hadrian AE 16 118 AD Telesphoros standing 15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1734; BMC 270, SNG France 2091-2

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1734/

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC (sic)
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΠΕΡΓ СΤΡΑ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩΝΟ, ΤΟ Β (in field, r.)
Telesphorus wearing mantle with hood standing facing

2.92 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
1736.JPG
1736 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
non signé
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1736.
Daniel 89
PYL
1738.JPG
1738 - États de Rennes9 viewsLouis XV
7,01g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
signé DU VIVIER sur le bord de la manche
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1738
Daniel 90
PYL
nantes.JPG
1738 - mairie de Nantes15 viewscuivre
8,37g
28mm
mairie de François de la Haye Moricaud
DE LA MAIRIE DE MR DE LA HAYE MORICAUD
Dans un cartouche, écu aux armes du maire (d’argent, à trois têtes de Maures de sable tortillées d’argent.) timbré d'une couronne de marquis
NON REGIT INVITAM
"Il ne dirige pas la ville malgré elle"
1738
Ecu ovale sur un cartouche, des armes de la ville de Nantes : vaisseau Nantais voguant à gauche, au chef chargé d' hermines, surmonté d'une couronne comtale, le tout entouré de la cordelière
PYL
1740.JPG
1740 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,40g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive FM
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1740
Daniel 92
PYL
750_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC_1741.jpg
1741 MYSIA, Pergamon AE 18 Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian 134 AD nude male25 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 1741; BMC 227-30, Cop 448-50, SNG France 1953-6

Magistrate I. Pôlliôn (strategos)

Obv. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ
Helmeted head of Athena, right; with snake aegis

Rev. CTP I ΠOΛΛIΩNOC
Nude male youth standing facing, his r. hand raised, holding uncertain object in l.

2.59 gr
17 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1742.JPG
1742 - États de Rennes 7 viewsLouis XV
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX - CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive FM
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1742
Daniel 93
PYL
1744.JPG
1744 - États de Rennes 14 viewsLouis XV
6,83g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive JCR en monogramme
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1744.
Daniel 95
PYL
10_-_1748_-_6,65g_-_D99.JPG
1748 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouix XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très Chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon, au-dessous signature D.V. et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1748.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 99
PYL
1750.JPG
1750 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,89g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1750.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 100
PYL
1752.JPG
1752 - États de Rennes 14 viewsLouis XV
6,10g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1752 .
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 101
PYL
13_-_1754_-_6,47g_-_D102.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal, vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux ; à droite la Bretagne assise, devant, les armes de la province, derrière, une ancre sortant de la mer ; à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
1754_2.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XV
6,55g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal,
vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux;
à droite la Bretagne assise,
devant les armes de la province,
derrière une ancre sortant de la mer;
à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
1756.JPG
1756 - États de Rennes7 viewsLouis XV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite, le col nu,
au-dessous signature cursive M
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1756.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 103
PYL
1757_-_Rennes.JPG
1757 - mairie de Rennes12 viewsargent
7,69g
28mm
mairie de Jean Baillon et de l'intendant Cardin-François-Xavier Lebret
TALIBUS AUSPICIIS FLOREBIT AEDIL. RHED
"L'Edile de Rennes fleurira sous de tels auspices"
1757
Les armes de Monsieur Lebret, Intendant de Bretagne (Ses armes portent d’or, au sautoir de gueules cantonné de quatre merlettes de sable, à l'écusson en coeur d'argent, chargé d'un lion de sable, armé et lampassé de gueules) soutenu par deux licornes
DE LA MAIRIE DE M. BAILLON
Armes couronnées de Rennes (Palé d’argent et de sable de six pièces, au chef d’argent chargé de treize mouchetures d’hermine de sable) et soutenues par deux lévriers
PYL
1758_2.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc7 viewsLouis XV
6,55g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 107
PYL
1758_3.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc7 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 108
PYL
1758.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc5 viewsLouis XV
6,62g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite, le col nu,
au-dessous signature cursive M
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 105
PYL
1760.JPG
1760 - États de Nantes 4 viewsLouis XV
6,64g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Buste lauré à droite avec tunique sur l’armure,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1760.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 110
PYL
1762.JPG
1762 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1762.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 112
PYL
1764.JPG
1764 - États de Rennes 6 viewsLouis XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite avec tunique sur l’armure,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1764.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 113
PYL
1764_2.JPG
1764 - États de Rennes 10 viewsLouis XV
6,94g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré et cuirassé à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1764.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 115
PYL
1766.JPG
1766 - États de Rennes 7 viewsLouis XV
6,89g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
ETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1766.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 116
PYL
1766_2.JPG
1766 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XV
7,58g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1766.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 117
PYL
25_-_1768_-_6,54g_-_D119.JPG
1768 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,54g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1768.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 119
PYL
26_-_1768_-_7,41g_-_D118.JPG
1768 - États de Rennes7 viewsLouis XV
7,41g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste cuirassé et lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1768.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 118
PYL
27_-_1770_-_6,65g_-_D120.JPG
1770 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec col de tunique,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1770
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 120
PYL
1772.JPG
1772 - États de Morlaix15 viewsLouis XV
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1772.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 121
PYL
1774.JPG
1774 - États de Rennes6 viewsLouis XVI
6,57g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, avec un bandeau dans les cheveux,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1774
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 123
PYL
1_-_1774_-_D123_variante_cuivre.JPG
1774 - États de Rennes12 views

Louis XVI
8,90g
29 mm
cuivre
LUD XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, avec un bandeau dans les cheveux,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1774
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
variante du Daniel 123

voir : Gildas Salaün, "De nouveaux jetons des Etats de Bretagne en cuivre", ASBNH, 2004.
PYL
LouisXVICoronation1775.JPG
1775. Coronation of Louis XVI at Rheims143 viewsObv. Crowned bust of Louis XVI LUDOVICUS XVI REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. King kneeling at altar, an angel anointing his head DEO CONSECRATORI, exergue UNCTIO REGIA REMIS XL JUN MDCCLXXV
Signed B DUVIVIER F

AR42.

Louis XVI succeeded his grandfather Louis XV to the throne of France in 1774 and his coronation ceremony took place in Rheims the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
1776_1.JPG
1776 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XVI
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
Tête à droite, les cheveux noués derrière le cou,
au-dessous signature DU VIV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1776
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d'hermines
Daniel 125
PYL
1776_2.JPG
1776 - États de Rennes11 views 1776 - États de Rennes
Louis XVI
6,74g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, les cheveux noués derrière le cou,
au-dessous signature DU VIV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1776
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d'hermines
Daniel 124
PYL
4_-_1778_-_6,75g_-_D126.JPG
1778 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XVI
6,75g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
ête à gauche, les cheveux longs, drapé d’une tunique,
au-dessous signature DUV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1778
Écu de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé et herminé
Daniel 126
PYL
1780.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XVI
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127
PYL
7_-_1780_-_6,24g_-_D127bis.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes14 viewsLouis XVI
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite, avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
poinçon en forme de faisceau de licteur dans le champ droit
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127 bis
PYL
1780_2.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XVI
6,48g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127 ou peut être Daniel 128
PYL
LouisXVIMarieAntoinetteBirthofDauphin1781.JPG
1781. Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette, Birth of the Dauphin.162 viewsObv. Conjoined busts of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette LUDOVICO XVI ET M ANT AUSTR FR ET NAV REGI ET REGINAE LUTETIA signed DUVIVIER.
Rev. King and Queen between a kneeling Paris, holding a shield, and Trade (Abundance), holding a cornucopia and Hermes’ staff. SOLEMNIA DELPHINI NATALITIA REGE ET REGINA URBEM INVISENTIBUS XXI. JANU. MDCCLXXXII signed DV.

Commemorates the birth of Louis-Joseph Xavier Francois, Dauphin of France from 1781 to his death in 1789.
1 commentsLordBest
LouisXVIMarieAntoinette18781.JPG
1781. Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette, Congratulations of the Merchants of Paris on the Birth of the Dauphin.146 viewsObv: Busts of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette vis a vis. LVD XVI FR ET NAV REX MAR ANT AVSTR REG
Rev: Six Corps of Merchants led by the Governor of Paris the Duke de Cosse ASSERENDI NOVA SPES COMERCII / REGI DE ORTU SS DELHINI SEX MERCATOR PARIS ORDINES GRATULANTOR AUSP DUCIS DE COSSE URBIS CUB DIE IV NOV MDCCLXXXI
AE60. Engraved by Duvivier.

This medal commemorates the birth of Louis-Joseph Xavier Francois, Dauphin of France from 1781 to his death in 1789. The reverse expresses the hopes of the merchants of Paris of continuing prosperity under a stable monarchy.
LordBest
1782.JPG
1782 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XVI
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
signé DU VIV
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1782
Écu écartelé de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé
Daniel 129
PYL
1784_2.JPG
1784 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XVI
7,07g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
signé DU VIV.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1784.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 131
PYL
1784.JPG
1784 - États de Rennes 12 viewsLouis XVI
7,17g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1784.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 130
PYL
1786.JPG
1786 - États de Rennes 12 viewsLouis XVI
6,94g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIAN.
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
au-dessous signature DUVIV
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1786
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 136
PYL
12_-_1786_-_6,30g_-_D135.JPG
1786 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XVI
6,30g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1786
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 135
PYL
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
1788.JPG
1788 - États de Rennes16 viewsLouis XVI
6,71g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIAN
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
au-dessous signature DUV.
JETTON DES ÉTATS DE BRETAGNE 1788
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 139
PYL
LouisXVIAbolitionOfPrivilege1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, Abolition of Privilege.148 viewsObv. Draped bust right LOUIS XVI RESTAURATEUR DE LA LIBERTE FRANCAIS
Rev. National Assembly scene amidst Neoclassical surrounds ABANDON DE TOUS LES PRIVILEGES A LA PATRIE on central ballot box ASSEMBLEE NATIONALE IV AOUT MDCLXXXIX

This medal commemorates the abolition of aristocratic privilege by the National Assembly of France.
LordBest
LouisXVIArrivalInParis1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, The Arrival of the King in Paris.124 viewsObv. Draped bust right. LOUIS XVI ROI DES FRANCAIS VILLE DE PARIS
Rev. The King, Queen and Dauphin being welcomed by the personification of Paris, building and crowds in background JY FERAI DESORMAIS MA DEMESRE HABITUELLE ARIVEE DU ROI A PARIS LA 6 OCT 1789

Commemorates the arrival in Paris of the King.
1 commentsLordBest
LouisXVIMayorOfParis1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, The First Mayor of Paris.116 viewsObv. Draped bust right LOUIS XVI ROI DES FRANCAIS
Rev. Personification of Paris facing holding rudder and sceptre surmounted by liberty cap, leaning on colum decorated with fasces, ships prow to left, various emblems of trade and wealth on right ESTABLISSEMENT DE LA MAIRIE DE PARIS J SILVAIN BAILLY PREMIER MAIRE ELU L 15 JULLIET 1789

Commemorates the cration of Jean Silvain Bailly as the first mayor of Paris. Bailly was later guillotined during The Terror.
LordBest
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
1797_(Undated)_MAIL_COACH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex28 viewsObverse: Mail Coach, with GR cypher on it's door, drawn by four horses galloping right; above, HALFPENNY PAYA-BLE IN LONDON; below, TO TRADE EXPEDIN & TO PROPERTY PROTECTION.
Reverse: THIS IS INSCRIBED ✤ TO J. PALMER ESQ. around AFH cypher within palm branches.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 28mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 366

There were several issues of Mail Coach halfpennies, the last dated issue being in 1797. This, the final token in the series is undated, its Mail Coach obverse is similar, but the inscription is different and the reverse has the cypher AFH which has been linked to Anthony Francis Holdinhand, a merchant of 51 St. Mary-Axe in London. St. Mary-Axe is now the site of the well-known "Gherkin" skyscraper which was opened there in 2004.

Though these “Mail Coach” tokens are associated with John Palmer, he did not issue them. Famous in his day the story goes that, on 2nd. August 1784 at 4.00 pm, Palmer began an experimental journey from the "Rummer" Tavern in Bristol. The coach reached the "Three Tuns" in Bath at 5.20 pm and, travelling overnight, arrived at "The Swan with Two Necks" Inn in London at 8.00 am. Palmer, who knew how to operate a fast system of chaises between Bath and Bristol in order to get a quick exchange of actors and properties, had predicted the sixteen hour journey which the Post Office surveyors had said was impossible. The Post Office's mounted 'Post Boys' were taking nearly two days to carry the mail from Bath to London at the time. Palmer's successful experiment led to his appointment as Comptroller-General of the Post Office and, helped by road improvements, a network of routes served by dedicated Mail Coaches spread rapidly.
1 comments*Alex
194.JPG
18 - Bourges, Cher, France.7 viewsCoopérative Militaire de Tivoli, Bourges, Cher
Cuivre, 24 mm
A/ COOPERATIVE MILITAIRE DE TIVOLI // 1916
R/ BOURGES (CHER) // 10 c
Réfs : Elie 30.1
Gabalor
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
LouisXVIII1815.JPG
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.98 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.
AE50.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
LordBest
LouisXVIII1817HenriIVPontNeuf.JPG
1817. Louis XVIII. Dedication of the statue of Henri IV at Pont Neuf.161 viewsObv. Bust of Louis XVIII LVDOVICVS XVIII LAPIDEM AVSPICALEM POSVIT D XXVIII M OCT ANN MDCCCXVII REGNI XXIII, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. Statue of Henri IV at the Pont Neuf HENRICO MAGNO CIVIVM PIETAS RESTITVIT MDCCCXVII ANDRIEU FECIT.
AE50.
LordBest
LouisXVIII1822VenusdeMilo.JPG
1822. Louis XVIII. Discovery and presentatoin of Venus de Milo.140 viewsObv. Head of Louis XVIII to right LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX
Rev. Venus de Milo standing in front of Egyptian antiquities COLLECTIS EX AEGYPTO GREACIAQ MONVMENTIS / SVMTV REGIO BONARVM ARTVIM VTILITATI MDCCCXXII
AE50.

This medal commemorates the discovery and presentation of the statue Venus de Milo.
LordBest
NapoleonIII1855Exposition.JPG
1855. Napoleon III, Exposition Universalle A.179 viewsObv. Head of Napoleon III NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR
Rev. French Imperial crest encircled by wreath naming the exposition in full, itself surrounded by the coats of arms of all the French regions (I believe) EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIE BEAUX ARTS/ PARIS 1855. Chalon et Estienne engraved on open scroll in ex.

A medal struck in 1855 to commemorate the 'Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855', France's first world fair, following four years on from London's Great Exhibition.
LordBest
5fr.jpg
1869: Five franks of Leopold II13 viewsKing Leopold II. Silver 5 Francs. 1869

Coat of arms of Belgium, surrounded by foliage, surrounded by the legend L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE ("Strength through Union") 1869 / Neoclassical portrait of Leopold II, surrounded by legend LEOPOLD II ROI - DES BELGES.
Belisarius
dimes_1914-S_1914-D_obv_02_rev_02.JPG
1914 S & D - Barber Dimes8 views_
__
USA - Two ' Barber Dimes ' both dates 1914, one from the San Francisco Mint in California, and one from the Denver Mint in Colorado.
*Some slight discoloration due to the camera, the coins look like the obv photos on both sides.*
__
_
rexesq
Belgium1fr.jpg
1922: One franc of Albert I (nl)5 viewsKing Albert I. 1 Franc (Dutch version). 1923.

Belgica, the female personification of Belgium, kneeling in mourning with sword and shield slung BELGIE / Caduceus with inter-twined snakes GOED VOOR 1922.
Belisarius
Belgium2fr.jpg
1923: Two francs of Albert I (fr)9 viewsKing Albert I. 2 Francs (French version). 1923.

Belgica, the female personification of Belgium, kneeling in mourning with sword and shield slung BELGIQUE / Caduceus with inter-twined snakes BON POUR 2 F 1923
Belisarius
Alberti.jpg
1930: Five francs of Albert I (nl)5 viewsKing Albert I. Cupro-nickel 5 Francs or 1 Belga. 1930.

Bust of Albert I facing left, legend ALBERT KONING - DER BELGEN / EEN BELGA - 5 FRANK 1930 surrounded by wreath and crown.
Belisarius
Belgium_(1939)_-_5_Francs.jpg
1939: Five francs of Leopold III13 viewsKing Leopold III. Cupro-nickel 5 Francs. 1939.

Seated lion, right, with 1939 / Three provincial coats of arms.
Belisarius
Belgium_(1939)_-_1_Franc.jpg
1939: One franc of Leopold III13 viewsKing Leopold III. Cupro-nickel 1 Franc. 1939.

Seated lion, right, with 1939 / Three provincial coats of arms.
Belisarius
dime_1942-S_obv_02_obv_06_rev_01_rev_05.JPG
1942-S - Dime 'Mercury Dime'24 viewsUSA 'Mercury' or 'Winged Liberty' Dime - 1942 San Francisco Mint.
~~~~~
*Nice bands on the fasces on the reverse.*
~~~
~
rexesq
5fr_Leopold_iii.jpg
1950: Five francs of Leopold III/Baudouin (nl)17 viewsKing Leopold III or Baudouin. 5 Francs. 1950.

An oak branch underneath a crown, legend: 5 FR. BELGIE. / Head of Ceres and a cornucopia.
Belisarius
100francs.jpg
1950: Hundred francs of Leopold III (fr)21 viewsKing Leopold III. Silver 100 Francs. 1950.

Belgian coat of arms with legend 100 FR - BELGIQUE / Busts of all Kings of the Belgians (left to right: Leopold III, Albert I, Leopold II, Leopold I) with crown and star.
Belisarius
DSC08676_DSC08685_PCGS-PR69DCAM.JPG
1976 S - PROOF Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar - PCGS PR 69 DCAM ( Deep Cameo)10 views~~
~
USA 1976 S *PROOF* Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar - San Francisco Mint.
Graded/Certified: PCGS PR 69 DCAM ( Deep Cameo)
~
~~
rexesq
20 francs Or Belgique 1882.jpg
20 Francs From Belgium, Léopold II54 viewsAU, 21 mm. , Belgium, 1882
Obv: LEOPOLD II ROI DES BELGES, 1882
Rev: L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE, 20 FRS
Jean Paul D
20francs Or Napoleon B An 12.jpg
20 Francs From France, NAPOLEON58 viewsAU, 21mm. , Paris, France, 1803/1804
Obv:BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL
REV: REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, 20 Francs, AN 12
AN 12 means the 12th year from republican calendar= from september 24th 1803 to september 22 nd 1804
Jean Paul D
2014-246-4_AE22ElaiousaSebasteHeadZeusNike-Forum.jpg
2014.246.427 viewsElaiousa-Sebaste (c. 150-50 BC)

AE22; 7.90 g; 12h;
Obverse: Head of Zeus right; ΑΡ behind.
Reverse: ΕΛΑ-ΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ downward in left field; Monogram off left edge of flan; Nike advancing right, holding wreath in extended right hand.
Ref: cf SNG France 1151;
gordian_guy
2014-246-5_AE23KelenderisCityGoddessApollo-Forum.jpg
2014.246.525 viewsKelenderis (2nd - 1st Century BC)

AE23; 7.29 g; 12h
Obverse: Turreted head of City Goddess right; ΙΣ, behind.
Reverse: ΚΕΛΕΝΔΕΡΙΤΩΝ, downward in right field; ΛΕ, in left field, uncertain Monogram left field(?); Apollo, nude, standing left, holding laurel branch in extended right hand; left elbow leaning on column surmounted by tripod.
Ref: cf SNG France 727-728, for similar types.
gordian_guy
2014-246-6_AE21KorykosCityGoddesHermes-Forum.jpg
2014.246.629 viewsCorycus (c. 150-50 BC)

AE21; 7.58 g; 12h
Obverse: Turreted head of City Goddess right. ΑΝ, behind
Reverse: ΔΙ/ΝΙ/ΑΝ, in three lines in left field magistrates initials; ΚΩΡΥΚΙΩΤΩΝ, downward in right field; Hermes, nude except for chlamys fastened around neck and hanging over left arm, and wearing petasos, and winged sandals, standing left; pater in extended right hand; caduceus in left.
Ref: cf SNG France 1086-1093;
gordian_guy
coins19.JPG
202. Caracalla; Ancyra21 viewsThis reverse seems to be unknown for a left-facing Caracalla.

The following two might have the same reverse type (Vexillum, with eagle, between two standards with capricorns

Caracalla, facing right, SNG Aul 6162 and 6178 (n.v.)

Similar reverse:
Julia Domna, SNG France 2494, SNG Hunter 2168
ecoli
898_P_Hadrian_RPC.JPG
2142A IONIA, Miletus. Hadrian Ae 36 Zeus standing23 viewsReference.
BMC - ;SNG von Aulock- ;SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France- ;RPC - ; RPC III, 2142A.

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟC
Laureate head right.

Rev: POVΦOV TO B ΜΙΛΗ- CΙΩΝ ΕΠΙ
Zeus standing right, wearing chlamys, holding thunderbolt, and resting hand on hip.

26.25 gr
36 mm
6h

Note.
The worship of Hadrian as 'Zeus Olympios' in the east of the empire was also practiced in Miletus. A proof of this is this coinage, which the emperor explicitly names as 'ΟΛΙΜΠΙΟC'. In addition, the archaeological excavations in Miletus have been used to discover a large number of household altars who had been consecrated to Hadrian, who had inscriptions such as "The Caesar Trajan Hadrian Sebastos Zeus Olympios" (Friesen, Imperial Cults, p. 177)
2 commentsokidoki
22031.jpg
22031 Askelopsis/Pergamon25 viewsAskelopsis/Pergamon
EΠI ΠEPΓAMOY
Head of Asklepios right
ΠEPΓAMHNΩN
Eagle standing on thunderbolt
Pergamon, Mysia, 22mm 8.22 g
SNG France 1864

Thanks to shanxi and Altamura for help identifying.

1 commentsBlayne W
Trajano_Coracesium_CILICIA.jpg
24 - 1 - 1 TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)60 views CORACESIUM Cilicia

AE 22 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AYTO NEPOYA TPAIANOC” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”KOP[AKHCIΩT]ΩN” – Leyenda horaria comenzando frente al rostro - Cabeza de Tyche vistiendo gran corona mural, viendo a derecha.

Acuñada: 98 – 117 D.C.

Referencias: SNG Levante #387; SNG Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France Vol.2 #610-11 - E.Levante, The coinage of Korakesium in Cilicia, NC 1978 #1 Pag.26
mdelvalle
SNG_CBN_II_610_Coracesium_Cilicia_Trajano.jpg
24-30 - TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)11 views CORACESIUM Cilicia

AE 22 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AYTO NEPOYA TPAIANOC” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”KOP[AKHCIΩT]ΩN” – Leyenda horaria comenzando frente al rostro - Cabeza de Tyche vistiendo gran corona mural, viendo a derecha.

Acuñada: 98 – 117 D.C.

Referencias: SNG Levante #387; SNG Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France Vol.2 #610-11 - E.Levante, The coinage of Korakesium in Cilicia, NC 1978 #1 Pag.26
mdelvalle
rjb_2016_11_11.jpg
2519 viewsHerennius Etruscus 251AD
AE 26mm
Tarsos in Cilicia
Obv: K VIN EPENNIO ETPOVC ΔΕΚION KE
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: TAPCOV MHTPOΠΟΛΕΩC
Pyramidal monument for Sandan over base decorated by horned animal heads (oxen?) and covered by a round canopy supported by two figures wearing large mantle and Phrygian helmet; above eagle.
SNG France 1781, SNG Righetti 1706
mauseus
26-Viking-Cnut.jpg
26. Danelaw: Vikings of York.19 viewsPenny, ca 897-903, York mint.
Obverse: CRTENXV (CNVT REX) / Patriarchal cross.
Reverse: +CVNNETTI / small cross.
1.28 gm., 20 mm.
North #501; Seaby #993.

The inscriptions on this coin are somewhat of a mystery. Over the last 150 years there have been many theories as to their meaning. At various times Cvnetesford (Knutsford, Cheshire), Cvnetio, (the Latin name of Marlborough,Wiltshire), and Counde, Shropshire (Cuneet in the Domesaday Book) have been proposed as the city where the CVNNETTI coinage was minted. Still others saw a French origin for the CVNNETTI coinage: similar coins are inscribed with two known locations in France -- QVENTOVICI (no longer exists) and EBRAICE (Evreux, Normandy).

Today it is fairly certain the CVNNETTI coinage was minted in York. The inscriptions on this coin are thought to be Latinized versions of Knutr and Hunedeus, two Viking war leaders who operated in northern England in the late ninth century.

The name Cnut is arranged on the arms of the cross in the manner Christians cross themselves during prayer. This shows that "King Cnut," whoever he was, thought of himself as a Christian. He is not to be confused with the Cnut who was King of England from 1016-1035.
Callimachus
993_P_Hadrian_RPC2680.JPG
2680 PAMPHYLIA , Attalea Hadrian Ae 20 Athena bust23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2680; Baydur 192, Attaleia -; SNG France -; SNG Pfalz - ; SNG Cop 286.

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΑΤΤΑΛΕΩΝ
Bust of Athena with Corinthian helmet and aegis, right

5.10 gr
20 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
1000_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
2685 PAMPHYLIA, Magydus. Hadrian Æ 22 Athena standing10 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2685; SNG France 303

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. with paludamentum, seen from rear.

Rev. ΜΑΓΥΔΕωΝ, ΙΗ (in field, l.)
Athena standing left, holding spear and crowning Nike; serpent to left, shield to right.

6.29 gr
22 mm
6h
okidoki
1028_P_Hadrian_RPC2694.jpg
2694 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian, Artemis9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2694; SNG France 396

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum seen from rear

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Artemis standing facing, with quiver at l. shoulder, holding torch with both hands

10.69 gr
23 mm
6h
okidoki
871_P_Hadrian_RPC2695.jpg
2695 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 20 Artemis standing left22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2695; SNG France 397-8

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate, bust right, with drapery on l. shoulder and across back of neck, seen from front

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Artemis, with quiver and bow in raised hands, running l., head r.; above, crescent

4.81 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
Reverse legend is counter clockwise.
1 commentsokidoki
1277_P_Hadrian_RPC2696.jpg
2696 PAMPHYLIA, Perge Hadrian, Artemis6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2696; SNG France -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 316

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum seen from rear

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Artemis standing r., quiver at l. shoulder, holding bow in her r. hand

7.15 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
170.JPG
27 - Bernay, Eure, France.10 viewsUnion Commercial et Industriel, Bernay, Eure
Aluminium, 25 mm
A/ UNION COMMERCIAL ET INDUSTRIEL DE BERNAY 1921
R/ 10 c
Réfs : Elie 20.2
Gabalor
071~10.JPG
27 - Evreux, Eure, France.9 viewsChambre de Commerce, Evreux, Eure
Aluminium, 23 mm
A/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE D'EVREUX 1921
R/ 10 c
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
609_P_Hadrian_RPC2701.JPG
2701 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 14 Artemis standing right11 viewsReference.
SNG Copenhagen 317; RPC 3, 2701; SNG France 402;

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. with paludamentum, seen from rear

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Artemis with radiate crown standing r., quiver at l. shoulder, resting with her r. hand on torch, holding bow in her l.

2.1 gr
14 mm
h
okidoki
547_P_Hadrian_SNG_Cop316.jpg
2701 var. PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 15 Artemis standing right14 viewsReference.
SNG Copenhagen 317; RPC III, 2701 var. (bust); SNG France 402;

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP.
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. APTEMIΔOΣ ΠEPΓΑIAC.
Artemis with radiate crown standing r., quiver at l. shoulder, resting with her r. hand on torch, holding bow in her l

3.31 gr.
16 mm.
okidoki
990_P_Hadrian_RPC2719var_.JPG
2719var. PAMPHYLIA Aspendus Hadrian AE 15 Cult statues13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2719 var.; BMC 79; SNG France 162 var.; SNG Pfalz 62-63 var.; Howgego 518

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΑС(l.)-ΠΕΝ(r.)
Cult statues of the Aphroditai Kastnietides

3.66 gr
18 mm
5h
okidoki
800_P_Hadrian_RPC2733.jpg
2733 PAMPHYLIA, Side Hadrian AE 24 Apollo standing8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2733; SNG France 801

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front

Rev. СΙΔΗΤωΝ
Apollo Sidetes standing facing, head l., holding pomegranate in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre; in l. field, laurel-branch

6.99 gr
23 mm
6h
okidoki
244_P_Hadrian_BMC_91_4.JPG
2751 CILICIA, Laertes Hadrian, Tyche standing23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2751; BMC 4.(p.91); SNG France 594; SNG Levante 60

Obv. AU KAI TRA ADRIANOC
Laureate head right

Rev. ΛΑΕΡ −ΤΕΙΤΩΝ
Tyche wearing kalathos, holding in right rudder in left cornucopia.

5.37 gr
20 mm
12
okidoki
1232_P_Hadrian_RPC2767var_.JPG
2767 CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian, Goddess standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III 2767 var.; SNG Levante Suppl. 73 var.; SNG France 632 var.; SNG Pfalz 1153-1154 var

Obv. AYT AΔPIANOC KAICA
Laureate and cuirassed bust right

Rev. CYE-ΔP/N ω
Goddess wearing long chiton standing facing, head l., holding patera in r. hand, l. resting on sceptre

3.54 gr
20mm
12h

Note.
Obv. legend: AYT, not AYTO; rev. legend: ΕⲰ-Ν is retrograde
ex Slg. Dr. Theodor Grewer
1 commentsokidoki
503_P_Hadrian_Unpub.jpg
2784A PISIDIA, Conana. Hadrian, Dionysos standing20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2784A; BMC -; SNG France -; Isegrim -.
http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/2784A/

Obv: [ ]ΚΑΙ -[ ]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: KONANЄΩN.
Hermes standing facing, head l., holding purse and caduceus

2.78 gr
15 mm
6h
okidoki
1127_P_hadrian_RPC2793.jpg
2793 PISIDIA, Sagalassus Hadrian ae 22 Zeus seated 15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2793 var. no eagle at feet; SNG France 1766

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. СΑΓΑΛΑССΕωΝ
Zeus seated l., holding Nike on his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre.

8.26 gr
22 mm
6h
okidoki
1310_P_Hadrian_RPC2806.jpg
2806 PISIDIA, Cremna. Hadrian, Aquila between two signa9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2806; vA Pisid. II, 1053-6; SNG Cop. - BMC - SNG France -; von Aulock

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. COL CREMNENS
Aquila between two signa; the signum on the l. is surmounted by a wreath, the signum on the r. by an open hand

16.90 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
347_P_Hadrian.jpg
2819 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 20 Thunderbolt and club22 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 2819; SNG France 2010-12

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
laureate bust right

Rev. CEΛΓΕΩΝ/SELGEWN
Winged thunderbolt between bow and club

6.21 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
240_P_Hadrian__SNG_france_2010.jpg
2820 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 20 Thunderbolt25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2820; SNG France 2010

Obv. ΗΑΔΡΙΑΝ ΚΑΙCAP,
laureate bust right countermark Triskeles

Rev. CEΛΓΕΩΝ
thunderbolt, bow with stag heads on top.

3.87 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
087~7.JPG
30 - Département du Gard, France11 viewsGroupe Commerciaux du Gard.
Aluminium, 20 mm
Av./ 1917 / 1918
Rv./ GROUPE COMMERCIAUX DU GARD 1917 // 25
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
002~7.JPG
30 - La Grand Combe, Gard, France9 viewsJeton de chauffage, aluminium, 39 mm
A/ HOUILLERES DU BASSIN DES CEVENNES // GROUPE CENTRE
R/ BON POUR 1 SAC DE BOIS
Réfs : NMC 1.1
Gabalor
230~0.JPG
30 - Le Vigan, Gard, France13 viewsUnion Commercial et Industriel Viganaise, le Vigan, Gard
Laiton, 19 mm
Av./ UNION COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIEL VIGANAISE
Rv./ 25
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
020~3.JPG
30 - Nîmes, Gard, Conférence de St Vincent de Paul. France9 views1 kilo de pain, laiton, 22 mm
Av./ CONFERENCE DE St VINCENT DE PAUL
Rv./ CONFERENCE DE St VINCENT NÎMES + 1 KILOG DE PAIN
Réfs : - -
Gabalor
068~4.JPG
31 - Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France9 viewsGrand Café de la Comédie, Toulouse, Haute-Garonne
Laiton, 31 mm
A/ GRAND CAFE DE LA COMEDIE - TOULOUSE // 5 c
R/ 5 c
Réfs : - -
Gabalor
238~1.JPG
31 - Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France10 viewsUnion Latine, Comité du Sud Ouest, Toulouse, Haute-Garonne
Aluminium, 20 mm
A/ UNION LATINE / COMITE DU SUD-OUEST
R/ COMITE REGIONAL TOULOUSE DEPt Hte Gne // B.P. 5 c 1933
Réfs : 15.7
Gabalor
coin251.JPG
312. Victorinus27 viewsMarcus Piav(v)onius Victorinus was emperor of the successionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271, following the brief reign of Marius.

Victorinus, born to a family of great wealth, was a soldier under Postumus, the first of the so-called Gallic emperors. Victorinus held the title of tribunus praetorianorum in 266/267, and was co-consul with Postumus in 267 or 268. Following the death of Marius, Victorinus was declared emperor by the troops located at Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), and he was recognized by the provinces of Gaul and Britain, but not Spain, which reunited with the Roman Empire.

During his reign, Victorinus successfully prevented the city of Augustodunum Haeduorum (Autun, France) from rejoining the Roman Empire. The city was besieged for seven months, before it was stormed and plundered.

Victorinus was murdered in 270 or early 271 by Attitianus, one of his officers, whose wife Victorinus had supposedly seduced. Victorinus' mother, Victoria (or Vitruvia), continued to hold power after the death of Victorinus and she arranged for his deification and, after considerable payment to the troops, the appointment of Tetricus I as his successor.

Victorinus is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta. The (dubius) Historia Augusta equally has a short description of Victorinus the Younger, allegedly the son of Victorinus that was appointed Emperor by his family the day his father was murdered, and would have been killed immediately afterwards by the troops.

Victorinus antoninianus. IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left. RIC 118, Cohen 79.
ecoli
coin254.JPG
313. Tetricus I27 viewsCaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic Emperors.

Tetricus was born to a noble family and held the administrative rank of praeses provinciae (provincial governor) of Aquitania at the time of Victorinus' death. Victorinus' mother, Victoria, paid the army heavily to declare Tetricus emperor near Burdigalia (Bordeaux, France), which was approved in Gaul and Britain. Following his appointment, Tetricus repelled Germanic tribes that took advantage of the confusion following the death of Victorinus to invade.

Tetricus installed his capital at Augusta Treverorum (present Trier, Germany, near the vital Rhine border, hence later seat of a Tetrarch) and appointed his son, Tetricus II, Caesar, i.e. junior emperor (273). Tetricus made no attempts to expand the Gallic Empire, other than southward, regaining Aquitania (which had rejoined the Roman empire during the reign of Claudius Gothicus).

In 273, Emperor Aurelian set out to reconquer the western Roman empire, following his victories in the east. Tetricus took his army southward from Trier to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, where Tetricus and his son surrendered to Aurelian.

According to literary sources, after being displayed as trophies at Aurelian's triumph in Rome, the lives of Tetricus and his son were spared by Aurelian and Tetricus was even given the title of corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum, that is governor of a region of Italia. Tetricus died at an unknown date living in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.
ecoli
293.JPG
32 - Auch, Gers, France9 viewsVille d'Auch, Gers
Aluminium, 27,5 mm
A/ AUGUSTA AUSCORUM
R/ VILLE D'AUCH / 10 C / 1917
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
665_P_Hadrian_RPC3209.jpg
3209 CILICIA, Germanicopolis. Hadrian Zeus standing48 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3209; SNG France 756 = Waddington 4735.

Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤωΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС.
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum.

Rev: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΠ.
Zeus standing left, holding patera and sceptre; to left, eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in beak.

6.17 gr
23 mm
3h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection

The city of Germanicopolis was founded by the Graeco-Armenian King Antiochios IV of Commagene in honor of his Roman patron Germanicus. Its only coinage dates to the time of Hadrian, whose name it bore as an epithet.
1 commentsokidoki
1105_P_Hadrian_RPC3217.jpg
3217 CILICIA, Coropissus. Hadrian 130-31 AD Tyche standing19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3217; SNG France 763-764; SNG Levante 584, Suppl. 153 ; SNG Pfalz -;

Issue Regnal year 13

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΙΓ
Laureate bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from front, r.

Rev. ΚΟΡΟΠΙССΕωΝ ΚΗΤ ΜΗΤΡΟ
Tyche standing, l., resting with her r. hand on rudder and holding cornucopia in l.

9.61 gr
23 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1065_P_Hadrian_RPC3217.JPG
3217 CILICIA, Coropissus. Hadrian 130-31 AD Tyche standing11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3217; SNG France 763-764; SNG Levante 584, Suppl. 153 ; SNG Pfalz -;

Issue Regnal year 13

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΙΓ
Laureate bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from front, r.

Rev. ΚΟΡΟΠΙССΕωΝ ΚΗΤ ΜΗΤΡΟ
Tyche standing, l., resting with her r. hand on rudder and holding cornucopia in l.

9.61 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
ex Münzzentrum, Auktion 56, Los 352
okidoki
747_P_Hadrian_RPC3233var_.jpg
3233 CILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum Hadrian Ae 27 Heracles standing28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3233; SNG France 968

Issue Year 20 (K)

Obv. ΤΟ Κ ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC ΣΕΒ Π
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from rear.
Countermark ?

Rev. ϹΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩ ΠΡ ΚΑΛΥ ΤΗϹ ΙΕΡ, ΚΑΙ ΑϹ ΑΥΤ (in field r.)
Heracles, wearing short chiton, standing, facing, head l., resting on club and lion’s skin.

14.22 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
1079_P_Hadrian_RPC3243.jpg
3243 CILICIA, Olba Hadrian Ae 22. Thunderbolt11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3243; SNG Levante 652 (same die); SNG France - ; Staffieri 44

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΟΛΒΕ(to r.)-ΩΝ(to l.)
Thunderbolt

8.90 gr
22 mm
okidoki
489_P_Hadrian_Prieur_763.jpg
3260 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche54 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3260/14; Prieur --; SNG France 1404; SNG Levante –.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC CΕ
Laureate bust right, slight drapery

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding palm frond and cornucopia; at feet, half-length figure of river-god Cydnus swimming left; all within wreath.

10.38 gr
25 mm
12 h

From the Olav E. Klingenberg Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 88 (14 September 2011), lot 1004.
Note from CNG
Most of the references do not distinguish the silver issues of Hadrian from Tarsus, but it is clear there are two distinct denominations. The heavier, at about 14 grams, is the traditional tetradrachm. The lighter, at slightly over 10 grams, is most likely a tridrachm.
1 commentsokidoki
860_P_Hadrian_RPC3263.jpg
3263 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm Lion attacking Bull56 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3263; SNG France 1400; Prieur 764

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Lion, l., attacking bull kneeling, l.

9.78 gr
26 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
470_P_Hadrian_RPC3278.JPG
3278 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian, Demos of Tarsus14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3278; BMC 152; NG Levante 1003 = SNG von Aulock 5987; SNG France -

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗС ΤΑΡСΟΥ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ⊏ ⊏ΕΒΑСΤΟ⊏ (square sigmas)
laureate, right, with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. ΔΗΜΟ⊏ ΤΑΡ⊏ΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩ⊏
Demos, wearing himation over left. arm and lower limbs, seated, left., on throne, holding wreath in right hand.

18.27 gr
25 mm
5h
okidoki
676_P_Hadrian_RPC3280A.jpg
3279A CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian AE 26 Tyche of Tarsus27 viewsReference. very rare
RPC III, 3279A; RPC -; BMC -; SNG France -; Coll. Weber -; SNG Copenhagen 358 var. (Laureate obv. bust).

Obv. AYTO KAΙ AΔPIANOY CEB ΟΛΥNΔΙΟC.
Bare head right, slight drapery on far shoulder.

Rev: AΔΡΙΑΝΗC TARCOY MHTPOΠOΛΕΩC.
Veiled and turreted Tyche seated left on a sphinx decorated diphros, holding bunch of grapes and grain ears; at her feet to left, river god Kydnos swimming left.

10.88 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
162~1.JPG
33 - Bordeaux, Gironde, France.8 viewsCercle des sous officiers du 58ème, Bordeaux, Gironde
Laiton, 27 mm
A/ CERCLE DES SOUS OFFICIER DU 58e
R/ 05 (en creux)
Réfs : non retrouvé
Gabalor
1235_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3300.JPG
3300 CILICIA, Tarsus, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian, Tuche and Zeus13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3300; SNG France 1424-1429; SNG Levante -; SNG Pfalz 133

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝωΝ ΤΑΡϹΕωΝ
Zeus seated, l., holding Victory and resting on sceptre

Rev. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche of the City, turreted and veiled, seated, r., on seat decorated with foreleg and wing of sphinx, holding ears of corn and poppy-head; at her feet, river-god Kydnos,
crowned with sedge, swimming, r.; the whole in wreath

11.99 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
ex Slg. Dr. Theodor Grewer
1 commentsokidoki
291_P_Hadrian_RPC3333.jpg
3333 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Eagle standing26 viewsReference
RPC III, 3333; Prieur 718; SNG France 2329

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Eagle standing three quarters l., head r., wings spread, on harpe; in exergue, goat kneeling, right

13.09 gr
26 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
645_P_Hadrian_RPC3335.jpg
3335 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tridrachm 117-18 AD Amaltheia standing25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3335; SNG Levante 1714 = SNG von Aulock 5450; SNG France 2328; Prieur 716

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ [ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ]
Amaltheia standing facing, head r., holding cornucopia in r. hand and infant Zeus presenting her with wreath in l.; at her feet, r., goat kneeling, head turned back.

9.97 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
CNG eAuction 375 2016 estate Thomas Bentley Cederlind. Ex Cederlind 165 (1 August 2012), no. 155; Gorny & Mosch 200 (10 October 2011), lot 2223.
1 commentsokidoki
743_P_Hadrian_RPC3336.jpg
3336 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tridrachm 117-18 AD Athena standing24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3336; SNG Levante 1715; SNG France 2327; Prieur 714

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Athena standing l., holding in r. hand patera over goat, r. head turned back, l. hand resting on shield; behind, spear

8.99 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
The kneeling goat on the coin is a play on words as the city name sounds like the Greek word for goats.
okidoki
646_P_Hadrian_RPC3338.jpg
3338 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tridrachm 117-18 AD Head of Alexander33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3338; Prieur 715A (this coin); SNG France 2326; SNG Levante –

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Head of Alexander with taenia, r.; below, goat, l., head turned back.

10.05 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
CNG eAuction 375 2016, estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind. Ex Cederlind 159 (31 May 2011), lot 136; Gorny & Mosch 156 (5 March 2007), lot 1802.
2 commentsokidoki
551_P_Hadrian_RPC3348.jpg
3348 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tetradrachm 132-33 AD Eagle standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3348; Prieur 720; SNG France 2231; SNG Levante 1718.

Issue Year 179 (ΘΟΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ Π Π
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r.

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΘΟΡ
Eagle standing three quarters l., head r., wings spread, on harpe; below, goat, kneeling right.

13.3 gr
31 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
465_P_Hadrian_Prieur721.jpg
3349 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tetradrachm 133-34 AD Eagle standing44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3349; Prieur 721; SNG France 2230-32; SNG Levante 1719.

Issue Year 180 (ΠΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΑΡ ΚΑΙΣ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ ΣΒ ΠΠ
laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from front, fold of cloak on front shoulder / AIGEAIWN ETOYS .PP., eagle standing front, head right, on harpe, goat in ex..

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥΣ.ΠΡ
Eagle standing facing on harpe, head right; in exergue, goat kneeling right.

14.06 gr
27 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
1369_P_Hadrian_RPC3394~0.jpg
3394 CILICIA, Epiphanea Hadrian, 137-38 AD Sabina2 views
Reference.
RPC III, 3394; BMC 1; P: 2004/164; SNG France –; SNG Levante 1816 (same obv. die); SNG von Aulock –; for c/m: Howgego 104.

Issue Year 205 (EC)

Obv. AYTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC Ϲ[ΕΒΑϹΤΟ]Ϲ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right
c/m male head r.

Rev. ϹΑΒΕΙΝΑ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΗ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕⲰΝ, ΕⳞ (in l. or r. field)
Draped bust of Sabina, r., wearing stephane

11.78 gr
28 mm
1 commentsokidoki
1369_P_Hadrian_RPC3394.jpg
3394 CILICIA, Epiphanea Hadrian, 137-38 AD Sabina 6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3394; BMC 1; P: 2004/164; SNG France –; SNG Levante 1816 (same obv. die); SNG von Aulock –; for c/m: Howgego 104.

Issue Year 205 (EC)

Obv. AYTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC Ϲ[ΕΒΑϹΤΟ]Ϲ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right
c/m male head r.

Rev. ϹΑΒΕΙΝΑ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΗ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕⲰΝ, ΕⳞ (in l. or r. field)
Draped bust of Sabina, r., wearing stephane

11.78 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
189~0.JPG
34 - Béziers, Hérault, France.10 viewsSociété du Grand Café Glacier, Beziers, Hérault
Aluminium, 25 mm
A/ SOCIETE DU GRAND CAFE GLACIER / 1921 / BEZIERS
R/ BON POUR 25 CENT
Réfs : Elie 55.2
Gabalor
041~9.JPG
34 - Béziers, Hérault, France.15 viewsGrand Café Glacier, Humarau Beziers, Hérault
Laiton, 24 mm
A/ GRAND CAFE GLACIER / HUMARAU / BEZIERS / 10 c
R/ 10 c
Réfs : Elie 40.2
Gabalor
025~3.JPG
34 - Béziers, Hérault, France.12 viewsGrand Café de la Paix, Beziers, Hérault
Aluminium, 28 mm
A/ GRAND CAFE DE LA PAIX / BEZIERS
R/ ...
Réfs : Elie - - -
Gabalor
203.JPG
34 - Hérault, France.9 viewsSyndicat de l'Alimentation en gros de l'Hérault, Hérault
Aluminium, 26,5 mm
A/ SYNDICAT DE L'ALIMENTATION EN GROS DE L'HERAULT 1921 // 25 c
R/ JETON REMBOURSABLE A PRESENTATION // 25 c
Réfs : Elie 20.3
Gabalor
029~9.JPG
34 - Montpelier, Hérault, France.9 viewsJeton Quercy (quercy Antoine, épicerie "Aux Halles de Paris",6 Place de l'Observatoire).
5 centimes, laiton, 21 mm
A/ JETON QUERCY / 5c / 1914-16
R/ 5 C
Réfs : Elie 315.1
Gabalor
117~3.JPG
34 - Montpellier, Hérault, France.6 viewsCafé de France, Montpelier, Hérault
Aluminium, 28 x 21 mm
A/ CAFE DE FRANCE / MONTPELLIER
R/ - - -
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
Faustina_II_Hadrianopolis_Jurukova_63.jpg
34 – 2 - 1 – FAUSTINA II (161 - 175 D.C.)40 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 22 mm 7.2 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥC]ΤΕΙΝ - Α C[ΕΒΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔPIANOΠ - [OΛEITΩN]” – Eusebia (= Pietas) de pié a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 63-67,71 y 76-81 pl.7 y 8 – Sear GIC # 1725 Pag.160 – SNG Cop #558 – Mc Clean II #4518 pl.169.15 – Righetti #269-70 – Fitzwilliam Museum Leake #3956, European greece, p.53.9 – ANS NY #1944.100.15685- Berlin Museo Estatal #1899/476 – Lischine #405-6 – Paris Biblioteca Nacional de Francia #603 (485), 605 (486) y 611 (491)
mdelvalle
Jurukova_63_Hadrianopolis_Tracia_Faustina_Jr.jpg
34-36 - FAUSTINA Jr. (161 - 175 D.C.)6 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 22 mm 7.2 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥC]ΤΕΙΝ - Α C[ΕΒΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔPIANOΠ - [OΛEITΩN]” – Eusebia (= Pietas) de pié a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 63-67,71 y 76-81 pl.7 y 8 – Sear GIC # 1725 Pag.160 – SNG Cop #558 – Mc Clean II #4518 pl.169.15 – Righetti #269-70 – Fitzwilliam Museum Leake #3956, European greece, p.53.9 – ANS NY #1944.100.15685- Berlin Museo Estatal #1899/476 – Lischine #405-6 – Paris Biblioteca Nacional de Francia #603 (485), 605 (486) y 611 (491)
mdelvalle
353.jpg
353.jpg31 viewsRemi in Gallia, Région de Reims, ca. 60-40 BC.,
Æ 21 (19-21 mm / 5,45 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑↖ (ca. 320°),
Obv.: [AT]ISOS (downwards before) / [RE]MOS (downwards behind) , beardless head facing left, four-pointed floral ornament behind - Tête à gauche, un torque au cou. Légende devant et derrière la tête. Fleur à quatre pétales derrière la nuque, grènetis.
Rev.: lion at bay left, dolphin below - Anépigraphe. Lion élancé à gauche, la queue entre les pattes et enroulée jusqu'au-dessus du dos. Une esse au-dessus de la croupe, grènetis.
DT. 596 ; LT. 8054 var. ; BMC Celtic 71 ; Scheers 147 ; Allen 'Coins of the Celts', illustrated as nos. 446 and 447 .

thanks to Alan ("Manzikert") for the id

Les Rèmes étaient l'un des peuples les plus puissants de la Gaule et les fidèles alliés des Romains. Le territoire des Rèmes s'étendait sur l'actuelle Champagne, le long de l'Aisne. Ils avaient pour voisins les Atuatuques, les Trévires, les Médiomatriques, les Lingons, les Suessions, les Bellovaques et les Nerviens. Ils dénoncèrent à César la coalition des peuples belges de 57 avant J.-C. dont faisaient partie, les Suessions qui partageaient les mêmes lois et les mêmes magistrats. Leur principal oppidum était Bibrax. La capitale de la civitas à l'époque gallo-romaine était Durocortorum (Reims).

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica). The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle.
Their capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France) the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry.
During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
Arminius
218~1.JPG
38 - Grenoble, Isère, France.19 viewsCafé de l'Ascenseur, Grenoble, Isère
Laiton, 24 mm
A/ CAFE DE L'ASCENSEUR
R/ 25 C
Réfs : Elie 25.1
Gabalor
1130_P_Hadrian_RPC3869.jpg
3869 PHOENICIA, Sidon. Hadrian, 117 AD Europa on bull7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3869; Rouvier 1473, BMC 224, Abou Diwan 1535-8

Issue Year 227

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩ ΣΕΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΣΙΔΩΝΟΣ ΘΕΑΣ
Europa on bull galloping r.; in r. field, ZΚΣ

10.14 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection
okidoki
185~2.JPG
39 - Lons-le-Saunier, Jura, France.13 viewsCaisse de Famille, Economat St Désiré, Lons-Le-Saunier, Jura
Maillechort, 18,5 mm
A/ CAISSE DE FAMILLE DE LONS LE SAUNIER
R/ ECONOMAT St DESIRE // MON DIEU DONNEZ NOUS NOTRE PAIN QUOTIDIEN // 50 c
Réfs : Elie 10.4
Gabalor
1129_P_Hadrian_RPC3914.jpg
3914 Phoenicia, Acco-Ptolemaïs. Hadrian Tyche 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3914; Kadman 105; Sofaer 139-41

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. COL PTOL
Tyche with two ears of corn seated r. on rocks; below, river god

8.14 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection
okidoki
0200-1Fr_Ceres_1888.jpg
3° republique - 1 franc 1888 A115 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
. REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE ., tête de Cérès a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, couronne de lauriers et d'olivier avec au centre 1 FRANC 1888 en trois lignes, a l'exergue A
Tranche cannelée
5.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 216/10
86-015
Potator II
0210-1Fr_Semeuse_1901.jpg
3° republique - 1 franc 190161 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, semeuse allant a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, 1 FRANC en deux lignes, en dessous une branche d'olivier, a l'exergue 1901
Tranche cannelée
5.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 217/6
84-001
1 commentsPotator II
0190-10c_Ceres_1872.jpg
3° republique - 10 centimes 1872 A43 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
* REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE * 1872, tête de Cérès a gauche
* LIBERTE * EGALITE * FRATERNITE, couronne de lauriers et d'olivier avec au centre 10 CENTIMES en deux lignes, A dessous
Tranche lisse
9.90 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 135/8
Potator II
0250-2Fr_Semeuse_1910.jpg
3° republique - 2 francs 191029 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, semeuse allant a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, 2 FRANCS en deux lignes, en dessous une branche d'olivier, a l'exergue 1910
Tranche cannelée
10.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 266/10
Ex Victor Gadoury collection
97-045
Potator II
0320-2F_2gol.jpg
3° republique - 2 francs 193957 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, buste de la république a gauche, surfrappé en travers "DE GAULE" (sic !)
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, entre deux cornes d'abondance 2 FRANCS en deux lignes 1939 en dessous
Tranche lisse
8.08 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 268/12
This is a funny one. It's the common type of 2 francs coin used during WW II, but someone who probably didn't agree with what the french official political direction in those times was, thought they should let their opinions known by others. A nice "everydays life" item I think
75-001
1 commentsPotator II
107~2.JPG
40 - Département des Landes, France8 viewsChambre de Commerce des Landes
Aluminium, 22,5 mm
A/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE DES LANDES / 1921.
R/ 5 Cent
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
938_P_Hadrian_RPC4030.jpg
4030 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian AE 21 132-33 AD Tyche standing16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4030; Sofaer 69; De Saulcy 6-7, BMC 36

Issue Year 4 = 193

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС С
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. ΓΑΖΑ Δ (Ε)ΕΠΙ ΓЧΡ
Tyche standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; heifer to lower left, symbol of Marnas to lower right.

8.58 gr
21 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection, purchased from Shraga Quedar.
1 commentsokidoki
939_P_Hadrian_RPC4031.jpg
4031 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian AE 21 132-33 AD Heracles standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4031; Sofaer 73

Issue Year 4 = 193

Obv. Α ΚΑ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝ СƐ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right with slight drapery

Rev. ΓΑΖΑ Δ ΕΠΙ ΓЧΡ
Heracles standing r., with club and lion-skin; to l., מ

4.16 gr
17 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection.

Hadrian visited Gaza more than once, and it was upon such a visit in AD 128 that an additional reckoning date, that of the επιδημία (imperial visit), was added. During one of his trips the great temple of Zeus-Marnas may have been founded, as it first appears on the coins of Hadrian.
okidoki
175~1.JPG
41 - Blois, Loir-et-Cher, France.8 viewsChambre de Commerce, Blois, Loir-et-Cher
Aluminium, 23,5 mm
A/ VILLE DE BLOIS - CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE
R/ SYNDICAT INDUSTRIEL ET COMMERCIAL // 10 CENT 1922
Réfs : Elie 10.6
Gabalor
011~7.JPG
42 - Dancé, Loire, France.9 views25 centimes, aluminium, 23 mm
A/ CAFE MEANDRE DANCE (LOIRE)
R/ BON POUR 25 C EN CONSOMMATION
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
093~5.JPG
42 - Estivareilles, Loire, France.8 viewsCharet négociant, Estivareilles, Loire
Zinc nickelé, 21 mm
A/ CHARET E. - NEGOCIANT - ESTIVAREILLES (LOIRE)
R/ 75 c
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
077~5.JPG
42 - la Fouillouse, Loire, France.11 viewsCafé Durand, la Fouillouse, Loire
Aluminium, 21 mm
A/ CAFE DURAND JEAN A LA FOUILLOUSE
R/ BON POUR 12 C 1/2 EN CONSOMMATION
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
209~0.JPG
42 - Lorette, Loire, France.13 viewsCafé restaurant Bonjour, Lorette, Loire
Zinc nickelé, 21 mm
A/ CAFE RESTAURANT BONJOUR LORETTE
R/ BON POUR 12 c 1/2 EN CONSOMMATION
Réfs : Elie 25.1
Gabalor
269~0.JPG
42 - St-Maurice-en-Gourgeois, Loire, France10 viewsCafé de la place, Berger Faure, Saint-Maurice-en-Gourgois, Loire
Zinc nickelé, 24 mm
A/ CAFE DE LA PLACE / BERGER FAURE / St MAURICE EN GOURGOIS
R/ BON POUR 12 c 1/2 EN CONSOMMATION
Réfs : Elie 20.1
Gabalor
077_(2).JPG
43 - Le Puy, Haute-Loire, France.11 viewsCafé Miramand, le Puy, Haute Loire
Laiton, 25 mm
A/ CAFE MIRAMAND LE PUY
R/ BON POUR 25 c EN CONSOMATION
Réfs : Elie 45.1
Gabalor
017~4.JPG
44 - Coueron, Loire-Atlantique, France10 views5 centimes, cuivre, 19 mm
A/ USINES DE COUERON
R/ 5 C
Réfs : Elie 20.1
Gabalor
023~5.JPG
44 - Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, France.15 views1k 500, laiton, 27 mm
A/ EMPLOYES DU CHEMIN DE FER D'ORLEANS // BOULANGERIE COOPERATIVE
R/ NANTES 1 k 500 174
Réfs : Elie 10.2a
Gabalor
055~6.JPG
45 - Checy, Loiret, France14 viewsComité de Chécy-Chateauneuf-Sully-Vitry, Loiret
Aluminium, 27 mm
A/ COMITES DE CHECY-CHATEAUNEUF-SULLY-VITRY // LOIRET // 1922 // A
R/ 10 Cent
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
228~1.JPG
48 - Villefort et Vialas, Lozère, France15 viewsJeton de nécessité des mines de Villefort et Vialas, Lozère
Laiton, 28 mm
A/ MINES DE VILLEFORT & VIALAS
R/ 2 FRANCS
NMC 1.4
Gabalor
SNG_Paris_452_Assarion_PERGA_Caracala.jpg
48-60 - CARACALLA (198 - 211 D.C.)13 viewsPERGA - Panfilia
(Hoy cerca de la Ciudad de Murtana, Turquía

AE Diarión ?
17 mm 5.4gr.

Anv: " AY K M AY ANTΩNINOC CEB" – Cab. laur. a der.
Rev: ”ΠEPΓAIΩN", Artemisa estante a der. lanzando flechas con su arco.

Acuñada: 198 - 217 D.C.

Referencias: SNG France #438 - ANS 1951.94.29 - SNG Paris III #452
mdelvalle
062~7.JPG
51 - Courcy, Marne, France11 viewsMess des Sous-Officiers, Courcy, Marne.
Cuivre, 19 mm
A/ MESS DES Ss OFFICIERS DE COURCY
R/ 10 c
Elie : 10.1
Gabalor
071~11.JPG
51 - Epernay, Marne, France11 viewsUnion des Commerçants Détaillants, Epernay, Marne.
Aluminium, 27 mm
A/ UNION DES COMMERCANTS DETAILLANTS D'EPERNAY
R/ 25 c / 1922
Elie : 10.3
Gabalor
51-Edward-III.jpg
51. Edward III16 viewsGroat, 1351-1352, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWARD DEI G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
4.43 gm., 28 mm.
North #1147; Seaby #1565.

Classification and dating from North, Vol 2, p. 29-31:
- Fourth coinage (no groats in the 1'st - 3'rd coinages).
- Pre-treaty period 1351-1361, with French title.
- London "series C" 1351-1352:

mint mark: Cross 1 (p. 29); closed C and E; Roman N, but also backwards N; wedgefoot on R.

Callimachus
52-Edward-Black-Prince.jpg
52. Edward the Black Prince.19 viewsHardi d' argent, ca 1362-1372, Poitiers mint.
Obverse: ED PO GENT REGI AGIE / Half-length figure of the Prince, facing, under Gothic canopy, sword in right hand.
Reverse: PRINCIPS AQITAIN / Long cross with lis in first and third angles, and leopard in second and fourth angles.
Mint mark: P between Q and I in AQITAIN on reverse.
1.12 gm., 19 mm.
Elias #205b.

The name of Edward the Black Prince exists only on coins of English possessions in France, like this coin from Aquitaine.
Callimachus
027~2.JPG
54 - Longwy, Meurthe et Moselle, Aciéries de Longwy, Hôtel Economat. France12 views1 franc, laiton, 25 mm
Av./ ACIERIES DE LONGWY // HOTEL ECONOMAT
Rv./ UN FRANC // 1 // 1883
Réfs : Elie-10.4
Gabalor
223~2.JPG
54 - Longwy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France13 viewsMeurthe et Moselle, Aciéries de Longwy, Hôtel Economat.
laiton, 24 mm
Av./ ACIERIES DE LONGWY // HOTEL ECONOMAT
Rv./ 20 CENTIMES 1883
Réfs : Elie-10.2
Gabalor
253.JPG
54 - Saulnes, Merthe-et-Moselle, France11 viewsCoopérative, Saulnes, Meurthe-et-Moselle
Laiton, 26 mm
A/ UNION COOPERATIVE / SAULNES
R/ FLÛTE
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
54-Henry-IV.jpg
54. Henry IV.26 viewsPenny, heavy coinage: 1399-1412, York mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, quatrefoil at center.
Classification: The identifying feature of the mint of York is the Quatrefoil at the center of the reverse cross. The broad face with rounded chin identifies the specific catalog numbers in both North and Seaby.

1.03 gm., 18 mm.
North #1351; Seaby #1722.

Provenance: ex. Lord Stewartby collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
55-Henry-V.jpg
55. Henry V.19 viewsGroat, London mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGLIE Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing; mullet on right shoulder.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Lond cross with three pellets in each angle.
3.72 gm., 25 mm.
North #1367; Seaby #1765.

Classification: The identifying feature on this coin is the mullet on the right shoulder. That places it in "class C" in both North and Seaby.

Callimachus
56-Henry-VI.jpg
56. Henry VI.23 viewsGroat, 1422-1427; Calaise mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust facing, with annulet on each side of neck.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM VILLA CALISIE / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, annulet in two quarters and after POSVI.
3.43 gm., 27 mm.
North #1424 or #1427; Seaby #1836.

Classification: North, Vol. 2, p. 56 is a bit confused as to the differences between #1424 and #1427. Otherwise this coin is very easy to assign to the "annulet issue" of 1422-1427.

Callimachus
58-Edward-IV.jpg
58. Edward IV.18 viewsGroat, light coinage of 1464-1470; London mint.
Obverse: EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing, quatrefoils at neck.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: crown on both sides.
3.09 gm., 25 mm.
North #1570; Seaby #2000.

Classification: North classifies Edward IV's groats into at least 22 types. Fortunately many of them have different mint marks, and the crown mint mark on both sides of this coin readily identify it as type 7. It is suggested that this mint mark was used from July 1466 to July 1467.

Callimachus
187~2.JPG
59 - Aniche, Nord, France9 viewsJeton de 30 sols des mines d'Aniche, Nord
cuivre, 30 mm
A/ M D 1820
R/ 30 S
Refs : NMC 1.2
Gabalor
60-Richard-III.jpg
60. Richard III.19 viewsGroat, London mint.
Obverse: RICARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross, with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: boar's head on both sides.
2.93 gm., 25 mm.
North #1679; Seaby #2159.
1 commentsCallimachus
179~2.JPG
63 - Chamalière, Puy-de-Dôme, France.15 viewsEcole de natation, Chamalières, Puy de Dôme
Zinc nickelé, 27 mm
A/ ECOLE DE NATATION - Dr E. CHAPON - CHAMALIERE (P. de D)
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
63-Henry-VIII.jpg
63. Henry VIII.31 viewsGroat, Second coinage 1526-1544, London mint.
Obverse: HENRIC VIII D G R AGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, right.
Reverse: POSVI DEV' ADIVTORE' MEV' / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: Fleur-de-lis both sides.
2.57 gm., 24 mm.
North #1797; Seaby #2337E.

Dating: North, Vol. 2, p. 85, presents several types of Fs and Ms which appear on this issue (second coinage). The M on this coin is obviously M1. This dates the coin to 1529-1532.
Callimachus
155~2.JPG
64 - Bayonne, Pyrénées-Atlantique, France14 viewsChambre de Commerce, Bayonne, Pyrénées Atlantiques
Aluminium, 24 mm
A/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE DE BAYONNE 1920
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE - BAYONNE // 50 c
Réfs : Elie 10.5
Gabalor
020~8.JPG
64 - Bayonne, Pyrénées-Atlantique, France17 viewsChambre de Commerce, Bayonne, Pyrénées Atlantiques
Fer, 25 mm
A/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE / BAYONNE 1917
R/ REMBOURSABLE AVANT 1922 // 10 c
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
204~3.JPG
64 - Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantique, France13 viewsMichelet O. (épicier), Pau, Pyrénées Atlantiques
Aluminium, 16 mm
A/ HENRIC LOU BIARNES - PAU
R/ O MICHELET - 5 c REMBOURSABLE EN MARCHANDISES
Réfs : Elie 50.1
Gabalor
008~0.JPG
66 - Perpignan, Pyrénées Orientale, France.10 views25 centimes, aluminium, 25 mm
Av./ PERPIGNAN, 1929
Rv./ CHAMBRE SYNDICALE DES COMMERCANTS // 25 CENT.
Réfs : Elie, 10.14
Gabalor
085.JPG
69 - Lyon, Rhône, France8 viewsTaverne du Lion d'Argent, Lyon, Rhône
Maillechort, 26 mm
A/ TAVERNE DU LION D'ARGENT - L. ROUX // 40 C
R/ - -
Réfs : Elie T15.3
Gabalor
218~0.JPG
69 - Lyon, Rhône, France12 viewsEden-Bar, Lyon, Rhône
Laiton, 24 mm
A/ EDEN-BAR LYON
R/ NON REMBOURSABLE EN ESPECES // 15 c
Réfs : Elie E25.4
Gabalor
112~4.JPG
69 - Lyon, Rhône, France9 viewsTaverne du Lion d'Argent, Lyon, Rhône
Maillechort, 21,5 mm
A/ TAVERNE DU LION D'ARGENT - L. ROUX // 5 C
R/ - -
Réfs : Elie T15.1
Gabalor
titus RIC208.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 1Jan-23June 79 AD91 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT VIII COS VII (captive kneeling right in front of trophy of arms)
ref: RIC II 208(Vespasian) (S), C.334(6 francs)
3.32gms, 18mm
Rare

This reverse probably commemorating another Agricola's victory in Britannia or reminder of the successful Jewish War. I think it's belong to the Judea Capta series, because the captive wearing a typical jewish cap, and in ancient times both jewish men and women are wearing dresses covering most of their body (arms and legs). Celtic warriors had a long hair to scary the enemy (and they wearing pants).
4 commentsberserker
012~2.JPG
71 - Le Grand Moloy, Saint Léger du Bois, Saône et Loire, France.14 views1 franc, laiton, 23 mm
A/ MINES DE HOUILLE DU GRAND MOLOY / UN FRANC
R/ ALBERT QUEULAIN 1 FRANC
Réfs : Numismatique des mines et carrières (A.C.J.M.) - 1.1
Gabalor
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
191~0.JPG
73 - Chambery, Savoie, France.11 viewsSociété Coopérative des Agents de la Cie P.L.M. (fondée en 1887), Chambery, Savoie
Maillechort, 25 mm
A/ SOCIETE COOPERATIVE DES AGENTS DE - LA COMPie P.L.M. CHAMBERY // 5 fr
R/ SOCIETE COOPERATIVE DE LA Cie P.L.M. - 1898
Réfs : Elie 25.6
Gabalor
059~4.JPG
75 - Paris, France.11 viewsComptoir d'Escompte de Paris, jeton de présence
Laiton, 38 mm
Réfs : - -
Gabalor
195~3.JPG
75 - Paris, France.9 viewsFourmi du Commerce, Paris, Seine
Zinc nickelé, 21 mm
A/ FOURMI DU COMMERCE - 76 RUE CHARLOT - PARIS // 50 c
R/ REMBOURSABLE ESPECES ET RENTES VIAGERES
Réfs : Elie F100.3
Gabalor
010~4.JPG
75 - Paris, Seine, France9 views25 centimes, aluminium, 23 mm
A/ PRISON St LAZARE
R/ 25
Réfs : Elie P245.4
Gabalor
196.JPG
76 - Elbeuf, Seine-Maritime, France12 viewsChambre de Commerce, Elbeuf, Seine-Maritime
Aluminium, 25 mm
A/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE D'ELBEUF 1921
R/ 10 C
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
093.JPG
76 - Gournay-en-Bray, Seine-Maritime, France12 viewsUnion Commerciale, Gournay-en-Bray, Seine-Maritime
Aluminium, 19 mm
A/ UNION COMMERCIALE / GOURNAY-EN-BRAY
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
164.JPG
80 - Amiens, Somme, France.8 viewsJeton de nécessité, Amiens, Somme
Aluminium, 27 mm
A/ 1921
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE // AMIENS // 10 C
Réfs : Elie 10.4
Gabalor
023~4.JPG
80 - Amiens, Somme, France.9 views25 centimes, aluminium, 30 mm
A/ 1921
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE // AMIENS // 25 C
Réfs : Elie 10.5
Gabalor
179~1.JPG
80 - Amiens, Somme, France.10 viewsJeton de nécessité, Amiens, Somme
Aluminium, 30 mm
A/ 1921
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE // AMIENS // 25 C
Réfs : Elie 10.5
Gabalor
001~11.JPG
80 - Amiens, Somme, France.10 viewsChambre de Commerce, Amiens, Somme
Aluminium, 21 mm
A/ 1921
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE // AMIENS // 5 C
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
003~14.JPG
81 - Albi, Tarn, France.14 viewsVille d'Albi, Tarn
Fer, 23,5 mm
A/ VILLE D'ALBI TARN
R/ VALABLE / JUSQU'AU 31 DECEMBRE 1920 // 5 c
Réfs : Elie 10.1
Gabalor
146~6.JPG
81 - Albi, Tarn, France.10 viewsFaure (négociant), Albi, Tarn
Laiton, 21 mm
A/ FAURE 5 c
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 40.1
Gabalor
198.JPG
81 - Carmaux, Tarn, France.7 viewsSociété des mines, Carmaux, Tarn
Aluminium, 25 mm
A/ SOCIETE DES MINES DE CARMAUX 1917
R/ JETON VALABLE JUSQU'AU 31 DECEMBRE 1918 // 5 c
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
042~0.JPG
81 - Carmaux, Tarn, France.8 viewsSociété des mines, Carmau, Tarn
Aluminium, 30 mm
A/ SOCIETE DES MINES DE CARMAUX 1916
R/ JETON VALABLE JUSQU'AU 31 DECEMBRE 1918 // 10 c
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
204~2.JPG
81 - Casres, Tarn, France.11 viewsAu Printemps, Ch. Desplats, Castres, Tarn
Laiton, 24 mm
A/ AU PRINTEMPS / CH. DESPLATS / CASTRES
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 20.1
Gabalor
047~5.JPG
81 - Castres, Tarn, France.10 viewsRestaurant Coopératif D.P.A. (Dépôt du Parc d'Artillerie du XVIe corps d'armée), Castres, Tarn
Laiton, 23 mm
A/ RESTAURANT COOPERATIF / CASTRES // D.P.A.
R/ 25 c
Réfs : Elie 25.6
Gabalor
031~1.JPG
84 - Avignon, Vaucluse, Hôpital Psychiatrique de Montdevergues. France9 views20 francs, laiton, 36 mm
Av./ HOPITAL PSYCHIATRIQUE DE MONTDEVERGUES // VAUCLUSE // 20 F // CANTINE
Rv./ 20 F
Réfs : Elie-50.4
Gabalor
055~5.JPG
84 - Carpentras, Vaucluse, France10 viewsSyndicat des Hôtels et Cafés, Carpentras, Vaucluse
Aluminium, 25 mm
Av./ SYNDICAT DES HOTELS & CAFES / REGION CARPENTRAS
Rv./ 10 c
Réfs : Elie- 10.1
Gabalor
184~3.JPG
90 - Beaucourt, Territoire de Belfort, France.10 viewsFraternelle, Beaucourt, Territoire de Belfort
Laiton nickelé 25 mm
R/ FRATERNELLE - BEAUCOURT // 20 c
étoile en contre marque
Réfs : Elie 15.2
Gabalor
108~1.JPG
90 - Territoire de Belfort, France.8 viewsCoopérative Alimentaire, Beaucourt, Territoire de Belfort
Laiton nickelé 27 mm
A/ COOPERATIVE ALIMENTAIRE - BEAUCOURT // UN POUR TOUS - TOUS POUR UN, contremarque "EXPOSITION"
R/ COOPERATION // 20 c
Réfs : Elie 10.6
Gabalor
050~4.JPG
92 - Boulogne-Billancourt, Hauts-de-Seine, France12 viewsUsines Renault, Boulogne-Billancourt, Hauts-de-Seine.
Aluminium, 26 mm
A/ RENAULT
R/ VALABLE SEULEMENT DANS NOS USINES // 5c
Réfs : Elie 45.1
Gabalor
1108Hadrian_RIC935var_.jpg
935 var. Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian on horseback28 viewsReference.
Banti 296 (this coin)
RIC 935 var. (bust type not listed); C. 585 var. (same); BMCRE 1689 var. (same); Strack 809; Hill 887

Obv. HADRIANVS COS III P P
Bare head, draped bust right, wearing paludamentum

Rev. EXERCITVS SYRIACVS SC
Hadrian, on horseback right, addressing three soldiers; one holding legionary eagle, two holding standards.

28.20 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.= Lanz 18 1980=Banti 296
3 commentsokidoki
Antoniniano_Probo_RIC_Lyon_112bis.jpg
A101-01 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)32 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 17 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C PROBVS PF AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVG" – Marte/Soldado (El Valor) con casco y vestimenta militar de pié a izquierda, portando Victoriola (Victoria sobre un globo) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y lanza en la izquierda, con la cual además se apoya en un escudo. "IIII" en exergo.

Acuñada 278 - 279 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum – Lyon Francia (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: Vol.V Parte II #112 Pag.30 - Cohen Vol.VI #816 Pag.334 – B. #298 pl.XXXIV (52 ejemplares) – Rome #2/82 - DVM # Pag.
mdelvalle
RIC_112_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-10 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 17 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C PROBVS PF AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVG" – Marte/Soldado (El Valor) con casco y vestimenta militar de pié a izquierda, portando Victoriola (Victoria sobre un globo) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y lanza en la izquierda, con la cual además se apoya en un escudo. "IIII" en exergo.

Acuñada 278 - 279 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum (Off.4ta.) – Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #112 Pag.30 - Cohen Vol.VI #816 Pag.334 – B. #298 pl.XXXIV (52 ejemplares) – Rome #2/82 - DVM #55 Pag.262
mdelvalle
RIC_65F_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-11 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "IMP C PROBVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COME-S AVG" - Minerva estante a izq., portando una rama de olivo en mano derecha y lanza y escudo, apoyado en el piso, en izq. "I" en exergo.

Acuñada 8va. Emisión 281 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vb#65 Pag.26 - Sear RCTV III #11962 var. Pag.472 - Cohen VI #105 var. (Busto) Pag.265 - DVM #11 Pag.261
mdelvalle
RIC_371_Antoniniano_Maximiano.jpg
A111 -01 - MAXIMIANO (1er. Reinado 286 - 305 D.C.)12 viewsAntoniniano Pre-reforma 20 mm 4.3 gr.
M.AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS – Emperador asociado por Diocleciano para que gobierne como “Augusto de Occidente”, hasta 305 D.C. cuando abdica.

Anv: "IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG" - Busto con corona radiada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "HERCVLI PACIFERO" – Hércules desnudo de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y garrote y piel de león en la izquierda. "Δ" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 287 - 288 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum – Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #371 (C) Pag.263 – Cohen VI #282 Pag.520 - DVM #23 Pag.278 - Sear RCTV IV #13131 Pag.147 - Hunter iv #27 - Bastien #135
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Maximiano_RIC_371BIS.jpg
A111 -1 - MAXIMIANO (1er. Reinado 286 - 305 D.C.)61 viewsAntoniniano Pre-reforma 20 mm 4.3 gr.
M.AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS – Emperador asociado por Diocleciano para que gobierne como “Augusto de Occidente”, hasta 305 D.C. cuando abdica.

Anv: "IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG" - Busto con corona radiada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "HERCVLI PACIFERO" – Hércules desnudo de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y garrote y piel de león en la izquierda. "Δ" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 287 - 288 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum – Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #371 Pag.263 – Cohen vol-VI #282 Pag.520 - DVM # Pag. - Salgado MRBI Vol.III # Pag.
mdelvalle
Follis_Constantino_I_RIC_VII_Lyon_34.jpg
A121-21 - Constantino I "El Grande" (307 - 337 D.C.)53 viewsAE Follis reducido 19 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG" - Busto laureado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI" - Sol radiado y semi-desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (chlamys) sobre su pecho y hombro izquierdo, levantando su mano derecha y portando un globo en la izquierda. "PLG" en exergo, "TF" en campo izquierdo y ” * ” en campo derecho.

Acuñada 315 - 316 D.C..
Ceca: Lugdunum (Off.1ra.) – Lyon Francia
Rareza: C3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Lyon) #34 Pag.360 - Cohen Vol.VII #511 Pag.289 - DVM #63 Pag.291 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8236. Pag.164
mdelvalle
Silvanus.jpg
aa Mysia, Pergamum. M. Plautius Silvanus / Augustus Æ2023 viewsM. Plautius Silvanus, proconsul; Demophon, grammateus. Togate figure standing facing and holding phiale, being crowned by figure in military outfit / Statue of Augustus, standing facing and holding scepter, within distyle temple façade. RPC 2364; SNG France 2016-21.ancientone
Lincoln_1963_NYU_Hall_of_Fame.JPG
Abraham Lincoln 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal17 viewsObv: LINCOLN above, 1809 - 1865 behind bust of Abraham Lincoln facing right, "With malice toward none ...with charity for all." A. Lincoln in script.

Rev: A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND, a frieze of huddled slaves in foreground, with raised, shackled hands in center; EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION around the disk of the sun. THE HALL OF FAME OF GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 1963, in exergue.

Note: Commemorates the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Engraver: Anthony DeFrancisci, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, Diameter: 44.4 mm, Axis: 0°
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_1963_NYU_Hall_of_Fame~0.JPG
Abraham Lincoln, 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal14 viewsObv: LINCOLN above, 1809 - 1865 behind bust of Abraham Lincoln facing right, "With malice toward none ...with charity for all." A. Lincoln in script.

Rev: A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF CANNOT STAND, a frieze of huddled slaves in foreground, with raised, shackled hands in center; EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION around the disk of the sun. THE HALL OF FAME OF GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 1963, in exergue.

Note: Commemorates the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Engraver: Anthony DeFrancisci, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, Diameter: 44.4 mm, Axis: 0°
Matt Inglima
1briquet.jpg
Acciarino gallo-romano (III-IV sec. d.C.)27 viewsAcciarino gallo-romano
AE, 16,4 gr, 50 mm x 25 mm, patina marrone rugginosa
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (23 novembre 2007, numero catalogo 67); ex Max Laurens collection (Les Clayes sous bois, Versailles France, prima del 2007).
Nota: origine incerta, quasi sicuramente Nord Gallia
paolo
31.jpg
ADRIANO, Side Panfilia, AE19, 117-138 d.C.55 viewsBronzo AE 19, zecca di Side, 117-138 d.C., Adriano
3.692 gr, 19.0 mm, 0°, B+
D/ KAICAP ADPIANOC, testa laureata a dx
R/ CIDHTWN, Atena che avanza a sx tenendo melograno e scudo, serpente a sinistra ai piedi.
SNG France 798, Lindgren 1160
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (25 febbraio 2008, numero catalogo 81); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
paolo
agrippina_jr.jpg
Agrippina Jr; Obol, Agrippina as Demeter/ kalathos55 viewsAgrippina Junior, Augusta 50 - March 59 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze obol, Dattari 179; Milne 127; BMC Alexandria p. 14, 111 var (year 12); Geissen -; SNG France -, Emmett 105 (R4), Fair/Poor, Alexandria mint, 4.907g, 23.7mm, 52 - 53 A.D.; obverse “AGRIPPINA” C“EBA”C“TH”, bust of Agrippina right, as Demeter, wreathed with grain; reverse, kalathos (modius) containing stalks of grain and poppy heads bound with flower wreath, flanked on each side by a flaming torch bound with fillet, L I“G” (year 13) in ex; rare. Ex FORVMPodiceps
111-1-AL-Indalo.jpg
AL Monogram - Denarius, Crawford 111/111 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, “AL” monogram; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.10 gm.
Reference: Crawford 111/1
Provenance: Indalo (through Ebay), 1-MAR-2014

Comments:
The AL monogram denarii are rare with 16 known specimens, 5 of which are in the British museum and The Bibliothèque nationale de France, each having two, and Kestner, having one.
Steve B5
005~6.JPG
Alger (ancienne colonie française)16 viewsJeton de maison de tolérance.

Laiton, 29 mm.
A/ AU CHABANAIS - MAISON - DE SOCIETE - TENUE PAR - Mme ARTHEMISE - 22, Rue du Chêne - ALGER
R/ ENGLISH SPOKEN - MAN SPRICHT DEUTSCH, étoile et croissant au centre.
Réfs : Paynat - 10 T1
Gabalor
Algeria.jpg
Algeria234 viewsKm91 - 20 Francs - 1949 (1949-1956)
Km94 - 1 Centime - 1964 (1964)
Km95 - 2 Centime - 1964 (1964)
Km101 - 5 Centimes - 1970 (1970)
Km107.1 - 20 Centimes (1975 - 1975)
Km99 - 50 Centimes - 1964 (1964)
Km102 - 50 centimes - 1971 (1971,1973)
Km100 - 1 Dinar - 1964 (1964)
Km104.2 - 1 Dinar - 1972 (1972)
Daniel F
Algeria~0.jpg
Algeria141 views5 Francs (1944) Wor: P-94bDaniel F
Anazar.jpg
Anazarbus, Cilicia35 viewsPseudo-autonomous
113/114 AD (Reign of Trajan)
AE Assaria (19mm, 4.53g)
O: Veiled and draped bust of Demeter right; two grain ears and poppy head before.
R: Veiled bust of Artemis Perasia right, wearing polos; torch before.
Ziegler 101; SNG France 2026
From the B/N collection. ex Munzhandlung Ritter
4 commentsEnodia
Anazar~0.jpg
Anazarbus, Cilicia13 viewsPseudo-autonomous
113/114 AD (Reign of Trajan)
AE Assaria (19mm, 4.53g)
O: Veiled and draped bust of Demeter right; two grain ears and poppy head before.
R: Veiled bust of Artemis Perasia right, wearing polos; torch before.
Ziegler 101; SNG France 2026
From the B/N collection. ex Munzhandlung Ritter
1 commentsEnodia
1222c.jpg
anazsngfrance20726 viewsElagabalus
Anazarbos, Cilicia

Obv: ΑΥ Κ Μ ΑVΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ. Bust of Elagabalus, r., wearing crown and garments of Demiourgos.
Rev: ΑΝΑΖ ƐΝΔΟΞ (ΜΗ)ΤΡΟΠ →εTMC. Emperor standing facing in toga, looking l., holding patera before military trophy, between them the letters: AM/K/Γ/B.
28 mm, 15.36 gms

SNG Levante--, SNG France 2072, RPC VI online 7252
Charles M
552c.jpg
anazsnglevante14294 viewsElagabalus
Anazarbos, Cilicia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ [Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟ]Ϲ ϹƐ-Β. radiate head right.
Rev: ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΟΥ (ΜΗΤ)ΡΟ, Γ Β across field, →AΜΚ. Two captives seated back to back, hands tied, at the feet of a trophy decorated with helmet and shields.
20 mm, 5.48 gms

SNG Levante 1429, SNG France--, RPC VI online 7317
Charles M
1903__Ares_Numismatics,_Web_Auction_3__lot__543.jpg
anazsnglevante1429_20 viewsElagabalus
Anazarbos, Cilicia

Obv: [ΑΥΤ Κ Μ] ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟϹ ϹƐ[-Β]. radiate head right.
Rev: ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΟΥ (ΜΗΤ)ΡΟ, Γ Β across field, →AΜΚ. Two captives seated back to back, hands tied, at the feet of a trophy decorated with helmet and shields.
23 mm, 8.85 gms

SNG Levante 1429, SNG France--, RPC VI online 7317

From Ares Numismatics Web Auction 3, lot 543
Charles M
1311.jpg
anazsnglevante14334 viewsElagabalus
Anazarbos, Cilicia

Obv: AVT K M AV ANTΩNINOC. radiate head right.
Rev: ΓB above, ANAZAPBOV below. Shield between the foreparts of two capricorns, globe below.
19 mm, 4.23 gms

SNG Levante 1433, SNG France 2069, RPC VI online 7327
Charles M
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_(ca_270-280_AD),_PAX_type,_hoard_coin_from_France!.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus (ca.270-280 AD), PAX type, hoard coin from France29 views[IMP C TETRI]CVS AV, radiate and draped bust right / PA[X A]VG, Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. 13mm, 1.20 grams, nicer than the scan. Excellent quality for these. Found in a hoard in Northern France.

Antonio Protti
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_(ca_270-280_AD),_PAX_type,_hoard_coin_from_France11.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus (ca.270-280 AD), PAX type, hoard coin from France39 views[IMP C TET]RICVS PIC, radiate and draped bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. 16mm, 2.18 grams, nicer than the scan. Excellent quality for these. Found in a hoard in Northern France.
These coins with the figure on the reverse bent at the waist were manufactured in Normandy, though the exact sites of their production are unknown.

Ancient barbarous radiates seem to have been produced between the reigns of Claudius II and ca.274 AD, when Aurelian banned the circulation of these small imitative bronzes throughout the Empire. It is likely that at least some of the barbarous radiates were produced after 274 AD all the way into the early 280's. The value of the barbarous imitations was almost certainly not equal to their official counterparts - they probably saw only local limited circulation, and fulfilled the role of token coinage in times of an acute coin shortage.

Antonio Protti
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_I_(struck_ca_270-280_AD),_VICTORIA_type,_hoard_coin_from_France.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus I (struck ca.270-280 AD), VICTORIA type, hoard coin from France23 viewsCrude IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG (partially seen), radiate and draped bust right / CrudeVICTORIA AVG (partially seen), Salus standing left, holding rudder and feeding snake rising from an altar. 16mm, 1.75 grams, nicer than the scan. Found in a hoard in Northern France Antonio Protti
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_II_(minted_ca_270-280_AD)_-_PAX_type,_Gaul,_Roman_Empire.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus II (minted ca.270-280 AD) - PAX type, Gaul, Roman Empire 37 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Blundered inscriptions, Pax standing. Light brown patina, 16mm, 1.57 grams. Found in Northern France.
These coins with the figure on the reverse bent at the waist were manufactured in Normandy, though the exact sites of their production are unknown.
Antonio Protti
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_II_(minted_ca_270-280_AD),_Gaul,_Roman_Empire.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus II (minted ca.270-280 AD), Gaul, Roman Empire23 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Uncertain blundered inscriptions, crude uncertian deity standing. Light brown patina, 14.5mm, 2.62 grams. Scarce. Found in a hoard in Northern France. _soldAntonio Protti
anemourion.jpg
Anemourion; Bust of Tyche right / Artemis standing right, hind at feet; AE 239 viewsCILICIA, Anemurium. Pseudo-autonomous issue. 1st-2nd centuries AD. Æ 23.15mm, 7.97g. Bust of Tyche right / Artemis standing right, drawing arrow from quiver and holding bow; at feet, hind standing right, head left. SMG Levante Supp. 104; SNG France 697. Podiceps
26.JPG
Anonyme attribué à Jean II (1239-1305) - Arthur II (1261-1312) - Jean III (1286-1341)16 viewsDenier de Guingamp
1,01g
18mm
+ DVX . BRITANNIE
"Duc de Bretagne"
Champ écartelé de Dreux au franc quartier de bretagne à quatre mouchetures d'hermine posées 2 et 1
+ CASTRI GIGANPI
"Château de Guingamp"
Croix cantonnée au 2 d’un castel en forme de trident
de Mey 76 (Pierre Mauclerc)
Bigot 244
Jézéquel 61b
Monnaie issue de la collection personnelle d'Alexis Bigot
Provenant de Bazouges-la-Pérouze du département d'Ille-et-Vilaine
PYL
anonyme.JPG
Anonyme attribué à Jean II (1239-1305) - Arthur II (1261-1312) - Jean III (1286-1341)9 viewsDenier de Guingamp
0,90g
18mm
+ DVX BRITANNIE :
"Duc de Bretagne"
Echiqueté de Dreux échancrant en chef au franc quartier d'hermine, contenant quatre mouchetures. E lunaire
+ CASTRI GIGANPI .
"Château de Guingamp"
Croix cantonnée au 2 d’un castel en forme de trident
de Mey 79 (Jean Ier)
Bigot 267
Jézéquel 60a4
Monnaie issue de la collection personnelle d'Alexis Bigot
Dépôt de Kergonan, département du Morbihan
PYL
coins.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Coin dies found in France204 viewsFrom: Bibliothèque Nationale - Catalogue des monnaies de l'Empire Romain - II De Tibère à Néron, 1988 ed.
Plate A
Roma_Orbis
Laetitia_Barbare_OK.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation "Barbarous" LAETITIA AVG N52 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
LAETITIA AVG N

RIC : 221 (S) ; C 118 (3 Francs or) related as a "good" antoninianus
Prototype : an obverse of the Issues 1-3B and a reverse of the Issue 4

Coin Fourree

Weight : 4,15gr

A very beautiful style for this imitation. A typical "barbarous style".
1 commentsChut
apioprov.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS36 viewsAE 31. Tarsus ( Cilicia ) 131-161 AD. 17,31 grs. Laureate head right. AYT KAI TI AI AΔPI A ANTΩNINOC CEB EY, Π-Π across fields / Demos seated left on stool, holding wreath, star in field. ΔHMOC AΔPIA TAPCEΩN MHTROΠOLEWC.
SNG France 1442, SNG Levante 1013, BMC161



benito
apioprov~0.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS21 viewsAE 31. Tarsus ( Cilicia ) 131-161 AD. 17,31 grs. Laureate head right. AYT KAI TI AI AΔPI A ANTΩNINOC CEB EY, Π-Π across fields / Demos seated left on stool, holding wreath, star in field. ΔHMOC AΔPIA TAPCEΩN MHTROΠOLEWC.
SNG France 1442, SNG Levante 1013, BMC161


1 commentsbenito
Antoninus_Pius.JPG
Antoninus Pius / Securitas 27 views140-145 AD
AE As (24mm, 10.66g)
O: Laureate head right; ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III.
R: Securitas standing left, holding long sceptre and leaning on column; SECVRITAS PVBLICA, S-C.
RIC III, 828 / BMC 1765-66
ex Francis J. Rath

1 commentsEnodia
Antoninus_Pius_AE_As_UNCLEAN.JPG
Antoninus Pius AE As Still UNCLEAN, from France34 viewsAntonivs Protti
Antoninus_Pius_Perga_Pamphylia.JPG
Antoninus Pius Perga Pamphylia39 viewsAntoninus Pius, Perga, Pamphylia, 138 - 161 AD, AE 15, 2.4g, 180o, Von Aulock 4672, SNG Cop 319, SNG France 411, not in BMC
OBV: ANTWNEINOC KAISAP, Laureate head right
REV: APTEMIDOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple of Artemis Pergaia
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Temple_of_Perga.JPG
Antoninus Pius Temple of Perga75 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138 - 161 AD, AE32, Perga, Pamphylia, 24.4g,
OBV: KAI ADRIA ANTWNEINOS, Laureate head right.
REV: ARTEMODOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple, with fluted Ionic columns, with eagle in pediment,
containing simulacrum of Pergean Artemis; on either side of which, sphinx on pedestal.
Not in BMC, nor von Aulock.
SNG FRANCE 3, 0406(1) / COLL PARIS 317A(1)

Extremely Rare
5 commentsRomanorvm
ANTOSef4-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 576, Sestertius of AD 139 (crown series - Africa)28 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,92g, Ø 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: AFRICA around, COS II in ex., S C in field, Africa wearing elephant headdress, standing left, holding wreath and cornucopiae, scorpion at her feet.
RIC 576 (*) var. (rev. Africa holding 'basket' instead of wreath); BMCRE 1175 var. (no scorpion on reverse); Cohen 21 (*) (15 fr); Strack 772 (4 collections); Banti 12 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 4145 var.
Ex Almanumis (Gérard Krebs, Nîmes, France) (2015)

Part of a series celebrating Antoninus' remission of half of the special tax (aurum coronarium) normally levied on the provinces at the time of the accession of an emperor.
________________________________
(*) the term "lion's head" and "tête de lion" in the description of the reverse in RIC 576 and Cohen 21 respectively is based on a misinterpretation of the reverse representation of the Paris specimen by Cohen and should be changed to "scorpion". It is correct in Strack 771.
Charles S
AntoSef0-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 622c, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Temple of Venus & Roma)33 viewsÆ Sestertius (29,1g, Ø 33mm, 10h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.), decastyle temple on podium of four steps with statues on roof and in pediment.
RIC 622(c) (scarce); BMCRE 1345v. (hd. r.); Cohen 702 (12 fr.); Strack 848 (2 spec. for left-headed var.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 335 (1 spec. w/o illustration); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212v. (hd. r.)
Ex Guy BRAUN collection (France, 2015).
very rare left headed variety

The temple of Roma, designed by Hadrian in 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141, facing the forum, was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building containing the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). The remains are still visible and show that both temples consisted of ten colums. The coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
prnbzw~0.jpg
Aphrodite and Ares on Cilician AR Stater of Satrap Pharnabazos173 views
Circa 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.

1 commentsJason T
IMG_9344.JPG
Apulia, Teate15 viewsAPULIA, Teate. Circa 225-200 BC. Æ Quincunx, Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; four pellets above / Owl standing right on Ionic capital; four pellets in exergue. SNG ANS 742; SNG France 1420; SNG Morcom 224 var. (pellets right on reverse); HN Italy 702a.ecoli
156.jpg
Artemis holding bow174 viewsCILICIA. Anemurium. Severus Alexander. Æ 31. A.D. 224/225 (year 3). Obv: ▪AV▪KAI▪M▪AV-(OVHPAΛEΞAN or similar)Δ, PON in field to left. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: ETΓA-NE(MO)YPIEWN.Cult-Statue of Ephesian Artemis facing, single stag behind and to left. Ref: BMC -; SNG France 705 (var.). Axis: 180°. 13.22 g. CM: Artemis the huntress standing right, holding bow, in oval punch, 3.5 x 5.5 mm. Howgego - (?).There are no countermarked coins of Anemurium listed by Howgego. None of the (few) Artemis huntress groups noted matches this one. While 232 is similar, this coin is probably too late. Collection Automan.Automan
G_272_Ephesos_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesos, cista mystica, serpents, piloi of the Dioskouroi8 viewsIonia, Ephesos
Cistophoric Tetradrachm
Obv.: Serpent emerging from cista mystica with raised lid, all within ivy wreath with fruits.
Rev.: Two snakes coiled around a bow case, piloi of the Dioskouroi surmounted by stars flanking, ΕΦΕ to left, snake coiled with head right below.
Ag, 28mm, 12.12g
Ref.: DCA -; Kleiner-Noe Series -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG France -.
shanxi
Seleukeia_ad_Kalykadnon_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Seleukeia ad Kalykadnon, Athena, Nike47 viewsSeleukeia ad Kalykadnon
Asia Minor, Cilicia
AE24, 150-50 BC
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right, mongram behind
Rev: ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΚΑΛΥΚΑΔΝΩΙ,
Nike advancing left, holding branch; AΘΗ over monogram to left.
AE, 8.32 g, 24mm
Ref.: SNG France 895; SNG Levante 680
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 19, Lot 309
2 commentsshanxi
Gambria_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Gambrion21 viewsGambrion, Mysia
350-250 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo left
Rev.: Bull butting left; star above. ΓΑΜ in exergue
Æ, 2.65g, 16.2x19.2mm
Ref.: SNG France 906-7, SNG Cop. 154-155
shanxi
Kyzikos_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Kyzikos28 viewsKyzikos, Mysia
AR obol, 525 - 475 B.C.
Obv.: forepart of boar left, reversed E on side, tunny fish behind
Rev.: head of roaring lion left within incuse square
Ag, 0.77g, 13.3x10.3mm
Ref.: SNG France 377-8, BMC Mysia p. 35, 118
Ex Gitbud & Naumann
shanxi
G_369_Kyzikos.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Kyzikos, Boar, Lion19 viewsKyzikos, Mysia
AR obol, 525 - 475 B.C.
Obv.: forepart of boar left, reversed E on side, tunny fish behind
Rev.: head of roaring lion left within incuse square
Ag, 0.79g, 10.4mm
Ref.: SNG France 377-8, BMC Mysia p. 35, 118, SNG Cop 4 #48 (Mysia)
Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 80, Lot 871 (part of)
3 commentsshanxi
G_382_Kyzikos.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Kyzikos, Dolphin, Tunny2 viewsKyzikos, Mysia
AR obol, 550-480 BC
Obv.: Dolphin left above tunny left.
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square.
Ag, 0.76g, 7.7x11mm
Ref.: unpublished, Von Fritze II -; SNG France -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; Rosen -; Klein -.
Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 80, Lot 871 (part of)
shanxi
G_381_Lampsakos.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Lampsakos5 viewsLampsakos, Mysia
AR Tetrobol
4th-3rd centuries BC.
Obv.: Janiform female heads
Rev.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Ag, 2.49g, 12.4mm
Ref.: SNG France 1175–6
Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 80, Lot 871 (part of)
shanxi
Parion_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Parion22 viewsParion, Mysia
Hemidrachm
4th century BC
Obv.: Facing gorgoneion surrounded by snakes
Rev.: ΠΑ / ΡΙ, Bull standing left, head reverted. Monogram below
Ag, 13mm, 2.27g
Ref.: SNG France 1390
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann 21 auction, Lot 200
shanxi
G_273_Pergamon.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Apollo, Calf's head 9 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AR Obol (ca. 420 BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev.: Calf's head right, eye to left, ΠΕΡΓ to right, all within incuse square
Ag, 0.5g, 5mm
Ref.: SNG France 1555-1556
shanxi
Pergamon_25~0.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Apollo, Satrap20 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AR Diobol (ca. 450 BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓ, Bearded head of satrap right, wearing Persian tiara, within incuse square.
Ag, 1.66g, 12mm
Ref.: BMC Myisa 1 var., SNG France 1546-8, SNG von Aulock 1347
shanxi
Pergamon_43.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, Serpent-entwined staff10 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17, Circa 133-27 BC
Obv.: Head of Asklepios right
Rev.: AΣKΛHΠ / ΣΩTHP, Serpent-entwined staff.
AE, 3.50g, 17mm
Ref.: SNG France 1828-48, SNG Copenhagen 370-6, BMC 154-7.
shanxi
Pergamon_50.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, snake, Omphalos 14 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE 21, 200-133 BC
Obv.: laureate head of bearded Asklepios
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, snake coiled around omphalos, without monogram
AE, 8.20g, 21mm
Ref.: SNG von Aulock 1372, SNG BN 1806, SNG France 51807 (25 ex.)
shanxi
G_354_Pergamon.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, snake, omphalos, c/m owl21 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE 21, 200-133 BC
Obv.: laureate head of bearded Asklepios
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, snake coiled around omphalos, without monogram, countermark owl

AE, 10.6g, 20.5mm
Ref.: SNG France 1815 (with countermark)
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, snake, Omphalos, monogram and X31 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE 20, 200-133 BC
Obv.: laureate head of bearded Asklepios
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, snake coiled around omphalos, X and monogram
AE, 6.38g, 19.9mm
Ref.: SNG France 1803 var (monogram)
shanxi
Pergamon_05.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, bull heads30 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17, 310-282 BC
Obv.: Helmeted and laureate head of Athena left
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓΑ, Confronted bull heads.
AE, 4.01g, 16.8mm
Ref.: SNG France 1577 ff.
Ex Pecunem 20, Lot 212
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_07.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, bull heads22 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17, 310-282 BC
Obv.: Helmeted and laureate head of Athena left
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓΑ, Confronted bull heads.
AE, 4.83g, 16.6mm
Ref.: SNG France 1577 ff.
shanxi
Pergamon_35.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, bull, owl15 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, 3rd century BC
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena left. (countermark on helmet)
Rev: ΠΕΡΓA, Head and neck of bull left, owl right, monogram above
AE, 4.48g, 17x18mm
SNG Copenhagen 333; SNG France 1575, BMC Mysia p.112, 20-21
shanxi
G_355_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, bull, thunderbolt10 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE15, Circa 270-225 BC
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev: ΠΕΡΓA, Bull’s head right; thunderbolt below.
AE, 3.06g, 15mm
Ref.: Westermark, Bronze 5; SNG France 1568-9; SNG Copenhagen -, BMC Mysia p.112, 17
shanxi
Pergamon_37.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, Ivy leaf15 viewsMysia, Pergamon
KINGS of PERGAMON. Philetairos
AE11, 282-263 BC
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: ΦIΛE/TAIΡOΥ, Ivy leaf
AE, 11mm, 1.5g
Ref.: SNG France 1676-7 and 1679-81
shanxi
Pergamon_41.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, trophy (small), without monogram 11 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, 2nd Century B.C.
Obv: helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: AΘHNAΣ NIKHΦOΡOΥ, trophy of arms
AE, 7.76g, 18mm
Ref.: SNG France 1875
shanxi
G_296_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, trophy, ΘA monogram7 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE16, c. 300 B.C.
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing three-crested Corinthian helmet with cheek-pieces lifted up
Rev.: ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ, trophy of arms, ΘA monogram to left.
AE, 5.46g, 16mm
Ref.: SNG France 1885; Tuebingen 2429
shanxi
Pergamon_11.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, trophy, ΠΕΡΓ monogram21 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, 2nd Century B.C.
Obv: helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: AΘHNAΣ NIKHΦOΡOΥ, trophy of arms, ΠΕΡΓ monogram right
AE, 6.48g, 17.6mm
Ref.: SNG Von Aulock 1374, SNG Cop 396, SNG France 1875
shanxi
Pergamon_27.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, trophy, OΔ monogram13 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, c. 300 B.C.
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing three-crested Corinthian helmet with cheek-pieces lifted up
Rev.: ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ, trophy of arms, OΔ monogram to left.
AE, 6.31g, 17.7mm
Ref.: SNG France 1893
shanxi
G_270_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, cista mystica, serpents, NI11 viewsMysia, Pergamon
Cistophoric Tetradrachm
Obv.: Serpent emerging from cista mystica with raised lid, all within ivy wreath with fruits.
Rev.: Bow case between two coiled serpents; to left, monogram of Pergamon; to right, NI
Ag, 29mm, 12.26g
Ref.: SNG France 1709
shanxi
Pergamon_51.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Hygieia , Snake, Omphalos28 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE15, ca 133-27 BC
Obv.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΔΟΥ, draped bust of Hygieia right
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΕΙΑΣ, snake coiled around omphalos
AE, 3.21g, 15mm
Ref.: SNG France 1938-1940; BMC 163; SNG Cop. 380
shanxi
Pergamon_42.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Nike, Athena, Choreios magistrate 27 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE21, Circa 133-27 BC
Choreios, magistrate
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet; XOPEIOY (magistrate) below
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ, Nike standing right, holding wreath and palm.
AE, 7.11g, 21mm
Ref.: SNG France 1800-2
2 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_15.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Owl, Athena22 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE, 200-133 BC
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet with star
Rev.: little Owl with spread wings standing on palm, ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ above and below, without monogram
AE, 3.70g, 18.6mm
Ref.: SNG France 1920-4
shanxi
G_349_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Owl, Athena, club, B8 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE16, 200-133 BC
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet with star
Rev.: Owl with spread wings standing on palm, ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ above and below, club and B left and right
AE, 2.58g, 16mm
Ref.: SNG France, 5. Mysie Paris, 2001, n° 1929
shanxi
Pergamon_20.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Owl, Athena, K Σ monogram27 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, 200-133 BC
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet with star
Rev.: little Owl with spread wings standing on palm, ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ above and below, K Σ monogram
AE, 2,99g, 17.6mm
Ref.: BMC 133,197; SNG France 1920-2
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_33.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Owl, Athena, TK ΠΛ monograms16 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17, 200-133 BC
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet with star
Rev.: Owl with spread wings standing on palm, ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ above and below, monograms TK ΠΛ left and right
AE, 2.83g, 16.7mm
Ref.: SNG France 1913
shanxi
Pergamon_08.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Philetairos, Apollo, Tripod17 viewsKings of Pergamon
ca. 200-130 BC
AE 11
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: ΦΙΛΕ / TAIPOY, Tripod
AE, 1.33g, 11.6x10.8mm
Ref.: SNG France 1688-90, SNG Cop 354, BMC 120.33, SNG von Aulock 7456
shanxi
Pergamon_23.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Philetairos, Athena, Asklepios 24 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE16, 282 - 263 B.C.
Pergamene Kingdom, Philetairos
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake out of patera.
AE, 3.01g, 15.7mm
Ref.: SNG France 1643-9; SNG von Aulock 1363.
Ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser 1989
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann Auction 42, Lot 194

shanxi
Pergamon_22.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Philetairos, Athena, serpent, HP monogram15 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE15, 282 - 263 B.C.
Pergamene Kingdom, Philetairos
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with a griffin
Rev.: [ΦI]ΛETA[IΡOΥ], Serpent coiled right, HP monogram to left.
AE, 14.6mm, 2.49g
Ref.: SNG France 1650 var.
shanxi
Septimius_Severus_R641_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Septimius Severus, Asklepios 7 viewsSeptimius Severus
Pergamon, Mysia
AE 18, AD 193-211
Obv: ΑVP KAI CEBHPOC, Laureate head right.
Rev: ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ B, Asklepios standing facing, head left, holding staff entwined by snake.
AE, 3.79, 18mm
Ref.: SNG France 2203, Voegtli, FvP 33, 393
shanxi
Trajan_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Trajan, Temple16 viewsTrajan
Pergamon, Mysia
AE 18, AD 98-117
Obv: TPAIANOC CTPIΠΩΛΛIΩNOC, Tetrastyle temple containing cult statue standing facing; in pediment, pellet.
Rev: AVΓOVCTOC / ΠEPΓA, Tetrastyle temple containing statue of emperor standing facing; in pediment, capricorn.
AE, 4.59g, 18mm
Ref.: SNG France 2063
Ex Gitbud & Naumann, auction 39, lot 568
shanxi
Trajan_10.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, RPC, Pergamon, Trajan, Zeus10 viewsTrajan
Pergamon, Mysia
AE 17, AD 98-117
Obv: AVT TPAIANOC CЄB, Laureate head of Trajan right.
Rev: ΣЄVC ΦIΛIOC, Bare head of Zeus Philios right.
AE, 3.03g, 17mm
Ref.: RPC III 1719, SNG France 2067-9.
Ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser, 1986
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 49, lot 425
shanxi
Philippus_II_4.jpg
Asia Minor, Pamphylia, Perge, Philip II 19 viewsPhilippus II
Pamphylia, Perge
AE24
Obv.: … K M IOY CEOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC CE, Laureate and draped bust right, set on globe
Rev.: ΠEP - ΓAI – ΩN, Money Chest surmounted by three purses
AE, 8.10g, 23.85mm
Ref.: SNG France 511-4; SNG von Aulock 4708, BMC 60, SNG Cop. 350
Ex collection of Dr. Robert Friedinger-Pranter
with the original old collectors label
shanxi
Julia_Domna_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Pisidia, Antiochia, Julia Domna19 viewsJulia Domna, 193-217 AD
Pisidia, Antiochia
Obv.: IVLIΛ ΛVGΛSTΛ, draped bust right
Rev.: ANT IOCH C - ENI COL CΛS, Tyche standing facing, head left, wearing kalathos, holding branch and cornucopiae.
AE, 23.9mm, 5.74g
Ref.: SNG France 1126 var.
shanxi
Selge_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Pisidia, Selge, Herakles, Stag11 viewsPisidia, Selge
AE13, 2nd-1st centurie BC
Obv.: Head of Herakles facing, wreathed with styrax
Rev.: Stag kneeling r., head turned l. ΣE in field, arrow below
Æ, 3.17g, 12.9mm
Ref.: SNG France 1963 var.
shanxi
Aspendos.jpg
Aspendos - AR Obol9 viewsc. 465-430 BC
Amphora
triskeles, pellet
E_Σ
SNG France 14; SNG von Aulock 4485; Traité II 1545
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
PAMPHYLIA__Aspendos__Stater_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.225 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pæmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_23.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia.156 viewsCirca 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; LΦ between, below.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right; EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right , Small eagle's head banker mark.
Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey).
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; Arslan & Lightfoot 61–72 (same dies); Izmir 413 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4565; SNG France 105 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 227.
Extremely fine . 10.86 Gr . Max Dia 23 mm . Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
mysia_atarneus.jpg
Atarneus. AE13; circa 350-300 B.C. Apollo right/ Forepart of horse right20 viewsMysia, Atarneus. AE 13 mm (2.07g), circa 350-300 B.C. Laureate head of Apollo right. Forepart of horse right; coiled serpent above, AB monogram to right, ATAP below. SNG France 127; VF. Ex Gert Boersema.Podiceps
Attalos.jpg
Attalos I., AR Tetradrachm, 241-197 BC80 viewsAttalos I., King of Pergamon, AR Tetradrachm, 241-197 BC.
Obv. Laureate head of Philetairos right.
Rev. Athena seated left, holding wreath and resting arm on shield, spear behind; to left, ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ; bee on outer left, X above knee, bow on outer right.
30 mm, 16.67 g
SNG France 1623-4 var.
ex Rutten & Wieland
1 commentsareich
Augustus.jpg
Augustus32 viewsRoman Empire
Augustus
(Reign as 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: CAESAR PONT MAX, Laureate head of Augustus facing right

Reverse: ROM ET AVG, Altar of the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls, Victory on each pedestal





Bronze As
Minted in Lugdunum 15-10 BC


Translations:

CAESAR PONT MAX=Caesar Augustus, Greatest Priest

ROM ET AVG=To Rome and Augustus

Lugdunum=Lyons, France

The Sanctuary of the Three Gauls was founded by Drusus (stepson of Augustus) to federalize and Romanize this area as an Imperial province under Augustus following the Gallic wars of his predecessor Julius Caesar


References:
RIC I 230
ERIC II 632
1 commentsSphinx357
00564.jpg
Augustus (RIC 159, Coin #564)54 viewsAugustus , RIC 159, AE AS, Nemausus, Gaul (Nimes, France), 10 - 14 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F P P Laureate heads of Agrippa and Augustus back-to-back.
Rev: COL NEM Crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties
above, two palms fronds below.
Size: 26.7mm 12.36g.
2 commentsMaynardGee
ARP_-_Augustus___Agrippa-3.jpg
Augustus 27BC - AD14 & Agrippa born 63BC - died 12BC22 viewsAE Dupondius - This coin was issued from 16/15-10BC - Sear #1729, RIC-155
Ch VF Strike 4/5 - Surface 5/5
Obv. - IMP DIVI F, Heads back to back of Augustus r., bare, and Agrippa l., wearing rostral crown
Rev. - COL NEM, crocodile., chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms below.

Issue of Nemausus in Gaul (now the city of Nimes in France). The Cities coat of arms shows a palm tree with a crocodile chained to it. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nimes.
Richard M10
normal_AUGUDU03-2~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 158, medium bronze of 10 BC to AD 1068 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius ?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv.: IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Rev.: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (now the city of Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium. This symbol is still used as the city's emblem in Nîmes today.
3 commentsCharles S
Augustus_249_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Augustus, RIC 249, barbaric imitation57 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AE - quadrans(?), 2.47g, 17mm
struck in the name of Germanus Indutilli L
Eastern Gaul, 'barbaric mint', c. AD 10
obv. Head of Germanus, diademed, r.
rev. GERMANVS / INDVTILLI L
Bull, butting l.
cf. RIC I, 249; AMC 459ff.; RPC 506 (for official issue!)
F+, interesting barbaric style

Germanus Indutilli Libertus seems to be a Trever, who was allowed to issue coins in Northern Gaul. Lit.: H.W.Doppler, Über die Germanus Indutilli L.-Prägung, in 'GNS 17, 1967, pp.90-94'.
Addition April 2014 (Francis Jarman): According to J.M.Doyen in "Archeologie urbaine a Reims 7 (2008)" attributes this coin to the Remi, minted in Durocortorum Remorum (Reims.
Jochen
bello2.jpg
Aulerque Eburovices26 viewspotin "boar ensign"
origin: origin: Center france
town: Evreux
60-50 BC
frederic
FRANCIS I HRE AUSTRIA.jpg
AUSTRIA - Francis I103 viewsAUSTRIA - Francis I (reigned with wife Maria Theresa 1740-1765) copper Kreuzer, 1762, Vienna mint. KM #2007. dpaul7
SIGISMUND FRANCIS   HALL.jpg
AUSTRIA - Sigismund Francis71 viewsAUSTRIA - Upper Austria - Sigismund Francis (1662-1665) AR 3 Kreuzer, 1663. Hall mint. Ref.: KM #1209.dpaul7
AUSTRIA_HALF_KREUZER_ND.jpg
AUSTRIA -- Francis I38 viewsAUSTRIA -- Francis I (1745-1765 ) Copper 1/2 Kreuzer, No Date. Kremnitz Mint. Obv.: BUst right, FRANC D. G. R . I. S . A . GE . I . REX . Rev.: 1/2 / K in cartouche. Reference: KM #2006dpaul7
Austria_1815_Thaler.JPG
Austria, Francis II, 1804 - 183514 viewsObv: FRANCISCVS I : D : G : AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR, laureate bust right.

Rev: HVN . BOH . GAL : REX : A : A : LO : WI ET IN FR : DVX . 1815

Silver Thaler

Vienna mint, 1815 A

27.7 grams, 40.2 mm
SPQR Coins
AUST_NETH_1797_QUART_KRONTHL.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS743 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II (1792-1835) AR 1/4 Kronenthaler, 1797-B (Kremnitz Mint). Obv.: Bust of emperor right. "FRANC.II.D.G.R.I.S.A.GER.HIE.HVN.BOH.REX." Mintmark B below bust. Reverse: Cruciform figure, with crowns in top, right & left angles; Order of the Golden Fleece hangs at bottom angle. "ARCH.AVST.DVX.BVRG.LOTH.BRAB.COM.FLAN.1797. Reference: KM#60.dpaul7
AUST_NETH_1797_KRONENTHALER.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS532 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II (1792-1835) AR Kronenthaler, 1797. B=Kremnitz mint. Obv.: Head of Emperor facing right. FRANC.II.D.G.R.I.S.A.GER.HIE.HVN.BOH.REX.. Rev.: Cruciform figure, with crowns in top, right & left angles; Order of the Golden Fleece hangs at bottom angle. ARCH.AVST.DVX.BVRG.LOTH.BRAB.COM.FLAN.1797. Referenc: KM#62.2.dpaul7
AUSTRIAN_NETHERLANDS_14_LIARD_1793.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II158 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II (1792-1835) 14 LIARDS (14 Oorden), 1793. 0.5380 Silver Ruler: Franz II Obv: Titles of Franz II Obv.Legend: FRANC • II • D • G • R • IMP • S • A • GER • HIER • HVNG • BOH • R: around crossed sceptres dividing denopmination X IV; crown above, orb below. Rev: Crowned imperial eagle with crowned arms on breast Rev. Legend: ARCH • AUST • D • BURG • LOTH •BRAB • C • FL • 1793 Reference: KM# 59dpaul7
043~3.JPG
Auvergne - Comté de Riom, Alphonse de France (1241-1263), France.7 viewsDenier, argent, 0,96 g.
A/ ALFVNSVS COMES, châtel tournois.
R/ +DE RIOMENSIS, croix
Réfs : PA - 2261
Gabalor
064~0.JPG
Auvergne - Evêché du Puy, XIe - XIIe siècles, France.9 viewsDenier, argent, 1,08 g, 21 mm.
A/ +MONETA, croix.
R/ SCE MARIAE (rétrograde), croix à six branches.
Réfs : PA 2231.
Gabalor
004~6.JPG
Auvergne - Evêché du Puy, XIIIe siècles, France.4 viewsDenier, argent, 1,64 g, 20,5 mm.
A/ +BEATE MARIE croix.
R/ + PODIENSIS, croix à six branches.
Réfs : PA 2233.
Gabalor
031~6.JPG
Auvergne, Evéché de Clermont, monnayage anonyme (XIIème siècle), France.6 viewsDenier, argent, 1,04 g.
A/ SEA MARIA, buste de face.
R/ + VRBS ARVERNA, croix bouletée, cantonnée de quatre trèfles liés au centre.
Réfs : Boudeau 379 ; Poey d'Avant, 2253.
Gabalor
065~5.JPG
Auvergne, Evéché de Clermont, monnayage anonyme (XIIème siècle), France.4 viewsObole, argent, 0,45 g.
A/ SEA MARIA, buste de face.
R/ + ARVERNA, croix bouletée, cantonnée de quatre trèfles liés au centre.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant, 2257.

Gabalor
Gabalor
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
DSCN6958.JPG
Barbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD. AE 15mm15 viewsBarbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD.
Obv. Radiate head right
Rev. Eagle standing left . CONSECRATIO

Metal detector find from Northern France.
Lee S
DSCN6953.JPG
Barbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD. AE 16mm23 viewsBarbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD.
Obv. Radiate head right
Rev. Eagle standing left . CONSECRATIO

Metal detector find from Northern France.
Lee S
DSCN6944.JPG
Barbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD. AE 16mm29 viewsBarbaric imitation of Claudius II " Consecratio " Antoninianus C. 270-280 AD.
Obv. Radiate head right
Rev. Eagle standing left . CONSECRATIO

Metal detector find from Northern France.
Lee S
Barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_I_(issued_ca_270-280_AD),_hoard_coin_from_France.jpg
Barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus I (issued ca.270-280 AD), hoard coin from France18 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Crude inscriptions, Laetitia standing, holding rudder and wreath. 18mm, 3.27 grams, nicer than the scan. . Found in a hoard in Northern France.
Antonio Protti
Barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_I_(issued_ca_270-280_AD),_hoard_coin_from_France1.jpg
Barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus I (issued ca.270-280 AD), hoard coin from France19 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Crude inscriptions, uncertain deity. 17mm, 2.11 grams, nicer than the scan. . Found in a hoard in Northern France.
These coins with the figure on the reverse bent at the waist were manufactured in Normandy, though the exact sites of their production are unknown.

Antonio Protti
Barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_I_(issued_ca_270-280_AD),_hoard_coin_from_France2.jpg
Barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus I (issued ca.270-280 AD), hoard coin from France17 viewsCrude inscriptions, radiate and draped bust right / Crude SALVS AVG, Salus feelding snake rising from an altar and holding a rudder. 17mm, 1.81 grams, nicer than the scan. Found in a hoard in Northern France.

Antonio Protti
Battle_of_Leipzig.JPG
Battle of Leipzig, 1813. d'Essling 1412118 viewsObv. FRANZ. I: KAISER. V: OESTERREICH * ALEXANDER KAISER. V: RUSSLAND * . Bustes, en regard, de François et d'Alexandre JETTON
Rev. DIE ENTSCHEID: SCHLACHT DER ALLIIRTEN BEY LEIPZIG. Vue de la ville et de la bataille. Dans les airs, un aigle couronné, tenant le glaive et le globe.
Exergue: DEN 18=19. OCT: 1813.
Silvered AE34. d'Essling 1412, Bramsen 1259.

A medal/jeton commemorating the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, the most devestating battle prior to WWI.
LordBest
BAVARIA_1971_VICTORY_THALER.jpg
BAVARIA - Ludwig II197 viewsBAVARIA - Ludwig II (1864-1886) AR Thaler, "Victory Thaler". Made to commemorate Germany's victory over France in the Fraco-Prussian war. Obv: Ludwig's head left; LUDWIG II KOENIG V. BAYERN J. REISS below bust. Rev.: Woman seated right, holding wreath and cornucopia; a tree at her feet; DURCH KAMPF UND SIEG ZUM FRIEDEN In exurge: FRIEDENSSCHLUSS ZU FRANKFURT A.M. 10. MAI 1871. Small obversse rim nick. Reference: KM #496.dpaul7
valence_2_coins.png
BCC 25/2433 viewsCrusader - Medieval BCC 25 and BCC 24
Bishops of Valence,France
1157-1276 CE
Obv:VRBS.VALENT[IAI]
Stylized Angel?
Rev:+S.APOLLINARS
(St Apollinaris of Valence
d.520CE) Cross with one annulet.
The half coin has much sharper detail
than the second coin. It is slightly larger
than the whole coin at 18mm vs. 17mm,
but weighs almost the same at 0.55gm.
vs. 0.85 for the whole coin. The legend
on the obverse of the half coin begins at
7 o'clock in relation to the angel figure.
However, unlike any other coins of this
type that I have seen on-line, the obverse
legend on the full (complete) coin starts at
1 o'clock. The possibility has been raised
that original issues of this and other types
were circulating alongside locally made
copies in the Eastern Crusader kingdoms
at the time. Comments or information are
always welcome. I do not have any
reference books for this period.
v-drome
025~0.JPG
Béarn - Seigneurie de Béarn, Centulle IV, Centulle V, ... (1058 - XVème siècle), France.10 viewsDenier, argent, 1,17 g.
A/ CENTULLO COM, croix cantonnée d'un point en 1 et 2.
R/ +ONOR FORCAS, PAX dans le champ.
Réfs : Bd. 525 ; PA 3233.
Gabalor
018~4.JPG
Béarn - Seigneurie de Béarn, Centulle IV, Centulle V, ... (1058 - XVème siècle), France.5 viewsObole, argent, 0,41 g.
A/ CENTULLO COM, croix cantonnée d'un point en 1 et 2.
R/ +ONOR FORCAS, PAX dans le champ.
Réfs : PA 3235.
Gabalor
Belgium.jpg
Belgium109 viewsKM 35.1 - 2 Centimes (m. 1869-1909) Belges
KM 149.1 - 50 Centimes - 1976
KM 127 - 1 Franc - 1943
KM 171 - 1 Franc - 1989
KM 143.1 - 1 Franc - 1951
KM 134.1 - 5 Francs - 1949
Daniel Friedman
LEOPOLD_II_5FR_1873.jpg
BELGIUM - Leopold II135 viewsBELGIUM - Leopold II (1865-1909) AR 5-Francs, 1873. KM #24.dpaul7
LEOPOLD_II_2FR_1909.jpg
BELGIUM - Leopold II68 viewsBELGIUM - Leopold II (1865-1909) AR 2-Francs, 1909. KM #59.dpaul7
BELG_LEOP_III_50FR.jpg
BELGIUM - Leopold III57 viewsBELGIUM - Leopold III (1934-1951) AR 50 Francs, 1939. KM #121.dpaul7
022~2.JPG
Berry - Principauté de Boisbelle et Henrichemont - Maximilien III François de Béthune (1641-1661)5 viewsDouble tournois, cuivre, 2,01 g
Av./ M F D BETHVNE P S D HENRICHM, buste à droite.
Rv./ + DOVBLE TOVRNOIS 1642 H, écu d'Henrichemont entouré de lis.
Réfs : cgkl-708a2
Gabalor
075~1.JPG
Berry, Sancerre, Etienne 1er (1152-1190), France.4 viewsDenier, argent, 0,97 g, frappé à Sancerre.
A/ + IVLIVS CESAR, tête mitrée à gauche.
R/ + STEPhANVS COMES, croix cantonnée en 3 et 4 d'un point.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant 2004.
Gabalor
Peace of Amiens BHM 538.JPG
BHM 0538. The Peace of Amiens, 1802.124 viewsObv. Angel standing, reaching down to clasp the hand of kneeling woman, angel holds a branch and scroll in her left hand, pedestel between the two figures MY SOUL DOTH MAGNIFY THE LORD/in exergue MARCH 27 1802/ K.N.K
Rev. Veiled female figure standing facing, arms uplifted, cross in left hand, radiant light above her head, ornate domed structure at her feet to left, intaglio portrait of a man to her right WE PRAISE THEE O GOD/ in exergue THANKSGIVING/ JUNE 1

Engraved by J. G. Hancock in 1802 to celebrate a mass held at St. Pauls cathedral commemorating the peace between France and Britain.
LordBest
Welch_7__Napoleon_III___Eugenie.jpg
BHM 2561. Napoleon III & Eugenie at the London Guildhall.105 viewsObv: Conjoined busts of Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie NAPOLEON III ET EUGENIA GALLORUM IMPERATOR ET IMPERATRIX

Rev: Britannia introduces Gallia (France) to Londinia (City of London). CONCORDES SERVAT AMICITIA (Friendship keeps them on good terms)

Exergue: LONDINI RECEPTI 19. APR. 1855 Signed: B. WYON

AE76. Mintage: 350

Welch 7; BHM 194/2561; Eimer 178/1496; Page-Divo 134/233.

This medal commemorates the visit of the Emperor and Empress of France to London in april of 1855. This was one of my 'holy grail' medals, a medal I had been trying to purchase unsuccessfully on and off for seven years.
1 commentsLordBest
loup pegase2.jpg
Bituriges-Cubes24 viewsBronze au loup et au pégase
region: Center France - Berry
town: Levroux
90-50 BC
frederic
0123-Consul_20Fs.jpg
Bonaparte I° Consul - 20 francs or An 12 A45 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL, tête nue a gauche
REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, couronne de lauriers entourant 20 FRANCS en deux lignes. A l'exergue . coq . AN 12. . A .
Tranche inscrite DIEU PROTEGE LA FRANCE
6.44 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 510/2
The revolution has ended, Bonaparte is soon becoming Napoleon I Empereur, as Octavian became Augustus (note the similarities on this portrait with those of Augustus on the "bull butting" denarii), but still unsure of what is going on. We see many contradictory messages for a laïque republic : a consul on obverse, a republic on reverse, a revolutionary calendar (An 12) and ... God save France on the edge...
Now you know why you find french people so romantic...
11-249
Potator II
246~0.JPG
Bone-Constantine, Algérie Française13 viewsChambre de Commerce de Bone, Algérie (ancienne colonie française).
Laiton, 19 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE
R/ CHAMBRE DE COMMERCE DE BONE // 50 c
Réfs : Elie 15.2
Gabalor
070~1.JPG
Bourbonnais, Prieuré de Souvigny (XIIème siècle), France4 views.Denier, argent, 0,69 g.
A/ + SES MAIOLVS, Saint Mayeul de face.
R/ + SILVINIACO, croix.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant 2169.
Gabalor
003~4.JPG
Bourgogne, duché, Jean sans Peur (1404-1419), Auxonne, France.7 viewsGrand blanc, argent, 2,78 g.
A/ + IOHANES DVX BVRGVNDIE, écu aux armes de Bourgogne.
R/ + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV, croix cantonnée de lis et de lions.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant 5723 ; Boudeau 1224.
Gabalor
CR.jpg
Bow in case165 viewsTarsos, region of Cilicia 2nd-1st century BC.


Obv: Turreted head of Tyche right;

Countemark BOW IN CASE

Rev: TAΡΣEΩN, Zeus in himation seated left on throne,

holding eagle-tipped sceptre

Diameter: 20 mm. / Weight: 5,84 gms. / Material: Æ-Bronze

Refs: SNG France 1285ff. var.
emporiton
Bramsen 0032.JPG
Bramsen 0032. Passage du Saint-Bernard, 1800.299 viewsObv. Uniformed bust of Napoleon right BONAPARTE Ir. CONSUL DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE.
Rev. Napoleon on horseback, crossing the Alps, after the painting by David PASSAGE DU Gd. St. BERNARD LE XXV FLOREAL AN VIII

AE58. Montagny, after Andrieu.

Stained and slightly worn.

LordBest
Bramsen 0038.JPG
Bramsen 0038. Bataille de Marengo, 1800.156 viewsObv. BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL DE LA REP. FRANÇE. Buste à gauche, en uniforme. BATAILLE DE MARENGO 25 ET 26 PRAIRIAL AN 8. Le tout entre deux branches laurier, formant couronne
Rev. LE PREMIER CONSUL COMMANDANT L'ARMÉE DE RÉSERVE EN PERSONNE: ENFANS RAPPELLEZ VOUS QUE MON HABITUDE EST DE COUCHER SUR LE CHAMP DE BATAILLE
50mm

Commemorates the Battle of Marengo, one of Napoleons greatest victories. 1800.
1 commentsLordBest
Bramsen 0310.JPG
Bramsen 0310. Légion d'Honneur, 1804.484 viewsObv. Laureate head of Napoleon ANDRIEU F below.
Rev.the cross of the order, in the centre of which the eagle of France stands on the fulmen of Jove, encircled with a flat ring, on which the motto, HONNEUR . ET . PATRIE. is impressed. A wreath of the branches of oak and laurel, with their fruit, surrounds the cross behind AUSPICE NEAPOLEONE GALLIA RENOVATA. Exergue, DENON DIRT. JALEY FT.

The engraving is of the highest quality. Some scratches on the obverse, not particularly visible in hand. The scratches on the portrait itself do not penetrate the patination to bare metal.

Laskey's Narrative:
Napoleon having been elected First Consul for life, immediately marked his great event by instituting the order of the Legion of Honour, which, by joining personal decoration with pecuniary stipend, answered two purposes, that of reconciling the people of France to the restoration of artificial rank in society, and also or securing to Napoleon himself the personal attachment of all those connected with the institution; in short it was a cheap, but efficacious mode of giving bribes to all ranks both in military and civil life, and therefore likely to be attended with the best consequences to his own popularity.


On this occasion, Joseph Bonaparte, the Consul's brother, was made the grand officer of the order.

It was also decreed that the legion should be composed of fifteen cohorts, and a council of administration; that each cohort should consist of seven grand officers, twenty commandants, thirty officers, and 350 legionaries; and that the First Consul should always be the chief of the legion, and of the council of administration. The members were to be military men, who had distinguished themselves in the war, or citizens, who, by their knowledge, talents, and virtues, had contributed to establish or defend the republic.



LordBest
Bramsen 0557.JPG
Bramsen 0557. Arc de triomphe du Carrousel, 1806.172 viewsObv. Laureate bust right NAPOLEON EMP ET ROI
Rev. a triumphal arch, surmounted by a chariot, in which stands the Emperor drawn by four horses; on the pediment over the centre arch, a tablet with the inscription, NAPOLEON EMP ET ROI, &c. &c.; on each side of the tablet a bas relief: over the arches NAPOLEON . I . EMPEREUR DES FRANÇAIS ROI D'ITALIE, underneath bas reliefs.
Exergue, AUX ARMES MDCCCVI. BRENET F FONTAINE ARC. DENON D.

Commemorates the beginning of construction of the Arc de Triumphe, still visible in Paris today, in 1806.
LordBest
Bramsen 1091.JPG
Bramsen 1091. Le Roi de Rome, 1811.225 viewsObv. Profile busts of the Emperor Napoleon, and the Empress Maria Louisa; the head of the Emperor encircled with a wreath, that of the Empress is adorned with the imperial diadem as worn by the former Queens of France; under the head of Napoleon or exergue, the name of the artist and designer, ANDRIEU F. DENON D.
Rev. Bust of the infant son of Napoleon; on base of the bust, ANDRIEU F.
Legend, NAPOLEON FRANCOIS JOSEPH CHARLES ROI DE ROME.
Exergue, XX MARS MDCCCXI.

Struck to commemorate the birth of Napoleon II in 1811.
LordBest
Bramsen unknown.JPG
Bramsen ????. Mariage a Paris avec Marie-Louise, 1810. 233 viewsObv. Confronting busts of Napoleon I and Marie Louise. NAPOLEON GALL IMP ITALIIAE REX M LVDOVICIA FRANC AUST IMP FIL AA. HARNISCH
Rev. Turreted goddess insribing on shield supported by cupid, torches either side. FELICIBVS NVPTIIS. VOTA PVBLICA. VINDOB X1 MARTII MDCCCX
Silvered white metal 48mm

A beautiful medal struck to commemorate the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria in 1810. Struck at Vienna.
My very first Napoleonic medal. ex-HJB it was sold as a restrike but is in fact an original strike as the Vienna mint did not restrike these medals.
LordBest
013~7.JPG
Bretagne - duché, François II (1458-1488) atelier de Nantes.4 viewsGros à l'écu, argent, 3,53 g
A/ + FRANCISCVS BRITORVM DVX N, écu à six mouchetures d'hermines.
R/ + SIT NOMEN DNI BENEDICTVM, croix feuillue, cantonnée de quatre points, avec N en coeur.
Réfs : Boudeau 135 ; Poey d'Avant 1271
Gabalor
Burundi.jpg
Burundi26 viewsKm19 - 1 Franc - 1976-1993Daniel F
Lyon-20140817-00305.jpg
Bust of Sol24 viewsStone carving of a bust of the sun god Sol. Roman Museum of Lugdunum in Lyons, France.1 commentsotlichnik