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Diocletian12.jpg
1 Diocletian Pre-Reform Radiate40 viewsDiocletian
AE Antoninianus, 293-295, Antioch, Officina 9
IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MIL_ITVM, Emperor standing right, short scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, scepter in left, ED in lower middle field, XXI in exergue
RIC V, Part II, 322
Ex Max Mehl Coins
Ex Andreas Reich

Thanks to FORVM members stinats and Genio Popvli Romani for helping to attribute this coin!
Sosius
Decius_Prov_areich.jpg
3 Trajan Decius11 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D., Antiochia, Pisidia, Central Asia Minor

Trajan Decius
AE 24, Antiochia Mint

IMP CAES C MESS Q TRA DECIO TRAI AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ANTIO - CHICO, eagle on vellexium between two standards topped with wreaths, S R in ex

BMC Lycia, etc p 198, 125 aF
Ex Andreas Reich
Sosius
Decius_Ant_1~0.jpg
3 Trajan Decius13 viewsEx Andreas ReichSosius
Gallienus_Unident_Prov.jpg
7 Gallienus40 viewsGallienus
Ć27 of Smyrna, Ionia

O: AVT K Π ΛIK_[IN] ΓAΛΛIHNOC, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right

R: CMYPNAIΩN Γ N_EΩKOPΩN[..] IΠ[ΠIKOV] ΦIΛH_TOV, the Amazon Smyrna, turreted and cuirassed, standing left, holding bipennis and pelta right.

SNG Copenhagen 1410var

Thanks to FORVM member Andreas Reich and www258pair.com for help IDing this coin.
Sosius
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Denar,_H-228,_C1-191,_U-140,_Q-001,_9h,_16mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
021. H-228 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-228, CNH I.-191, U-140, AR-Denarius, #0164 views021. H-228 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-228, CNH I.-191, U-140, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross on the arch, between two towers, two rosettes above, three circles below; border of dots.
reverse: Balcony over three arches, six-pointed star between two circles above, circle below; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0 mm, weight: 0,42 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-228, CNH I.-191, Unger-140,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Denar,_H-215,_C1-179,_U-165,_Q-001,_2h,_17mm,_0,84g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #0174 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, between two circles, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0 mm, weight: 0,84 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-215, CNH I.-179, Unger-165,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Obulus,_H-216,_C1-180,_U-166,_Q-001,_1h,_14mm,_0,37g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #0167 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0 mm, weight: 0,37 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-216, CNH I.-180, Unger-166,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
András_II_,_(1205-1235_A_D_),_H-223,_CNH_I_-187,_U-199,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_0,27g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #0188 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing between two columns on wedges with circles on the top, rosette/star between two crescents above, the border of dots.
reverse: Castle with three towers, on a triangle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,27 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-223, CNH I.-187, Unger-199, Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-158_C1-210_H-248_Q-001_0h_10-10,5mm_0,30g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #01109 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crown, cross between two wings below, the border of dots.
reverse: Cross amongst four lilies in a pattern of eight crescents, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0-10,5 mm, weight: 0,30 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-248, CNH I.-210, Unger-158,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-158_C1-210_H-248_Q-002_1h_11,3mm_0,34g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #0293 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: Crown, cross between two wings below, the border of dots.
reverse: Cross amongst four lilies in a pattern of eight crescents, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,3 mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-248, CNH I.-210, Unger-158,
Q-002
quadrans
Andras-II_U-191_C1-213_H-251_Q-001_8h_11,2mm_0,38g-s.jpg
021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01230 views021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, leopard to right, star between them at down, the border of dots.
reverse: Winged griffin advancing left, star over the head, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-251, CNH I.-213, Unger-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_U-185_CP-044_H-259_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,28g-s.jpg
021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #0183 views021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #01
avers: Three towers on an arch, cross on the middle one, crowned bust facing between two stars below, a double circle of dots.
reverse: Cross with rosettes in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5 mm, weight: 0,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-259, CNH CP.-044, Unger-185,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_U-186_C1-220_H-260_Q-003_12,1mm_0,46gz-s.jpg
021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #0183 views021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned head facing, in the pointed arch between two towers, border of dots.
reverse: Cross with stars in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1 mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-260, CNH I.-220, Unger-186,
Q-001
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Andras_II__(1205-1235_AD),_H-263,_C1-223,_U-189,_AR-Denar,_Q-001,_3h,_10,5-11,5mm,_0,22g-s.jpg
021. H-263 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-263, CNH I.-223, U-189, AR-Denarius (Obulus?), Rare! #0164 views021. H-263 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-263, CNH I.-223, U-189, AR-Denarius (Obulus?), Rare! #01
avers: Sitting king of the front, grasped with both hands neck and tail of a dragon, border of dots.
reverse: Standing king with a sword, panther looking backward, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5-11,5mm, weight: 0,22 g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-263, CNH I.-223, Unger-189, Rare!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II__U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-001_10,5mm_0,36ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0178 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,36 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-002_10,5mm_0,24ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0289 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,24 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-002
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-003_10,5mm_0,29ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0369 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #03
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,29 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-003
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II_Andras_U-163_C1-300_H-270_Q-001_10,2mm_0,31ga-s.jpg
021. H-270 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-270, CNH I.-300, U-163, AR-Obulus, #0181 views021. H-270 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-270, CNH I.-300, U-163, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned head facing, between two swords, line border.
reverse: Star between two lions standing with their back to each other, looking backwards, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2 mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-270, CNH I.-300, Unger-163,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras_II__(1205-1235_AD),_H-275,_C1-305,_U-144,_Q-001,_7h,_14-14,5mm,_0,49g-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #0165 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, line border.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-14,5 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-275, CNH I.-305, Unger-144,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-145_C1-306_H-276_Q-001_4h_12-12,5mm_0,28ga-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #0169 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, border of dots.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-12,5 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-276, CNH I.-306, Unger-145,
Q-001
quadrans
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U-321_C1-363_H-413_001_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,44g-s.jpg
026. H-413 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-413, CNH I.-363, U-321, AR-Denarius, #0184 views026. H-413 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-413, CNH I.-363, U-321, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: King standing facing, holding sword and shield, patriarchal cross on the shield, a border of dots.
reverse: The lion of Saint Mark, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-413, CNH I.-363, Unger-321,
Q-001
quadrans
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U-334_C1-372_H-422_001_Q-001_4h_12,1mm_0,32g-s.jpg
026. H-422 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-422, CNH I.-372, U-334, AR-Denarius, R!, #01114 views026. H-422 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-422, CNH I.-372, U-334, AR-Denarius, R!, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing between letters A and D, a border of dots.
reverse: Branch of raspberry (?) with leaves and two fruits, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1mm, weight: 0,32g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-422, CNH I.-372, Unger-334,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U---_C1----_H----_PTN-14_-No-101_001_Q-001_4h_9,4mm_0,15g-s.jpg
026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01108 views026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01
avers: Two Fish, border of dots.
reverse: Branch of raspberry (?) with leaves and two fruits, a border of dots (Very similar the reverse of the U-334, but smaller).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1mm, weight: 0,32g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--, First published: 08.11.2003., PTN 14., No 101., Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-III_(1290-1301_AD)_U-341_C1-_H-432_Homan-Num-Kozl_-XV_1_Q-001_8h_8-8,5mm_0,16g-s.jpg
026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #0191 views026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: +RЄX ANDRЄAS, in a circle, crowned head facing in the center.
reverse: Eagle standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-432, CNH I.--, Unger-341, Very Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-004_C1-011_H-008_Q-002_3h_17mm_0,69g-s.jpg
04.1.2. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.1.2., H-008, U-004, CNH I.-011, 148 views04.1.2. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.1.2., H-008, U-004, CNH I.-011,
avers: +• REX•ANDREAS, Cross within the dotted circle, wedges between the arms of the cross.
reverse: + REGIA-CIVITAS, Cross within the circle, wedges between the arms of the cross.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 0,69g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-008, Unger-004, CNH I.-011,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.1.2.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-004_C1-011_H-008_Q-001_2h_17,3mm_0,61g-s.jpg
04.1.?. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.1.?., H-008, U-004, CNH I.-011,226 views04.1.?. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.1.?., H-008, U-004, CNH I.-011,
avers: + REX•ANDREAS, Cross within a dotted circle, wedges between the arms of the cross.
reverse: + REGIA-CIVITAS, Cross within a circle, wedges between the arms of the cross.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,3mm, weight: 0,61 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-008, Unger-004, CNH I.-011,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.1.?., New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-003_9h_12,5-13,3mm_0,42g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0188 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,5-13.3mm, weight: 0,42 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a1b4.01./121.,
Q-001
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Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-002_5h_15,5mm_0,64g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0199 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,64 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a2d2.03./164.,
Q-001
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Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-001_11h_17mm_0,60g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01113 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 0,60 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a5.01./053.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Ulaszlo_Den_U-638-d_C2-276_H-803_M_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARIE__PATRON-_---_-VNGARIE_1495-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #0189 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARIЄ, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K - B/AF/M) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K /B/AF/M//-- were struck by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1496 A.D., ref: Unger-638.d., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Kyme_Hemiobol.jpg
Aeolis, Kyme - [SNG Kayhan 84; SNG von Aulock 1623; SNG von Aulock 7690; SGCV II 4174; BMC 11; Klein 333; Rosen Collection 538]58 viewsSilver Hemiobol, 0.48g, 8mm, Kyme mint, ca.450-400 B.C.

Obv. - KY (retrograde K), head of eagle left

Rev. - incuse square of mill-sail pattern

Very life-like eagle

Possible Die Match: http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=499715
___________

Purchased Through FORVM Auction Catalog from Andreas Reich [Areich on Forum Ancient Coins]

Ex. Andreas Reich Collection and Photo
2 commentsrenegade3220
Amisos.jpg
Amisos, Pontus, Time of Mithradates VI, ca. 80 BC.30 viewsObverse : Gorgonian head on shield facing.
Reverse : AMI-SOU, Nike advancing right, holding palm over shoulder, monograms above and below. Minted in Amisos of Pontos. Struck 85-655 BC. Ref: SNGBMC 1189.


EX ; Andreas Reich

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Antiochos_VII_Euergetes.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes65 viewsFRONT/ Bust of Eros right. BACK / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Headdress of Isis, scepter as monogram to left; aplustre and date EOP below. Minted in the Selukid Kingdom. Struck 138-129 BC. Ref: SNG UK 1301.617-620; BMC 52 (British Museum Catalog #52).

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
NOW_BOTH_DIONYSOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 104/3 BC5 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32mm !6.75g Thompson issue 61
Thompson catalogue Obs 802 : Rev h (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Η ? control ΑΠ below
3 magistrates : ANDREAS CHIRANAUTES DEMETRI
RF symbol : Dionysus & Demeter
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALLENBERG-HANNOVER_II_mariengroschen_1708.jpg
BRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALENBERG-HANNOVER -- George Ludwig (George I of England)47 viewsBRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALENBERG-HANNOVER -- George Ludwig (George I of England) (1698-1727) SILVER 2 Mariengroschen, 1708-HB. Obv.: In circle: * II * / MARIEN / GROS: / FELS . S . / H•B Around: * GEORG : LVD : D • G • BR • ET • LVN : S • R • I • EL • Rev.: In circle: St. Andrew with cross, date 1708 below; around: S.ANDREAS REVIVISCENS. Reference: KM #52.dpaul7
Uncertain_U-088_C1-134_H-125_RRR_Q-001_0h_10mm_0,13ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03., Anonymous II. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-125, CNH I.-134, U-088, Very Rare!!! #01110 viewsCÁC II. 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03., Anonymous II. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-125, CNH I.-134, U-088, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Horizontal line crossed by three vertical ones and two crescents, N between two dots above and below, a border of dots.
reverse: The Patriarchal cross between two crescents containing dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,13g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-125, CNH I.-134, Unger-088,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-001_2h_10,0mm_0_16ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01107 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-002_6h_10,0mm_0_20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01107 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08.,
Q-002
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-003_10h_9,0-10,0mm_0_19g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01111 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,0-10,0 mm, weight: 0,19g, axis:10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09.,
Q-001
quadrans
18.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 d.C., Bronzo, Zecca di Pautalia (Tracia)47 viewsCaracalla AE29 (198–217 d.C.), zecca di Pautalia
AE, 13.65 29 mm, BB
D/ AVT K M AVPH ANTomegaEINOC, testa laureata a destra
R/ OVlamdapiIAC piAVTAlambdaIAC, serpente aureolato e attorcigliato a destra
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (19 ottobre 2007, numero catalogo 107); ex Andreas Reich collection, Berlin Germany (fino al 2007, via FAC auctions)
paolo
CaraStobe82.JPG
Caracalla, AE 21 Diassaria34 viewsIMP C M AVR ANTONIN
Bust laureate, right
MVNICIP STO/BENSIVM
Nike advancing right, holding shield, stepping on a globe
Josifovski 463, same dies (V9, R153)
Thanks to Andreas Reich.
Kuzmanovic Collection 885
whitetd49
Henry_VIII_half_groat.jpg
Henry VIII half Groat72 viewsHenry VIII (1509-47)
Silver Half Groat.

Profile portrait type, bust crowned right

Arms over Cross, WA beside shield, the insignia of Archbishop Warham of Canterbury.

Canterbury mint.
Second coinage (1526-44)
S-2343.

Ex-Calgary coins, Ex- Gordon Andreas Singer

SOLD February 2015
3 commentsJay GT4
HUNGARY_-_ANDREW_I.jpg
HUNGARY - Andrew I46 viewsHUNGARY - Andrew I (1047-1061) AR Denar. Cut down to obol size (A common practice). Huszar states these were cut into 3 sizes: 17 mm 14 adn 10 mm. Obv.: + REX ANDREAS around; in center: Cross with 3-pointed arms, small cross in center. Pearled border on outside rim broken by 3-stroke sections forming a cross pattern. Rev.: + PANONEIA, around circle with cross in center, wedges in each cross angle. Reference: Huszar #9, Unger #5.dpaul7
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_245.JPG
Huszár 245, Unger 178, Réthy I 20848 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: Crowned head facing front in archway, star to left, three towers above.

Rev: Deer with cross-staff facing right, star to right.

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 10.
Stkp
HUN_Venzel_Huszar_433.jpg
Huszár 433, Unger 342, Réthy I 382, Frynas H.22.1, Adamovszky A52922 viewsVenzel/Wenceslaus Premyslid (1301-1305)

AR denar, .39 g., 11.47 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Crowned horseman riding right holding a sword.

Rev: Eagle standing left.

Huszár rarity R1, Unger rarity 36, Frynas rarity S.

ex Allen G. Berman; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; ex Alex G. Malloy, Inc. Auction Sale Catalog XIX (March 16, 1984), Lot 972; ex St. George Tucker Collection (see discussion at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=118005.msg715272#msg715272 re my efforts to provenance the coin, thanks to the assistance of Jordan Montgomery).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-2.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-2, Unger 638c, Réthy II 276. Kaplan Subtype A190 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .52 g., 15.5 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—M/AF (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl) or 1490-1502 (per Huszár). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (per Pohl) in 1494 (per Unger) or 1495 per Pohl.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
Stkp
HUN_Andras_Huszar_8.JPG
Huszár 8; Tóth-Kiss 4.1 legend variation 1; Unger 4; Réthy I 11; Frynas H.4.1; Adamovszky A12; Kovács pp.100-101107 viewsHungary. András/Andreas I (1047-1060).

AR denomination unknown (per Huszár and Adamovszky) or denar (per Tóth-Kiss, Unger, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) (average .58 g, 17.5-18 mm.); .53 g., 17.51 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + • REX • ANDREAS, Cross with wedges

Rev: + REGIA CIVITAS, Cross with wedges (retrograde gamma instead of G)

Struck 1046-1050 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative) in Esztergom.

Huszár rating 9, Toth-Kiss rarity 100, Unger rarity 60, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Andras_Huszar_9.JPG
Huszár 9; Tóth-Kiss 4.4 sigla a4b1.1/195; Unger 5; Réthy I 12-14; Frynas H.4.2; Adamovszky A15v1; Kovács p.10191 viewsHungary. András/Andreas I (1047-1060)

AR denomination unknown (per Huszár and Adamovszky) or denar (per Tóth-Kiss, Unger, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) (average .69 g., 15.5-18 mm.); .48 g., 14.18 mm. max. (clipped), 0°

Obv: + REX ANDREAS (with D shaped like a P), Cross with three spokes forming each arm, with a small circle in the center, all surrounded by a double border broken by four sets of three perpendicular lines.

Rev: + PANONEIA, Cross with a small circle in the center, wedges between the arms.

Struck 1050-1060 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative) in Esztergom.

Faintich speculates that the central obverse devices on this coin represents the supernova of 1054.

Note: Due to cutting, this emission appears in three sizes; 17 mm., 14 mm. and 10 mm. (per Huszár).

Huszár rarity 8, Toth-Kiss rarity 80, Unger rarity 60, Frynas rarity N
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_266.JPG
Huszár 266, Unger 160, RĂ©thy I 22642 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: Tower above crescent above star, flanked by profiles facing left and right, pellets above.

Rev: Panther facing left under branched tree with leaves, rosette above in left field and Hebrew letter ט (tet) above in right field.

Issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 and 1235-1245 (as determined by Rádóczy and Nagy, per Friedenberg; also per Pohl).

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 6.
Stkp
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_267.JPG
Huszár 267, Unger 161, RĂ©thy I 22729 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR obulus, 11 mm.

Obv: Tower above crescent above ?, flanked by profiles facing left and right.

Rev: Panther facing left under branched tree with leaves, Hebrew letter ט (tet) above.

Issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 and 1235-1245 (as determined by Rádóczy and Nagy, per Friedenberg; also per Pohl).

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 9.
Stkp
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_269.JPG
Huszár 269, Unger 162, RĂ©thy I 29953 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR denar, .60 gr.,12.5 mm.

Obv: Crowned head facing front with two swords.

Rev: Two standing lions looking back over their shoulders, a star between them.

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Also Rengjeo 54 and Mimica 54. Rengjeo and Mimica refer to this emission as a Croatian Freisacher issued under King Andrew II (András, in Hun.) (1205-1235) and Dukes Béla (1220-1226; governor of Dalmatia and Croatia) and Coloman (Kálmán, in Hun.) (1226-1235; duke of Dalmatia and Croatia). This attribution was initially made by Hóman in 1920, who tentatively assigned this emission to a mint in Zagreb. However, Metcalf notes that the basis of this attribution has been proven to be erroneous, and that the consensus among Hungarian numismatists is that the emission is Hungarian.

Huszár rarity rating 6.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-3.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-3, Unger 638d, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype A1149 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI.R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—M/AF/B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (per Pohl) in 1495 (per Unger) or 1496 per Pohl.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
Stkp
IONIA,_Ephesos.jpg
IONIA, Ephesos65 viewsSilver Diobol (0.98 gm).
Circa 387-295 BC.
Obverse : Bee; E F( Fi) flanking.
Reverse : Confronted stag heads; EF (Fi) between.
SNG Kayan 208-242, Slg. Klein 374

EX ; Andreas Reich

From the Sam Mansourati Collection
6 commentsSam
EphesusSaloninaAE26_BMC397.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. Salonina, Augusta. BMC 397.21 viewsIonia, Ephesus. Salonina, Augusta (AD 254–268). Ć 26mm, 8.30 g, 6h.
Obverse: • CΑΛ ΧΡΥCΟ–ΓΟΝΗ CЄ •, draped bust right, wearing stephane; crescent behind bust.
Reverse: ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙ–[Α], Artemis running right, drawing bow, with hound dashing beside her.
References: BMC Ionia, p. 109, #397.
Ex “laboralde” via Andreas Reich, 4-21-2013.

Same obverse die as CNG E160, lot 191: http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=101314
Mark Fox
MISC_Italy_Venice_Gritti_tornesello.jpg
Italian States. Venice. Republic.6 viewsCNI VII, p. 283, No. 381

Billon tornesello, struck under Doge Andrea Gritti (LXXVIIth dodge; 1523-1528); .40 g., 14.37 mm. max., 270°

Obv: • ANDREAS • [GRIT]TI DVX, central cross pattée with pellets.

Rev: + • S • MARCVS • VENET[I •], winged lion of St. Mark, seated facing, holding a book.
Stkp
DSCF1143.JPG
Licinius II RIC VII Antioch 29 7th officina49 viewsFollis AE 18mm 3.9 grams 317-320 AD
OBV :: DN VAL LINCIN LICINIVS NOB C. Laureated, draped and cuirassed bust left with Mappa in right hand and scepter across shoulder
REV :: IOVI CONS- ERVATORI CAESS. Jupiter standing left holding Nike on globe in right hand, leaning on scepter. Captive left, Z in right field
EX :: SMANT ( Antioch )
RIC VII Antioch 29
RIC rated R1
Birthday gift from Chris Austin ( Casata137ec )
ex-Andreas Reich Collection ( Areich )

Officina 7 of 14 listed in RIC VII
1 commentsJohnny
LV_RIC_1379.jpg
Lucius Verus 7 Mar. 161 - Feb. 169 A.D. Rome mint99 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1379, Sear RCV 5376, (BMCRE 1109), (Cowen 224); Rome mint; Weight 21.4gr., Max. Diameter 30.56mm; 164 A.D.; Obv. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right, Rev. TR P IIII IMP II COS II S C, Mars advancing r., carrying spear and trophy. Thin black patina, worn on high spots.

Ex. Andreas Kohn
5 commentsSteve E
LV_pan.jpg
Lucius Verus, 7 Mar. 161 to Feb. 169 AD, Rome mint55 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1479, Sear RCV 5387, (BMCRE 1341), (Cowen 214); Rome mint; Weight 21.5gr., Max. Diameter 30.45mm; 168 A.D.; Obv. L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right, Rev. TR POT VIII IMP V COS III S C, Aequitas seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Bright green patina with some corrosion.

Ex. Andreas Kohn
2 commentsSteve E
marcus_aurelius_sesterz.jpg
Marcus Aurelius as Caesar under Antoninus Pius, 139 - 161 A.D., Rome mint97 views Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III Pius 1325 b, weight 26.6 g, max. diameter 31.25 mm, Rome mint, 155 - 156 A.D.; obv. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare headed bust r.draped on l. shoulder; rev. TR POT X COS II S C, Minerva standing left, owl in extended right, spear in left, shield at feet behind, Scarce. Olive-brown patina, some corrosion on one edge. Very fine style portrait!

Marcus Aurelius bore the junior rank of Caesar for the unusually long time of 22 years! He was about 35 years old when this coin was minted, about 5 years before he became Emperor.

Ex. Andreas Kohn

Photo by Andreas Kohn
5 commentsSteve E
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1687.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.02 #134 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 29, 13.3g, 28.67mm, 30°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. V[P] AGRIPPA NIKOPOL - ITWN PROC IC
in l. and r. field TR - W
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, stg. r. with crossed legs, r. arm drawn back, l. hand on tree-stump from which a lizard is jumping against him.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1687, pl.XIV, 35 (5 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3372
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.2
about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. Andreas Reich

An interesting interpretation of this famous theme!
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1968var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.36.01 (plate coin)28 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 28, 13.04g, 27.20mm, 225°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVRH - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFO - V NIKOPOLITWN PRO
in upper l. field C IC, in lower l. field one below the other TR / ON
Homonoia, in long garment and mantle, wearing small kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in outstretched r.
hand
ref.: a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1966
rev. AMNG I/1, 1968 var. (different legend breaks)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3917 (cites only AMNG 1966)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.36.1 (plate coin)
scarce, about VF, dark green patina
pedigree:
ex coll. Barry Murphy
ex coll. Andreas Reich
Jochen
Rabbel_II_and_Gamilath.jpg
Nabataeans / Rabbel II and Gamilath50 viewsObverse: Bust of Rabbel II and Gamilath right.
Reverse: RB'L / GMLT crossed between two cornucopias.
Bronze, 15 mm, 3.75 g.
SNG ANS 1446-51
Rare

EX ; Andreas Reich

From the Sam Mansourati Collection
Sam
nero_contorniate.jpg
Nero Protocontorniate143 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP
Laureate head right

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC
Temple of Janus with doors closed

Rome 65 AD

9.22g

SEAR 1974

Edges hammered in antiquity (1st-3rd century) to create a "proto-contorniate"

Better in Hand!


Ex-Tater's

From Numiswiki protocontorniate:

A protocontorniate is a normal, large-module bronze coin, typically a sestertius, which at some point was later altered by hammering the edges of the coin so that it could serve some other use. A common assumption is that protocontorniates functioned as game counters since the rim created through hammering could protect the designs. Andreas Alföldi believed protocontorniates to be forerunners of the contorniates of the fourth and fifth centuries. He argued that protocontorniates were New Year’s gifts and that the older coins were actually hammered in the fourth century before the contorniates proper came into being.


Sold Forum auction. 2015
1 commentsJay GT4
Phoenicia_Arados.jpg
Phoenicia, Arados 50 viewsDiademed head of Zeus right / Ram of galley left. Phoenician script above and date below.
2nd century BC.
15 mm, 2,88 g
Ref: SNGCop 36cf.

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection

Sam
Phoenicia_Arados~0.jpg
Phoenicia, Arados 67 viewsDiademed head of Zeus right / prow of galley left.
2nd century BC.
15 mm, 3,11 g

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection
Sam
AezaniHermesEagle1.jpg
Phrygia, Aezani. Pseudo-autonomous issue, 2nd to early 3rd century AD. BMC 16.21 viewsPhrygia, Aezani. Pseudo-autonomous issue, 2nd to early 3rd century AD. Ć 15.94mm (2.08g.), 6h.
Obverse: Draped bust of Hermes right with caduceus behind neck.
Reverse: ΑΙΖΑΝ - ЄΙΤΩΝ, eagle facing with head left, wings spread, and wreath in beak.
References: BMC Phrygia p. 25, 16.
Ex Andreas Reich, 2-15-2012.
Mark Fox
Aezani_SNGvonAul3339_2_Andreas_(BobAdjusted).jpg
Phrygia, Aezani. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of Commodus. SNG vA 3339.15 viewsPhrygia, Aezani. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of Commodus (AD 180–192). Ć 24.59mm, 7.40 g, 9h.
Obverse: ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, laureate and draped bust of Boulé right.
Reverse: ΑΙΖΑΝЄ – ΙΤΩΝ, turreted Cybele seated left, holding a patera in her right hand and a tympanum in her left; lion at her feet.
References: RPC IV Online --; SNG von Aulock 3339.
Ex Andreas Reich, 7-14-2012; ex Lars Rutten.
Mark Fox
Roman_Republic_anonymous_Cr14_2.jpg
Roman Republic, anonymous, Crawford 14/2 (Museum's imitation)11 viewsAes Grave (Semis), 111g, 53.87mm, 330°
Rome, 280-276 BC
obv. helmeted head of Mars l.
beneath lying S
rev. Head of Venus l.
beneath lying S
ref. Crawford 14/2; Thurlow-Vecchi 2; Haeberlin pl. 38, 9-10 (for the original!)
From the Museum Andreasstift Worms, facsimile but lighter than than the original which weighs 160-170g.
Jochen
III_Andras-Bagattino_U-_C1-_H-_Q-001_8-8,5mm_0,16g-s.jpg
S-025 Andras III., (???), (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-1301 A.D.), AR-Bagattino, U-, #0197 viewsS-025 Andras III., (???), (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-1301 A.D.), AR-Bagattino, U-, #01
avers:- Star on crescent, within the circle.
revers:- Capital Gothic "A", within the circle.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5 mm, weight: 0,16 g, axis: - 7h,
mint: Slavonia , date: A.D., ref: Unger-, CHN-1-, Huszar-,
Q-001
quadrans
Slavon-Andras-III_U-Sz-21_RJ-189-198_Q-007_h_mm_g-s.jpg
S-025 Andras III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-1301 A.D.), AR-Denarius, Slavonia, U-Sz-21, #01, RR!64 viewsS-025 Andras III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-1301 A.D.), AR-Denarius, Slavonia, U-Sz-21, #01, RR!
avers:- +MONETA-REGIS-P-SCLAVONIA, Marten running left, star above and below.
revers:- Patriarchal cross, facing crowned heads below, star and crescent above, lily at the foot of the 2nd cross both side, R-A (privy mark) to sides.
diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,63g, axis: 6h,
mint: Slavonia, mint mark: R-A,
date: 1290-1301 A.D., ref: Unger- Sz-21, Rj-189-198, CNH-, Huszar-, RR!,
Q-001
quadrans
Shapur_II_(309-379_CE)_drachm_(AR).jpg
Shapur II (309-397 CE) drachm (AR)21 viewsObv.: Pahlavi legend (Crowned bust right) Rev.: Fire altar flanked by attendants, bust right in flames Weight: 4.04 g. Diameter: 22 mm. Reference: SNS III Type Ib1/3a; Göbl Type Ia/6a Provenance: Ex CNG e-auction 362, ex Prof. dr. Andreas Urs Sommer (Gorny & Mosch 204, 5 March 2012), lot 1647.Nick.vdw
eryxA.jpg
SICILY, Eryx37 viewsSICILY, Eryx. Punic Occupation. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Litra (0.57 gm). Head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace / Bull standing left, Punic 'Ark above. RARE. Jenkins I pl. 24, 24; SNG ANS 1348; SNG Copenhagen -, HGC 2, 324 (R2).

SNG ANS describes the reverse figure as a cow, whereas Oliver Hoover describes it as a man-faced bull. CNG uses "river god" for its description, based off of Jenkins, and understand "river god" to mean a man-faced bull.

Ex. Rutten & Weiland (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Ex. Andreas Reich (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Ex. CNG eAuction 240, lot57 (misidentified as a silver litra of Panormos)
Molinari
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.70 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.58 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
     
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