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DenCnCornelioBlasio.jpg
26 viewsDenarius, 112/111 B.C. Rome Mint
CN. CORNELIVS CN.F. BLASIO - Gens Cornelia
Obv.:Mars, helmeted, right (or Scipio Africanus), CN. BLASIO CN.F. before (var. N retrograde), bucranium behind. XVI (in monogram) above
Rev.: Juno, Jupiter being crowned by Minerva; letter Θ in field, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,25 mm. 20,6x18,4
Crawford 296/1c, Sear RCV 173, Grueber 626



Maxentius
chersonesos_hemidrachm_.jpg
73 viewsTHRACE, Black Sea Area. Chersonesos. Circa 460 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.25 gm; 12 mm).
Forepart of lion right, head reverted / Quadripartite incuse square; pellet and Rooster monograms in opposite quadrants. Cf. BMC Thrace pg. 185, 42; Cf. SNG Cop. 824ff. Rare variety with Rooster on reverse
4 commentspaul1888
Balck_and_blue_neckless.jpg
35 viewsROMAN BLUE & BLACK GLASS BEADS
Specifications: •Date: C, 5th-8th century AD, late Roman early Byzantine
•Size: 4 mm to 13 mm
•Condition: Nice selection of blue and black beads

Antonivs Protti
PanoramaLRB1Black.jpg
15 viewsPaddy
CroppingPanoramaBlack.jpg
16 viewsPaddy
HABSBURG_WIEN_6_Kreuzer_1800_Franz_Kopf_Krone_Doppeladler.jpg
34 viewsRDR -- Haus Habsburg

Franz II. (1792-1806-1835)

1800

6 Kreuzer (Kupfer)

Münzstätte: Wien (A)

Vs: Kopf nach rechts, darunter in Verzierung Münzzeichen (A). Umschrift: "FRANZ•II•RÖM•KAI•KÖN•Z•HU•U•BÖ•ERZH• Z•OEST•"

Rs: unter Krone Doppeladler, auf der Brust Wertzahl. Umschrift: "SECHS•KREUTZER•ERBLAENDISCH•1800•"

Gewicht: 12,4g

Durchmesser: 31 mm

Erhaltung: schön _799
Antonivs Protti
LRBPanoramaBlack.jpg
29 viewsPaddy
Sear-653.jpg
18 viewsPhocas. 602-610. Æ Follis – 40 Nummi (32mm, 12.92 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 5 (606/7). Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross / Large XXXX; ANNO above, Ч to right; TЄS. DOC 47; MIBE 91; SB 653. Good VF, dark brown-black patina, hint of earthen deposits, cleaning marks. Overstruck on a Nicomedia follis of Maurice Tiberius (SB 512). Quant.Geek
Corinthian_Aryballos.jpg
27 viewsCorinthian Aryballos
ca. 6th century BC. Black figure decoration with winged figure. Provenance:Ex: Toledo Museum of Art; Came to Toledo Museum of Art in 1948. Not accessioned has an ID number of "App 7-30-48". UNACC.3.1948. H: 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm).
paul1888
03_bustine_black.jpg
17 viewstetrico
Julia_Soaemias_RIC_243~0.jpg
29.4 Julia Soaemias52 viewsJULIA SOAEMIAS,
AR denarius, Rome (2.8g)

IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus diademed seated left on throne, apple in right, scepter in left, child at her feet

SRCV II 7720, RIC IV 243, RSC III 14 EF
Ex Blanchard & Co. - Control # 72454
3 commentsSosius
2473d03d8982aed66455e7935ac366a0.jpeg
34 Balbinus83 viewsÆ Sestertius, 30mm, 22.61 g, 12h, Rome mint. 238 AD

O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

R: Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
RIC IV 15.

Good Fine, black patina with some earthen highlights

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
rjb_laur_pax.jpg
719cf46 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "IMP C..........."
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 719 for AR)
Ex Blackmoor hoard but not separately identified in CHRB III
mauseus
913cf.jpg
91468 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF A"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax (or Fides?) standing left with two standards
Unmarked mint or irregular?
RIC 914
ex Blackmoor hoard
Obverse and reverse die duplicate of the Voegelaar specimen
1 commentsmauseus
coinI_copy.jpg
Antiochos IX, Kyzikenos24 viewsAE 18, Syria, Antiochos IX, ca. 116-95 B.C. Obv: Head of bearded Herakles facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΦΙΛΟ ΠΑΤΡΟΥ around Athena standing left, holding Nike, monogram and aplustre in field. Black patina, gF. Lindgren I, 1867, SC 1250, Hoover HGC 9, 1250 (S).Molinari
aeI_copy.jpg
Antiochos IX, Kyzikenos31 viewsAE 20, Antiochos IX, Kyzikenos, ca. 113-95 BC. Obv: Winged bust of Eros facing right. Rev: Nike holding wreath, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΡΟΣ, Seleukid era date 111/0 (Beta Sigma) to left. Near black patina with stunning earthen highlights, aEF SG 7173, SC 2388, Hoover HGC 9, 1254 (C-S).Molinari
Asia_Minor.jpg
Asia Minor24 viewsAncient Greek coinage of Asia Minor: Black Sea Area (Bosporos, Kolchis, Pontos, Paphlagonia, & Bithynia), Western Asia Minor (Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Lydia, & Caria), & Central & Southern Asia Minor (Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycanonia, Cilicia, Galata, Cappadocia).1 commentsChristian T
aeE_copy.jpg
Demetrios II, Nikator31 viewsDemetrios II. AE 13, Obv: Eagle standing right with wings open. Rev: Winged thunderbolt, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡ. Black patina with earthen highlights, aEF. SNG Spaer 2196, Hoover HGC 9, 1139 (R1-2).Molinari
Gordian-III-RIC-177-87.jpg
Gordian III / RIC 177 over 187, 1'st series.31 viewsAntoninianus, 238-239 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: AEQVIT LIBER / Body and feet of Aequitas holding scales; Body and feet of Libertas holding pileus (Liberty cap) .
5.00 gm, 22 mm.
RIC #177 over #187.

This coin has two different reverses: the Aequitas type (RIC #177) is overstruck at 180 degree rotation on top of the Libertas type (RIC #187). Or, perhaps it is the other way around: The Libertas type (RIC #187) is overstruck on top of the Aequitas type (RIC #177).

The T of AEQVITAS AVG is almost flattened out and is just barely visible. At Antioch, Libertas with the pileus always has the legend LIBERALITAS AVG rather than LIBERTAS AVG.

There is a footnote to RIC #231 (vol. IV, part III, p. 39) which is quite intriguing:

"231. A strange Antoninianus (G. B. Pears Coll.) shows rev. type of AEQVIT[AS] apparently overstruck with type of LIBER[TAS] -- obv. of Gordian III, rev. of Philip overstruck with rev. of Trebonianus Gallus (?)."

I posted this coin on Forvmancientcoins.com and got this reply from Curtis Clay:

"A neat example of this error, and one I hadn't been aware of before, despite its mention in the RIC footnote!
As you expected, you now own the coin formerly in the Pears collection: we know because there is a plaster cast of it so labeled in the BM, which is illustrated in Roger Bland's dissertation, pl. 10, 18/21 !
One of the reverse types is Libertas with cap, but its legend must have been LIBERALITAS not LIBERTAS AVG: the Eastern mint always mislabeled its Libertas type as Liberalitas. RIC made the same mistake regarding the reverse legend; corrected by Bland, who lists the coin under the type LIBERALITAS AVG.
I had never heard of G. B. Pears or his collection before, so can supply no information in that regard."
Callimachus
Hartill-17_741.jpg
Imperial China, Southern Song: Duan Ping (1234-1236) AE 5 Cash (Hartill-17.741)12 viewsObv: 端平通寶 Duan Ping tong bao (1234-1236); Long bao
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
greek6.jpg
Kings of Syria,Seleukos II. AE 16 (4.6gm)16 viewsNewell,wsm 1661 / 246-226 BC
obv: bust of Athena helmeted
rev: nude Apollo std. l. holding arrows and bow
(glossy black and green patina)
hill132
Sklavengeld_Karneol.jpg
'Slave money', carnelian66 views25,4x13.60x11.90mm, 7.87g

This so-called 'slave money', part of a chain, was made in the first half of the 19th century in Idar-Oberstein/Germany for London. From London it was shipped to West Africa to buy black slaves.
Jochen
00045x00.jpg
23 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.97 g, 12 h)
CV
Two palm fronds
Casariego, Cores, & Pliego -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287, lot 941 (part of)
Ardatirion
00047x00.jpg
19 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (17mm, 4.23 g)
C(VF) within pronounced beaded border
Dolphin(?)
Casariego, Cores, & Pliego -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287, lot 941 (part of)
Ardatirion
00018x00~2.jpg
11 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.49 g)
Europa riding bull right
Blank
Unpublished
Ardatirion
00017x00~1.jpg
37 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.62 g)
Fly, seen from above
Blank
Stannard, Evidence 26-7 = Stannard, Parallels 99-100; Minturnae 34-5

Found in Southern Spain

This type is found both in Baetica and in central Italy, at Minturnae, demonstrating the close economic ties between the two areas. Stannard notes numerous parallels in the lead tokens and unofficial bronze coinage in the two areas. He also sees a stylistic difference between issues of the two regions, but I have not personally seen enough specimens from both regions to say.
Ardatirion
00019x00~0.jpg
9 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (12mm, 2.57 g)
IQ within beaded square cartouche
Blank
Unpublished
Ardatirion
00026x00~1.jpg
18 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (12mm, 2.22 g)
ISI within beaded square cartouche
Blank
Unpublished

Found in Southern Spain

This is a part of a small group of leads of similar module that were found in Southern Spain. They appear to be distinct from the series described by Casariego et al and Stannard.
Ardatirion
00012x00~0.jpg
62 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.38 g)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Blank
Apparently unpublished.

Found in Southern Spain.
Ardatirion
00009x00.jpg
19 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.06 g)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Blank
Apparently unpublished.

Found in Southern Spain.
Ardatirion
00073x00.jpg
27 viewsSPAIN, Oducia
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.95 g)
MF/OD within wreath (Municipium Flavium Oducensis)
Blank
Cf. Casariego, Cores, & Pliego 14b

The municipia Flavia were a series of small towns founded as part of Vespasian's reconstruction of Spain. These settlements are notable in that the civic laws are preserved in stone for many of the settlements.
Ardatirion
00072x00.jpg
23 viewsSPAIN, Uncertain Municipium Flavium
PB Tessera (15mm, 4.02 g)
M/ OF
Blank
Cf. Casariego, Cores, & Pliego 13d (for obverse)
Ardatirion
00021x00~1.jpg
20 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.24 g)
PCE
Blank
Unpublished

Found in Southern Spain
Ardatirion
00025x00~0.jpg
21 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.56 g)
Radiate [bearded?] head right
Blank
Unpublished

Found in Southern Spain

This is a part of a small group of small leads of similar module that were found in Southern Spain. They appear to be distinct from the series described by Casariego et al and Stannard.
Ardatirion
00002x00~0.jpg
24 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (13mm, 2.02 g)
Roma, holding Victory, and Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopia, standing facing
Blank
Apparently unpublished
Ardatirion
00003x00~1.jpg
27 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.28 g)
Scorpion
Blank
Apparently unpublished
Ardatirion
00046x00.jpg
20 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.12 g)
V•F
Blank
Casariego, Cores, & Pliego -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287, lot 941 (part of)
Ardatirion
00011x00.jpg
19 viewsGAUL, Lugdunum (?)
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.13 g)
CPF, palm frond below
Blank
Cf. Turcan 221, 225-6, and others.

Found in Southern Spain.

This struck piece shares its general engraving style and palm frond motif with a number of specimens in the museum of Lyons. Perhaps, considering its Spanish provenance, the type saw circulation along the coast of the western Mediterranean.
Ardatirion
00006x00~0.jpg
20 viewsUNCERTAIN WESTERN EUROPE
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.88 g)
ASP; c/m: plain punch
Blank
Apparently unpublished.

Possibly ex Trau collection.
Ardatirion
Y04288.jpg
44 viewsROME. Nero. AD 54-68.
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.90 g)
NERO AV
Laureate head right
Blank
Rostovtzev 28; München 2-3; BM 1031
1 commentsArdatirion
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
DSC_0192.jpg
24 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.92 g, 12 h)
C O within wreath
Palm frond; N I flanking
Rostowzew – (but cf. 544 for reverse); Gemini V, lot 843b = Blanton, "A Selection of Lead Tesserae with Games Related Types," in NI Bulletin vol. 45, no. 9/10, p. 146-147
Ardatirion
00008x00~2.jpg
15 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00007x00~2.jpg
16 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00009x00_copy.jpg
17 viewsATTICA, Athens
PB Tessera. (15mm, 4.00 g)
Struck circa 200-263 AD
Helmeted head right
Blank
Lang & Crosby 246

The style of the bust on this token closely matches one discovered in the Stoa at the Athenian Agora, firmly dated to the mid 3rd century AD.
Ardatirion
Corinth.JPG
22 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
Æ Tessera (14mm, 3.65 g)
Struck in the mid-1st century AD
Pegasos flying right; COR below
Blank
Edwards, Corinth Excavations 231; BCD Corinth 519-23; Amandry 1
Ardatirion
corinth_tessera.jpg
34 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.37 g)
Pegasos flying left; [COR?] below
Blank
BCD Corinth 529 (this coin)

Ex BCD Collection (Lanz 105, 26 November 2001), lot 529

This intriguing piece stands out from the main series of countermarked bronze type tesserae found at Corinth.
Ardatirion
DSC_6025.jpg
23 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.49 g)
Eagle standing right with wings spread, head left
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 71
Ardatirion
DSC_6027.jpg
31 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 6.51 g)
Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 195, 197-200
Ardatirion
Y04285.jpg
24 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 4.51 g)
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm frond
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 11-2 var. (Victory left; no border)
Ardatirion
ephesos_ascleupeus.jpg
25 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.58 g)
Aesculapius standing left, leaning on staff entwined with snakes
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 3 (same dies) corr. (Aesculapius, not Eirene)
Ardatirion
00004x00~7.jpg
16 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.57 g)
Figure standing right, playing auloi
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 133

Ex Naumann 52 (3 April 2017), lot 306
Ardatirion
11996.jpg
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (15mm, 4.22 g)
Bird cage; PY to upper left
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -

Ex Tom Vossen Collection
Ardatirion
00002x00~9.jpg
22 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
Boar running right; [...]YX above, V below
Δ
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
wreath1.jpg
24 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.54 g)
BOY/Λ/ ΘЄO within wreath
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -

Apparently issued by the Boule, a local council in charge of civic matters. Theo is either the name of a magistrate or an epithet of the Boule.
Ardatirion
bull1.JPG
33 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.63 g)
Bull standing right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 90
1 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~4.jpg
26 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Marchos, grammateus of the Boule.
PB Tessera (18mm, 8.88 g)
MAR ΓP BOV, composite head of Silenos facing right and young horned Pan facing left; c/m: bird (stork?) standing right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –; Vossen 42 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 42; Münzzentrum Rheinland 161 (11 January 2012), lot 315; Münzzentrum Rheinland 159 (4 May 2011), lot 357
Ardatirion
bull1~0.JPG
21 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.51 g)
Bull standing right; star above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 91
Ardatirion
00018x00.jpg
37 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.30 g)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 53 var. (reverse type)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection; Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 232, lot 515 (part of). Found near Ephesus.
Ardatirion
new.jpg
28 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.03 g)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 53 var. (reverse type)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 300), lot 432 (part of)
1 commentsArdatirion
10329.jpg
34 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.16 g)
Crab
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
cross1.jpg
18 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.66 g)
Deeply punched cross shape with two additional annular punches
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 153 (lacking the two annular punches)
Ardatirion
hound1.jpg
31 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.83 g)
Dog's head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
00006x00~4.jpg
17 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
Eagle standing right with wings spread, head left, holding wreath in beak; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
00005x00~6.jpg
17 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
Eagle standing right with wings spread, head left, holding wreath in beak; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
eagle1.JPG
36 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. A. Aurelius Marcellienus Phil. 2nd-3rd centuries AD.
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.28 g)
∙ A ∙ AYP ∙ MAPKЄΛΛIЄNOY ΦIΛ
Eagle standing right on rock, raising one leg, with shrimp in mouth
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
10283s00.jpg
39 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Faustos Philosebastos. Agoranomos, 2nd-3rd centuries AD.
PB Tessera (17mm, 5.02 g)
[…Φ]AVCTOV ΦIΛOCЄB/ AΓOPANOM OV
Head of elephant right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -

Ex Tom Vossen Collection
Ardatirion
fish1.jpg
21 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.76 g)
Two fish swimming in opposite directions
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 125, 127-9
Ardatirion
fortuna1.JPG
20 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.10 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia; Λ O flanking
Blank
Cf. Gülbay & Kireç 45 (for obv.)
Ardatirion
00024x00~0.jpg
10 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 4.16 g)
Bearded male head right (satyr?)
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –
Ardatirion
hermes.JPG
32 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Din-. Grammateus of the Boule, 1st-3rd century AD
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.53 g)
ΓPAM ∙ BO ∙ Є ∙ ΔIN[...]
Hermes standing left, holding bag and caduceus
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
lanz31.JPG
27 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Muod-. Grammateus of the Boule, 1st-3rd century AD
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.18 g)
MYOΔ Γ B
Hippocamp swimming right, holding rudder in tail
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
lanz11.JPG
26 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 4.42 g)
Horse advancing left, holding palm frond in mouth; NЄI above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
00001x00~6.jpg
13 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (21mm, 6.53 g) Dated SE 469 (AD 157/8?)
Rider on horseback right, holding whip; YΞΘ below
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –; Vossen 57 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 57; Münzzentrum Rheinland 150 (7 January 2009), lot 263; Münzzentrum Rheinland 134 (30 August 2006), lot 404
Ardatirion
horse1~0.JPG
23 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.00 g)
Horse leaping right; palm frond above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
00020x00~0.jpg
12 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.46 g)
Hygeia, standing right, holding serpent, and Aesculapeius, standing left, resting serpent-entwined staff on ground
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –
Ardatirion
lion1.jpg
20 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (18mm, 3.99 g)
Lion advancing right
Blank
Cf. Gülbay & Kireç 92 (lion in different stance) corr. (not a seahorse)
1 commentsArdatirion
griffin1.JPG
26 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 4.37 g)
Lion standing right with paw on column; cornucopia over shoulder; ЄP to left
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
54464q00.jpg
56 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.13 g)
Bearded male head right (Herakles?)
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç – (but cf. 213-4, for other bearded males)
2 commentsArdatirion
10330.jpg
20 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (12mm, 2.97 g)
Facing head of Medusa
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 191-2
Ardatirion
00004x00~9.jpg
19 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
[…]ΔPOY · ACOK(?); monogram consisting of letters AΔΦPY
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
_(KGrHqF,!lMFCSjPoI()BQv2mFrJKw~~60_1.jpg
43 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.31 g)
Hermit crab right; wheat ear below
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 40 var. (figure on reverse - same obverse die)
1 commentsArdatirion
00021x00~3.jpg
8 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g)
Murex shell, flanked by dolphin swimming upwards and eel
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Gülbay & Kireç –
Ardatirion
Victory_tessera.JPG
32 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.8 g)
Victory advancing right, holding wreath, palm frond over shoulder; VM-NΩ flanking
Gülbay & Kireç 11-2 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
61 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
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Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
pan1.jpg
27 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (12mm, 1.43 g)
Pan standing left, holding lagobolon in left hand, raising right; palm frond to right, leaf to left
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -

The lagobolon was a curved stick used for striking hares.
Ardatirion
cockle1.JPG
28 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.94 g)
Cockle or scallop shell
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
octopus1.jpg
31 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (21mm,5.66 g)
Squid
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
horse1.JPG
23 viewsIONIA,Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.34 g)
Stag standing right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 98 corr. (stag, not crab)
1 commentsArdatirion
Lanz21.JPG
40 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (19mm, 4.90 g)
Togate figure standing left, sacrificing at altar before tholos containing cult statue
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Gülbay & Kireç -; Hirsch 279, lot 4922

The engraver of this die betrays no small skill in his execution of the obverse type; the circular shrine is shown in perspective, with the columns arranged so as to suggest distance while still leaving room for the statue to be visible. I was surprised to find that another specimen of this type from different, though equally elegant dies had recently sold in a Hirsch auction, there misidentified as a “bleiplombe,” or lead seal.
1 commentsArdatirion
00003x00~9.jpg
21 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view; uncertain legend around
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Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
tyche1.jpg
27 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.74 g)
TYXH THC ΠOΛEAC (Tyche of the City)
Tyche Poleas standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
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Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
00007x00~1.jpg
28 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Lauphilos, boularches damosie
PB Tessera (21mm, 5.16 g)
ΛAOVΦIΛ•-•BOVΛAP Δ[A]
Dikaiosyne standing left holding cornucopia and scales
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Ex Tom Vossen Collection; Münzzentrum 161 (11 January 2012), lot 316; Münzzentrum 159 (4 May 2011), lot 359
Ardatirion
_(KGrHqJ,!q!FCrzcNDbhBQz0,cFK0w~~60_35.JPG
41 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.97 g)
Woman standing facing holding basket on head; MH-NO flanking
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Gülbay & Kireç 48-50
1 commentsArdatirion
woman1.JPG
24 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.28 g)
Female head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç - (but cf. 183 and 184 for other female portraits)
Ardatirion
DSC_0195.jpg
74 viewsINDONESIA, Kingdom of Srivijaya.
7th-13th centuries AD
Æ (17mm, 0.32 g).
Cirebon or Tegal area. Struck in the early 11th century
Xian Ping Yuan Bao in crude Hànzì
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Zeno 124661


The kingdom of Srivijaya (San Fo Chi, in Chinese) apparently petitioned the Emperor Zhēnzōng of China, seeking protection from the Chola Kingdom and permission to strike coins. This type, known only from recent finds near Palembang, likely represents the earliest native coinage of that area.
1 commentsArdatirion
DSC_0193.jpg
80 viewsINDONESIA, Sultanate of Palembang. Circa AD 1790's-1821
Tin Cash (20mm, 0.61 g)
Palembang mint
Shi Dan Li Bao in Hànzì
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T.D. Yih, "Tiny Pitis Inscribed 'Shi-Dan' (Sultan) from Palembang," in ONS Newsletter 204 (Summer 2010), type I-1

Found in Palembang

Hang Li Po first appears in the Malay Annals as a Chinese princess sent to be the fifth bride of sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. However, there is no reference to this event in official Ming documents. Li Po may merely be a beautiful concubine given to the Sultan. Alternatively, she may be the daughter of an otherwise unknown Chinese ruler in the area, to whom this coin may perhaps be attributed.
1 commentsArdatirion
00001x00~3.jpg
92 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. Belleville, New Jersey. “T. Duseaman, butcher”
CU Token (28mm, 10.84 g, 1h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Struck 1837
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *
Bouquet
T. DUSEAMAN BUTCHER/ * BELLEVILLE *
Eagle standing left, with wings spread and head left, holding shield emblazoned with anchor; thirteens stars around
Rulau HT 204; Low 148; Corteau 71; Charlton LC-45; Breton 670

T. Duseaman never existed. This type was struck from a rejected die for the token of one Tobias Seaman, a butcher in Belleville. Mint workers added a U to the name and combined it with a damaged die from the Lower Canada series to produce this currency issue. Breton notes that the type is most often found in Canada, suggesting that it was deliberately produced at minimal cost for sale to Canadian brokers.
Ardatirion
00060x00.jpg
48 viewsMEXICO, Aztec culture. Circa AD 1200/1300-1525
Æ “Hachuela” (143mm x 150mm, 55.70 g)
Mushroom-shaped bronze pseudo-axe-head with curved “blade” and flanged shank
Hosler, Lechtman, & Holm, Axe-monies and their Relatives, type 2a
1 commentsArdatirion
54465q00.jpg
24 viewsASIA MINOR, Uncertain
PB Tessera (9mm, 0.76 g)
Cornucopia or aplustre(?)
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
Asia_Minor_tessera.jpg
24 viewsUNCERTAIN EAST
Circa 300 BC - 100 AD?
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.79 g)
Two punches: bee, Λ A flanking; Nike advancing facing, head right
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Gülbay & Kireç -; Lang & Crosby -; Howgego -

The first punch depicts a bee with a long, cylindrical body, triangular pointed wings, and globular eyes with the letters Λ and A flanking. A second, added later over the edge of the first, shows Nike striding boldly forward with her head slightly to the right. The elegant engraving of the punches, both unlisted as countermarks in Howgego, contrasts starkly with the rough, unfinished flan. Although the basic types of Nike and a bee are common at Ephesos, the fabric and style differ from the issues of that city. Neither does the piece fit with the tokens found in the Athenian Agora. All considered, this piece appears consistent with what one would expect from a temporary token or entry pass, possibly of the pre-Roman period.
Ardatirion
00012x00~2.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Agathodaimon serpent erect right, [wearing skhent crown?]
Blank
Milne –; cf. Dattari (Savio) 11919 = Naville 31, lot 276; Köln –
Ardatirion
anton.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Seal (?) (21mm, 4.19g)
Dated year 3 of an uncertain era.
ANTWNINOV[KAITOVNY]
Hermes standing facing, nude, head left, disk or globe in right, caduceus in left; ibis at his feet; LΙΓ in left field
Traces of attached metal
Milne , “Egyptian Leaden Tokens” in NC 1930, p. 310 note 3; Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6413; Köln -

With an old Galiere Antiker Kunst ticket.

Milne does not regard this piece as a token. The attached metal on the reverse is characteristic of certain types of lead seals.
Ardatirion
00030x00~0.jpg
25 viewsVolusian. AD 251-253
Æ Antoninianus? (17mm, 1.83 g)
Copying an uncertain issue
Radiate, [draped, and cuirrassed] bust right
Blank

A most curious piece. The attribution to Volusian is suggested by the shape of the facial hair and the generally youthful portrait.
1 commentsArdatirion
IMG_1361.JPG
64 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Seneca tribe.
Ganounata village (Honeoye Falls, NY). Circa AD 1625-1687
White wampum beads (apx. 5mm, 0.10g each)
Carved white shell beads with lateral hole for suspension in belt
Cf. William Martin Beauchamp, Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians, p. 369

Found at the Dann Farm site in Honeoye Falls, NY.


In 1687 combined French and Huron forces, lead by the Marquis de Denonville, set out to undermine the strength of the Iriquois Confederacy. The main strike was made against Seneca villages in Western New York. Ganounata was burned during the campaign. This episode was only one in a long line of conflicts fought over control of the North American fur trade.

Wampum was used by Native Americans in woven belts of white and black beads. The white beads were crafted from the columella of the Channeled Whelk, the black from the quahog. Traditionally, wampum belts were used as a ceremonial object to initiate a trade contract. It was only with the coming of the Europeans that wampum began to function as coinage. In 1673, New York state officially set the value of wampum at six white beads to the Dutch stuiver, or three black until they fell out of use.
Ardatirion
00030x00.jpg
71 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -

Museum number in india ink on reverse: 5971730 (?)

Ex Lockdale's 83 (27 March 2011), lot 1112
2 commentsArdatirion
00029x00.jpg
32 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -
Ardatirion
00004x00~0.jpg
24 viewsJAPAN, Imperial. Kyōhō Era. AD 1716-1738
Æ Mun (24mm, 3.34 g)
Ishinomaki, Sendai mint in Mutsu province
Cast AD 1728-1732
Kanei Tsuho in Hànzì
Blank
Hartill, Japanese 4.138; Ogawa 126
Ardatirion
capricorn_tessera.jpg
44 viewsUNCERTAIN
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.45 g)
Capricorn right, cornucopia over shoulder; above, head right, confronted Є's below
Blank
Apparently unpublished
Ardatirion
louis1-denier-melle-circ.JPG
D.611 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)33 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.77 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 6 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

The obsverse is similar to the previous denier. The difference is that the mint name is around a cross pattée on the reverse. This type is scarer than the one with the mint name in the field. The presence of both types in a hoard shows that both date from the beginning of Louis' reign and belong to the same Class 2.
Grierson and Blackburn suggest that this difference is due to a misunderstanding of the mint instructions.
Droger
charles2-denier-melle3.JPG
D.621 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1a, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1a, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ META / • / LLVM

Class 1 of Charles the Bald's coinage is made of totally different types of coins, which may reflect the state of the kingdom after 3 years of civil war and the division of the Empire.

Class 1a: mint in the field, with a linear legend
Class 1b: bust
Class 1c: city gate
Class 1d: KRLS monogram
Class 1e: temple

Coupland suggests that this particular scarce type (with META/LLVM on the reverse) had been minted from June 848, just after Charles the Bald finally defeated his nephew Pippin II for Aquitaine's control. The aim of minting a special type like this was to show a clear difference with the previsous coinage of Pippin II. A little later, Charles the Blad went on with the typical coinage of Melle (monogram ; circular mint name).
1 commentsDroger
charles2-denier-mellex.JPG
D.627 Charles II the Bald (denier ?, class 1d, Melle)16 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle ?, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.35 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX R; cross pattée
R/ +METxVLLO; carolingian monogram

The x in METxVLLO on the reverse has been widely discussed.
For instance, Depeyrot understands it as an immobilization/feudal issue. The crude style of theses deniers and the lightly degenerate legend of this one (CARLVS REX R instead of REX FR) seems in coherence with this hypothesis. However, the x is always at the same place.
Moreover, this type of coin has been found in the Brioux hoard, which may be datable to the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign. Grierson and Blackburn suggest that these coins with x were mainly minted in Poitiers. Using the legend of the close Melle mint allowed to take advantage of the reputation of Melle coinage.
Coupland proposes that this METxVLLO type came after the METVLLO type after 860 and until round 925. Then, it was replaced by the MET/ALO type. In order to explain the differences of interpretation, Coupland thinks that several hoards were wrongly dated or described.
Droger
charles2-gdr-curtisasonien.JPG
D.375 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 2, Courcessin?)35 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
GDR denier (Courcessin?, class 2, 864-875)

Silver, 1.43 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +GRΛTIΛ D-I REX; carolingian monogram
R/ +I.CVRTISΛSONIEH; cross pattée

In 864, Charles the Bald promulgated the edict of Pîtres, huge reform whose aim was to protect the kingdom from Viking raids. It also reinforced royal authority on minting, and created a new type of deniers . The new coins could be only struck at 10 mints (Palace, Chalon sur Saône, Melle, Narbonne, Orléans, Paris, Quentovic, Reims, Rouen and Sens). This limitation had never been applied, more than 110 mints struck the new coinage. This can be understood as a lack of control of the central autority. However it seems that several mints shared dies... Grierson and Blackburn proposed that only 10 main mints produced dies and partially outsourced coinage production ?
On the obverse is written GRATIA D-I REX (GDR) around a carolingian monogram. The alliance with Roman Church goes on... The reverse already existed for Class 1, with the mint name around a cross pattée.
Class 2 of Charles' coinage is made of these GDR deniers.

The precise localization of the mint in Normandie (north of France) is still not clear. According to Grierson and Blackburn, Courti(s) Sasonien(sis) may come from some groups of Saxons settled in northern part of Gaul.
Droger
charles4-maille-blanche-1ere.JPG
Dy.243 Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 1st emission7 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 1st emission (03/02/1324)

Silver (798 ‰), 1.82 g, diameter 22 mm, die axis 2h
O: inner circle: +kAROLVS(diamond)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT#8942nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANChORVm*; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis

The h of FRANChORVm is characteristic of the first emission.

Charles was the younger and third son of former king Philip the Fair. He was consequently not supposed to rule. However, as his two brothers successively died without any living son, he became king in 1322. Six years later, he also died without a male heir. So ended up the capetian senior line in 1328.
The legend began then... Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, had cursed King Philip the Fair and his descendants from his execution pyr in 1314. Was the curse finally efficient ?
Charles'cousin, his nearest parent, became then king of France as Philip VI.
Droger
charles4-maille-blanche-2.JPG
Dy.243A Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 2ond emission22 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 2ond emission (07/1324)

Silver (798 ‰), 1.74 g, diameter 21-22 mm, die axis 10h
O: inner circle: +(spade)kAROLVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT(ring)nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm(ring); châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis, the top one being between 2 dots, which is characteristic of the 2ond emission




Droger
charles4-maille-blanche-3eme.JPG
Dy.243D Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 3rd emission10 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 3rd emission (07/23/1326)

Silver (718 ‰), 1.64 g, diameter 22 mm, die axis 11h
O: inner circle: +kAROLVS(square)RE•X•; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT(ring)nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis, the top one being between 2 dots

The RE•X• on the reverse is characteristic of the 3rd emission. Most of the time, the top fleur-de-lis is also surrounded by two dots, similarly to the 2ond emission.



Droger
w14412.jpg
"4 Zhu" Ban Liang of Emperor Wen Di (Western Han Dynasty)42 viewsEmperor Wen Di (minted 175-119 BCE)

Two normal-sized Chinese characters – Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), large characters (lower part of liang is M shaped), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims.

24mm, 2.28 grams. BM Chinese coins (Poole) #256ff; Hartill #7.16.
Belisarius
w14240.jpg
"8 Zhu" Ban Liang of Qin Kingdom (Eastern Zhou Dynasty)24 viewsMinted 300-220 BCE.

Two huge Chinese characters - Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims. Unfiled edges.

This very large thin coins of variable weight were made under the very late Zhou dynasty - they are local issues, and might belong either to the late "Warring States" period or the early Qin period.

31mm, 3.52 grams. Hartill #7.4.
Belisarius
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa31 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
HuoQuan.jpg
"Huo Quan" of Usurper Wang Mang (Xin Dynasty)11 viewsEmperor Wang Mang

Two large Chinese characters – Huo Quan ("spring of goods"), rim around the central hole, small raised outside rim.

Blank. 17.5mm, 1.04 grams. Hartill #9.65
Belisarius
86A_1.jpg
"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/118 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
septim_diony_retrograde_leg_b.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Retrograde Reverse Legend)25 views193-211 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.41 g
(struck under governor Aurelius Gallus)
O: [AV KL] CEP - CEVHRO[C P] Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: VP AVR GALL - OV NIKOPOLIT / PROC I (retrograde, beginning at 5 o'clock, counterclockwise)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with raised left hand on thyrsos, lowered right hand holding kantharos and pouring
wine
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1304
rev. legend not in AMNG
AMNG I/1, 1306 (depiction)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.14.8.8
d) Blancon list 43, 2003
Nikocopolis ad Istrum; very rare
(one of the rare coins with retrograde legend)
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye967 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
Greek_AE20_3rd_cent.jpg
*SOLD*17 viewsGreek Thracian - Mesembria AE20

Attribution: SNG BM Black Sea 276 var., SNG Stancomb 229-30, Moushmov 3984
Date: 300-250 BC
Obverse: Helmet right
Reverse: METAM-BPIAN Ω N, wheel
Size: 19.5 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
Augsburg_2_kreuzer_1625.jpg
*SOLD*30 viewsFerdinand II Augsburg - 2 Kreuzers

Attribution: KM #16
Date: AD 1625
Obverse: AVGVSTA VINDELICORVM Ω, bush on pedestal, 1625 across fields
Reverse: FERDINAND II. D G ROM IMP S AVG, black eagle with two heads, shield with 2 (kreuzers)
Noah
nurnberg_1_kreuzer_1773.jpg
*SOLD*20 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
57639q00.jpg
*SOLD*23 views Amisos, Pontos AE 20
Attribution: cf. SNG BM Black Sea 1177 ff.; BMC Pontos p. 19, 69 ff.; SGCV II 3642, (double struck)
Date: 85-65 BC
Obverse: Aegis with facing head of Gorgon in center
Reverse: AMI-SOU, Nike advancing r., holding palm frond across shoulders behind, monograms to l. and r.
Size: 23.1 mm
Weight: 7.77 grams
ex- Beast Coins, ex- Marcantica, ex-Forvm
Noah
OlbiaDolphin.jpg
001a, Olbia, Sarmatia, c. 5th Century B.C.52 viewsBronze cast dolphin, SGCV 1684 var, VF, 1.322g, 24.7mm. Obverse: dolphin with raised spine, dorsal fin and tail.

Olbia

Olbia, located in what is modern-day Ukraine, was a Milesian colony at the convergence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes rivers, about 15 miles inland from the Northwest coast of the Black Sea. Well located for trade, Olbia was a prosperous trading city and major grain supplier in the 5th Century B.C.

Small bronze dolphins were cast in Olbia, beginning 550-525 B.C., first as sacrificial objects for worship of Apollo and later as a form of currency (Joseph Sermarini).
1 commentsCleisthenes
Augustus_RIC_167aBlack.jpg
01 Augustus RIC 167a65 viewsAugustus 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 15 - 13 B.C. (3,71 gr) Obv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Bare head right. Rev: in ex. IMP X, Bull butting right.
RIC 167a, RSC 137, Sear 1610.

Ex: Poinsignon Numismatique

This coin has great beauty in its simplicity and it's also a great example of propaganda. Divi F (filius) means that Octavianus is not only Augustus but also the son of a god.
2 commentsPaddy
01-Durotriges.jpg
01. Durotriges stater.29 viewsStater, 58-45 BC, possibly minted at Hengistbury Head.
Obverse: devolved head of Apollo.
Reverse: devolved horse.
5.04 gm., 19 mm.
VA #1235-1; Seaby #367.

From the Blandford Forum Hoard, 1998.
Callimachus
Tribute_pennyBlack.jpg
02 Tiberius RIC 2639 viewsTiberius 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 14-37 AD. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head facing right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre and branch.
RIC 26; BMC 34; RSC 16.

Ex: Ancient Delights
Paddy
VHC03-coin.jpg
03- BRITISH HONDURAS (BELIZE), 25 CENTS, KM923 viewsSize: 27.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1728 oz. Mintage: 20,000.
Grade: Raw F+ (borderline VF).
Comments: Ex-Dan Lewis, Black Mountain Coins.
lordmarcovan
521280_(1).jpg
03.- Pontos AE18 (125-100 BC)9 viewsPontos. Amisos. Time of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 125-100 BC. (Bronze, 20.33-18.67 mm., 8.36 g). Diademed head of Artemis to right; at her shoulder, bow and quiver. Rev. ΑΜΙ - ΣΟΥ Tripod. Black patina. VF.
Purchased at Jesus Vico online auction in 2019.
Oscar D
Didrachm_Black~0.jpg
030/1 AR Didrachm60 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm. Uncertain Mint, 225-214 BC. (6.56g, 23mm, 12h) Obv: Janiform head of the Dioscuri. Rev: Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga driven by Victory; ROMA on tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64.

Traces of corrosion, Good Very Fine.

Ex: Roma Numismatics

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Goodman
5 commentsPaddy
SemunicaBlack.jpg
038/07 AE Semiuncia50 viewsAnonymous. AE Semiuncia. Rome Mint. c. 217-215. (5,2 g, 19 mm) Obv: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus. Rev: ROMA Prow right.
BMC 129-161 and 163-165; Crawford 38/7

1 commentsPaddy
Julia-Domna_AR-Antoninianvs_IVLIA-PIA-FELIX-AVG_VENVS-GENETRIX_Roma-RIC-IV-388A(Caracalla)_C-211_Q-001_0h_21,5-22mm_3,80g-s.jpg
050a Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 388A (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, 65 views050a Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 388A (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left,
avers:- IVLIA-PIA-FELIX-AVG, Diademed and draped bust right on crescent.
revers:- VENVS-GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-388A (Caracalla), p-, C-211, BMCRE 22-23A (Caracalla),
Black toned coin like a "limes" coin .
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_388A(Car)_Julia-Domna_AR-Antoninianvs_IVLIA-PIA-FELIX-AVG_VENVS-GENETRIX_Roma-RIC-IV-388A(Caracalla)_C-211_Q-001_0h_21,5-22mm_3,80ga-s.jpg
050a Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 388A (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, 108 views050a Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 388A (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left,
avers:- IVLIA-PIA-FELIX-AVG, Diademed and draped bust right on crescent.
revers:- VENVS-GENETRIX, Venus seated left, extending right hand and holding sceptre in left.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-388A (Caracalla), p-, C-211, BMCRE 22-23A (Caracalla),
Black toned coin like a "limes" coin .
Q-001
quadrans
ImitationBlack.jpg
056/3 Ancient imitation21 viewsAnonymous. Ae Semis imitation. Probably first century BC. Obv: Laureate head of Saturn r.; behind, S. Rev: Prow r.; above, S and below, ROMA.
Crawford 56/3

Style and shape is not the best on this coin. However, as an ancient imitation it does have historical value.
Paddy
Roman_Bronze_black.jpg
056/3 Spanish imitation in good style29 viewsAnonymous. Ae Semis. Second or first century BC. (6.58 g, 20.55 mm) Obv: Laureate head of Saturn r.; behind, S. Rev: Prow r.; above, S and below, ROMA.
Syd 143a; Crawford 56/3

In 1982 a conference report was published that contained a joint debate between Crawford and the Spanish numismatist Villaronga. Villaronga illustrated a number of coins from site finds near Cadiz, and concluded that they were good style Spanish imitations. Every year about 10 or 20 similar coins appear on the Spanish market, but none appear in Italian sources.

Thank you Mccabe for helping with the attribution.
Paddy
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
normal_RI_064da_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC -

3.36g, 19.07mm, 0o

Black toning.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_065bk_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61019 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, scales and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 193-196
Reference(s) – BMCRE 329 (Lincoln 1927, appears to be a die pair match). RIC IV 610 (Rated R2, citing Cohen). Cohen 143.

A dark blue-black tone. Finder's spade mark on obverse.
maridvnvm
RI 066f img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 19635 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XV COS III P P, Salus seated left using patera to feed snake, coiled round an altar
Minted in Rome. A.D. 212.
Reference:– Van Meter 59/4. RIC 196. RCV02 6826. RSC 206.
The scan fails to show clearly that the coin is toned to an almost black finish.
maridvnvm
Personajes_Imperiales_8.jpg
08 - Personalities of the Empire78 viewsMarius, Victorianus, Domitian II, Tetricus I, Tetricus II, Claudius II, Quintillus, Aurelianus, Severina, Zenobia, Vaballathus, Tacitus, Florianus and Probus2 commentsmdelvalle
08_Vitellius_RIC_107Black.jpg
08 Vitellius RIC 10780 viewsVitellius 69 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-20 December 69 A.D. (3,3 gr, 18 mm) Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP TR P, Laureate head right. Rev: PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right with patera and sceptre.

RIC 107; RSC 72; BMC 34.

Ex: Gitbud & Naumann
1 commentsPaddy
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
RI_089l_img.jpg
089 - Phillip I Antoninianus - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Felicitas standing half-left, holding caduceus with right hand and cornucopia in left arm
Minted in Antioch (2nd Issue). mid 247 to end of 247 AD
Reference– Ovari 28A, Bland 30, Cohen 136. RIC -. RSC -.

Not listed from Antioch.
Martin Griffiths
09_Vespasian_RIC_75_(C)Black.jpg
09 Vespasian RIC 75 (C)40 viewsVespasian 69-79 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 74 A.D. (3,2 g, 17 mm) Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS V, winged caduceus.

RIC 75 (C); RSC 362; BMC 138.

Ex: Aeternitas Numismatics
2 commentsPaddy
RI_092g_img.jpg
092 - Philip II Antoninianus - Bland 6418 viewsObv:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate bust right, seen from the front
Rev:- AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch
Reference:– RIC 240(a)var. RSC 1 var. Bland 64

A scarcer eastern variant with a front facing bust.
maridvnvm
RI_092e_img.jpg
092 - Philip II Antoninianus - RIC 23516 viewsObv:– IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P VI COS P P, Felicitas standing facing, head left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 249
Reference:– Bland 89. RIC IV 235 (Rated Rare)
maridvnvm
RI_092j_img.jpg
092 - Philip II Antoninianus - RIC 240(a) (Antioch)14 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate bust right, seen from the rear
Rev:- AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch
Reference:– RIC 240(a). RSC 1. Bland 61
maridvnvm
RI_092i_img.jpg
092 - Philip II Antoninianus - RIC 240(a)var (Antioch)12 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate bust right, seen from the rear
Rev:- AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch
Reference:– RIC 240(a)var. RSC 1 var. Bland 61
maridvnvm
454_P_Hadrian.jpg
0968 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Octastyle temple54 viewsReference.
RPC III, 968; RIC II 461b; Metcalf, Cistophori, type B1; RSC 240b; Pinder 100

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Octastyle temple on podium of three steps

10.52 gr
27 mm
6 h

Note.

The temple depicted is that of Roma and Augustus erected by the koinon of Bithynia at Nicomedia, of which no archaeological remains have been discovered.

Cistophori were produced in the name of the Commune Bithyniae only once, under Hadrian. The inscription on the frieze, reconstructed as ROM(ae) S(enatui) P(opulo) AVG(usto) and translated as "To Rome, the Senate, the People, and Augustus" tentatively identifies the building as a temple of Rome and Augustus at Nicomedia. No archaeological remains of this structure have as yet been found, and reconstructions of it are based entirely on the second century numismatic evidence. Both Tacitus and Dio Cassius report that in 19 BC Augustus did authorize the construction of a temple to Rome and himself at Pergamum, an event commemorated on his cistophori there. No such evidence for a temple at Nicomedia occurs earlier than this cistophorus.
1 commentsokidoki
1206_P_Hadrian_RPC970.jpg
0970 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Octastyle temple32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 970; Metcalf B3; RSC 240; RIC II 461c

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian r., seen from rear

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Octastye temple on podium of three steps

10.76 gr
25 mm
6h
4 commentsokidoki
1207_P_Hadrian_RPC972.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 972; RIC II 459a; RSC 241

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Bare head of Hadrian, right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing r. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

9.89 gr
25 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1337_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
0972 Hadrian, Cistophorus BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia mint, Male in octastyle temple11 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 974; cf Metcalf B8

Issue Reverse legend includes COM BIT

Obv. IMP CAES TRA HADRIANO AVG P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COM - BIT (in field), ROM S P AVG (in entablature)
Tetrastyle temple on podium of three steps; within, togate male standing left. holding spear in r. and Victory in left

10.46 gr
26 mm
11h
2 commentsokidoki
MuradIII.jpg
0982-0983 AH - Murad III - Ottoman Mangir92 viewsSultan: Murad III (r. 1574-1595 AD)
Date: 1574-1576 AD (982 or 983 AH)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Design

Reverse: Blank

Mint: Egypt
8.08g; 18.1mm; 4.77mm thick; ?°
Pep
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-60v.gif
1 tessera roman Cohen 60v14 viewsAE tessera
2.93 g, 18.3 mm.
Obv. Large ligate TR.
Rev. Blank with beaded border.
Cohen -, cf Cohen 60, Dancoisne 69.
cckk
04145v00.jpg
1-2 Century a.d.41 viewsLead Tessera
OV: Mars standing right holding spear and resting hand on shield, being crowned with wreath by Victory advancing right, holding palm
RV: Blank
Julianus of Pannonia
Thrace,_Byzantion,__AR_Siglos_340-320_BC~0.jpg
1. Thrace, Byzantion, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos38 viewsHeifer standing left above dolphin, VΠΥ above.
Incuse square of mill-sail pattern.

SNG BM Black Sea 21; SNG Copenhagen 476; Sear GCV 1579.

(17 mm, 5.36 g)
Classical Numismatic Group electronic Auction 146, 23 August 2006, 34.

Standing on the European side of the Bosporos, Byzantion with its twin city Kalchedon on the Asia Minor side of the Bosporos was the ancient gateway between the two continents, a role that continues to the present.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.
1 commentsn.igma
10_Titus_RIC_II_25Black.jpg
10 Titus RIC II 2552 viewsTitus 79-81 A.D. Rome Mint. 79 A.D. (19mm, 3.21 g, 5h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right. Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, Slow quadriga left, bearing grain ears.
RIC II 25; RSC 276.

Ex: CNG Auction
1 commentsPaddy
AS_Claudio_Minerva_RIC_116.jpg
10-04 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)143 viewsAE AS 26,75 mm 10,7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG IMP TR P P" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo redondo en izquierda.

Acuñada ca. 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #116 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1862 Pag.368 - BMCRE #206 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #233
1 commentsmdelvalle
AS CLAUDIO RIC 100.jpg
10-05 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)83 viewsImitación antigua
AE AS 26 x 29 mm 9.8 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAVDIVS CA]ESAR AVG P[M TR P IMP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 50 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #100 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1861 Pag.368 - BMCRE #149 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #179 - RC #639
mdelvalle
RIC_100_AS_Imitativo_Claudio_I.jpg
10-10 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)18 viewsCeca No Oficial
AE AS 26 x 29 mm 9.8 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAVDIVS CA]ESAR AVG P[M TR P IMP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 50 D.C.
Ceca: Incierta, probablemente Hispanica.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #100 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1861 Pag.368 - BMCRE #149 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #179 - RC #639
mdelvalle
RIC_116_AS_Claudio.jpg
10-16 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 26,75 mm 10,7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG IMP TR P P" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo redondo en izquierda.

Acuñada ca. 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #116 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1862 Pag.368 - BMCRE #206 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #233
mdelvalle
rjb_car_1038blackmoor.jpg
103846 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Virtus standing right leaning on shield
Unmarked mint
RIC 1038
Ex Blackmoor Hoard
mauseus
11_Domitian_RIC_II_721Black.jpg
11 Domitian RIC II 72149 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 90-91 AD. (3,3 g, 15,5 mm) Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt & spear, shield at foot.

RIC II 721; RSC 264; BMC 184.

Ex: Aeternitas Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
Rep_AR-Den_Cn_Blasio,Cornelia_CN_BLASIO_CN_F-wreath_Juno-Jupiter-Minerva_below-ROMA_Gamma_Crawford-296-1e_Syd-561b_Rome_111-12-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_17,5-19mm_3,99g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Cn.Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio, AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome,83 viewsCn.Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio (112-111 B.C.), AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome,
avers: CN•BLASIO•CN•F, Helmeted head of Mars right (Corinthian helmet), above the star, behind wreath.
reverse: Jupiter standing facing between Juno and Minerva, in the field Υ, below ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 111-112 B.C., ref: Crawford 296/1e, Sydenham 561b,
Q-001
quadrans
arras.jpg
11a149 viewsThe same image as that used for image 11 in this gallery but with the background painted black and the image colour digitally manipulated to make it gold. The closest I will probably get to owning a specimen of this.3 commentsmauseus
121g.jpg
121g Constantine I. Ae barbarous follis 2.8gm26 viewsobv: BLA!BLA!BLA! laur.helm. cuir. bust l.
rev: SSSSSSSS two victories inscribing shield set upon alter with MMM
EX: BLA!
hill132
RI_130ax_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC unlisted Bust Type C28 viewsObv:– CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONSERVAT MILIT, Mars standing right, holding spear, handing globe to emeperor, standing left, in military dress, holding a sceptre.
Minted in Serdica (//S) Emission 1 Officina 2.
Reference(s) – Cohen -. LV -. (No coins with this short obverse legend in LV, LV 2386 is the same type but with IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG). RIC unlisted Bust type C var (RIC doesn’t include this short legend, RIC doesn’t include this set of officina marks for Serdica).

The following information came courtesy of Barry Murphy:-

This is recorded by Estiot and a specimen is illustrated on pl. 95, #449. Estiot's source is Zanchi, "Quelques nouveaux antoniens de Serdica (274-277)," in SchweizerMunzblatter 120 (1980)
This obverse legend is also recorded with the reverse CONSERVATOR MILITVM.
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.57 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France5 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England5 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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148 - Galerius (as Augustus) - Follis - RIC VI Ticinum 55b16 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate lead right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVS, Fides seated left, holding standard in each hand
Minted in Ticinum (_ | . // ST). 1st May A.D. 305 - 25th July A.D. 306
Reference:- RIC VI Ticiunum 55b
A pleasing blue-black patina.

Ex-CNG
1 commentsmaridvnvm
AntoninusPius_PanoramaBlack.jpg
15 Antoninus Pius RIC 23842 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-161 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 154 - 155 AD. (3.35g, 19.71mm) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, Laureate head right. Rev: COS IIII, Vesta standing left holding simpulum and palladium, altar at feet.
RIC 238; RSC 201

Ex: Romadrome

Difficult to photograph but with the slightest of angle the picture turned out OK.
Paddy
FaustinaBlack.jpg
15 Faustina I RIC 110519 viewsFaustina I 138-140 AD. AE Sestertius. Rome Mint. Posthumous commemorative of 141-161 AD. (24.18g, 32.58mm) Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, Draped bust right. Rev: AETERNITAS S-C, Aeternitas standing left holding phoenix on globe and holding up skirt.
RIC 1105

Ex: Incitatus Coins, Vcoins
Paddy
ConsecratioPanoramaBlack.jpg
15 Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius RIC 43647 viewsAntonius Pius. Ar Denarius. Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius. Rome mint. 161 AD. Obv: Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, Bare head of Divus Antoninus Pius right. Rev: CONSECRATIO, Decorated funeral pyre (pyra) of four storeys, decorated with hangings and garlands, surmounted by quadriga.
C 164; RIC 436

Very diffcult coin to photograph, but it turned out decent enough.
Paddy
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1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
Lucius_VerusBlack.jpg
16 Lucius Verus RIC 46 viewsLucius Verus. 161-169 AD. AR Denarius. Rome mint. Struck February-December 168 AD. (18mm, 3,19 g, 6h) Obv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, Laureate head right. Rev: TR P VIII IMP V COS III, Aequitas seated left holding scales and cornucopiae.
RIC 595; RSC 318. Near EF!

Ex: Marc Walter, V-coins
1 commentsPaddy
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius236 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
RepCoinSpainAuctionBlack.jpg
167/1 Anonymous19 viewsAnonymous. Ar Denarius. c 179-170 BC. Obv: Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X. Rev: The Dioscuri galloping r.; below horses, helmet and ROMA in linear frame.
Syd. 311; Crawford 167/1
1 commentsPaddy
1682_-_Nantes_-_1.JPG
1682 - mairie de Nantes10 viewscuivre
7,82g
27mm
mairie de Louis Mesnard, sieur du Pavillon
.CORQVE. MANVSQVE. STVDENT. SVPERIS.
"Le coeur et la main s'attachent aux choses d'en haut"
.1682.
Ecu du Maire ( De gueules au coeur d'or, surmonté d'une croix d'argent et soutenu d'un croissant de même, au bras d'or, issant à dextre d'une nuée d'argent, tenant un arc de même, au chef cousu d'azur, chargé de deux étoiles d'argent.), timbré d'un casque de face orné de ses lambrequins. 1682.Les émaux du blason sont indiqués par des hachures
DE. LA. MAIRIE. DE. Mr. DV. MESNARD. PAVILLON.
Ecu aux armes de la ville: le vaisseau Nantais voguant à droite. Au chef de cinq hermines, timbré de la couronne comtale et entouré de la cordelière
PYL
M_Aurelius_PanoramaBlack.jpg
17 Marcus Aurelius RIC 6237 viewsMarcus Aurelius 161-180 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 162 Dec.-164 AD. (2.97 g, 18.36 mm) Obv: M. ANTONINVS AVG IMP II, Bare head right. Rev: CONCORD AVG TR P XVII around, COS III in exergue.
RIC 62; BMC 216; RSC 42
Paddy
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
1735_-_Nantes.JPG
1735 - mairie de Nantes11 viewsargent
7,10g
28mm
première mairie de René Darquistade
DE. LA. MAIRIE. DE. Mr. DARQUISTADE
Ses armes couronnées portent d’argent
au chevron de gueules
accompagné de trois trèfles
de sinople, deux et un
PATRIO CLAVUM SUSCEPIT AMORE
"Il prit le gouvernail par amour de la Patrie"
Blason de Nantes couronné et entouré d'une cordelière
(De gueules au vaisseau équipé d'or,
habillé d'hermine,
voguant sur une mer de sinople mouvant
de la pointe et ondée d'argent,
au chef aussi d'hermine.)
PYL
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 23 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
1791_Leeds_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Leeds, Yorkshire.33 viewsObverse: ARTIS NOSTRÆ CONDITOR •. Standing figure of Bishop Blaize (patron saint of woolcombers) holding a wool comb in his raised right hand and a book and crosier in his left; at his feet, to right, a lamb facing right with it's head turned to left.
Reverse: LEEDS HALFPENNY 1791. Coat of arms of the City of Leeds consisting of a shield containing three stars and a hanging fleece, crested by an owl. The date, 17 - 91, bisected by the base of the shield.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF RICHARD PALEY •XX•".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 6
Dalton & Hamer: 45 | Conder: 20 (Yorkshire)

This token was issued by Richard Paley, a freeholder, maltster, soap-boiler and chandler with a business in a locality known as the “Calls” in Leeds. The token was manufactured by Matthew Bolton at his SOHO Mint in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by Henry Brownbill.

Bishop Blaise, also known as Saint Blasius, was a well-known martyr from Armenia, who as the price of his faith, back in the 4th century, had been put to death by being raked with red-hot rakes. Later he was adopted as the Patron Saint of Woolcombers and, appropriately, his effigy is usually shown holding a rake. On this token, however, Bishop Blaise is shown holding the traditional bishop's crosier.
*Alex
1797_EMSWORTH_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: PEACE AND PLENTY. Dove carrying olive-branch flying above cornucopia spilling out the fruits of the earth.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 11

Issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer from Hampshire, this token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. This token is a mule of the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 10 (Hampshire), here used as the obverse and the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 11. It may have originally been intended that these mules would be sold to collectors, but as a large number exist it seems that they must have been sold to merchants and entered general circulation.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.70 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1807_30_Kreuzer_s.jpg
1807 - 30 Kreuzer213 viewsGalicia & Lodomeria -Galician Austria
Obv: Franz kais * V * Oest.Koen * Z.Hung. Boeh. * Galiz.U.Lod -
Legend and denomination surrounding a diamond dotted border, inside bust of Franz II.
Exergue: A
Rev: outside-Dreyssig * Kreutzer * Erblaend * Isch.1807.*
inside- Wiener St. Banco Zett. Theilungs Münz Z.30.K.-
Around four sides of a diamond dotted border,
enclosing an Austrian double headed eagle with a crown over the heads and a sword in each claw.
Denomination in center.
Mint: Münz ; Size: 37mm;
Ref: KM- 2149

Brian L
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1356Hadrian_RIC_187.jpg
187 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-28 AD Emperor on Horse2 viewsReference.
cf for an aureus: RIC 187; C. 414; Strack 148

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head, draped bust left

Rev. COS III
Hadrian, with cloak flying behind him, on horse, riding right, holding spear in right hand

3.06 gr
mm
h

Note.
von Gilles Blançon 16.2.1992
okidoki
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY8 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Edward_7_Farthing_1903.JPG
1903 EDWARD VII AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1903.
Diameter 20mm | Die Axis 12
SPINK: 3992

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
All Edward VII farthings were darkened artificially at the mint to avoid confusion with half sovereigns. An acid gas, sodium thiosulphate was used to react with the surface of the farthings after they had been struck, permanently altering their appearance chemically by turning them black. This coin still retains some of it's original black appearance.
*Alex
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 41 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
A_new_coin__Blackadjust_.jpg
196/1 AE As30 viewsAnonymous [Star]. Æ As. Rome Mint. c 169-158 BC. (32 mm, 17.95 g, 4 h) Rev: Laureate head of Janus; above, I. Obv: Prow of galley right; above, star; before, I; below, ROMA.
BMCRR 461; Syd 264; Crawford 196/1

Reddish-brown patina with some black spots. Nearly very fine.
A duplicate from the RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. Purchased privately from Frank Kovacs in 1988

Ex: Triskles
Paddy
s-1977-2c.jpg
1977A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 15 viewsOBV Small neat letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.34mm

Weight 2.7gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

The rarer of the two monograms of Manuel, this coin is always heavier than the the other monogram coin. This example is actually a black patina.
Simon
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
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Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
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CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
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PupineusSestPax.jpg
1ck Pupienus30 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
1 commentsBlindado
ConstantiusIIAECentFelTemp.jpg
1ej Constantius II16 views337-361

Centenionalis

RIC 210?

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is kneeling forwards on ground on hands and knees. Star in right field, FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Mintmark BSIS?

Constantius II got the East when the empire was divided after Constantine the Great's death. Zosimus recorded, "The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate. Constantine indeed first introduced that order, and made a law, that every Nobilissimate should have precedence over of the prefects of the court. At that time, Ablabius prefect of the court was also put to death; and fate was just in his punishment, because he had concerted the murder of Sopatrus the philosopher, from envy of his familiarity with Constantine. Being unnatural towards all his relations, he included Hanniballianus with the rest, suborning the solders to cry out, that they would have no governors but the children of Constantine. Such were the exploits of Constantius." He defeated the usurper Magnentius in 351-353. He died of fever while marching to confront Julian the Apostate, who had been declared emperor in Paris.
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ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
Blindado
megalodon.jpg
2-3/4" Megalodon tooth. 30 viewsMegalodon Shark Tooth Fossil from Cape Fear river basin, North Carolina. Dark black root with nice blue-grey enamel. lived approximately 28 to 1.5 million years ago, during the Cenozoic Era (late Oligocene to early Pleistocene).1 commentsancientone
Bithynia_Kalchedon,_AR_Drachm_4th_Cent__BC.jpg
2. Bithynia, Kalchedon, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos 17 viewsBull standing left on grain ear, KAΛX above.
Granulated mill-sail incuse square.

SNG BM Black Sea 112; SNG von Aulock 482; Sear 3738.

(18 mm, 5.31 g).
Ephesus Numismatics.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.

The twin cities merged in the modern era to become the great and fascinating metropolis of Istanbul. Ancient Kalchedon dominated the Asian side of the Bosporus. The remains of the ancient city lie be
n.igma
s-2015c.jpg
2015c ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 14 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

All examples of Alexius tetartera are difficult to obtain these days, however DOC has many examples in their collection. This one has a dark black patina obscuring a very interesting portrait of Saint George.

Size 17.84mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
severus_RIC254.jpg
202-210 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS denarius53 viewsobv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG (laureate head right)
rev: AFRICA (Africa, wearing elephant-skin head-dress, reclining left with scorpion & cornucopiae; basket of corn-ears before)
ref: RIC IVi 254, RSC 31 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.67gms, 19mm
Scarce

This type was minted to mark the visit of Severus to Africa in 207 AD.
The coin has nice black patina, in reverse scratching, though the patina is good: throw a glance at the pattern of corn-ears or the tail of scorpion.
2 commentsberserker
coin230.JPG
204. Elagabalus29 viewsElagabalus was and is one of the most controversial Roman emperors. During his reign he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. Elagabalus' name is a Latinized form of the Semitic deity El-Gabal, a manifestation of the Semitic deity Ēl. He replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman pantheon, with a new god, Deus Sol Invictus, which in Latin means "the Sun, God Unconquered". Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led.

He also took a Vestal Virgin as one of a succession of wives and openly boasted that his sexual interest in men was more than just a casual pastime, as it had been for previous emperors.

Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors. This black propaganda was passed on and as such he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.

Elagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, and draped bust right / PM TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar & holding branch, star left. RIC 46, RSC 196
ecoli
99134.jpg
204a. Julia Paula165 viewsIVLIA CORNELIA PAVLA was the daughter of Julius Paulus, who was a Praetorian Praefect under Elagablalus. The Emperor Elagabalus, who arrived in Rome in the autumn of 219, was quickly becoming unpopular. It was probably Julia Maesa, his grandmother, who conceived the plan to marry him to a well-born Roman woman for two reasons: 1) to counter his public displays of homosexual and trans-sexual tendencies, and 2) to soften the disdain Romans felt for Syrians. She became the first wife of the fifteen-year-old Elagabalus 219, but was divorced only one year later, and returned to private life.

JULIA PAULA, wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 219 AD. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.67 gm). Rome mint. Draped bust right / Concordia seated left holding patera; star in left field. RIC IV 211 (Elagabalus); RSC 6a. Toned;Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
albinusBlack.jpg
21 Clodius Albinus RIC 5c22 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 193-195 AD. (3.08g, 17mm, 5h) Obv: D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right. Rev: FORT REDVCI COS II, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae, wheel under seat.
RIC 5c.

Ex: Roma Numismatics
Paddy
Septimus_Severus_RIC_167aBlack.jpg
21 Septimus Severus RIC 167a61 viewsSeptimus Severus 193-211 AD. Ar Denarius. Rome Mint. 200-201 AD. (3.2 g) Obv: SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, Laureate head right.
Rev: RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Emperor standing left, sacrificing out of patera over tripod, holding spear.
RIC 167a.
1 commentsPaddy
RIC_92_Denario_Forrado_Domiciano.jpg
21-03 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 16 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Híbrido realizado con cuños que al datarlos por los títulos que ostentaba el Emperador, nos dan dos fechas distintas, a saber: 93 D.C. para el cuño del anverso y 87 D.C. para el del reverso.
Denario Forrado 18 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG - GERM P M TR P XIII" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
[I] El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (TR P XIII – Recibidos sus poderes de Tribuno por décima tercera vez) en el 93 D.C. Un corte de testeo cruza el busto del Emperador, al parecer a alguien en la antigüedad no lo convenció la falsificación
Rev: "IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P" – Minerva de pié a derecha sobre la proa de una galera, blandiendo una jabalina con mano derecha y portando escudo en la izquierda.
El cuño del reverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (IMP XIIII COS XIII) en el 87 D.C.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 93 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes a los años 93 y 94 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #92 Pag.165 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2730 Pag.495 - BMCRE Vol.2 #103 - Cohen Vol.1 #218 Pag.490 - DVM #19 Pag.110 - CBN #104 - RSC Vol. II #218 Pag.67
mdelvalle
Denario_Domitiano_RIC_92_176_Fourree.jpg
21-04 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 46 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Híbrido realizado con cuños que al datarlos por los títulos que ostentaba el Emperador, nos dan dos fechas distintas, a saber: 93 D.C. para el cuño del anverso y 87 D.C. para el del reverso.
Denario Forrado 18 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG - GERM P M TR P XIII" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
[I] El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (TR P XIII – Recibidos sus poderes de Tribuno por décima tercera vez) en el 93 D.C. Un corte de testeo cruza el busto del Emperador, al parecer a alguien en la antigüedad no lo convenció la falsificación
Rev: "IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P" – Minerva de pié a derecha sobre la proa de una galera, blandiendo una jabalina con mano derecha y portando escudo en la izquierda.
El cuño del reverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (IMP XIIII COS XIII) en el 87 D.C.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 93 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes a los años 93 y 94 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #92 Pag.165 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2730 Pag.495 - BMCRE Vol.2 #103 - Cohen Vol.1 #218 Pag.490 - DVM #19 Pag.110 - CBN #104 - RSC Vol. II #218 Pag.67
mdelvalle
Denario DOMITIANO RIC175_1.jpg
21-06 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)84 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha, blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 93 - 94 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #175 Pag.174 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2734 var Pag.495 - BMCRE #214 - Cohen Vol.1 #283 Pag.495 - DVM #44/3 Pag.111 - RSC Vol. II #283b Pag.69
mdelvalle
RIC_166_AR_Denario_DOMICIANO_foro.jpg
21-08 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)20 viewsAR Denario 19,8 mm 3,26 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XI" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P P P" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha, blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 92 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #166 Pag.173 - RIC2 #728 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2734 var Pag.495 - BMCRE II#187ss Pag.336 (Plate 65 #12) - Cohen Vol.1 #273 Pag.494 - DVM #43/3 Pag.111 - RSC Vol. II #273 Pag.69
mdelvalle
RIC_175_Denario_Domiciano.jpg
21-09 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)15 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha, blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 93 - 94 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #175 Pag.174 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2734 var Pag.495 - BMCRE #214 - Cohen Vol.1 #283 Pag.495 - DVM #44/3 Pag.111 - RSC Vol. II #283b Pag.69
mdelvalle
RIC_242b_AS_Domiciano.jpg
21-30 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)17 viewsAE AS 27 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "TR P COS VIII DES VIIII P P - S C" - Minerva avanzando a der. blandiendo una jabalina y portando escudo circular.

Acuñada 82 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #242b var Pag.184 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2815var Pag.505 - BMCRE #281 - Cohen Vol.1 #589 Pag.519 - CBN #290 - DVM #113 Pag.114
mdelvalle
Caracalla_RIC_111Black.jpeg
22 Carcalla RIC 11123 viewsCarcalla 188-217 A.D. Rome Mint. 209 A.D. (2,94 gr 18,5 mm) Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF TR P XII COS III, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae
RIC 111, RSC 465, BMC 10, Sears 6868

Ex: Wallin Mynt
Paddy
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Apolo.jpg
23-02 - Anti­oco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)36 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 18 mm 5.0 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Apolo desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo hoja de palma en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre un trípode.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM.141 (ANS) - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #1 Pag.102 Plate 27 #1 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7200 Pag.675 - Lindgren III #1124 (referencia cruzada con Houghton #870)
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Zeus.jpg
23-04 - Antioco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)37 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 20 mm 8.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Zeus Nicéforo (Nike-phoros portador de victoria, victorioso) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, desnudo de la cintura para arriba, sosteniendo Nike en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre cetro.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer #2884 - 2888 - Newell LSM. #137 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #6 Pag.102 Plate 27 #4 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7198var. Pag.675 - Houghton #866 - SC #2478
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Nike.jpg
23-06 - Antíoco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)27 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 16 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha, sosteniendo corona en mano derecha extendida y rama de palma en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer (Israel) 2890 var – 2894 - Babelon E. Vol.1, pl.XXVIII, 14 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7201 Pag.675
mdelvalle
MacrinusBlack.jpg
24 Macrinus RIC 9169 viewsMACRINUS 217-218 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. August 217 AD. (3.5g, 19mm) Obv: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS TEMPORVM, Securitas standing left, leaning on short column, holding sceptre.
RIC 91; RSC 122b

Ex: G&N
4 commentsPaddy
826_P_Sabina_RPC2450.jpg
2450 LYDIA, Blaundus Sabina, Demeter standing36 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2450; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 92; BMC 73; SNG München 90; Waddington 4920.

Obv. СΑΒƐΙΝΑ СƐΒΑСΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane.

Rev, ΒΛΑΥΝΔƐΩΝ
Demeter veiled standing l., holding ears of corn and poppy-head in her r. hand, resting with l. on sceptre

6.0 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
Plankenhorn Collection Lydia
okidoki
1268_P_Sabina_RPC2450.jpg
2450 LYDIA, Blaundus Sabina, Demeter standing15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2450; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 92; BMC 73; SNG München 90; Waddington 4920.

Obv. СΑΒƐΙΝΑ СƐΒΑСΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane.

Rev, ΒΛΑΥΝΔƐΩΝ
Demeter veiled standing l., holding ears of corn and poppy-head in her r. hand, resting with l. on sceptre

5.47 gr
21 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
TraDecMoush44_2.jpg
249-251 AD - Trajan Decius - Moushmov 0044 - Moesia with Lion and Bull Reverse63 viewsEmperor: Trajan Decius (r. 249-251 AD)
Date: 249-251 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE 27

Obverse: IMP TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Imperator and Emperor Trajan Decius
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: PMS C-OLVIM
Viminacium
Moesia standing between a lion and a bull.
Exergue: ANX(blank, I or II?)

Mint: Viminacium, Moesia Superior
Moushmov 44
14.61g; 27.7mm; 195°
Pep
Elagabale_PanoramaBlack.jpg
25 Elagabalus RIC 16131 viewsElagabalus 218-222 AD. Ar Denarius. Rome Mint. 220-221 AD. (3.52 g) Obv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AUG, laureate head right, bust drapped. Rev: Victory hovering left between two shields,
holding open wreath (for Sear, diadem for Cohen) with both hands, star in field.
C 300; Ric 161; Sear 7554

Ex: Poinsignon Numismatique
Paddy
RepCoin1Black.jpg
266/1 C. Cassius22 viewsC. Cassius. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. c 126 BC. Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI monogram and urn behind Obv: Libertas driving quadriga right, holding rod and pileus, C CASI below, ROMA in exergue.
Syd. 502; B. Cassia 1; Crawford 266/1
1 commentsPaddy
Maximinus_RIC_3Black.jpg
27 Maximinus I RIC 337 viewsMaximinus I 235-238 AD. Rome Mint. 236 AD. (3.08g, 20mm, 1h) Obv: IMP MAXIMINUS PIUS AUG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: PM TRP II COS PP, Emperor standing left between two signa, raising hand and holding spear.
RSC 55; BMC 77; RIC 3

Ex. Roma Numismatics
Paddy
akragas.jpg
275-240 B.C. AE 19, Apollo left/ Two eagles left on hare12 viewsSICILY. Akragas. Circa 275-240 B.C. (19mm - 4.40 g). Laureate head of Apollo left / Two eagles standing left on hare. SNG ANS 1128 var. (denomination); Calciati I pg. 223, 140. Dark green, almost black, patina, some earthen deposits. Ex Vauctions Podiceps
Fannius_PanoramaBlack.jpg
275/1 M. Fannius C. f.41 viewsM. Fannius C. f. AR Denarius. 123 BC. (3.88 gr) Obv: Helmeted bust of Roma right; X below chin, ROMA behind Rev: Victory in quadriga right; M. FAN. C. F. in ex.
Syd 419; Fannia 1; Crawford 275/1

Ex: Poinsignon Numismatique
2 commentsPaddy
Denarius__Black.jpg
298/1 Lucius Caesius52 viewsLucius Caesius. Ar Denarius. Rome Mint. 112-111 BC. (3.77 g) Obv: Bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt; monogram behind. Rev: The two Lares seated right with a dog between them; head of Vulcan and tongs above.
Syd 564; Caesia 1; Crawford 298/1
2 commentsPaddy
3-tessera-square-AT-NI.gif
3 tessera square AT NI horse14 viewsAE square tessera
1.49 g, 11.9 mm, uniface.
Obv. AT/NI. Horse pacing right.
Rev. Blank.
cckk
3-tessera-square-IN-IT.gif
3 tessera square IN IT horse21 viewsAE square tessera
1.13g, 11.2 mm, uniface.
Obv. IN/IT. Horse pacing right.
Rev. Blank.
cckk
3-tessera-square-galley.gif
3 tessera square MPV galley13 viewsAE square tessera
1.51 g, 12.9 mm, uniface.
Obv. MPV over galley right.
Rev. Blank.
cckk
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312a. Marius28 viewsMarius. AD 269. AE antoninianus.

Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268.

According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. After the death of Postumus he seized power, reportedly for two or three days, before being killed by a sword of his own manufacture.

This tradition is probably partially or entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be at least two or three months. Marius is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.

Denomination : Bronze Antoninianus. Mint : Cologne.

Reference : RIC 5, part 2, page 377 #9. Sear-3155

Size : 16.9 x 18.0 mm Weight : 3.12 grams.

Grade : VF slightly off-centre.

Obverse : Radiate bust of Marius right, with IMP C M AVR MARIVS P F AVG around (the first half of the inscription is off the flan, but IVS P F AVG is clear.

Reverse : Felicitas standing left holding a caduceus and cornucopiae, with SAEC FELICITAS around.

At a glance one could confuse this coin with Postumus, as both Postumus and Marius have similar portraits and the part of the obverse inscription visible could be MVS P F AVG with the first part of the M off the flan. However, Postumus never issued this reverse type, so the coin can only be a Marius. (Description/Coin - Ex- Calgary Coins)
ecoli
Therm_PanoramaBlack.jpg
319/1 Q. Minucius Thermus26 viewsQ. Minucius Thermus M.f. AR denarius. Rome Mint. 103 BC. Obv: Helmeted head of Mars left. Rev: Roman soldier fighting barbarian soldier in protection of fallen comrade, Q THERM M F in exergue.
Syd592; Minucia 19; Crawford 319/1
1 commentsPaddy
VHC32-coin.JPG
32- HONG KONG, 5 CENTS, KM5.27 viewsSize: 15.53 mm. Composition: .8000 Silver/.0349 oz. Mintage: 10,000,000.
Grade: NGC MS64 (Cert. # 3356207-006).
Comments: Acquired in a trade with Hayden Tubbs, who let us trade up from a toned NGC MS63 example to this blast white beauty.
lordmarcovan
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33 Philip I RIC 44b37 viewsPhilip I 244-249 AD. AR Antoninianus. Rome Mint. 247 AD.(4.25g, 23.29mm) Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. Rev: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and sceptre.
RIC 44b; RSC 170
Paddy
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341/1 Q. Titius26 viewsQ. Titius. Ar Denarius. 90 BC. (3.95 g). Obv: Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right. Rev: Pegasus springing right from tablet.
Syd 691; Titia 1; Crawford 341/1

Ex: Kunker
1 commentsPaddy
329_Hadrian_RIC364.JPG
364 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing.45 viewsReference.
RIC 364

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Head of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG in ex COS III
Liberalitas, draped, standing left, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it

3.16 gr
18 mm
6h

Note from Curtis Clay.
This denarius is rare with Liberalitas standing left rather than right as usual.

Cohen 916 cites this variant from a private collection, Elberling, that was published in 1864. That identical Elberling coin, as one can tell from the accurate line drawing, then came to the BM, BMC 524, pl. 57.8, as part of the Blacas collection in 1867. Your specimen is from the same pair of dies as this BM specimen ex Blacas and Elberling. Strack 201 knew only two specimens of this coin, the BM one and another in Vienna. This variant was missing from the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to seven specimens with Liberalitas standing right. I have a specimen with Liberalitas left myself, from different dies than yours and the BM's.

The old RIC of 1926, pp. 316-7, champions a quite impossible date for Hadrian's HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P issue: Mattingly didn't think it fit in 128-9 AD, so proposed that it was a posthumous issue of 138-9, struck by Antoninus Pius as propaganda while he was quarreling with the Senate over Hadrian's deification! Strack objected strongly and correctly in his Hadrian monograph of 1933, and in BMC III of 1936 Mattingly had no choice but to relent and abandon his "posthumous" attribution. This issue is beyond question simply Hadrian's earliest issue with the title Pater Patriae, struck between Hadrian's acceptance of that title in 128 and c. 129 AD.
okidoki
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364/1d Q. Antonius Balbus27 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus. Ar Serrate Denarius. Rome Mint. 83-82 BC. (3,89 g) Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind. Rev: Victory in quadriga right; H below; in exergue, Q·ANTO·BALB / PR.
Syd 742 b; Bab. 1; BMC 2757; Crawford 364/1d

Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor in Sardinia. Before leaving for Sardinia, this issue was struck by order of the Senate which was dominated by members of the Marian party to pay the army preparing to resist the return of Sulla. The reverse imagery reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus. Sulla was victorius, and in 82 BC, Q. Antonius Balbus was removed from from his seat as praetor by L. Philippus and slain.
1 commentsPaddy
RepCoin3Black.jpg
367/5 L. Manlius Torquatus.25 viewsL. Manlius Torquatus. AR Denarius. 82 BC. Military mint moving with Sulla. Obv: L·MANLI -I – PRO Q. Helmeted head of Roma right. Rev: Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, crowned by Victory flying left; in exergue, L·SVLLA·IMP.
Syd 757; Manlia 4;Crawford 367/5

I had no idea that this was related to Sulla when I bought it. I do now. Military mint!

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this (....) was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire, the celebration of a triumph at Rome.






Paddy
Hispan_black_Done.jpg
372/2 A. Postumius A.f. Sp. n. Albinus28 viewsPostumius Albinus. AR Denarius Serrate. c. 81 BC. Obv: [HI]SPAN Veiled head of Hispania right with disheveled hair. Rev: ALBIN [S N] Togate figure standing left between Roman legionary eagle and fasces, POST [A F] in exergue.
Syd 746; Postumia 8; Crawford 372/2
Paddy
SCPanoramaBlack.jpg
382/1b C Naevius Balbus43 viewsC. Naevius Balbus. AR Denarius Serrate. Rome mint. 79 BC. Rev: Diademed head of Venus right, SC behind. Rev: Victory driving galloping triga right, CLXXVII above; C·NAE·BALB in
exergue.
Syd 769b; Naevia 6; Crawford 382/1b

By die comparison, controlnumber 127.

1 commentsPaddy
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383/1 TI.CLAVD TI.F AP.N.12 viewsTi. Claudius Ti.f. Ap. N. AR Denarius Serrate. Rome mint. 79 BC. Obv: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver onshoulder, SC before. Rev: Victory in biga right, carrying wreath and long palm, CXIII below, TI CLAVD TI F/AP N in two lines in exergue.
Syd 770; Claudia 5; Crawford 383/1
Paddy
706Hadrian_RIC389.jpg
389B Hadrian Denarius Roma 138 AD Eagle standing24 viewsReference.
RIC 389B; RSC 271;

Obv. DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG
Head of Divus Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. CONSECRATIO
Eagle standing front on globe, head turned left, wings spread

3.04 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.

Consecratio was the apotheosis of the dead Roman emperors, which however was only bestowed on those who were judged worthy of her by the Senate or by their successors.
However, it is well known, how generous people in Rome with this honor mishandled. Even empresses enjoyed after their death the privilege of consecratio. After their consecratio they got the nickname of Divi or Divae. Several ceremonies at the funeral went to the consecratio advance. In burning the corpse on the pyre rose include becoming an eagle from the flames to heaven. The emperors and empresses thus become the god had their own temples, priests and parties. They were so entirely assimilated to the gods.

The emperors themselves have mocked their deification. In the Historia Augusta is sick of Vespasian told that he says "I feel to be a God." In his famous poem "Animula vagula blandula" Hadrian doubt his deification.
okidoki
DoggiePanoramaBlack.jpg
394/1a C. Postumius32 viewsC. Postumius. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 74 BC. Obv: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder. Rev: Hound running right, spear below, C POSTVMI and TA monogram in exergue.
Syd 785; Postumia 9; Crawford 394/1a.

Ex: Romadrome
Paddy
Caesar_Black_.jpg
468/1 Julius Caesar31 viewsJulius Caesar. AR Denarius. 46-45 BC. (3.6 g, 19 mm) Military mint travelling with Caesar in Spain. Obv: Diademed head of Venus right, Cupid behind. Rev: CAESAR, trophy of Gallic arms with captives flanking.
Syd 1014; RSC 13; Crawford 468/1

Ex: Gitbud & Naumann
Paddy
Diocletian_Black.jpg
49 Diocletian RIC 2928 viewsDIOCLETIAN 284-305 AD. AE large silvered follis. Nicomedia mint, 303-304 AD. (28mm, 8.6g) Obv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right. Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, pouring a libation from patera & holding cornucopiae, SMN in exergue.
RIC 29

Ex: Incitatus Coins
Paddy
coins332.JPG
501. Constantine I Cyzicus Campgate31 viewsConstantine the Great AE3. AD 325-326.

CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets & one star above,
(dot)SMKD(dot) in ex.

RIC VII Cyzicus 44 C3

Very nice glossy black patina, very little if any wear.
ecoli
coins171.JPG
504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

ecoli
52-Edward-Black-Prince.jpg
52. Edward the Black Prince.17 viewsHardi d' argent, ca 1362-1372, Poitiers mint.
Obverse: ED PO GENT REGI AGIE / Half-length figure of the Prince, facing, under Gothic canopy, sword in right hand.
Reverse: PRINCIPS AQITAIN / Long cross with lis in first and third angles, and leopard in second and fourth angles.
Mint mark: P between Q and I in AQITAIN on reverse.
1.12 gm., 19 mm.
Elias #205b.

The name of Edward the Black Prince exists only on coins of English possessions in France, like this coin from Aquitaine.
Callimachus
AnthonyLegPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
544/21 Mark Anthony 34 viewsMarc Antony Legionary Denarius- Legion VIII. Patrae(?) Mint 32-31 BC. (3.42 g, 16.73 mm) Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley. Rev: LEG VIII, legionary eagle between two standards.
Sydenham 1225, RSC 35, Crawford 544/21

Ex: Private Collection

Description from Forvm Ancient Coins:

"The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition."

Unfortunately from what I understand VIII Leg has no equivelant among the imperial legions.

This specific coin was fun to photograph, it seemed like no matter how you turned and twisted it still turned out great. A photogenic coin, in other words!
Paddy
Licinius_Black~0.jpg
57 Licinius RIC 77b16 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD. Ae Follis. Ostia 312 - 313 AD (4th officina)(23 mm. 4,33 g) Obv: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: GENO P-OP ROM, Genius standing left, patera with flowing water in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand, chlamys over shoulder.

RIC VI, Ostia 77b
Paddy
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01964.jpg
58-10 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)66 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 32 x 29 mm 5.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando a izquierda.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOTHC " Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Chlamys (Manto largo o capa/mandyas, usado como traje de ceremonia imperial). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz patriarcal en izquierda.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1964 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.15.5-10 - B.M.C.#56/7 - Ratto M.B.#2138-41 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #5-16
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01966.jpg
58-12 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)73 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 mm 5.4 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda." * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOT " Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1966 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.16.1-15, pl.17.1-4 - B.M.C.#40-51 - Ratto M.B.#2127/34 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #17-42
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 235.jpg
59-10 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)33 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto desde el frente.
Rev: "IOVI PROPUGNATORI" - Júpiter desnudo, su capa flota detrás, en posición de lucha a izquierda, con las piernas separadas, su cabeza vuelta a la derecha y blandiendo un rayo con brazo derecho.

Acuñada 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #235 Pag.88 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7870 Pag.644 - BMCRE #790/3 - Cohen Vol.IV #76 Pag.409 - RSC Vol. III #76 Pag.134 - DVM #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
RIC_235_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-10 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)8 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto desde el frente.
Rev: "IOVI PROPUGNATORI" - Júpiter desnudo, su capa flota detrás, en posición de lucha a izquierda, con las piernas separadas, su cabeza vuelta a la derecha y blandiendo un rayo con brazo derecho.

Acuñada 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #235 Pag.88 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7870 Pag.644 - BMCRE #790/3 - Cohen Vol.IV #76 Pag.409 - RSC Vol. III #76 Pag.134 - DVM #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003.jpg
61-05 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)49 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 x 27 mm 4.1 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003_1.jpg
61-06 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)77 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 27 x 29 mm 2.8 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente. " * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Alexio III SB02012.jpg
62-05 - Alexio III Angelus Commenus (08/04/1195 - 17/07/1203 D.C.)84 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 25 x 27 mm 2.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Busto de Cristo sin barba, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), levantando su mano derecha en señal de bendición y sosteniendo un rollo de pergamino con mano izquierda." + Kε ROHΘεI " leyenda rodeando el busto.
Rev: " AΛEΣIω ΔεCΠ O KωNcTANTI " Emperador a derecha y San Constantino, barbado y nimbado a izquierda, ambos de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando entre ellos Orbe con cruz y labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), el Emperador en mano derecha y el santo en la izquierda.

Acuñada 1195 - 1203 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2012 Pag. 407 - Hendy CMBE pl.22.8-12, pl.23.1-7 - B.M.C.#16-18 - Ratto M.B.#2005/13 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-16
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Gobernantes Latinos SB02027.jpg
65-05 - Gobernantes latinos de Constantinopla (1204 - 1261 D.C.)80 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 26 x 21 mm 1.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda.
Rev: Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1204 - 1261 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2016 Pag. 412 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.IV pl.XLIX, 6 - Hendy CMBE pl.26, 2(F)
mdelvalle
Philip-II-RIC-238var.jpg
70. Philip II as Augustus.57 viewsAntoninianus, 249 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: PM TR P VI COS P P / Radiate lion walking right.
4.40 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC 238 / 239 var; Sear 9272 / 9273 var.

This is an apparently unpublished coin. The RIC / Sear numbers above refer to coins with the bust facing left & the lion walking right; or the bust facing right & the lion walking left. Roger Bland, in his unpublished listing of Roman imperial coins from Antioch, lists a coin with bust right & lion walking right (#97); however Curtis Clay at Harlan J Berk Ltd. feels there is an error in the listing of #97 and that it refers to a coin in Paris with a left-facing bust. Details can be found at the web site of Forum Ancient Coins (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=47620.0).

The portrait on this coin is a superbly engraved portrait, but it is not the portrait of a 11 or 12 year old boy. A radiate lion is a symbol not often seen on Roman imperial coinage. It is associated with solar cults of the East and likely has the same meaning as the radiate crown on the emperor's portrait: the power and authority of the emperor is equated with the power and authority of the sun god. The radiate lion on this coin was certainly the invention of the mint of Antioch since the prototype on which this reverse is based -- the millennium coin with a lion on the reverse, RIC 12 -- is not a radiate lion.
1 commentsCallimachus
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left58 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
sabinas.jpg
Abduction of the Sabine women.384 viewsAR denarius. 89 BC. 3,65 grs. Bare-headed, bearded head of King Tatius righ. TA (ligate) below chin. SABIN behind / Two Roman soldiers, each carrying off a sabine woman in his arms. L TITVRI in exergue.
Crawford 344/1a. RSC Tituria 1.

Livy. History of Rome. 1.9.
The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbours. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighbouring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people: cities, like everything else, start small but later if their own excellence and the gods assist them, they grow in strength and in fame. It was certain that at the beginning of Rome the gods had been propitiated and that it would not lack in valour. Therefore, men should not disdain to join blood and family ties with other men.
But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. In more than one place the emissaries were asked, even as they were being sent packing, why they hadn't offered asylum to women (criminals) too: that way they'd have had their marriage and with others of their own rank! The youth of Rome took this insult badly and began to think seriously about the use of force. Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honour of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighbouring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbours, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marvelled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The story goes that one woman, far and away the most beautiful, was carried off by the gang of a certain Thalassius, and because many wanted to know where they were taking her, they repeatedly shouted that they were taking her to Thalassius, and that it how the nuptial cry came to be.

The party was over, and the grieving parents of the girls ran away, accusing the Romans of having violated the laws of hospitality and invoking the god who was supposed to have been honoured at that day's festival. Nor did the girls themselves hold much hope. But Romulus went among them in person to assure them that none of this would have happened if their fathers hadn't been so inflexible in not letting them marry their neighbours. But now they would have the status of wives with all the material rewards and civil rights of citizenship and they would have children, than which nothing is dearer. They should cool their anger and give their hearts to the men who had already taken their bodies. A good relationship often begins with an offence, he said. And their husbands would treat them with extra kindness in hope of making up for the parents and country they so missed. The men added their blandishments, saying that they'd been motivated by love and passion, entreaties which are very effective with women.

benito
__58.JPG
Accidental Man-Faced Bull!57 viewsBLACK SEA: Pantikapaion, AE 12mm, 2.25g, c 160-150BC,Obverse: Head and neck of bull, head facing, over-struck on bow and PAN reverse type, with AN forming a perceived nose and mouth on the bull. Reverse: Plough & Corn ear ; PAN surrounding. Anokhin 165.2 commentsMolinari
pellene.jpg
ACHAEA, Pellene. 350-300 BC. Æ Dichalkon169 viewsACHAEA, Pellene. 350-300 BC. Æ Dichalkon - 13mm (2.08 g). Laureate head of Apollo right / PE monogram and ram's head within laurel wreath. BCD 595.1; SNG Copenhagen 214. VF, dark green, almost black, patina with some deposits.

ex Barry P. Murphy
CGPCGP
corinthMarcusBellerophon2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Marcus Aurelius Æ 26mm. Bellerophon.83 views Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: CLI COR Bellerophon riding Pegasos flying right, attacking a chimaera, facing right.
BCD 706; SNG Copenhagen -.

Bellerophon in Greek mythology was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame.
The replacement of Bellerophon by the more familiar culture hero Perseus was a development of Classical times that was standardized during the Middle Ages and has been adopted by the European poets of the Renaissance and later.
ancientone
052317c.jpg
Adaeus, Macedonian King, c. 200 BCE16 viewsObverse - Laureate head of Apollo right
Reverse - ADAIOU to right of tripod; HR monogram and E in left field
SNG Black Sea.
Silver 17 mm, 4.5 g
NORMAN K
Arrowhead_4.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0412 viewsNorthwestern Iran (possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
64mm

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 54 (page 75)
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XVI, Type 2 (page 293)

Description:
Rare type, apparently associated with Marlik, with curving “wings” with rounded ends, blade edges convex near point and wings, concave in middle, medium length tang
Robert L3
Dagger_1.jpg
AE Dagger #0125 viewsCanaanite
early to mid 2nd Millennium BC
17cm (6.7”)

Ex- Shlomo Zeitsov Collection

Description:
This dagger blade is from the Shlomo Zeitsov collection. It was sold by the collector’s nephew, who reports that it was found in Israel. It is tang-less and has three rivet holes, of which only one remains fully encircled by bronze.
Robert L3
Dagger_2.jpg
AE Dagger #0229 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Marlik or other site in/around Gilan, Iran)
2nd millennium BC
29.5cm (11.6”)

Cf. Negahban, (Weapons from Marlik) Pl. X, Fig. 128

Ex- Johan Dæhnfeldt collection

Description:
Long triangular ribbed blade, squared shoulders, four rivet holes (two rivets still in place), broken tang
Robert L3
Dagger_3.jpg
AE Dagger #0323 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan)
1200-800 BC
33cm (13”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 379
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 53
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Pl. 89 (Kutal-i Gulgul, tomb A9), Fig. A9-60

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, blade and hilt cast in one piece
Robert L3
Dagger_4.jpg
AE Dagger #0428 viewsNorthwestern Iran (probably Luristan)
1200-800 BC
32cm (12.6”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), Fig. 2 (page 212)
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 6, #50; (also illustrated on page 70)
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Fig. 184, #KT.A6-19 (page 216)

From an old British collection, acquired in the 1970s

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, single rivet hole in wedge-shaped pommel, low broad midrib, blade and hilt cast in one piece
1 commentsRobert L3
Dagger_Short_Sword_1.jpg
AE Dagger/Short Sword #0120 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
35cm (13.8”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. X, Figs. 125, 126

Ex- Johan Dæhnfeldt collection

Description:
Long triangular blade, prominent rib, medium sized tang, with thick point for piercing armor – a feature that was rare in antiquity. Metal bent at one edge of base.
Robert L3
Spearhead_1.jpg
AE Spearhead #01 (or dagger blade?)21 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
20.3cm (8”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 119

Ex- Walter Steinberg Collection

Description:
Ribbed blade with rounded shoulders, slightly concave edges, long tang, broken tip, encrustations
Robert L3
Spearhead_2.jpg
AE Spearhead #02 (or dagger blade?)18 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
18.8cm (7.4”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38 and Pl. 6, Fig. 55 (daggers)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik) Pl. X, Fig. 124

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with rounded midrib, nearly square (very slightly deltoid) shoulders, and flat tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_3.jpg
AE Spearhead #03 (or dagger blade?)18 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
27.94cm (11”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), fig. 1 (very similar blade shape and proportions, although Khorasani’s example has a short stem between the shoulders and tang)
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 66
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. X, Fig. 121

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with slightly rounded shoulders, broad flat midrib, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_4.jpg
AE Spearhead #0416 viewsWestern Asia (probably northwestern Iran, possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
26.6cm (10.5”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. VI, Fig. 78

Description:
Ovate blade with curved shoulders, sharper tapering near point, flat midrib, squared-sectioned tang with sharp bend at end
Robert L3
Spearhead_5.jpg
AE Spearhead #05 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan)
1200-800 BC
26.9cm (10.6”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 40

Description:
Triangular blade, square shoulders, broad flat rib, rivet hole in long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_6.jpg
AE Spearhead #06 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
32.9cm (13”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 392 (dagger)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 119

Description:
Rounded shoulders, pronounced midrib, slightly concave edges, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_7.jpg
AE Spearhead #07 (or dagger blade?)16 viewsWestern Asia (possibly northwestern Iran, possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
30cm (11.8”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 116
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XII, Type IB (page 289)

Description:
Rounded shoulders, pronounced midrib, rivet hole in tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_8.jpg
AE Spearhead #08 (or dagger blade?)19 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
29cm (11.4”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. X, Figs. 121, 127

Ex- Johan Dæhnfeldt Collection

Description:
Triangular blade with high shoulders that taper greatly toward point, very pronounced midrib, slightly concave edges, long tang with rivet hole
Robert L3
Spearhead_9.jpg
AE Spearhead #0919 viewsWestern Asia (probably northwestern Iran, possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
38.5cm (15.4”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. VI, Figs. 79, 80

Ex- Johan Dæhnfeldt Collection

Description:
Ovate blade with curved shoulders, sharper tapering near point, flat midrib, and squared-sectioned tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_10.jpg
AE Spearhead #1016 viewsWestern Asia (probably northwestern Iran, possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
28.5cm (11.2”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. VI, Fig. 78

Ex-Private Danish collection of ancient weapons

Description:
Ovate blade with curved shoulders, sharper tapering near point, flat midrib, and squared-sectioned tang with sharp bend at end
Robert L3
Spearhead_11.jpg
AE Spearhead #1116 viewsWestern Asia (probably northwestern Iran)
1200-800 BC
38.5cm (15.4”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. VI, Fig. 80

Ex- Johan Dæhnfeldt Estate Collection

Description:
Tapered long blade with prominent midrib, sharper tapering near point, round shoulders
Robert L3
Spearhead_12.jpg
AE Spearhead #1220 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
16cm (6.3”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 396 (page 290) for similar, though slightly wider, tip
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 65 (page 85) for similarly shaped tip – however the Negahban example is an arrowhead, not a spearhead

Description:
Tanged ribbed blade, small stem, straight blade edges at base, then tapering toward point
Robert L3
Spearhead_13.jpg
AE Spearhead #1317 viewsNorthwestern Iran (possibly Marlik)
1200-800 BC
19.5cm (7.7”)

Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 113
Cf. Piller, (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XIV, Type I-A (page 291)

Description:
Deltoid ribbed blade, slightly rounded shoulders, long tang with sharp bend at end
Robert L3
Sword_1.jpg
AE Sword #134 viewsNorthwestern Iran, Talish area
1200-800 BC
45.5cm (18”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 165 (page 99)
Cf. Watson (Luristan Bronzes in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery), Fig. 16, #54 (page 24)

From an old Cambridge collection

Description:
Tapering ribbed blade, round shoulders, rat-tail tang, tip missing and end bent (possibly a deliberate act in antiquity)
Robert L3
Jeton_AE-_Q-016_18mm_2,24g-s.jpg
AE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,95 viewsAE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,
avers: Radiate head right, before the face "KOTI", belowe the neck another radiated head, looking like double stike..
revers: Single sided,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: Howgego #30 ,
Q-001
"KOTI before laureate bust right (Antonine emperor?) Applied twice on one example
(countermark applied at Cotiaeum, where one was found).
W.H. Waddington, Voyage en Asie-Mineure au point de vue numismatique, 1853, p.21,
1= P.Waddington 5880; P.876 (countermark applied twice).
All the coin are worn flat. One of a group of countermarks bearing the name of a city
which were applied such 'blanks' "
quadrans
agrippa_58.jpg
Agrippa RIC I, Gaius 58634 viewsAgrippa, died 12 BC, friend and son-in-law of Augustus
AE - As, 10.84g, 22.5mm
Rome, undated
obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III
head l., with corona rostrata
rev. Neptune standing l., cloaked, r. holding small dolphin,
l. vertical trident
S C l. and r.
RIC I, Gaius 58; C.3; BMCR (Tiberius)161
about VF, black patina

CORONA ROSTRATA (or CORONA NAVALIS), a crown decorated with prows, dedicated to Agrippa due to the victory over Sextus Pompeius in the naval battle of Naulochos 36 BC.
Jochen
SeleukP_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina32 viewsAE 20, 5.91g, Alexander II, Zebina, 128-123 BC. Obv: Alexander facing right, dotted border. Rev: Figure standing with spear (?), ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Μ ΔΠΡ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Σ. Black patina with earthen highlights, VF. Hoover HGC 9, 1162 (C-S).Molinari
Seleukid3_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina42 viewsAE 20, Alexander II, Zebina, 128-123 BC. Obv: Alexander facing right, dotted border. Rev: Figure standing with spear (?), ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Μ ΔΠΡ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Σ. Black patina, aF. Hoover HGC 9, 1162 (C-S).Molinari
13.jpg
Alexander III 88 viewsAlexander the Great 328-320 b.c
Tetradrachm
ARADOS

Obverse:Head of Alexander as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus Aetophoros on throne;ALEXANDROU BASILEOS;caduceus left throne,AP under

26.95mm 16.81g
PRICE:3332

Why it is here?I don't like it

I bought it (2005) as original 300euro from not blacklisted seller.
1 commentsmaik
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Phocis -- ~323 BC25 views16.95 g, 30 mm, 100°
Phocis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 834; Muller 750

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
________________________
A nice coin, but a past owner was way too harsh in chemically cleaning this. On the obverse, the lower jaw of the lion and Herakle's cheek contains a thin line of what I believe to be black chemical burn.
Hydro
Silber_Drachme_Alexander_yhe_Great.JPG
ALEXANDER III. DER GROSSE (336 - 323) KöNIGREICH MAKEDONIEN Griechenland 33 viewsDrachme, ca. 310-301, Abydos.
Vs.: Kopf des jugendlichen Herakles im Löwenskalp rechts.
Rs: ALEXANDROU. Zeus mit Adler und Szepter auf Thron nach links sitzend, im Feld links Monogramm, unter dem Thron Efeublatt.
3,66 g. 16,5 mm. Price: 1527 _2866
Antonivs Protti
alxmecu.jpg
Alexander the Great13 viewsPortrait of Alexander the Great done in mosaic that is housed at the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Dated from the late 2nd century. B.C., copy of a painting dated to c. 300 B.C.

Traditionally this scene reresents the turning-point at Issus when Darius fled the battle; but Philoxenus, the artist from whose painting the mosaic was copied, may have incorporated elements from other battles. Alexander's personal moment of peril seems borrowed from the Granicus, and the confrontation also has echoes of Gaugamela.

This mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

See:http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
Alexander_III_Herakles-Weapons.jpg
Alexander the Great * Macedonia, 337 to 323 BC. Bronze drachm152 views
Obv: Alexander III guised as Herakles in lion skin headdress, right-facing, enclosed within ornamental dotted circle.
Rev: (Top to bottom) * Lighting bolt, knotted Olive-branch club right-facing, AΛEXANΔΡ[OY], Unstrung bow in ornamented traveling/storage case, Monogram Δ.

Exergue: (N/A) Monogram Δ present in undefined exergual space.

Mint: (Pella?)
Struck: 337-323 BC.

Size: 18.50 mm.
Weight: 6.38 gms.
Die axis: 360°

Condition: XF. Exceptionally lovely coin, more-so in hand. Superb high relief and all details distinct and present.
Beautiful tone, rather dark-golden in the higher relief’s contrast delightfully against a yet-darker gold background in the lower areas of the flan. The flat area around the portrait and within the dotted circle is a strong, accentuating black-olive (not well-communicated by the present image).
Exquisite example of the type.

Refs:*
Not found in Sear GCATV.
Sear 6739, is an Æ 20. Partially descriptive.
4 commentsTiathena
3.jpg
Alexander the great tetradrachm58 viewsObverse:Head of Alexander as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus on throne holding eagle;S at left and SI under throne
SIDON
25.31mm 15.74g
PRICE False85 same reverse dies

MODERN STRUCK FAKE
One good fake

I bought it (2005) as original 300euro from not blacklisted seller.
maik
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
10~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 007.001 ADVENTVS AVGVSTI19 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Δ //XXI
WEIGHT: 3.61g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 20,5-22mm
RIC: 631
ALFOLDI: 007.001 (5 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1104
Ex Gianni collection; ex. Agora 64 lot 258; ex BLACKMOOR HOARD
Rare and desirable reverse type
Barnaba6
Amblada.jpg
Amblada, Pisidia 100-25 B.C.19 viewsAmblada (BC 100-25) Ae 12.5~13.6mm. 1.89g. ca 1st cent B.C. Late autonomous. Obv: Bearded head of Herakles right. Rev: ΑΜ-ΛΑ/ΔΕ-ΩΝ around club. Aulock, Pisidien I Nr. 120f. SNG BN Paris 1036.
A´MBLADA (Asar-Dagh in N. Pisidia) a city of Pisidia, which near the boundaries of Phrygia and Caria. It produced wine that was used for medicinal purposes. The site is unknown.
ddwau
amisos.jpg
amisos71 viewsAmisos - Ares and sword in sheath AE 22 Amisos 2nd - 1st Century BC. Amisos is a Greek city on the Black Sea coast founded in 6th century BC. , 8.53 g. Obv.: Head of young Ares wearing helmet. Rev.: Sword in sheath Legend in Greek. Ref.: D. Sear Greek coins and their values, Vol. II, p. 340, 3643dpaul7
am2471.JPG
Amisos84 viewsPontos, Amisos. Circa 85-65 BC.

Æ 21 mm

Bust of Amazon right, wearing wolfskin headdress / AMISOU, Nike walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm over left shoulder. SNG BMC Black Sea 1218-1219; SNG Stancomb 704; SNG Copenhagen 165.
2 commentsrandy h2
a3500.JPG
Amisos94 viewsAnother shot

Pontos, Amisos. Circa 85-65 BC.

Æ 21 mm

Bust of Amazon right, wearing wolfskin headdress / AMISOU, Nike walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm over left shoulder. SNG BMC Black Sea 1218-1219; SNG Stancomb 704; SNG Copenhagen 165.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Amisos.jpg
Amisos - AE 2118 views85-65 BC
Aegis facing
Nike advancing right, holding palm over shoulder
AMI_ΣOY
(ΠΩΔ) _ (AVTE)
RecGen 44; SNG BM Black Sea 1177-1179; cf. SNG Cop 170.
6,90g
Johny SYSEL
Amisos~1.jpg
Amisos - AR siglos9 viewsc. 400 - 360 BC
Aphro... magistrate
turreted head of Hera-Tyche left wearing stephanos ornamented with palmettes and annulets, triple-drop earrings and pearl necklace
owl standing facing on shield, grain ear left
AΦ_PO
ΠEIPA
SNG BM Black Sea 1059, SNG Stancomb 660, SNG Cop 122, Rec Gén 27, McClean 7351, HGC 7 229
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
AMISOS,_PONTUS_AE_20_SNG_1188.jpg
AMISOS - Pontos21 viewsAMISOS - Pontos, AE20, Minted c. 85-65 BC. Obv.: Aegis with head of gorgoneion facing in centre. Rev.: ΑΜΙ-ΣΟΥ, Nike walking right, holding palm tied with fillet over left shoulder; monograms left and right; right monogram looks like M inside Alpha. SNG BMC Black Sea 1188, Sear 3642.dpaul7
AMISOS,_PONTUS_AE_20_SNG_1187.jpg
AMISOS - Pontos22 viewsAMISOS -- Pontos, AE20, Minted c. 85-65 BC. Obv.: Aegis with head of gorgoneion facing in centre. Rev.: ΑΜΙ-ΣΟΥ, Nike walking right, holding palm tied with fillet over left shoulder; monograms left and right; left monogram looks like M inside DELTA, T attached. . SNG BMC Black Sea 1187, Sear 3642.dpaul7
Capture_00013.JPG
Amisos, Pontos53 viewsLate 2nd-Early 1st Century B.C.
Bronze AE20
7.89 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: Head of young Ares right wearing crested helmet
Rev.: Sword in sheath; AMI-ΣOY across field, star above cresent moon in upper left field, IB in upper right field, PΠMK monogram in lower left
SNG Black Sea 1162;
BMC 13, p.17, 47;
Sear 3643v
Jaimelai
006~0.JPG
Amisos, Pontos85 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE19
7.90 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike wearing talaric chiton with diplois, advancing right;
on left shoulder, filleted palm supported by both hands.
AMI-ΣOY across field,
monograms to left and right
SNG Black Sea 1161;
BMC 13, p.20, 72;
Sear 3642
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00006_(2).JPG
Amisos, Pontos49 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE21
7.46 gm, 21 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike advancing right with palm branch over left shoulder;
AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
SNG Black Sea 1161;
BMC 13, p.20, 74 var.;
Sear 3642
Jaimelai
2.jpg
Amisos, Pontos46 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE20
7.93 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike wearing talaric chiton with diplois, advancing right; on left shoulder, filleted palm supported by both hands.
AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
SNG Black Sea 1161; BMC 13, p.20, 72; Sear 3642
1 commentsJaimelai
amisos_50.jpg
Amisos, Pontos14 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE21
6.10 gm, 21 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike wearing talaric chiton with diplois, advancing right; on left shoulder, filleted palm supported by both hands. AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
HGC vol. 7, 242;
SNG Black Sea 1177-91;
BMC 13, p.19-20, 69-78;
Sear 3642
Jaimelai
amisos_50~0.jpg
Amisos, Pontos19 views120 - 63 B.C.
Bronze AE21
8.14 gm, 21.1 mm
Obv.: Head of young Ares right wearing crested helmet
Rev.: Sword in sheath; AMI-ΣOY across field
SNG Black Sea 1147/49;
HGC 7, 241;
BMC 13, p.17, 40/42;
Sear 3643
1 commentsJaimelai
amis_33~0.jpg
Amisos, Pontos13 views105-90 or 90-85 B.C.
Bronze AE26
18.95 gm, 26.5 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet ornamented with Pegasus
Rev.: Perseus standing facing, wearing pointed helmet or cap, with flaps, and himation over shoulders; holding harpa in right hand and head of Medusa in left, whose decapitated winged body lies at his feet; AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
HGC vol. 7, 238;
SNG Black Sea 1166-76;
BMC 13, p.16, 30-31;
Sear 3637
Jaimelai
amis_50.jpg
Amisos, Pontos25 views85-65 B.C.
Bronze AE23
6.79 gm, 23 mm
Obv.: Aegis with Gorgon at the center
Rev.: Nike wearing talaric chiton with diplois, advancing right; on left shoulder, filleted palm supported by both hands. AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
HGC vol. 7, 242;
SNG Black Sea 1177-91;
BMC 13, p.19-20, 69-78;
Sear 3642
Jaimelai
amisos_3.jpg
Amisos, Pontos43 views300 – 125 B.C.
Silver Siglos (reduced)
3.83 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Draped bust of Hera-Tyche right, wearing turreted stephane
Rev.: Owl facing with spread wings standing on shield; monogram to lower left.

SNG Black Sea 1110 var. (monogram);
HGC 7, 233
4 commentsJaimelai
amisos_2_50.jpg
Amisos, Pontos25 views300 - 125 B.C.
Silver Reduced Half Siglos
1.71 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv.: Head of Hera-Tyche right, wearing mural crown
Rev.: Owl facing with spread wings standing on shield; “A” to left; below ΑΣΚΛΕΟΥΣ
SNG Black Sea 1114;
BMC 13, p.14, 14-15;
Sear 3635;
HGC 7, 234
1 commentsJaimelai
asmi_33.jpg
Amisos, Pontos15 views105-90 or 90-85 B.C.
Bronze AE27
18.23 gm, 27 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet ornamented with Pegasus
Rev.: Perseus standing facing, wearing pointed helmet or cap, with flaps, and himation over shoulders; holding harpa in right hand and head of Medusa in left, whose decapitated winged body lies at his feet; AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right.
HGC vol. 7, 238;
SNG Black Sea 1166-76;
BMC 13, p.16, 30-36;
Sear 3637
Jaimelai
amiso_33.jpg
Amisos, Pontos16 views105-90 or 90-85 B.C.
Bronze AE27
19.64 gm, 27.5 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet ornamented with Pegasus
Rev.: Perseus standing facing, wearing pointed helmet or cap, with flaps, and himation over shoulders; holding harpa in right hand and head of Medusa in left, whose decapitated winged body lies at his feet, AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
HGC vol. 7, 238;
SNG Black Sea 1166-76;
BMC 13, p.16, 30-31;
Sear 3637
Jaimelai
amis_33.jpg
Amisos, Pontos9 views105-90 or 90-85 B.C.
Bronze AE29
20.06 gm, 29 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet ornamented with Pegasus
Rev.: Perseus standing facing, wearing pointed helmet or cap, with flaps, and himation over shoulders; holding harpa in right hand and head of Medusa in left, whose decapitated winged body lies at his feet; AMI-ΣOY across field, monograms to left and right
HGC vol. 7, 238;
SNG Black Sea 1166-76;
BMC 13, p.16, 30-31;
Sear 3637
Jaimelai
CB057733-85C5-4D4B-B1AD-923D596B7B5D.jpeg
Ancient India13 viewsDate: circa 650-300BC
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol stamped at each end of the bar.
Reverse: Blank

Description: Persian occupation of the area influenced the coinage of the time resulting in these double siglos denomination bars of relatively pure silver
1 commentsecoli
DSC01924.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - SATAVAHANA Empire - 177AD - Elephant - RARE COIN - 2.64gm15 viewsDeccan Post-Mauryan; Satavahanas (Andhras), 'Sri Satakanisa' Circa 1st Century B.C.-1st Century A.D. Karshapana Satavahana (Andhra) empire

Bi karshapana (22 mm, 2.77 g)

Obverse: Elephant with raised trunk standing right, with Brahmi legend (Siri) Sataka(nisa) above
Reverse: 4-orbed 'Ujjain' symbol
Ref: MACW 4941-4952

Nicely struck on a broad flan with lovely Glossy black patina with some earthen in devices. Boldly struck.

CHOICE.
Antonivs Protti
253-3-horz.jpg
Anglo-Gallic Coinage, Edward The Black Prince, 1355-1375 Aquitaine31 viewsPoitiers Mint

Hardi d'Argent (type of coin) - Roberts #6832

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG (1330 –1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.

He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose Order he was one of the founders.

Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Edward was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old.

The seller of this coin sent it to me in the dealer envelope it was purchased in many decades ago. The price on the envelope was $2.25 and it was graded UNC.

Purchased on eBay

NGC XF-45 – An exceptional grade

Cost $315
1 commentsRichard M10
Antigonas_Gonatus_Pan_2b.jpg
Antigonos Gonatas * War-helmed Athena * Pan, 277-239 BC. Æ20157 views
Antigonos Gonatas * Athena * Pan, Bronze Drachm

Obv: Head of Athena right wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev: Pan standing right erecting a trophy; B-A, to left and right of Pan respectively. Φ in lower-left field, ligate monogram between Pan's legs.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Pella (?)
Struck: 277-239 BC.

Size: 18.15 mm.
Weight: 6.64 grams
Die axis: 005°

Condition: Nicely centered strike with good images on both sides. Lovely dark-olive patina (near-black). Showing signs of wear, long usage and the passage of time. Still a lovely coin and very pleasing to the eye.

Refs:*
Price 71
SNG Copenhagen 1205(ff)

1 commentsTiathena
coinW_copy.jpg
Antioch on the Orontes23 viewsAE 20, Syria, Antioch on the Orontes, c. 63-49/8 BC. Obv: Laur. head of Zeus right, dotted border. Rev: Zeus enthroned holding Nike and scepter, ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ,Pompeian era date not visible, black patina, F. Hoover HGC 9, 1371 (C).Molinari
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Antioch on the Orontes28 viewsAE 20, Syria, Antioch on the Orontes, c. 62/1 BC. Obv: Laur. head of Zeus right, dotted border. Rev: Zeus enthroned holding Nike and scepter, ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ,Pompeian era date E (62/1 BC), black patina, VF. Hoover HGC 9, 1371 (C).Molinari
soter.jpg
Antiochos I Soter, AE 15, Apollo on omphalos19 viewsAntiochos I Soter - Apollo on omphalos. Antioch Mint, 280-261 BCE. Size and weight: 15mm, 3.86g. 
Obverse: Head of Antiochos I right with elderly features. 
Reverse: Nude Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrows in left hand, resting right hand on bow. Monograms to left and right. 
BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY 
Reference: Sear GCV 6878. A coin of the Seleukid kingdom with a black patina. On the reverse, Apollo is seated on the Omphalos, a mystical stone said to be at the navel of the world, in his famous shrine at Delphi. Apollo was famed for his skill with his silver bow and, among other attributes, was a god of archery. Ex MoremothPodiceps
IMG_0030.JPG
Antiochos IV Epiphanes 7 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ (22mm, 8.20 g, 1h). Tyre mint. Dated either SE 144 or 145 (169/8 or 168/7 BC). Diademed head right; star above, [...]MP (date) behind / Stern of galley left, with railing, oar, and aphlaston. SC 1463; HGC 9, 667; DCA 94. Near VF, black desert patina.ecoli
SeleukL_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes31 viewsAE 18, Syria, Antiochos VII, ca. 138-129 B.C. Obv: Winged bust of Eros facing right. Rev: Headress of Isis, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, cartwheel (?) below. Near black patina with light earthen highlights, VF. SGII 7098 var.Molinari
SeleukK_copy.jpg
Antiochos VII, Sidetes23 viewsAE 18, 5.58g, Antiochos VII, Seleukid Empire, Syria, 138-129 BC, Obv: Winged Eros facing right, dotted border. Rev: Headress of Isis, anchor in field, reverse weakly struck, black patina, aEF, reverse weakly struck. SNGSpaer 1911/27 Molinari
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Antiochos VIII, Grypos21 viewsAE 19, Syria, Antiochos VIII Grypos, ca. 111/0 B.C. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochos Grypos right. Rev: Eagle with scepter in background, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ / Beta Sigma in ex., Seleukid date 111/0. Black patina, gVF. S 7154, B.M.C. 4.90, 27.

Molinari
coinH_copy.jpg
Antiochos VIII, Grypos25 viewsAE 19, Syria, Antiochos VIII Grypos, struck 111/0 B.C. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochos Grypos right. Rev: Eagle with scepter in background, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ / Beta Sigma in ex., Seleukid date 111/0. Black patina, aXF/gVF. S 7154, B.M.C. 4.90, 27, Hoover HGC 9, 1212 (C).Molinari
IMG_5311.JPG
Antiquities & Ancient Art11 viewsChina bronze arrowhead
Triangular biblades with long tang
central raised ridge for strength
and long barbs.
50 x 17mm / 5.8g
Juancho
IMG_5309.JPG
Antiquities & Ancient Art11 viewsChina bronze arrowhead
Triangular biblades with long tang
central raised ridge for strength
and long barbs.
48 x 17mm / 8.6g
Juancho
V21.JPG
ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Apulian blackware salt pot, c.400 B.C.21 viewsApprox. 400 B.C.
Greek Apulian blackware salt pot - circular, raised foot, ridge body and white, rounded mouth, nice black glaze.
The base exhibits some graffito 'LA' (Could be a maker's mark or personal label of some kind)
These types of small pottery were commonly used as salt containers.
Diameter: 2 3/4 inches
(Ex Mcdonald collection)
superflex
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Iron spear, c.300 B.C.70 viewsAn ancient Greek Iron spear point, dating to approximately 300 B.C.
A powerful weapon with long cylindrical socket for attachment to a wooden pole, now long since perished. The blade itself of elongated, triangular form with strong central mid rib.
Height: 14 inches.
4 commentssuperflex
021012JSB032.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Persia, Bronze Arrowhead, c.1200-800 B.C.36 viewsNear Eastern Bronze Age arrowhead, dating to the Late Bronze Age approximately 1200 - 800 B.C.
With long, four sided tang, cylindrical midsection and rounded blade with barbed shoulders.
Arrows such as this were used by the Early Cultures of Babylonia, Assyria and Anatolia.
Unrestored, in exceptional condition.
Length: 3 inches.
superflex
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Antoninus Pius, Divus * Eagle on Altar, 161 AD. AR Denarius143 views
Commemorative Divus Antoninus Pius * Eagle on Altar, Silver Denarius
Struck by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus in 161 AD, on the death of Antoninus Pius in memory of the latter and commemoration of his deification by Will of the people &nd the Senate.

Obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS * bare head right.
Rev: CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right, head turned left, on garlanded altar.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Rome
Struck: 161 AD.

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 3.41 grams
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Beautiful, clear, bright luster, great details and high-relief. Nicely centered and well-struck.

Refs:*
Sear, 1301
Cohen, 154
RSC, 155/6.
Van Meter, 136
RIC III, 430 (Marcus Aurelius)
BMCRE, 48 (Marcus Aurelius)
Sear RCV II (2002), 5190, page 335

3 commentsTiathena
antoninus_pius_694.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC III, 694199 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE - As, 26.71mm, 11.65g
Rome, AD 140/144
obv. ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP
Head, laureate, r.
rev. T - R - POT - COS III
Mars, nude, chlamys over l. arm, helmeted, spear in r. hand and shield in l. hand, coming down from heaven to Rhea Silvia, sleeping at his feet, nude except a garment slid down to her hips, laying l. on rocks, r. arm over head, head resting on l. hand
in lower field SC
RIC III, 694; C.885; BMC 1370
Very rare, VF, dark, nearly black patina
Pedigree:
ex Küncker auction 133, Osnabrück 11./12. Oct. 2007, lot 8870

The rev. depicts an important scene of Rome's early history. For more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythlogical interest'!
7 commentsJochen
0130-510np_noir.jpg
Antoninus, Pius Antoninianus142 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO PIO Radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Large altar
4.00 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 90, Cohen # 1189, RCV # 9475
in qblay's catalog : AN71/P152
2 commentsPotator II
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Antoninus, Pius Antoninianus93 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO PIO Radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Eagle facing
4.10 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 89, Cohen # 1188, RCV # 9474
in qblay's catalog : AN34/A061
2 commentsPotator II
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Apollonia Pontica72 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.24 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
Apollonia_Pontica.jpg
Apollonia Pontica - AR hemidrachm35 viewsmid-late 4th century BC
facing head of Medusa
anchor flukes up
A / crayfish
Apollonia p. 347, 1; SNG BM Black Sea 160-1, SNG Cop. 456ff
3,24g 13mm
Johny SYSEL
AA_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica -Black Cabinet Special47 viewsSilver Obol?
0.69 gm, 9.0 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: “short cross”
forger’s trial piece?
Obverse appears to be copied from the reverse of an Apollonia Pontica silver diobol while the reverse is of unknown design
1 commentsJaimelai
apolo_dr.jpg
Apollonia Pontica AR Drachm3 viewsThrace, Apollonia Pontica. AR Drachm, 3.26 gr., 15 mm. Circa late 5th-4th century BC. Obv. - Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right. Rev. - Gorgoneion. SNG BM Black Sea 153-7; SNG Copenhagen 452. maxthrax
ApolloniaPontica.jpg
APOLLONIA PONTICA AR Drachm BMC IX, Black Sea 150-151, Gorgon37 viewsOBV: Gorgoneian facing with snakes for hair and a protruding tongue
REV: An anchor flanked by letter A and a crayfish
3.13g, 14-15mm

Minted 450-400 BC
1 commentsLegatus
ap_50_2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 08 - Silver Half-Drachm/Diobol43 views550-540/535 B.C.
2.12 gm, 11.3 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to left
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan (as four dolphins?)
Topalov Apollonia p.245, 1-2; p.564, 8;

Topalov Type: Silver half drachmas (?)/diobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin shaft - swastika in a deep groove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obverse: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab l. between the fluke and the stock.
Reverse: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the left deeply engraved in the flan.
Jaimelai
2760053.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 09 - Silver Drachm62 views550-540/535 B.C.
4.15 gm, 11.5-15.5 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent right
Topalov Apollonia p. 564, 9

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor a crab viewed sideways – Swastika in a deep grove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the right deeply engraved in the flan.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 10 - Silver Drachm60 views540-535/525 B.C.
3.51 gm., 13.5 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika with arms bent left, dolphins with heads pointed outward in-between each arm
Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 12, p.250-3, 1-16
SNG Stancomb 30

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor – Swastika: First Intermediate Issues” (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.

Jaimelai
AP_50~2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm56 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.47 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
Apollonia_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm18 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.51 gm, 13 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
Capture_00049~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm46 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
2.92 gm., 12.5-14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

These "Early-Issue" Medusa coins may have been reminted on the earlier swastika type Apollonia drachmas (from Topalov Apollonia 2007)
Jaimelai
015~1.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm65 views480 – 470 B.C.
3.25 gm., 13-15.5 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with single row pearl headdress
Topalov Apollonia p.584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
34.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm 79 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
3.24 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
2 commentsJaimelai
AP_comp_(2).jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm 53 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
3.12 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007

WARNING! Possible Black Cabinet candidate - very similar to Reid Goldsborough Apollonia Pontika New York Hoard Specimen # 40.
Jaimelai
dolphins_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm90 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.36 gm., 15 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p.584, 38 struck over Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 10
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type 38: “Upright anchor, crab right - full-face Gorgon's head" first early issues” (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
-struck over-
Topalov Type 10: “Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin shaft – Swastika ia a concave square with four dolphins as additional symbols" (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right, between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.
2 commentsJaimelai
ap3_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm43 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.31 gm, 13.2 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs; elaborate design with pronounced face wrinkles and spoked wheel/star pattern ear-rings, on a webbed aegis shield tipped with coiled snakes.
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9; SNG BM Black Sea 156

Certified Authentic by David R. Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 501CR/GC/CO/CD)

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
ap_real_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm45 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.27 gm, 13.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44;
Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9;
SNG BM Black Sea 153-6 & 158

Certified Authentic by David Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 502CR/GC/CO/CD)

Note: From same dies as the source coin of the series of cast fakes (see Fake Coin Reports)

Topalov Type 44: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Last Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right (or visa versa).
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
ap_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45(i?) - Silver Drachm23 views450 – 424 or 410/404 B.C.
Silver Drachm, Thracian Imitation?
2.39 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets
circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var;
BMC Mysia p.9, 11
SNG BM Black Sea 160/61

Topalov Type 45 – Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
apollo_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol8 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657; HGC 1315;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15;
SNG Black Sea 175

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
appp.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 88 - Bronze Tetrachalk14 views300 - 250 B.C.
Bronze Tetrachalk
(or Heavy Dichalkia)
2.7 gm, 16 mm.
Obv: Laurate Apollo, right, with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. Δ/I left and right between the flukes and the stock.
Topalov Apollonia p. 496-497, 1-4; p. 616 No. 88, p.796-7;
SNG BM Black Sea 186; HGC 1335;
SNG Bulgaria 2 482-3; Lindgren 752

Topalov Type 88: bronze tetrachalk(?) (first half of the 3rd c. B.C.) of the type "Apollo's Head – Upright Anchor" with the initials Δ/Ι
Obv.: Laureate Apollo right with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. Δ/I left and right between the flukes and the stock possibly initials of Apollo’s nickname
Jaimelai
ap94a_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 94 - Bronze Dichalk16 viewsBeginning of 2nd century B.C.
2.50 gm, 14 mm.
Obv: Naked Apollo, full-face, standing and holding a laurel tree in his right hand and a bow with arrows in his left hand.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A to left between fluke and the stock.
Topalov Apollonia p. 510, 1; p.620, 94 var., p.804-5;
SNG BM Black Sea 190

Topalov Type 94: Bronze coins of the type “Standing Apollo - Upright Anchor”, dichalk (?)
Obv.: Full-face naked Apollo, standing and holding a laurel tree and two arrows. The image represents the statue of Kalamis erected in the town.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A l. and the additional symbol of a crab r. viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Apollonia_Pontica.jpg
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace18 views350-300 BC
AE12 (Dichalkon?) (12mm, 2.21g)
O: Laureate head of Apollo right.
R: Anchor; A to left, crawfish to right.
BMC Black Sea 178-81
Enodia
apollonia.jpg
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace31 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace


Obverse: Gorgon (Medusa?) or Apollo head facing with tongue sticking out


Reverse: Upturned anchor with crayfish and A on sides


Silver Drachm (16mm, 2.5g)
Minted in Apollonia Pontica 450-400BC

Reference: SNG Black Sea 155


Translations and explanations:

Apollonia Pontica (Apollonia on the Black Sea) is modern day Sozopol, Bulgaria.

While the city was clearly named after Greek god Apollo, the earlier coins feature a snake-haired gorgon face that over time seems to transition to a more Apollo like image.

The anchor on the reverse was the symbol of the city denoting its important maritime trade status.

Sphinx357
apollonia_pontika_01.jpg
Apollonia Pontika AR Drachm51 viewsObv: Gorgoneion, facing.
Rev: Anchor; crayfish to left.
Cat #: SNG Black Sea 150
Weight: 3.23g
Year: 450-400 BC
oa
Apolonia_Pontica1.jpg
Apollonia Pontika AR Drachm.25 viewsThrace, Black Sea Area, Apollonia Pontika AR Drachm. ca 450 BC. Facing gorgoneion with protruding tongue / Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right. Britanikus
4213_4214.jpg
Apollonia Pontika, Drachm, A/Crayfish9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace
Issued: 5th - 4th Centuries BC
13.5 x 12.5mm 3.25gr
O: NO LEGEND; Facing gorgoneion.
R: NO LEGEND; Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right.
SNG Stancomb 35-38; SNG Black Sea 160-163.
VF
Fiona's Mom.
2004 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
sinope.jpg
AR Drachm of Sinope in Paphlagonia ca. 425-410 BC13 viewsOBVERSE: Head of sea eagle facing left with dolphin below.
REVERSE: Double-Incuse punch with pellets in center

Sinope was originally founded by Greek colonists from Miletus ca 725 BC. Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus bordered the southern shore of the Black Sea. It remained an important port, as indicated by the maritime themes on its coinage, for many centuries. Recently near- perfectly preserved remains of Byzantine-era vessels, probably bound for Sinope, have been found at the bottom of these anoxic waters.

SNG BMC 1367 Black Sea (ref. Wildwinds), wt 5.99 gm (ex-Forvm coins)
daverino
greekQ.JPG
Arados31 viewsAE 15, Phoenicia, Arados, 130 B.C. Obv: Head of Zeus and Astarte, jugate, facing right, dotted border. Rev: Prow of galley with Athena fighting, holding sword and shield, inscription above and Aradian era date 130/29 BC below. Black patina, aEF. Lindgren I, 2231, Hoover HGC 10, 90 (C).Molinari
troizen_commodus_BCDpel1341_2.jpg
Argolis, Troizen, Commodus, BCD Peloponnesos 1341.2 (plate coin)245 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 21mm, 9.61 g
obv. [M AVR KOMMO]DOC AV[G]
Laureate head right
rev. [TROI - ZHNIWN]
Hippolytus standing facing, head left, holding spear and ?; his dog at feet(?)
BCD Peloponnesos 1341.2 (this coin); NCP p.162, 7 (this coin) Thanks to BCD!
extremely rare, VF, black green patina with traces of lighter olive overtones, light roughness
Pedigree:
ex BCD coll.
ex A. Rhousopoulos coll.
ex LHS 96, 8./9. May 2006

A note from BCD: Troizen must have enjoyed a special status under Commodus, as did Aigion, Megara and Pagai. These cities and Epidauros are the only ones that issued non-Severan coins in the Peloponnesos, with the exception of the well-established mints of like Corinth, Patrai, Elis, Argos and Lakedaimon.

For more informations see the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
Ariarathes_IX_101-87_BC.jpg
Ariarathes IX, Cappadocia8 viewsAR drachm
Young head r
Athena stg l, as S7299 with same monogram but date apparently left blank;
JBGood
fleche3.jpg
Arrowhead24 viewsGREEK BRONZE ARROWHEAD PROTO MONEY
Black Sea area
arrowhead twisted for votive action
Circa 600-500 BC
frederic
Iron_Arrowhead.jpg
Arrowhead15 viewsIron
Flat blade, socketed
75mm, 9.31g
Will J
Blaundos_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Blaundos, Zeus, Hermes22 viewsBlaundos, Lydia
AE20, ca 2nd-1st century BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right
Rev.: MΛAYNΔΕΩN, Hermes in short Chiton standing left, wearing Petasos on head, holding kerykeion in left hand, all within laurel wreath.
AE, 6.89g, 19.6mm
Ref.: SNG Cop - (cf 67-69), BMC 44.18-19
ex HD Rauch, 13th live e-Auction, Lot 167
shanxi
Sinope_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Paphlagonia, Sinope, Perseus, Cornucopia between two pilei 34 viewsSinope, Paphlagonia
AE17, 120-100 BC
Obv: Draped bust of Perseus right
Rev: Cornucopiae between two pilei of the Dioskouroi, each surmounted by a star, ΣΙΝΩ−ΠΗΣ below
AE, 4,01g, 16.6mm
Ref.: SNG BMC Black Sea 1520ff; SNG Stancomb 791; SNG Cop. 306; SNG von Aulock 231
Ex Pater Münzen und Medaillen
1 commentsshanxi
Pontus_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Pontos, Amisos?, Cap, Head of Pan, Star16 viewsPontos, Amisos?
AE18, Time of Mithradates VI (Circa 130-100 BC).
Obv.: Phrygian cap with facing bust of Pan ; bow to left.
Rev.: Star; bow
AE, 4.57g, 17.9mm
Ref.: SNG BM Black Sea 980; SNG Stancomb 645
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 35, Lot 137
shanxi
Pontus_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Pontos? (Uncertain), Comet, Horse's head 61 viewsUncertain Mint
Pontus or Asia Minor
about 130-100 BC
Obv.: Horse's head with star
Rev.: Comet
AE, 1.66g, 12.1mm
Ref.: SNG Black Sea 984, Lindgren III 154
OMNI 8 (11-2014), p.49, Fig. 17, this coin
1 commentsshanxi
ASP.jpg
Asper60 viewsByzantine silver, Trebizond Empire, John II, 1280-1297 AD, AR Asper

Obverse: St. Eugenius stanidng holding long cross

Reverse: John standing holding labarum and akakia

Diameter approx 23.5 mm,


EMPIRE of TREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (2.75 g, 7h). Imitative issue. St. Eugenius, nimbate, standing facing, holding long cross with cross bar on shaft / John standing facing, holding lily-headed sceptre and globus cruciger. Cf. Retowski 16 (same obverse die); cf. SB 2609. Good VF, typical weak strike. ($200)

Retowski's aspers of his group B, section 1 have several anomalous features that set them apart from the normal series. On this one example, the cross held by St. Eugenius has a lower cross bar, not seen on any other example. Most of the Group B, 1 specimens have the saint's name ending in IOV, rather than the IOC or IO seen on standard varieties. On the reverse the emperor's cloak is shown as a single cross-hatched panel lacking the normal decorated chlamys end tied around his waist. In addition, on this unique example the emperor holds a lily-headed sceptre, rather than one with a labarum as on every other type. The lily sceptre does not appear elsewhere in the Trebizond series, but does occasionally show as an attribute in the Bulgarian royal series. See a bronze of Mitso Asen (1256-1263), Radishev p. 93. This coin, and others in group B, 1 are probably imitative issues copying Trebizond types, and may have been struck anywhere along the north shore of the Black Sea, where the Tartar Khanates ruled, occasionally holding the Bulgarian kings as their vassals.

http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=107443&AucID=121&Lot=1136
1 comments Alexios
Schönert-Geiss_#228_Caracalla_City-gate_Augusta_Traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus74 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE27 13.65g
Ob: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓE CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV A[VΓOVCTH]
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Obverse legend worn away, reverse more detail, dull black patina
Cf. BMC 11 under Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 228 reverse depicted Tafel 10; Mionnet Supp. 2 p.511 #1809 (Trajanopolis)
M & M cites Trell 247, 79 in addition to confirming my attributions above.
The legend is slightly different from the British Museum specimen (=#230). I think this reverse die is more common. Placement of kappa in relation to central tower is an indication of die.

This coin appears to be from Righetti’s collection M & M Auction 15 (21 10 2004) lot 77 Righetti Teil IV!
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=99790

No tags from auction nor Righetti’s own
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Nike_Biga_StBarb_Aug_Traiana_12_8g.JPG
Augusta Traiana Septimius Severus Statilius Barbarus66 viewsSeptimius Severus

Augusta Traiana

AE 27 12.8g.

Governor T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

AVK Λ ∙ CEΠTIM CEVHPOC ∙ Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ CT BAPBAPOY AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC (NH ligate)
Nike holding wreath in outstretched arm on galloping biga right

Varbanov (E) II 1031(this coin); Schönert-Geiss "Die Münzprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis" -;
BMC-; Mionnet –

Blackish-brown fields with metallic high points; obverse legend is fully legible in hand, barely
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
coin17~0.JPG
Augustus AE Quadrans20 viewsAugustus AE Quadrans. Rome Mint 2BC-12 AD. Moneyer C. Rubellius Blandus. Obverse: III VIR•A•A•A•F•F•, garlanded altar with bowl-shaped top. Reverse: C•RVBELLIVS BLANDVS•, around large S C. RIC I: 467. ecoli
augustus_467_3.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 46725 viewsAugustus 27 BC - AD 14
AE - Quadrans, 3.37g, 13.4mm
Rome 4 BC
obv.: C RVBELLIVS BLANDVS
around SC
rev.: IIIVIR AAAFF
garlanded altar with bowl-shaped top
RIC I, 467; cf. C.511; BMCR. 269
Scarce; good F

IIIVIRI MONETALES = the three mint magistrates, elected by the Senatus
(In this case really IVviri monetales!)
AAAFF = aere argento auro flando feriundo, for the casting and striking of bronze, silver and gold
Jochen
Augustus18.jpg
Augustus Æ Semis, RPC I 192, Hexastyle Temple34 viewsOBV: AVGVSTVS DIVI·F, Laureate head right
REV: Q.PAPIR.CAR.Q.TER.MONT.II.VIR.Q., Hexastyle temple with IVNONI inscribed on the entablature, C I IL A among the columns of the temple.
5g, 21 mm

Minted at Ilici (Elche - Spain), after 12 BC
Legatus
0030-520np_noir.jpg
Augustus, Antoninianus84 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO AVGVSTO radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Large altar
3.06 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 78, Cohen # 578, RCV # 9459
in qblay's catalog : AU22/P189
Potator II
0030-521.jpg
Augustus, Antoninianus90 viewsRome mint AD 250/251
DIVO AVGVSTO radiate head right
CONSECRATIO Eagle facing with spred wings and head left
3.10 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 77, Cohen # 577, RCV # 9458
in qblay's catalog : AU27/A045
Ex Gemini XIII auction, #291
4 commentsPotator II
Aur_Black_Sml.png
Aurelian Antoninianus14 viewsAurelian, 270-275 AD.

Mediolanum. AD 270 - AD 275

22mm., 3.35g.

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Bust of Aurelian, radiate, draped, right

VICTORIA AVG. Victory, winged, draped, walking right, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left hand

References: RIC V Aurelian 143

AAIV
RL
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
mazaios~0.jpg
Baal or Zeus (Interpretatio Graecia) on Cilician Stater of Satrap Mazaios264 viewsCirca 361-334 B.C. AR Stater (10.88g, 24mm, 5h). cf. SNG Levant-106; SNG Paris-. Obverse Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, head facing, holding club, bunch of grapes, wheat ear, and eagle in right hand, lotus-headed scepter in left hand, B’LTRZ (Baaltarz) in Aramaic behind, M below throne, all within a circle of dots. Reverse lion bringing down bull, attacking with teeth and claws, MZDI (Mazdai) in Aramaic above, unlisted ankh symbol, wheat ear below, all within a circle of dots. Sharply struck on an excellent metal with areas of flat strikes on high points. Choice superb EF/EF. Toned, lustrous.

Ex Ponterio and Associates Sale No. 84, November 1996, lot 141. Ex Stacks Bowers and Ponterio Sale No. 172, November 2012, lot 11680. Ex Pars Coins.

The depiction of Phoenician-Canaanite god Baal on Cilician coinage suggests the preeminence of his cult in Tarsos. He is shown enthroned, most probably on Mount Zaphon. The symbols corn-ear/barley and grapes suggest Baal’s capacity as a god involved in the seasonal cycles of life and death, or a more specific reference to Cilicia’s fertile plains. The iconography of this late coinage is also a syncretic mixture of other cultures, including Greek. The treatment of the god’s body gives us a hint of the extent of influence of Hellenic culture exerted in Eastern Asia Minor long before Alexander’s conquest, and it is said that Baal could be equated with Zeus in the Greek context. After the conquest of Alexander III of the East, Mazaios was appointed governor of Babylon. The new coinage of Alexander was strongly influenced by Mazaios’ pre-Alexandrine coinage (the Zeus Aetophoros commonly found on the reverses of his tetradrachmai is a direct descendant of this). The reverse depicts the City’s Emblem and clearly has an underlying meaning now lost to us. Some say it symbolizes the victory of Day over Night, while others suggest military conquest and subjugation of the enemies by the Persian Empire. Marvin Tameanko has persuasively argued (see Celator, Jan. 1995, pp. 6-11) that the kneeling bull (without the lion) is symbolic of Zeus, as attested on scores of later Greek and Roman coins; and the lion is symbolic of the supreme god Baal of the Cilicians. This concludes the lion-over-bull motif on this coin delivers a message that is blatantly direct and simple, if the argument put forward is to be believed.
4 commentsJason T
Bactria,_Eukratides_I_Pedigree_Tetradrachm.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 32 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕYΣ MEΓAΣ EYKPATIΔHΣ Diademed and draped bust of a mature Eukratides right, wearing a crested helmet decorated with ear and horn of a bull.
HΛIOKΛIOΣ KAI ΛAOΔIKHΣ Co-joined busts facing right of Eukratides parents, Heliokles and Laodike, ΦΛΩ monogram to left.

Bopearachchi Series 15 A; SNG ANS 526-527; Mitchiner 182a; Qunduz 245-246; HGC 12, 133; Sear 7572.

(30 mm, 16.16 g, 12h).

Gorny & Mosch Giessener Munzhandlung Auction 126, October 2003, 1534.
The distinctive reddish black remnant patina of this coin is a characteristic of the silver coins from the Mir Zakah deposit. It is probably from this, the largest hoard of coins ever found, that the coin is derived.

This issue may have been inspired by the earlier “pedigree” coinage of Agathokles and Pantaleon, but equally likely given the many apparent anomalies associated with the issue, is that it was issued by the parents of Eukratides as statement of their position and prestige in Baktrian society. Heliokles’ bare head indicates that he was not a king, whereas the diadem on Laodike’s head suggests that she was of royal blood. Tarn identified her as a Seleukid princess, daughter of Seleukos II and sister of Antiochus III. On the other hand, Hollis in Laodike Mother of Eucratides of Baktria makes a plausible case that Laodike was the daughter of Antiochos III. Hollis argues that Eukratides was in this way connected to the Seleukid royal family and was perhaps facilitated by the latter in his endeavor to seize the Baktrian throne.

This coinage has a number of curious characteristics. The legend on this coin names Eukratides is in the nominative case, so that it serves to label his portrait rather than to identify him as the issuing authority of the coinage. The legend naming his parents, on the other hand, is in the genitive, normally used to indicate a filial relationship an argument supported by Hollis. However, it could also imply that Heliokles and Laodike had authorized the coinage. Both sides of the coin have defined filleted borders, unique in the coinage of Eukratides. All other issues bear only an obverse border around the image of the king. The fabric of these coins indicates that Heliokles and Laodike occupy the obverse, anvil struck side of the coin. Nevertheless, they are most frequently described in the opposite manner, in accord with the convention that the ruler occupies the obverse side of the coin.
1 commentsn.igma
Baltic_Amber_Cicada_Nymph.jpg
Baltic Amber with Cicada Nymph107 viewsLocation: Baltic Russia
Date: circa 50 million years old
Size: amber is 4.39 cm long (maximum),
cicada nymph is 9 mm long (rare inclusion)

This is a piece of pre-historic Baltic amber containing a beautifully presented cicada nymph inclusion. This piece of amber was collected from the Primorkoje Mine in Yantarnvi, Kaliningrad, Russia near the Baltic Sea. The territory, the northern part of the former East Prussia, borders on NATO and EU members Poland and Lithuania. The site now occupied by Kaliningrad was previously the site of the German city of Königsberg, founded in 1255. During World War II the city was largely destroyed. Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The German population was expelled and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. The city was rebuilt, and went through industrialization and modernization. As the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia.
3 commentsNoah
Heraclius_M_cypress_BCC_B9.jpg
BCC B930 viewsByzantine Period
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE 40 Nummia, Cyprus Mint.
Obv:Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine,
and Empress Martina, each with Globus Cruciger.
Rev:Large M, ANNO to left, [P on h monogram]
above, Year XUIII (18) to right, officina Γ (3)
below, mintmark ΚΥΠΡ in Greek.
20mm. 5.46gm. Axis:210
Regnal Year 18 (627-628CE)
Striking black Caesarea patina.
SB 849
v-drome
BCC_BD1_Glass_bead_.jpg
BCC BD118 viewsGlass Bead
2nd Century BCE?-3rd cent.CE?
Phoenician or Roman?
Caesarea Maritima
Annular bead with three colors and an
eye? pattern that repeats 3 times around
the circumference. Each pattern has a yellow border
enclosing two blue/green dots, slightly offset,
on a matrix of dark red glass, mixed with some black.
12.0x7.0mm. 2.47gm.
v-drome
BCC_BW10.jpg
BCC BW1031 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze 2/6 Dinar
Obv: Arabic inscription: ‘IMRAN
عمرا ن an Arabic name.
Rev: Blank
Discoid shape.
8.0 x 7.75 x 3.2mm.
1.38 gm.
v-drome
Islamic_Weight_BW11_.jpg
BCC BW1127 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze 2 Dirhem
Obv: Arabic inscription: ‘IMRAN
عمرا ن
Rev: Blank
Brick shaped, ends and sides bulged.
13.0 x 9.0 x 6.0mm.
5.83gm.
v-drome
BW12_cube.jpg
BCC BW1247 viewsIslamic? Weight?
Bronze - 5 Dirham?
Marked with a total of 10 “bird’s eye”
concentric circle punch marks: 4 on one side,
and 2 on three sides. The other 2 sides are blank.
Cubiod shape: 12.25 x 12.0 x 11.5mm.
Weight: 14.12gm.
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_BW15,16,17,18.jpg
BCC BW15-BW1835 views4 Bronze Weights, square with diamond shape
on upper sides. All are blank on the reverse.
BW15: 7.25x7.25mm. 1.15gm.  
No marks visible, worn, cleaned.
BW16: 9.0x9.25mm. 1.64gm.  Three punch
marks on diamond. Intact, uncleaned.
BW17: 14x14.75mm. 5.87gm.  No marks
visible, very worn, heavily cleaned.
BW18: 18.5x18.75mm. 13.17gm.  One punch
mark in corner of square, worn, cleaned.
Surface finds from Caesarea Maritima, but not
found together. The cleaned specimens may have
lost an estimated 5-20% of their original mass.
Age and weight standard remain uncertain.
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Islamic_weight_BW8.jpg
BCC BW826 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze
1/6 Dirhem
Obv: Arabic inscription stamped
in relief (partial?) I M R?
Rev: Blank
6.2 x 5.2 x 1.5mm.
0.46gm.
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aurelius_caesarea.png
BCC CM1 (BCC 1)117 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Marcus Aurelius 161-180C.E.
(as Caesar) 139-161 C.E.
OBV: ANTON AVG P F AVRELIO CAES
Bare-headed, draped bust right,
viewed from behind.
REV:COL PRIM FL AVG CAESAREA
Bust of Serapis right, viewed from
the front, wearing modius.
AE 24mm approx. 11.5g. Axis: 0
Kadman 38v. (obverse and reverse inscription)
Natural black toning.
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etrusco_serapis_1.png
BCC CM32 (BCC 30)49 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Herennius Etruscus 250-251CE
Obv:MES Q EREN ETRVSCO
DECIO CAES Radiate bust rt.
Rev:[COL P]F AV FC CAES
METROP Serapis std. to right, head turned to left,
holding sceptre with left arm lowered.
AE 18x20mm. 7.74gm.
Axis:180 unlisted in Kadman
This coin is not listed in Kadman's Coins of Caesarea
Maritima(1957),although it was to be expected since
this reverse type occurs on coins of all the other
members of Decius's imperial family. I do not know
if this coin has been subsequently published in a later
reference. Any comments are welcome. The photo was
lightened to show detail. The actual patina is very black.
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BCC_G19-21_onyx.jpg
BCC G19, G20, and G2123 views3 Gem Stones
1st-3rd cent.CE?
Caesarea Maritima
Black and blue Sardonyx (-onyx)
These were not found together,
but, in my opinion, are almost
certainly from the same workshop,
and may be from the same piece
of rock, as well.
Surface finds, 1971-1973

cf. Hendler Collection, #211-215
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onyx_composite_BCC_G19-21.jpg
BCC G19-2127 views 3 Gem Stones
1st-3rd cent.CE?
Caesarea Maritima
Black and blue Sardonyx (-onyx)
beautifully cut and polished.
Surface finds, 1971-73

G19 - F2 profile, Hexagonal cut, very rare.
11.25 x 7.0 x 2.0mm weight: 0.24gm

G20 - F2 profile, oval cut, chipped.
8.0 x 5.25 x 1.9mm weight: 0.12gm

G21 - F2 profile, rectangular cut, chipped.
9.0 x 7.5 x 2.0mm weight: 0.27gm

cf. Amorai-Stark, Hershkovitz, “Gemstones,
Finger Rings, and Seal Boxes from Caesarea
Maritima, The Hendler Collection”, #211 and
#215 c. Shay Hendler, Tel Aviv 2016.

(click for larger pic)
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BCC_G3_Serapis_Gem_Nicolo.jpg
BCC G3 composite38 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio 1st-3rd Century CE
Bust of Serapis to left.
Nicolo Onyx blue, black, white.
Profile F4 var. slightly concave
bottom, flat top, upright oval.
6.5 x 5 x 2mm.
Extremely small gem,
engraved with great detail.
cf. Hendler Collection #7
J.Berlin Caesarea Collection
(click for larger pic)
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Islamic_Gem_g9.jpg
BCC g946 viewsIslamic Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Late Abbasid Kufic inscription:
Allah Waliyyu (Zakari?) bin Habib.
Inscribed in the negative.
10 x 8 mm.
Black onyx
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agrippa_year_35.png
BCC j3 (BCC 33)59 viewsRoman Judaea
Agrippa II 56-95CE
Domitian 81-96CE
Obv:[ΑΥTΟ ΔΟΜΙ]
Laur. bust of Domitian Rt.
Rev:ΒΑ ΑΓΡ / ΕT ΕΛ
(King Agrippa, Year 35
(94/95CE) very thick flan. Black Patina.
Agrippa II issued coins in several denominations in
this year, possibly from the mint at Caesarea
Paneas. This one is the smallest of the 4 types.
AE 12.5mm 3.15gm.
Hendin 634 (1996)
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BCC_L14_Badge.jpeg
BCC L1415 viewsLead Amulet or Badge
Late Roman?-Magical/Gnostic?
Samaritan? or Crusader?
Obv: Concentric design with border of
20 dots, 18 boxes, an inner circle
surrounding five pellets and a central
dot. Two mounting loops, intact.
32x22mm. 4.14gm.
Rev: Blank
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lead_badge.jpg
BCC L429 viewsBCC L4
Lead Badge or Inlay
Late Roman?
Obv: Two figures facing, holding wreath
Rev: blank, tab for attachment
Pb 34x28mm. 18.14gm.
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lead_pilgrims_tag.jpg
BCC L7 Pilgrim's Badge28 viewsLead Pilgrim’s Badge
12th-13th century Medieval?
Obv: Facing portriats of Sts. Peter and Paul,
between them a cross.
Rev: Blank
Attachment loops survive on the upper corners.
Lower portion broken in antiquity.
27x19mm. (excluding loops) 6.41gm.
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BCC_LH1_Lead_Head_comp.jpeg
BCC LH114 viewsLead Head
Cast lead figure of a miniature
stylized head, possibly crimped on
to a shaft or tang? This specimen
is unusual in that it is slightly
larger and heavier than the other
heads in this assemblage, and the
face is flat (solid?) with a hollow neck.
My father recalled seeing a similar
object with an iron blade attached to
it at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
in New York, but I have not been
able to confirm this.
49 x 23 x 9.5mm. 32.28gm.
Surface find, 1976, Caesarea Maritima
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
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BCC_LH3_Lead_Head_composite.jpeg
BCC LH321 viewsLead Head
Hollow cast lead figure
of a miniature stylized head.
Pierced from the back, and
possibly crimped on to a
shaft or tang? This specimen
is unusual among the known
assemblage of these strange
objects in that the mold was prepared
along the front and back axis rather
than the left and right axis. The interior
is smooth with no sign of a seam.
Small hole in back, cf. BCC LH9
36.5 x 21.5 x 15mm. 19.02gm.
Surface find, 1974, Caesarea Maritima
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
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constantine_patina.jpg
BCC LR3032 viewsLate Roman
Constantine I 306-337 CE
AE 4 Constantinople mint
Obv: DV CONSTANTI-NVS P T AVGG
Veiled head right
Rev: Constantine, veiled, in quadriga galloping right.
Hand of God reaching to him from Heaven.
in ex: CONS Black ceramic patina.
13.5x15mm 1.41gm. Axis:180
RIC VIII 37
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claudius_ivv_LR37.jpg
BCC LR3722 viewsLate Roman BCC LR37
Claudius II 268-270CE
AE Antoninianus
Obv:IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Radiate head left
Rev:IVVEN-TVS AVG
Hercules standing front, head
left, holding club and lion skin.
Exergue: blank.
RIC V 213 (3,L) Antioch Mint
19.5mm. 3.72gm. Axis:0
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arcadius_LR48.jpg
BCC LR4819 viewsLate Roman
Arcadius 383-408 CE
Obv:[DN AR]CADIVS P[F AVG]
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust rt.
Rev:SALVS REI[PUBLICAE]
Victory advancing left, holding trophy
and dragging captive. In fld: staurogram.
In exergue: ANT Γ
Very worn, with black and red ceramic patina
12.5mm. 0.73gm. Axis:180
Poss. ref: RIC IX 67( ) Antioch
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Licinius_I_Gen.jpg
BCC Lr735 viewsLate Roman AE Follis BCC Lr7
Licinius I 308-324CE
Alexandria mint
Obv:IMP C LIC LICINNIVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.
Rev:GENIO AVGVSTI
Genius standing left, nude except
for pallium hanging from shoulder,
wearing modius, holding bust of Serapis
and cornucopia. Palm branch in front.
In field, N - A, in exergue. ALE (dot),
above, star. Black patina, as found.
20mm 4.98gm. Axis:180
Possible ref: RIC 157 a. Rarity: R1
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anguipede_LS14~0.jpg
BCC LS14232 viewsLead Seal
Caesarea Maritima
Roman 1st - 3rd Cent CE?
Obv: Anguipede, stylized
Persian influenced snake-
legged figure, usually with
head of rooster, in Roman
military dress, carrying
flail and shield.
Rev: Blank.
16 x 13mm. 5.55gm.
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victory_BCC_LSR4.jpg
BCC LSR420 viewsLead seal
Roman 1st -4th cent CE?
Obv: Winged figure advancing left,
holding shield? or wreath?.
Traces of inscription to left.
Rev: Blank
11x13mm. 2.80gm.
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anguipede_BCC_LSR6_.jpg
BCC LSR630 viewsLead Seal
Roman 1st-3rd Cent CE?
Obv: Anguipede, stylized Persian influenced
snake-legged figure, usually with
head of rooster, carrying flail and shield.
Rev: Blank.
16 x 13mm. 5.55gm.
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BCC_LT82_Artemis__Tessera.jpg
BCC LT 8216 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Late Roman 1st-4th cent.
Obv: Cult statue of Artemis?,
facing, stags? to right and left.
Rev: Blank.
9 x 8 x 0.75mm. 0.36gm.
cf. Hamburger, "Surface Finds from
Caesarea Maritima - Tesserae
Excavations at Caesarea Maritima
1975, 1976, 1979 - Final Report, Levine,
Netzer. #15 and #16
cf. BCC LT25, LT26, LT35, LT72, and LT81
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