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Search results - "throne"
Elagabalus   218-222 A.D Denarius RSC127 RIC3.JPG
40 viewsOBV: IMP.CAES.M.AVR ANTONINVS AVG
REV: P.M.TR.P.COS.P.P
Roma seated left on throne holding Victory and sceptre, shield at side.
nigel nicholson
Elagabalus    218-222  A.D. RSC142(AS125). RIC16.JPG
31 viewsOBV: IMP ANTONINIVS AVG
REV: P.M.TR.P.II.COS.II.P.P.
Roma seated left on throne holding Victory and sceptre shield at side.
nigel nicholson
R_708_w.jpg
26 viewsAntoninianus (pre-reform)
Siscia Mint, 1st officina, 271-2 AD
Obv. Rad + cuir bust r., IMP AVRELIANVS AVG round.
Rev. Fortuna seated l on throne, wheel below, rudder at left, cornucopia over l arm, FORTVNA - REDVX round, *P in ex.
3.39 gm, 23 mm
Manzikert
coin129.jpg
37 viewsArcadius Ć3. RIC IX 97 Antioch mint, 401-403 AD. D N
ARCADIVS P F AVG, helmeted bust facing 3/4
right, holding spear & shield decorated with cross
/ CONCORDIA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned
facing, head right, foot on prow, holding scepter &
Victory on globe, ANTG in ex. LRBC 2797.
Coin #129
cars100
coin148.jpg
19 viewsArcadius Ć3. Antioch mint, 401-403 AD. D N
ARCADIVS P F AVG, helmeted bust facing 3/4
right, holding spear & shield decorated with cross
/ CONCORDIA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned
facing, head right, foot on prow, holding scepter &
Victory on globe, ANTG in ex. LRBC 2797.
Coin #148
cars100
alexander_the_great.jpg
108 viewsAR drachm (4.26 gm), Lampsacus, ca. 310/9 - 309/8 BC.
Obverse: Head of young Heracles right in lion skin headdress.
Reverse: Zeus entroned left, holding eagle and sceptor, race torch under throne.
Ex:Freeman and Sear Mail Bid Sale 13, lot 696
6 commentspaul1888
sb360,29mm1491gpir.jpg
90 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on L., and Sophia, on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNP and regnal year (G,I) yr 7, cross above, officina letter "deta" below, In ex. CON.
Date: 569/70 CE
Mint: constantinople
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 14.91 gm
wileyc
britannicus01.jpg
45 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
carinus_emmett_4001.JPG
44 viewsCarinus
Alexandrian tetradrachm
A K M A KAPINOC CEB, Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Athena seated left on throne, with Nike on right hand and spear in left hand, shield beneath, LB across (year 2) 282-283AD
Emmett 4001, rated R3
1 commentstjaart
Drachm_from_Ionia,_Magnesia.jpg
29 views Drachm from Ionia, Magnesia. AR18mm
Left field: Δ within wreath. Beneath throne: Ε
319-305 BC, Price 1983.
( Thanks Rover1.3 for the ID!)
Lee S
caracalla_securitas_new.jpg
37 viewsRoman Empire, Caracalla 198-217, Denarius; 3.32g
"IMP CAES M AVR ANTON AVG" Laureate, draped bust of Caracalla right.
"SECVRIT ORBIS" Securitas seated on a throne with cornucopiae and scepter.
RSC III 571b
1 commentspaul1888
Sear-1966.jpg
24 viewsManuel I Comnenus. 1143-1180. BI Aspron Trachy (30mm, 2.62 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck 1167-1183(?). Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing; star to either side / Manuel standing facing, wearing loros, being crowned by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing left. DOC 13d; SB 1966Quant.Geek
Sear-366.jpg
6 viewsJustin II, with Sophia. 565-578. Ć Half Follis (20mm, 6.62 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 8 (572/3). Nimbate figures of Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter, respectively / Large K; cross above, date across field; TЄS. DOC 73; MIBE 70a; SB 366. Quant.Geek
Caligula_As_3.jpg
4 Caligula As32 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA)
Ć As (29mm, 11.75 g, 5h) Rome mint. Struck AD 40-41.

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left / VESTA, S-C across field, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter.

RIC I 54, Cohen 29. VF, green patina, some roughness.

Ex CNG
RI0015
Sosius
Nero_Den_RIC_60_reimaged.jpg
6 Nero27 viewsNERO
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.43 g, 6h)
Rome mint. Struck ~65-66 AD

O: Laureate head right

R: Salus seated left on throne, holding patera.

RIC I 60; RSC 314. aVF

Ex-CNG Sale 35, Lot 737, 9/20/95

In AD 65-66 two new types appear on the coins of Nero, Jupiter Custos- “Guardian”, and Salus- “Well-Being” (of the emperor). Nero gave thanks for surviving the Pisonian Conspiracy, which got its name from G. Calpurnius Piso, a senator put forward as an alternative emperor by senior military officers and government officials who feared the increasingly erratic Nero. The plot was discovered, many prominent Romans were executed, and others, such as the philosopher Seneca, were forced to commit suicide. This delayed the emperor’s fate for a few years.

RI0043
1 commentsSosius
49091q00.jpg
24 Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior 22 viewsBronze AE 28, Varbanov I 827, aVF, corrosion, 12.826g, 27.3mm, 180o, Markianopolis mint, obverse AV K L CEPT CEVHPOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse U FL OULPIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN, Cybele enthroned left, phiale in right, resting left elbow on drum, two lions at feet

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
Julia_Soaemias_RIC_243~0.jpg
29.4 Julia Soaemias52 viewsJULIA SOAEMIAS,
AR denarius, Rome (2.8g)

IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus diademed seated left on throne, apple in right, scepter in left, child at her feet

SRCV II 7720, RIC IV 243, RSC III 14 EF
Ex Blanchard & Co. - Control # 72454
3 commentsSosius
rjb_2017_07_11.jpg
376 viewsCaius "Caligula" 37-41 AD
AE as
Obv "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP"
Bare head left
Rev "VESTA SC"
Vesta seated left on ornamental throne holding patera and transverse sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 54
mauseus
seleukidM_copy.jpg
Antiochos IV Epiphanes30 viewsAE 16 (chalkos), Antiochos IV, Epiphanes, 175-164 B.C. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochos facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ on either side of Godess (Tyche?), enthroned, holding Nike, bird at feet. Dark brown patina, VF. SG II, 6990, Hoover HGC 9, 637 (R2).Molinari
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.23 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
alexanderIIIobol2.jpg
Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.19 viewsKingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.
Struck c. 336-323 BC, Head of Hecrules right, wearing
lion skin, knotted at base of neck. / Zeus, nude to waist, seated
left on ornate throne, holding eagle and scepter within dotted circle.
CANTANATRIX
20110425-205933-1sb2046.jpg
Latin trachy type C small module Sear 2046192 viewssmall module as SB 2023

Obverse:MP_OV barred in upper fields. Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne with back;holds beardless nimbate head of Christ on breast.
Reverse. Emperor seated on throne without back, collar-peice and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l., anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper rt. field.
Mint:?Constantinople
Date 1204-
SB 2046, DOC LIII,32
15mm
wileyc
a_046.JPG
Lysimachos 35 viewsLysimachos
Drachm Colophon 301-297 b.c

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ;Zeus on throne holding eagle; forepart of lion and torch at left field, pentagram under throne

17.31mm 4.10gm

Price L26 ; Thompson 126
maik
Lysimachos_Alexander_the_Great_Portrait_Coin~0.JPG
Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin118 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
ao.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III The Great Tetradrachm, c. 325-320 BC176 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 17.190g

Obv: Bust of Alexander as Herakles r., wearing lion-skin headdress.

Rx: Zeus seated l. on throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in exergue, AΛEΧANΔΡOY in r. field; wreath in l. field, ΔΙ beneath throne

References: Price-2949

Mint: Side

ex Harlan J. Berk
7 commentsDino
greek3.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III, Ar drachm29 viewsPrice 1382 / 310-301 BC
obv: Head of young Heraclea r. wearing lion-skin headdress
rev: ALEXANDROU Zues enthrond l. holding eagle and scepter forpart of
Pegasus l. monogram NO below throne
hill132
ADM_II_series_VIII-124.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Philip III Arrhidaios (323-317 BCE) AR Drachm, Abydus (ADM II series VIII, 124-5)19 viewsObv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ; Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on backless throne; right leg drawn back, feet on stool, eagle in right hand, scepter in left; branch upward in left field, horse leg left below throne
Dim: 17mm, 4.27 gm, 5h
Quant.Geek
sb1964_clipped_18mm_165gjpg.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196665 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
greek5.jpg
Parthian empire. AR drachm34 viewsSellwood 28.3 Ekbatana mint. 122-91 BC
obv:Mithradates II dia. bust l. wearing tiara
rev: BASILEWS BASI-LEWN MEGALOU ARSAKOU EPIFANDS
Arsakes seated R.on throne holding bow
1 commentshill132
phraatesIV.jpg
Phraates IV (38 -2 BC) AR Tetradrachm 286 SE /26 BC48 viewsObv: Phraates diademed and cuirassed bust left with long pointed beard - no royal wart on forehead.
Rev: The king enthroned r. being presented with a palm branch by Tyche, standing l. before him holding cornucopiae with pellet above arm. Seleucid date 286 (C Pi Sigma) above palm. Greek inscription in 7 lines BASILEOS/BASILEON; on r. ARSAKOY/EUERGETOY' below [DIKAOY]; on l. EPIPHANOUS/PHILELLANOS; month off flan below
Wt 14.1 gm, 26.3 mm, Sellwood type 55

The coin could be that of Tiridates I who also ruled for a few months in 26 BC. The features of the king on this coin are much closer to that of Phraates than of much rarer Tiridates I according to a reclassification of Sellwood types by deCallatay and this is the most believable. The lower lines of the inscription would also settle the issue but are lost on this coin.
Early coins of the Parthian empire showed strong Greek empahasis on classical Greek forms and humanism which is gradually lost as the empire matured and finally decayed. The coins become schematic and emphasize suface ornament rather than sculptural quality. One senses from the portrait of Phraates that brutality was a prerequisite for Parthian kings who routinely bumped off fathers and brothers in their rise to power. Like the Spartans, they had a powerful empire in their time but its contribution to civilization was limited in the long term.
1 commentsdaverino
Both_Demetrios_1_Soter.jpg
SOLD Demetrios 1 Soter 155/4 BC Tetradrachm SOLD3 views SOLD Obv: Diademed head of Demetrios right in wreathed border
31mm 16.71g SC 1641.3a
Antioch Mint
REV: Tyche holding sceptre and cornucopia, seated Left on throne supported by Tritoness right.
2 monograms in LF
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ
HNP ( SE 158 ) in exergue SOLD
cicerokid
108.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)198 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Ć 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVAT-E-I-)PHNΩN. Athena seated left, holding palladium in right extended arm, resting left arm on spear, wheel-like shield resing against throne. Ref: BMC 114. Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.60 g. Note: Same obverse die as Sear (GIC) 3072. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.Automan
101n.jpg
Λ (or possibly Δ)195 viewsCILICIA. Adana (?). Elagabalus. Ć 34. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVKMAVPANTΩNEINOCCEΓ (or similar), Π-Π on either side of portrait. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on head. Rev: AΔAN-EΩN (?). Zeus seated left on throne, holding staff in left hand and patera right hand, right arm extended. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165°. Weight: 22.31 g. CM: Λ (or possibly Δ) in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego -. Note: Deeply recessed countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
pharoah.jpg
39 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis)
PB Tessera. (25mm, 7.23 g)
Head of Pharoah right
Serapis seated left on throne, holding scepter
Milne 5442 (Fayűm class); Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3614

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 295

Milne gives this type to an uncertain city in the Fayűm. Considering the thematic and stylistic similarities with the named piece of Arsinoe, an attribution to this city is probable.
Ardatirion
00006x00~5.jpg
12 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera
Uncertain figure standing facing, holding bust of Harpokrates wearing skent crown; MEMΦIC to right
Serapis enthroned left, holding scepter, with Cerberus at feet; to left, Demeter(?) standing right, holding scepter; to right, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3563
Ardatirion
valens-silique-urbs-roma.JPG
RIC.27e1 Valens (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)17 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Vrbs Roma (367-375, Trčves)

silver (900 ‰), 17 mm diameter, 1.96 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS - ROMA / TRPS• in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear
Droger
gratien-silique-virtvs-romanorvm-aq.JPG
RIC.28a Gratian (siliqua, Virtvs Romanorvm)38 viewsGratian, western roman emperor (367-383)
Siliqua: Virtvs Romanorvm (378-383, Aquilee mint)

silver, 18 mm diameter, 1.82 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM/AQPS in exergue; Roma seating on throne, head left holding globe and spear
3 commentsDroger
magnus-maximus-silique-virtvs-treves.JPG
RIC.84b Magnus Maximus (siliqua, Virtvs Romanorvm)9 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Siliqua: Virtvs Romanorvm (383-388, Trčves mint)

silver 900‰, 18 mm diameter, 2.24 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM / TRPS in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear

Die breaking on the cheek
Droger
henry7-souverain.JPG
S.2233 Henry VII Tudor (sovereign type penny, Durham)6 viewsHenry VII Tudor, king of England (1485-1509) and Bishop Richard Fox
Sovereign type penny (mint: Durham)

A/ [hENRIC] DI [GRA RE]X A[NG]; king seated on throne with one pilar, holding scepter and orb
R/ [CIVI-TA]S-DIR-hAm; royal shield on cross, mitre above, D and R on the sides

silver, 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 8h
Droger
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
trajan_salus_snake_r.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN50 views98 - 117 AD
Struck 104 - 107 AD
AE DUPONDIUJS 26 mm 11.04 g
O: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP
RAD BUST RIGHT
R: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
SALUS ENTHRONED L FEEDING SNAKE FROM PATERA
SC IN EXE.
laney
a_pius_zeus_nikop_b.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS26 views138 - 161 AD
AE 30.5 mm; 18.79 g
O: AVT AI ADRIAN - ANTWNEINOC, laureate head r.
R: NEIKOPO - LEITWN / PROC ICTRW, Zeus enthroned l., resting wih l. hand on sceptre and holding with extended r. hand patera over burning altar.
Nikopolis ad Istrum
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) 8.6.1.2 var (vs bare head and ICTR)
Rare
laney
pertinax_denarius.jpg
(0193) PERTINAX21 views193 AD
AR Denarius
16.9 mm max.; 3.10 g
O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right;
R: OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops (plenty) seated left on throne with ornamented back, two stalks of grain in right hand, leaning back on left hand resting on the edge of the seat behind; rare
Rome mint; RIC IV 8a (R2); RSC III 33; BMCRE V p. 4, 19; Hunter III 6; SRCV II 6045
(ex Forum)
laney
sept_kybele_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS37 views193 - 211 AD
AE 25 mm 9.27 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
R: Cybele (Kybele) enthroned left, phiale in right hand, resting left elbow on drum, lions at feet
Markianopolis mint
laney
septim_kybele_mark.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS43 viewsAE27 mm; 10.4 g
AVK L CEP CECHPOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VP FL OVLPIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN, Cybele, kalathos on head, holding patera in right hand, resting left elbow on drum and seated left on throne with two uprights, lions beside her to left and right
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis; AMNG 565
d.s.
laney
septimius_kybele_markianop.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS13 views193-211 AD
AE 26 mm max., 9.16 g
O: AVK L CEP CECHPOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VP FL OVLPIANOV MARKIANOPOLITWN, Cybele, kalathos on head, holding patera in right hand, resting left elbow on drum and seated left on throne with two uprights, lions beside her to left and right
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis; AMNG 565
laney
numerian_athena.jpg
(0283) NUMERIAN16 views283 - 284 AD
Billon tetradrachm 19.3 mm max., 7.732 g
O: A K M A NOVMEPIANOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: Athena seated left on high backed throne, wearing crested helmet, Nike in right, shield leaning against throne, L - B* (year 2) across fields
Alexandria mint; Milne 4719; Curtis 1939; Dattari 5608; BMC Alexandria p. 319, 2464 var. (star)
(ex FORUM)
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
GRATIAN_CONC_B_10_08.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--CONCORDIA41 views367-383 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.46 g
O: DN GRATIANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Roma seated facing, head left, on throne, nolding globe and reversed spear
SMAQP in exe
Aquileia
RIC IX 32 (a) Scarce
laney
valentinian_ii_concordia_res.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--CONCORDIA30 views375 - 392 AD
AE 19 mm 3.22 g
O: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA AVGGG - Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe and spear, theta in left field, phi/K in right field
ANTG in exe
Antioch RIC IX 45b
laney
arcadius_concordia.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS10 views383 - 408 AD
struck 401-403 AD
AE 16 mm, 2.71 g
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Arcadius facing, holding spear and a shield decorated with a cross.
R: CONCORDIA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head turned right, holding a scepter and Victory on a globe, right foot resting on a prow; ANTΓ in exergue.
Antiochia mint
laney
justin_ii_sophia_follis.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II45 views565 - 578 AD
AE FOLLIS 31.5 mm 14.06 g
O: JUSTIN II & Empress Sophia seated facing on double throne Year 8, Off. B - SEAR 369
Rev. Large M between ANNO and regnal year 8 ( G / II ) ; above, cross; B Below ; NIKO in exe.
NIKOMEDIA
Ref.: Sear 369
laney
justin_sophia_10_03~0.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II 31 views565 - 578 AD
AE 20 Nummi 23 mm max. 6.34.g
O: DN IVSTI NVSPPAV. Justin, holding globus cruciger, and Sophia, holding cruciform scepter, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate
R: Large K, between ANNO and XI; above, + over ΘC; TES in exe
Thessalonica
laney
vitellius_denarius_res.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS33 views69 AD
3.110g, maximum diameter 18.8mm
O: A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head right
R: CONCOR-DIA P R, Concordia enthroned left, patera in right, cornucopia in left
Rome mint; RIC I 66, RSC II 21, BMCRE I 1, BnF III 3 (Scarce)
(ex-Forum)
1 commentslaney
vespasian_denarius_res.jpg
(10) VESPASIAN32 views69 - 79 AD
AR Denarius 19 mm, 3.1 g
O: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG Laureate bust of Vespasian right
R: PON MAX TR P COS V Vespasian enthroned right, holding scepter and branch
Rome mint
RIC 76; Sear 2300
laney
man_ii_comn_trachy.jpg
(1143) MANUEL I COMNENUS34 views 1143-1180 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy 28 mm 3.39 g
Obv. Christ seated facing on throne without back
Rev. The Virgin, nimbate (on right) standing, crowing Manuel, standing facing
laney
Tarsoscilicia.jpg
*CILICIA, Tarsos. Æ24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche enthroned/Zeus Nikephoros40 viewsCILICIA, Tarsos. 164-27 BC. Ć24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche, turreted and veiled, holding grain ears in extended right hand, seated right on throne, right foot on the shoulder of the river god Orontes, who swims right below / TARSEWN, Zeus Nikephoros seated left; SAN/FILI in two lines to left. Cf. SNG France 1374; SNG Levante 979-80 var. (magistrates); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; BMC -. ancientone
septsevAnchialus.jpg
*Thrace, Anchialus. Septimius Severus. 29 viewsAD 193-211. Ć 19mm. Laureate head right / Kybele seated left, resting elbow on drum; lions seated to either side of throne. AMNG II 496; SNG Copenhagen 437.1 commentsancientone
orbiana_den.jpg
001 Orbiana denarius duplicate96 viewsOrbiana Denarius, 3.023 g, 6h
SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. RSC 1.
1 commentsmix_val
orb_den_red.jpg
001 Orbiana Denarius55 viewsOrbiana Denarius, 3.191 g, 6h. SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. RSC 1mix_val
orb_den_ae_red.jpg
001 Orbiana denarius but ae40 viewsOrbiana AE Denarius, 2.118 g, 1300h
SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. as RSC 1 but ae.

mix_val
0013.jpg
0013 - Denarius Domitian 81 AC40 viewsObv/IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, Domitian laureate head r.
Rev/TR P COS VII DES VIII PP, throne with semicircular back, covered.

Ag, 17.7mm, 3.40g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IIa/67 [R] - RIC II/17 - BMCRE 17 - RSC 573
ex-Ancient Numismatic Enterprise (vcoins)
ex-CNG
dafnis
Lucilla_denar.jpg
003 - Lucilla (163-181 AD), denarius - RIC 75943 viewsObv: LVCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, holding patera and double cornucopia.
Minted in Rome 166-169 AD.
pierre_p77
004.jpg
003 TIBERIUS 14 viewsEMPEROR:Tiberius
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
REVERSE: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, holding long sceptre & olive branch, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below
DATE: Ad 14-37
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.59 g
RIC: I.30 (C)
Barnaba6
orbiana_As.jpg
005 Orbiana As 58 viewsOrbiana Ć As, 9.654 g, 6h
SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, S-C in ex, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. Cohen 5.
mix_val
image_2.jpg
005a Orbiana As dup62 viewsSALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, S-C in ex, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. Cohen 5.
weight, 10.15g; die axis, 6h
Some copper is showing through the patina but the coin is of very good style
mix_val
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
424Hadrian_RIC9.jpg
009 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Concordia49 viewsReference.
Strack 13; RIC 9; RSC 248

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS CONCORD in Ex.
Concordia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting left on figure of Spes on low base; cornucopiae under throne.

3.32 gr
20 mm
11h
okidoki
165Hadrian__RIC10.jpg
010 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna48 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC 10; C. 749a; BMC 20

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

2.48 gr
19 mm
10h

Note.
"Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Traian(o) Hadriano Aug(usto) Divi Tra(iani) / Parth(ici) f(ilio) Divi Ner(vae) nep(oti) p(ontifici) m(aximo) tr(ibunicia) p(otestate) co(n)s(uli) Fort(unae) red(uci)"
okidoki
1311Hadrian_RIC10.jpg
010 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna14 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC 10; C. 749; BMC 20

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

4.02 gr
19 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
016.jpg
010 TITUS36 viewsEMPEROR: Titus
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right
REVERSE: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, throne with back in form of a diadem
DATE: 80 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.31 g
RIC: II.24a (C)
1 commentsBarnaba6
Caligula_AE-As_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_VESTA_S-C_RIC-38_BMC-46_C-27_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_10,34g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1364 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1
avers: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,34g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 40-41, ref: RIC I 038, BMC-46, C-27,
Q-001
quadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_VESTA_S-C_RIC-54_BMC-73_C-29_Rome-39-40-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_10,25g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,301 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,25g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 39-40, ref: RIC I 054, BMC-73, C-29,
Q-001
quadrans
0115.jpg
0115 - Denarius Julia Domna 198-209 AC8 viewsObv/ IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of J.D. r.
Rev/ PVDICITIA, Pudicitia veiled and draped, seated on stool., r.h. closing on breast, head front, resting l. elbow on throne.

Ag, 18.9 mm, 3.32 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/74 – RIC IV.1/576 [C]
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay june 2011 - art. #230623761581
dafnis
Hadrian_denar1.jpg
012 - Hadrian (117-138 AD), denarius - RIC 39b41 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate heroic bust right, draped on left shoulder.
Rev: P M TR P COS III and CONCORD in exe, Concordia seated left, holding patera, resting elbow on statue of Spes, cornucopia below throne.
Minted in Rome [119-122 AD?]

This coin has ben donated to Soderakra local historical society (Sweden) as there some years ago was found a denarius of this type in an Iron Age grave at this location. This enables the society to display a coin of the very same type even though the actual grave find is locked up in a central collection.
pierre_p77
0130.jpg
0130 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 310-01 BC51 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; under throne, monogram; before, Φ.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 4.15 g
Mint: Colophon.
Price 1828
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569784336
1 commentsdafnis
13a.jpg
013a Caligula. AE AS 11.3gm49 viewsobv: C AESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC Vesta veiled and drp., seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding petera l. long scepter
hill132
13b_copy.jpg
013b Caligula. AE AS 10.86gm38 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANCVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC vesta veiled and drp. seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding patera, l. long sceptre
1 commentshill132
0146.jpg
0146 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 295-75 BC49 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, MI in monogram; behind, (Α)ΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ(Υ).

Ag, 19.0 mm, 4.28 g
Mint: Miletus.
Price 2151
ex-CNG, auction e260, lot 234
dafnis
0176.jpg
0176 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC28 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, Demeter with two torches; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; under throne, monogram with circle, line and triangle.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.32 g
Mint: Lampsacus.
Price 1356
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 12, lot 119
dafnis
020_Vespasian,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAESAR_VESPAS_AVG_COS_II_TR_P_P_P,_CONCORDIA_AVG,_BY,_RIC-2_1416,_RPC_II_824,_Ephesus,_Byzantium,-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19mm,_3,6g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC˛ 1416, Ephesus (Byzantium), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, #1104 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC˛ 1416, Ephesus (Byzantium), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, #1
avers: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, enthroned left, holding grain ears and a cornucopiae, BY (monogram) mintmark for Byzantium in the exergue.
exergue: -/-//BY(monogram, mintmark for Byzantium), diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,60 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ephesus (Byzantium), date: A.D., ref: RIC˛ 1416, RPC II 824, Sear/RCV 2266var., RSC 66a,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
0215_Pr2562.jpg
0215 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC17 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, club on field r.; under throne, monogram with circle, lines and dot.

Ag, 15.9 mm, 4.29 g
Mint: Sardes.
Price 2562
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 320, lot 75
dafnis
0216_RICII_252.jpg
0216 - Denarius Trajan 112-14 AC16 viewsObv/ IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, laureate and draped bust of T. r.
Rev/ Trajan's father seating on a throne l., holding scepter and patera; around, DIVVS PATER TRAIAN.

Ag, 19 mm, 3.07 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/252 [S] – BMCRE III/500
ex-NAC, auction 95, lot 226
dafnis
IV_Bela-(1235-1270AD)_U-213_C1-229_H-294_Q-001_9h_15,2mm_0,75g-s.jpg
022. H-294 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-294, CNH I.-229, U-213, AR-Denar, #0181 views022. H-294 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-294, CNH I.-229, U-213, AR-Denar, #01
avers: +REX•BELAᵒQVARTVS, Agnus Dei in a circle of dots advancing left with a cross, border of dots.
reverse: •VNGA• RIA•, King enthroned facing, holding orb and scepter, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,2mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-294, CNH I.-229, Unger-213
Q-001
quadrans
Béla_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_H-294,_C1-229,_U-213,_Q-002,_6h,_15,0mm,_0,96g-s.jpg
022. H-294 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-294, CNH I.-229, U-213, AR-Denar, #0264 views022. H-294 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-294, CNH I.-229, U-213, AR-Denar, #02
avers: +REX•BELAᵒQVARTVS, Agnus Dei in a circle of dots advancing left with a cross, border of dots.
reverse: •VNGA• RIA•, King enthroned facing, holding orb and scepter, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,96g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-294, CNH I.-229, Unger-213
Q-002
quadrans
Bela-IV__U-226_C1-238_H-302_1235-1270-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #0184 views022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding sceptre and orb, a border of dots.
reverse: B Є/L A R/Є X, In three lines divided into five parts by horizontal and vertical lines, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-302, CNH I.-238, Unger-226,
Q-001
quadrans
IV_Bela_(1235-1270_AD),_H-316,_C1-249,_U-237,_AR-Denar,_Q-001,_2h,_10-10,5,_0,29g-s.jpg
022. H-316 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-316, CNH I.-249, U-237, AR-Denarius, #0164 views022. H-316 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-316, CNH I.-249, U-237, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding bird (falcon?) and scepter, a border of dots.
reverse: The crowned double-headed eagle, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0-10,5mm, weight: 0,29g, axis: 2h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-316, CNH I.-249, Unger-237,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-245_CP-48_H-333_Q-001_1h_8,8mm_0,17g-s.jpg
022. H-333 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-333, CNH CP.-048, U-245, AR-Obolus, Rare! #01117 views022. H-333 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-333, CNH CP.-048, U-245, AR-Obolus, Rare! #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding orb and cross, circle on each side; border of dots.
reverse: Eagle advancing left, head right, a circle of dots around the head; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8,8mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: 1h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-233, CNH CP.-048, Unger-245, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-242_p-119_RIC-new-122_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-001_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #1163 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Throne with curved back decorated with three floral ornaments; below, fringed seatcover and strut.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-24a_p-119_RIC-new-124a_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-003_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #3183 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #3
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Draped throne with triangular back; grain ears atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-003
2 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-24a_p-119_RIC-new-124c_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-002_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #2150 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #2
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Draped throne with triangular back; grain ears atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-002
quadrans
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
augustus_RIC373.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by Ascinius Gallus moneyer (16 BC)63 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C ASINIVS C F GALLVS III VIR AAAFF around large SC
ref: RIC I 373, Cohen 369 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
9.60gms, 25mm

Ascinius Gallus, the former moneyer was an important senator, who married Vipsania, the daughter of Agrippa. On the death of Augustus, briefly, he was offered as a possible alternate to the throne, instead of Tiberius. After the death of Vipsania, he was also an ally of Agrippina Senior, and the "leak green party," a possible plot against the throne identified by Sejanus. He was executed for treason by Tiberius during the Praetorian Prefect's nominal rule of the capital.
berserker
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-510-p-281_C-419_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0510, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax seated left on throne, 174 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0510, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax seated left on throne,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Pax seated left, holding branch, kneeling Dacian with arms raised at her feet to left.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-510-p-281, C-419,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-515-C-485_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0515, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne, 109 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0515, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne, feeding from patera a serpent coiled around an altar.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-515-p-, C-485,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-001_0h_11,5-12,5mm_0,44ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0191 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5-12,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-003_3h_12mm_0,46ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0296 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #02
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,46g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-002
quadrans
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-002_0h_12,5mm_0,30ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0399 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #03
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,30g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-003
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-001_5h_12,9mm_0,46g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01167 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12,9mm, weight: 0,46g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-002_7h_13,2mm_0,68g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #02146 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:7h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-378_C2-008_H-479_lily-patriarchalcross_KAROLVS_REX_hVNGhARIE_Nicolaus-Szatmari1333-AD_Q-001_7h_15mm_1,08g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; Lily-Patriarchal Cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ KAROLVS:RЄX:hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/Patriarchal Cross//-- were srucked by Nicolaus Szatmari (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Esztergom, date: 1334 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-378a, CNH-2-008, Huszár-479, Pohl-36-02,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-393n_C2-018_H-495_REGIS_KAROLI_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_11h_15mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01114 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01
avers: RЄGIS•KAROLI, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and righ, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,70g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-393.n, CNH-2-018, Huszár-495, Pohl-52-04,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394f_C2-015_H-497_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_6h_14,5mm_0,48g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: D/R//-- were struck by Leopoldus (Hypolit?) (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.f, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394n_C2-015_H-497_m-REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_7h_14,5mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #0175 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/lily/lily/lily//-- were struck by Martinus (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok, (Scmöllnitz, today Slovakia: Smolník), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.n, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Obulus_U-400_C2-012_H-475_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-001_0h_12mm_0_27ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, in circle, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ •M•RЄGIS KARVLI•, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily above, stylized bird on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,27g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1330-1332 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-400, CNH-2-012, Huszár-475, Pohl-30,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Obulus_U-400_C2-012_H-475_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-002_9h_12mm_0_40g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #02134 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #02
avers: King enthroned, facing, in circle, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ •M•RЄGIS KARVLI•, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily above, stylized bird on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1330-1332 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-400, CNH-2-012, Huszár-475, Pohl-30,
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Obulus_U-403_C2-019_H-496_No-Legend_M_REGIS_KAROLI_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,36g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01124 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01
avers: No legend, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, botle(symbols) to left and right Angevin lilies above and belove both sides, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ M•RЄGIS KAROLI•, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Angevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and right, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,36g, axis:0h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-403.???, CNH-2-019, Huszár-496, Pohl-52-??,
Q-001
quadrans
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30149 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
03-Alex-Babylon-P2619.jpg
03. Alexander the Great.128 viewsTetradrachm, ca 325 - 323 BC, "Babylon" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. M and a bee at left, monogram under throne.
17.12 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3619; M. #696.

Martin J. Price assigns this coin to the mint at "Babylon," but he says (p. 456 -57) it is possible that coins of "group two" may have been minted at Susa or Ecbatana.
3 commentsCallimachus
030__Lajos_I__AR-Gross,_U-413d,_C2-68,_H-522,_1359-64_AD_Q-001_h,_28,0mm,_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICVS DЄI GRACIA RЄX hVnGARIЄ; king enthroned, facing, on the gothic throne in circle of dots, holding sceptre and orb, mint-mark below or by the throne; border of dots. The Saracen's head between the legs under.
reverse: ✠ DALMACIЄ : CROACIЄ : ЄTC; Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, amongst six arches, no mint-mark above the shield, emission-marks around the arches; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Saracen's head, were struck by Jacobus Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 28,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs/Syrmien (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-413-e, CNH-2-068, Huszár-522, Pohl-59-4-a.,
Q-001


Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
30_a_copy.jpg
030a Hadrian. AR denarius18 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG laur.bust r. drp. on shoulders
rev: COS III Pudicitia enthroned l. adjusting her veil with her r. hand
and resting l. on lap
hill132
30_a.jpg
030a Hadrian. AR Denarius 3.5gm39 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS laur. bust r.
rev: COS III Pudicitia enthroned l. adjusting her veal
with r. hand and resting l. on lap
3 commentshill132
Hadrian_AR-Den_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III_RIC-II-172_C-328a_125-128-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_17-18mm_3,12g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0172, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS III, Concordia seated left on throne,75 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0172, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS III, Concordia seated left on throne,
avers:-HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right.
revers:-COS-III, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & resting left arm on statuette of Spes on column at side of throne.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,12g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC II 172, C-328a,
Q-001
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Hadrian_AR-Den_HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P_VENERIS-FELICIS_RIC-II-280d-p-371_RSC-1449_134-138-AD_Q-001_5h_19-19,5mm_3,29g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0280d, Rome, AR-Denarius, VENERIS FELICIS, Venus seated left,183 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0280d, Rome, AR-Denarius, VENERIS FELICIS, Venus seated left,
avers: HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, Laureate head right.
revers: VENERIS-FELICIS, Venus, mantled and diademed, seated left on throne, holding statuette of Cupid, and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter:19-19,5mm, weight: 2,29g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 134-138 A.D., ref: RIC II 280d, p-371, RSC 1449,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI_033c_img.jpg
033 - Titus Denarius - RIC II new p. 206, 12421 viewsObv:– IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Draped throne with triangular back on which are corn ears
Minted in Rome A.D. 80
Reference:– RIC II new p. 206, 124

Weight 3.33g. 17.59mm.
maridvnvm
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
CalI38.jpg
037-041 AD - Caligula - RIC I 38 - Vesta Reverse47 viewsEmperor: Caligula (r. 37-41 AD)
Date: 37-38 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Consul Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head left

Reverse: VESTA (above)
The Emperor looks after the state.
S - C to left and right
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse sceptre.

Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 38; VM 9
5.61g; 26.0mm; 180°
Pep
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453),_Denar,_H-643,_C2-201A,_U-494_f_,_P-150-15,_1442_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_12,5mm,_0,36g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, H-643.var., C2-201A.var., U-494.f.var., P-150-15, Rare!67 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, H-643.var., C2-201A.var., U-494.f.var., P-150-15, Rare!
avers: •m•LADISLA(I R•VnGARIE), Patriarchal cross in the circle, mint-mark S-D, on each side, the border of dots.
reverse: Hungarian shield with stripes, amongst three arches, three shields in the arches (Austrian band, Moravian eagle, Czech lion), a small circles between the shields!
exergue, mint mark: S/D//-- were struck by "Civitas" Town coin, (by Pohl), diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,36g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok, (Schmölnitz, by Pohl, today in Slovakia, Smolnik), date:1442 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-643var. (reverse!), CNH2-201A.var., Unger-494.f.var., Pohl-150-15, Rare!
Q-001
The piece was cut around, at that used time.
1 commentsquadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-500_C2-193_H-649_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-500-b., #01106 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-500-b., #01
avers: ✠mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•GRA, Hungarian Shield three parts left Árpádian stripes, and right Lion over the Patriarchal cross, C-G, circle, border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ETCETERA, Winged eagle, at the breast band shield, circle, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/G//-- were strucked by Augustin Greniczer (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, today Kosice by Pohl), date:1442-1443 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-500-b., CNH-2-193, Huszár-649, Pohl-156-01,
Q-001
quadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-503_C2---_H-653_Q-001_9h_17,5mm_54g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!224 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: ✠mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•G, Hungarian Shield two parts left Árpádian stripes, and right the Patriarchal cross, K-G, circle, border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ETCT, Hungarian shield.
exergue, mint mark: K/G//-- were struck by Johannes Constorfer (by Pohl), diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz,), date:1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-503-b., CNH-2-Not in, Huszár-653, Pohl-167, Extremely Rare!!!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-505b_C2-183_H-654_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-505-b., #0186 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-505-b., #01
avers: rosette mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•G, Patriarchal Cross, K-P over +, circle ; border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ET•CETERA, Crowned Bohemian Lion advancing left, circle, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: K/+ over P//-- were struck by Petrus Jung (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, by Pohl), date:1447-1450 A.D., ref: Unger-505-b., CNH-2-183, Huszár-654, Pohl-160-01,
Q-001
quadrans
038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0711_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-002,_6h,_16,7-17mm,_3,35g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1138 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bare-headed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,7-17,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 711 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-002_axis-5h_17-17,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1107 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_2_70g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #286 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0712_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17-18mm,_3,25g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3156 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-003
quadrans
gaius_RIC_I_14.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 014120 viewsGaius (Caligula). 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 37-38 A.D. (3.55g, 19.1m, 5h). Obv: [C CAE]SAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head right. Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Agrippina, bust, draped right, hair falling in queue down her neck. RIC I 14 (R), RSC 2. Ex personal collection Steve McBride.

Agrippina “the elder” was Gaius’ mother. Falsely accused of wrongdoing by Tiberius, Agrippina was exiled and died of starvation, whether self-imposed or at the orders of Tiberius, is not clear. Upon ascending the throne, Gaius, recovered his mother’s ashes, and restored her name. This coin commemorates the veneration of his mother.
10 commentsLucas H
Lucilla_AR-Den_LVCILLAE-AVG-ANTONINI-AVG-F_CONCORDIA_RIC-III-(M_Aur)-758_RSC-6a_Rome_-AD_Q-001_0h_18-18,5mm_2,68g-s.jpg
040 Lucilla ( c.149-182 A.D.), RIC III 0758 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, #1155 views040 Lucilla ( c.149-182 A.D.), RIC III 0758 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, #1
Wife of Lucius Verus.
avers: LVCILLAE-AVG-ANTONINI-AVG-F, Draped bust right, hair in a bun.
revers: CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, holding patera and resting elbow on statuette of Spes.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 166-67 A.D., ref: RIC-III-758 (Marc.Aur.), p-, RSC-6a.,
Q-001
quadrans
Lucilla_AR-Den_LVCILLAE-AVG-ANTONINI-AVG-F_CONCORDIA_RIC-III-(M_Aur)-758_RSC-6a_Rome_-AD_Q-002_11h_18-18,5mm_3,56g-s.jpg
040 Lucilla ( c.149-182 A.D.), RIC III 0758 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, #2153 views040 Lucilla ( c.149-182 A.D.), RIC III 0758 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, #2
Wife of Lucius Verus.
avers: LVCILLAE-AVG-ANTONINI-AVG-F, Draped bust right, hair in a bun.
revers: CONCORDIA, Concordia enthroned left, holding patera and resting elbow on statuette of Spes.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,56g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 166-67 A.D., ref: RIC-III-758 (Marc.Aur.), p-, RSC-6a.,
Q-002
quadrans
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus15 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Ć As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
RI_044s_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 0004c19 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC, Laureate cuirassed bust right, with drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG P P M TR P COS P P, Concordia enthroned left holding patera, arm on statue of Spes, cornucopiae below, CONCORD in ex.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:– RIC 4c. RSC 250a.
maridvnvm
RI_044ai_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC 011c23 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate cuirassed ust right with light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left on throne holding in right hand and verticaal sceptre in left
Rome Mint. A.D. 117. Group II.
Reference:- RIC 11c, RSC 874, BMC 26
1 commentsmaridvnvm
356Hadrian_RIC49~0.jpg
049 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Condordia7 viewsReference.
Strack 46; RIC 49a; C. 253

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped on left shoulder, right

Rev. P M TR P COS DES III in Ex CONCORD
Concordia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting left on figure of Spes on low base; cornucopiae under throne

3.24 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-X_SALVTI-AVGG_RIC-IV-I-119a-p-_RSC-641_Rome--AD_Q-001_axis-7h_16,5mm_3,19g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 119a, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVTI-AVGG, Salus seated left,172 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 119a, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVTI-AVGG, Salus seated left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-X, Laurate bust right.
revers:- SALVTI-AVGG, Salus seated left, feeding a snake coiling up from an altar out of a patera; arm on side of throne.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,19g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-I-119a, p-, RSC-641,
Q-001
quadrans
049_Septimius_Severus_(193-211_A_D_)_AE-18_AVL-CEP-CEVHROC_MARKIANOPOLITON_Q-001_0-h_18-18,5mm_3,62g-s~0.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2014) 6.14.31.31., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLIΤΩ, Kybele seated left,66 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova/Jekov (2014) 6.14.31.31., AE-18, MAPKIANO ΠOLIΤΩ, Kybele seated left,
avers: AYΛ CEΠ CEVHPO(C), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: MAPKIANO ΠOLIΤΩ, Kybele, richly draped, wearing kalathos, seated left on throne, flanked by two lions, tympanon behind, holding patera in outstretched right hand, resting with left arm on the arm of the throne.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5 mm, weight: 3,62 g, axis:0h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.14.31.31., not in Pfeiffer (2013),
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
Nero 1.jpg
05 Nero47 viewsNero Denarius. Laureate and bearded head of Nero right; IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS / Salus draped, seated left on throne, holding patera, SALVS in exergue. RIC 67, RSC 258, BMC 83. Weight 3.02 g. Die Axis 6 hr.



mix_val
Byz_Rome_Decanum.jpg
05. JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA28 viewsJUSTIN II AND SOPHIA
Half follis, Rome Mint , 565-578 AD

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin on l. and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne / Large XX, cross above, ROM below.

SB 404, DOC 206
Sosius
05-Philip-III.jpg
05. Philip III.80 viewsTetradrachm, 323 - 317 BC, "Babylon" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. M at left, ΛΥ between the rungs of the throne.
16.99 gm., 27 mm.
P. #P181; M. #99; S. #6749.

Martin J. Price assigns this coin to the mint at "Babylon," but he says (p. 455) that coins with the M-ΛΥ monograms may have to be assigned to Susa after further study.
Callimachus
RIC_IV-I_553_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_AVGVSTA,_FORTUNAE_FELICI,_Rome,_RSC-58,_BMC-27,_Sear-6584,_196-211_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19-20mm,_3,67g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 553, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left, #166 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 553, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left, #1
avers: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
reverse: FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left holding cornucopiae and leaning on rudder set on globe.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-211 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 553, RSC 58, BMC 27, Sear-6584,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_Julia-Domna_AR-Den_IVLIA-AVGVSTA_MATER-DEVM_Roma-RIC-IV-I---_p-_RSC-_Sear----_-AD_Q-001_h_18,0-20,0mm_-g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 564, Rome, AR-Denarius, MATER DEVM, Cybele, towered, enthroned left, Scarce, #1131 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 564, Rome, AR-Denarius, MATER DEVM, Cybele, towered, enthroned left, Scarce, #1
avers:- IVLIA AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
revers:- MATER DEVM, Cybele, towered, enthroned left between two lions, leaning on drum and holding branch and scepter.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 2,88g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 198 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-564, p-169, RSC 123, BMC 51, Sear (2000-2002) 6593, Scarce,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AE-30_Tyche_Lindgren-III-191_Syria-Gabala_Q-001_6h_29,5mm_16,44g-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria) Gabala, Lindgren III 191, AE-30, ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left, 65 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria) Gabala, Lindgren III 191, AE-30, ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left,
avers: AYT-KAI-C-M-AYP-ANTωNEINOC-CEB-CE•, Radiate, bust right.
revers: ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left, holding sceptre and orb.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 29,5 mm, weight: 16,44g, axis: 6h,
mint: Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria), Gabala, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: Lindgren III 191,
Q-001
quadrans
56.jpg
056 Annia Faustina. AE30 9.gm36 viewsobv: ANNIA OAYCT.CINA.AYrCEB drp. bust r.
rev: TICV_N KAHTON Roma enthroned l. holding Nike,
shield and spoils behind
"3rd wife of Elagabalus"
1 commentshill132
JustIISB366.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis62 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 569-570 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, E
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
4.76g; 23.5mm; 150°
Pep
JustIISB366_2.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 2nd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 574-575 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, X
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.07g; 22.3mm; 165°
Pep
JustIISB366_3.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 3rd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 577-578 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, XI/II
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.05g; 22.1mm; 165°
Pep
06-Alex-Amphipolis-P124.jpg
06. "Amphipolis": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 320 - 317 BC, "Amphipolis" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Branch of laurel at left, Π under throne.
17.33 gm., 25 mm.
P. #124; M. #560.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Most coins issued in Macedon during this time continued to be in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #135 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s~0.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #151 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
RI_065aj_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61022 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– PIE-TAS, Pietas seated left, on high backed throne, holding palladium
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE 330. RIC IV 612. RSC 146c
Martin Griffiths
RI_065bs_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61018 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– PIE-TAS, Pietas seated left, on high backed throne, holding palladium
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE 330. RIC IV 612. RSC 146c
maridvnvm
RI_065bx_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61016 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– PIE-TAS, Pietas seated left, on high backed throne, holding palladium
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE 330. RIC IV 612. RSC 146c
maridvnvm
RI_066bp_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Denarius - RIC 33242 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR ANTONI-NVS PONT AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Securitas, draped, seated left on throne, holding globe on extended right hand, left hand resting on side of throne, fold of drapery falling over side to right
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE 647-649 though with different obverse legend break. RIC 332 (S). RSC 568.

Some die clogging in the legends but a well detailed example.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
galba,_RIC_I_167.jpg
07 Galba, RIC I 16749 viewsGalba July, 68-Jan., 69. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Aug-Oct 68 A.D. (3.07g, 17.8mm, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right. Rev: SPQR OB CS in 3 lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167, RSC 287, Sear 2109.

Upon the death of Nero, Galba’s troops proclaimed him emperor on April 3, 68 A.D. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, he marched on Rome and assumed the throne, but was assassinated in a plot by Otho on January 15, 69 beginning the year of 4 emperors.
1 commentsLucas H
07-Alex-Pella-P250.jpg
07. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.30 viewsTetradrachm, ca 315 - 310 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Boeotian shield at left, Σ. between the rungs of the throne.
17.24 gm., 26 mm.
P. #250; PROa #135.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Thereafter his son Kassander ruled until 297 BC, eventually taking the title of King in 305 BC. He was notorious for his cruelty, and in 311 BC he killed Alexander's widow and her young son. The silver coinage of Kassander's reign was all issued in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
RI_072b_img.jpg
072 - Julia Paula denarius - RIC 21130 viewsObv:– IVLIA PAVLA AVG, Bare, draped head right
Rev:– CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left holding patera, elbow rests on arm of throne, star in left field.
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 211. RSC 6a.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),__AR-Ant_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_RIC-144_p-_RSC-98_Rome_243-AD_Q-001_1h_22-24mm_4,96g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 144, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #178 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 144, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #1
avers: IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers: FORTVNA-REDVX, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia, wheel below throne.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 4,96g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 243 A.D.(5th. Issue), ref: RIC IV-III-144, p-31, RSC-98,
Q-001
quadrans
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_RIC_IV_301a_AE-Sest,_IMP_GORDIANVS_PIVS_FEL_AVG,_P_M_TR_P_III_COS_II_P_P,_S-C,_Roma_240-41,_Q-001,__h,_29mm,_20,61g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 301a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, -/-//SC, P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, #178 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 301a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, -/-//SC, P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, #1
avers: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, holding the olive branch and resting arm on the lyre, SC belove.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 28,0-29,0mm, weight: 20,61g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 240-241 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 301a, C-240,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
100Hadrian__RIC727c.jpg
0727 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Justitia23 viewsReference.
RIC 727; C 886

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG COS III P P S C
Justitia seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre.

9.44 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
072p_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_Macedonia,_Pella,_AE-26,_Varbanov_3748,_Mouchmov_6489,_Q-001,_7h,_26mm,_11,9g-s.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Macedonia, Pella, Varbanov 3748, AE-26, COL IVL A VAG PELLA, Pella enthroned left, 110 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Macedonia, Pella, Varbanov 3748, AE-26, COL IVL A VAG PELLA, Pella enthroned left,
avers: IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: COL IVL A VAG PELLA, Pella enthroned left, right hand raised to her shoulder.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0mm, weight: 11,9,60g, axis: 7h,
mint: Macedonia, Pella, date: 238-244 A.D., ref: Varbanov 3748, Mouchmov 6489,
Q-001
quadrans
1299_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC736.jpg
0736 THRACE, Bizya, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Tyche standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 736; Jurukova 165

Obv. ΔΙΟΝΥСω ΚΤΙСΤΗ
Dionysos seated right on throne, holding grape bunch and a single grape; vine to left

Rev. ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ.
River-god and Tyche; to left, river-god reclining right, resting right arm on water-urn, holding reed in left hand; to right, Tyche standing facing, head left, wearing long garment and kalathos, holding cantharus in right hand and two ears of corn in left hand.

6.59 gr
22 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
theodosius2~0.jpg
074. Theodosius II, 402-450AD. AV Solidus.489 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. Choice FDC.
15 commentsLordBest
RI_077az_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 27115 viewsObv:- IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- PONTIF MAX TRP II COS II PP, Roma seated left on a throne, holding Victory in her right hand and a reversed spear in her left, a shield rests on the ground beside the throne
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 223.
Reference:– RIC 271 (S). RSC 470
maridvnvm
GI_077g_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Billon Tetradrachm, Alexandria - Milne 301719 viewsBillon Tetradrachm
Obv:- A KAI MAP AY CEY ALEXANDPOC, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- Dikaiosyne seated left on facing throne, holding scales and cornucopia.
Minted in Alexandria. Year 7 (LZ in upper left field). A.D. 227/228.
Reference:- Milne 3017. Emmett 3097 (7) R5 citing Milne. Geissen -. Dattari 4296.

Apparently quite a rare coin.
maridvnvm
J-Domna-RIC-564.jpg
077. Julia Domna.11 viewsDenarius, ca 198 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA / Bust of Domna.
Reverse: MATER DEVM / Cybele, sitting on throne between two lions, holding branch and sceptre, arm resting on drum.
3.29 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #564; Sear #6593

The appearance of Cybele on the above coin shows Domna's interest in eastern religions. The various attributes of personifications and gods on the reverse of Roman coins were often associated with the person pictured on the obverse of the coin. In this case, the words MATER DEVM (Mother of the gods) applied to Domna is interesting since her sons were Caracalla and Geta.
Callimachus
Otho_RIC_I_3_1.jpg
08 01 Otho RIC I 483 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.27g, 18.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right. Obv: PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing left, right holding branch, and left caduceus. RIC I 4, RCV 2156, RSC 3. Ex Warren Esty Personal Collection.

At 3 months, Otho had the shortest reign in the Year of the Four Emperors. During much of Nero’s reign, Otho administered Lusitania, and followed Galba when he marched on Rome. Upon Galba’s naming another as his successor to the throne, with some of the rankers of the Praetorian Guard, Otho staged a coup, had Galba murdered, and was declared Emperor.

THis is an odd reverse message for an emperor complicit in the murder of his one-time allie and predecessor Galba, while the legeons of Vitellius were Marching on Rome. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM "Peace on the Earth" is ironic given the civil war going on in Rome at the time.
5 commentsLucas H
08-Alex-Ecbatana-P3931.jpg
08. Ecbatana: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.40 viewsTetradrachm, ca 311 - 295 BC, Ecbatana mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Anchor, forepart of a grazing horse, and two monograms at left; ΣΩ under throne.
17.01 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3931; M. #1355; ESM #475.

This is a coin of the Seleucid Empire from the time of Seleukos I, Nikator. Seleukos used the anchor as his personal symbol. Some of Seleukos' coinage was in the name of Alexander, and some was in his own name
Callimachus
Vitellius_RIC_I_81.jpg
09 01 Vitellius RIC I 8167 viewsVitellius 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-Dec 20, 69 A.D. (2.91g, 18.8mm, 5h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, r. holding pileus, l. scepter. RIC I 81, RSC 48. Ex CNG 258, Lot 367.

In the year of 4 emperors, Vitellius assumed the throne after his German legions proclaimed him emperor, marched on Rome, and murdered Otho. Vitellius only ruled for mere months before Vespasian’s eastern legions arrived and murdered him in turn. He was known for his gluttony. I have a Vitellius denarius, but couldn't help picking up this nice example from a reputable dealer for a reasonable price.
2 commentsLucas H
Titus~0.jpg
10 Titus32 viewsDenarius. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, throne with back in form of a diadem with corn ears upon it. RIC 24a, RSC 313, BMC 58. Weight 3.25 g. Die Axis 6 hr. Max Dia 17.1 mm.

mix_val
LarryW1853.jpg
100 Constantius II, AD 337-36171 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.00g, gF
Struck AD 355-360 at Arles
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed facing bust, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left arm / GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, holding wreath with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines, */KONSTAN in ex (TAN in monogram). Graffiti on obverse fields
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC 238
Lawrence Woolslayer
1158Sabina_RIC1037.jpg
1037 Sabina As Roma 128-136 AD Concordia55 viewsReference.
RIC 1037; BMC 1891; C. 19; Strack 863

Obv. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P
Diademed and draped bust right

Rev. CONCORDIA AVG / S C.
Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and resting elbow upon statue of Spes; cornucopia below throne.

11.13 gr
27 mm
6h
5 commentsokidoki
coin224.JPG
103a. Sabina25 viewsSabina

Vibia Sabina was born in 86 CE was the daughter of Salonia Matidia, daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana, and her first husband Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Hence she was a grand niece of emperor Trajan. By the intervention of Trajan's wife Plotina she married Hadrian in 100 CE, thus reinforcing Hadrian's claim to the throne.

The marriage was not happy and she didn't bear him any children. She did, however, follow Hadrian on his many travels, and she received the title of Augusta in 128 CE. She died in 136 or 137 CE and was dutifully deified after her death

AR denarius. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG Diademed and draped bust right, hair in plait behind / VES TA Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. RIC 410, RSC 81.
ecoli
coin193.JPG
103b. Aelius25 viewsAelius was adopted by an aging and ailing Hadrian in 136 and named successor to the throne, although he had no military experience; he had served as a senator. He had powerful political connections, but was in poor health. His tastes were luxurious and extravagant and his life said to have been frivolous. Hadrian's choice seems to have been an error in judgement. Some scholars have suggested that Aelius may have been Hadrian's bastard son, but there is no reason to believe this. Aelius himself was never to become emperor, dying shortly before Hadrian.

Copper as, S 3993, RIC 1067, gF, 10.88g, 27.9mm, 180o, Rome mint, 137 A.D.; obverse L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right; reverse TR•POT COS II S C, Spes advancing right, holding flower and raising drapery; attractive translucent brown toning, ex Scott Collection, ex Forum

Check
ecoli
1042-1055 Anon D S1836.jpg
1042-1055 - follis (anonymous class D)41 viewsChrist facing seated on throne, holding gospels ; in field IC / XC
- + - / IS XC / bASILE / bASIL

Sear 1836
Ginolerhino
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG-(D1l)_ROMAE-AETERNE-(Rom2b)_RIC-V-I-337var-p-T-2891_off-2_iss-2_Cyzicus_271_AD_Q-001_11h_21mm_3,39ga-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2891, RIC V-I 337var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNE, -/-//--, Roma seated left, Rare!86 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2891, RIC V-I 337var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNE, -/-//--, Roma seated left, Rare!
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust left, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum. (D1l). Avers mark • under the bust.
revers:- ROMAE AETERNE, Roma seated left, shield leaning against throne, holding Victory on globe in right hand and spear in left hand. (Roma 2b).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,39g, axes: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-2, off-1, date: 271 A.D., ref: T-2891 (Estiot), RIC V-I 337var, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_(D2)_ROMAE-AETERNE_(Roma2b)_RIC-V-I-337-p-T-2892-1st-off-iss-2_Cyzicus_271-AD_Q-001_0h_20,5mm_3,27g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2892, RIC V-I 337var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNE, -/-//--, Roma seated left, Scarce!78 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2892, RIC V-I 337var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNE, -/-//--, Roma seated left, Scarce!
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear. (D1l). Avers mark • under the bust.
revers:- ROMAE AETERNE, Roma seated left, shield leaning against throne, holding Victory on globe in right hand and spear in left hand. (Roma 2b).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,27g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-2, off-1, date: 271 A.D., ref: T-2892 (Estiot), RIC V-I 337var, Scarce!,
Q-001
quadrans
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina47 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus57 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
11-Alex-Pella-P527.jpg
11. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 280 - 275 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Triton at left.
16.95 gm., 29 mm.
P. #527.

Following the overthrow of Demetrios Poliorketes by Lysimachos in 288 BC, there was a period of about a dozen years where no ruler was able to establish himself for any length of time in Macedonia. In 277 BC, Antigonos Gonatas achieved a victory over Gallic invaders in Thrace, and that enabled him to claim his father's throne. He ruled until 239 BC and the Macedonian kingdom prospered during his reign.
This coin was issued about the time Antigonos became king and established his own coinage. The decade 280 - 270 BC was a troubled one for the area due to the Gallic invasions (279 - 276 BC), and coins in the name of Alexander the Great from this decade are not common.
Callimachus
Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_ROMAE-AETERNAE-(R2c)_XXI-Q_RIC-temp-3750_iss-4_off-4_Siscia_276-AD_Q-001_0h_22-22,5mm_3,25ga-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3750, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//XXIQ, Bust-B1, Roma seated left, Rare!88 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3750, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//XXIQ, Bust-B1, Roma seated left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. B1.
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated left, shield leaning against throne, holding Victory in r. hand and long sceptre in l. hand. Roma 2c.
exerg: -/-//XXIQ, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,25g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th.issue, 4th.off., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-???.,T-(Estiot)-3750, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
T-3758_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_ROMAE-AETERNAE-(R2c)_XXI-V_RIC-temp-3758_Siscia_276-AD__Q-001_6h_22,5-23,5mm_3,90g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3758, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//XXIV, Bust-B1, Roma seated left, Rare! #179 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3758, RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, -/-//XXIV, Bust-B1, Roma seated left, Rare! #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. B1.
revers:- ROMAE-AETERNAE, Roma seated left, shield leaning against throne, holding Victory in r. hand and long sceptre in l. hand. Roma 2c.
exerg: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 23mm, weight: 3,90g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 4th.issue, 5th.off., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-???.,T-(Estiot)-3758, C-, LV 2314, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy25 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland19 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Hugh and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
716Hadrian_RIC118var.jpg
118 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-25 AD Concordia with double cornucopiae15 viewsStrack 61 var.; RIC II 118; BMCRE 260; RSC 255a.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
laureate bust right, slight drapery

Rev . P M TR P COS III, CONCORD in exergue,
Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and resting arm on statuette of Spes on globe; double cornucopiae below throne.

2.91 gr
18 mm
7h
okidoki
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England21 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer, Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland7 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer, Roberd.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
12-Alex-Callatis-P946.jpg
12. Callatis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 225 BC, Callatis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. K at left, NAY under throne.
16.61 gm., 30 mm.
P. #943.

On the tag that came with this coin is the inscription "6 / Sept / 44 Bulgaria." The Soviet occupation of Bulgaria began on Sept. 9, 1944. It would be interesting to know the story behind that inscription as it applies to this coin...
Callimachus
LarryW1801.jpg
120 Honorius, AD 393–423159 viewsGold solidus, 21.2mm, 4.43g, FDC
Struck c. 408-420 at Constantinople
D N HONORI—VS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / CONCORDI—A AVCC Γ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, right foot on ship's prow, holding scepter in right hand, Victory on globe in left. Star in left field, CON OB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC X, 201; Cohen 3; DO 778v (off B)
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LatinByzSB2021.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2021 - AE Trachy69 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary enthroned, holding an image of Christ's face on her chest.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his upraised right hand a labarum, in his left an akakia.

Sear 2021
1.31g; 21.7mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2044.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2044 - AE Trachy47 viewsProbable: Latin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary enthroned.

Reverse: unknown legend
Emperor standing, holding labarum and akakia.

SB 2044
0.93g; 18.5mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2045.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2045 - AE Trachy50 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Christ enthroned.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his right hand a sword, in his left a globus cruciger.

Sear 2045
0.87g; 17.9mm; 180°
Pep
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Long cross penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
LarryW1852.jpg
130 Theodosius II, AD 402-45098 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, FDC
Struck AD 408-419 at Constantinople
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDI-A AVCC Θ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, star left, CONOB in exergue
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC X, 202
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)92 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB +. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. In 1308 he married Isabella, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, to try and resolve tensions between the two countries.
Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston, who was arrogant with the power he had as Edward's favourite. In 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms and the newly empowered barons had Gaveston banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was obliged to sign a truce which brought an end to almost thirty years of warfare between the two countries.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reportedly gruesomely murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
1159_P_Hadrian_RPC1358.jpg
1358 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Smyrna Zeus seated30 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1358; Metcalf 29

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Zeus seated l. on throne holding small image of Ephesian Artemis in r. and sceptre in l.; to l., eagle

10.72 gr
29 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
1205_P_Hadrian_RPC138.jpg
1368 Hadrian, Cistophorus CARIA, Cnidus? Zeus seated14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1368; Metcalf 72

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bust, draped, in cuirass, r. seen from rear

Rev. COS III
Zeus seated r. on throne holding vertical sceptre in upraised r. and Victory in extended left on globe

11.11 gr
28 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
808_P_Hadrian_RPC1375.JPG
1375 Hadrian, Cistophorus CARIA, Cnidus? Zeus seated41 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1375/1; Metcalf 71; C. -; RIC -; BMC -; W. E. Metcalf, The Cistophori of Hadrian, 1980, 76, 308 Taf. 20 = RPC III 1375; M. 308

Obv. AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. COS III
Zeus seated r. on throne holding vertical sceptre in upraised r. and Victory on globe (corr.)

9.90 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
ex Theodor Grewer collection
ex Kress, Auktion 158, 1973, Los 997
3 commentsokidoki
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England4 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)49 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
Elagabalus-RIC-145.jpg
14. Elagabalus.14 viewsDenarius, 220-221 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SECVRITAS SAECVLI / Securitas seated, holding sceptre in left hand, and resting right arm on back of throne.
2.35 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #145; Sear #7546.
Callimachus
14-Alex-Rhodes-P2521.jpg
14. Rhodes: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.16 viewsTetradrachm, ca 201 - 190 BC, Rhodes mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑΜΑΤΡΙΟΣ and rosebud at left, ΡΟ under throne.
16.89 gm., 32 mm.
P. #2521; M. #1162.

In 202 - 201 BC, Philip V of Macedon was threatening the cities of Asia Minor. Pergamum and Rhodes were political and military rivals, but they were allies against this common aggressor. Each city struck coins of the Alexander type so that the fleet and army assembled in this alliance could be paid in a common currency. By 190 BC old animosities reemerged and the joint coinage ended.
Callimachus
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon AR Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France25 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
142a.jpg
142a Valentinianvs II. AR siliqua 1.8gm16 viewsobv: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VRBS ROMA Roma seated on throne holding Victory on globe and reverse spear
ex: -*//AQPS
hill132
142b.jpg
142b Valentinianus II. AE3 26gm19 viewsobv: DN VALENTINIA_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VRBS ROMA Roma seated l. n throne holdin Victory on globe and reversed spear
ex: -*//ANT(delta)
hill132
143b.jpg
143b Theodosius I. AE3 2.6gm18 viewsobv: DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: CONCOR_DIA AVGG Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head r. holding scepter and globe, prow at feet
ex: (theta)ANTB
hill132
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
149.jpg
149 Aelia Eudoxia. AE3/4 2.4gm16 viewsobv: AEL EXDO_XIA AVG dia. drp. bust r. being crownd by manus Dei above
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM Eudoxia enthroned facing,arms folded over breast, manus Dia above, cross to r.
ex: SMNA
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15-Alex-Mesembria-P1013.jpg
15. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.32 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 175 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Corinthian helmet at left.
16.66 gm., 33 mm.
P. #1013.
1 commentsCallimachus
IMG_1587_(1).JPG
150 Antoninus Pius19 viewsAntoninus Pius Sestertius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / OPI AVG S-C, Ops enthroned left with transverse sceptre & drawing up draper from shoulder. RIC 612, Cohen 569, BMC 12581 commentsRandygeki(h2)
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.53 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
154a.jpg
154a Theodosous II. AV solidus26 viewsobv: DN THEODOSI_VS P.F. AVG pearl dia. helm. and cuir. bust facing slightly r., holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman
rev: IMP XXXXII.COS XVII.P.P. Constantinopolis enthrone l., with l. foot on prow, holding globus cruciger and scepter, shield at side star l.
ex: COMOB
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1553_-_1554_Mary_I_Tudor_AR_Groat.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England0 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.
*Alex
158_Gratianus_(367-383_A_D_),_Trier,_RIC_IX_027f,_AR_siliqua,_DN_GRATIA_NVS_P_F_AVG,_VRBS_ROMA,_TRPS_,_RSC_86b_,_367-378_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18mm,_2,16g-s.jpg
158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Trier, RIC IX 027f, AR Siliqua, -/-//TRPS•, VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, #164 views158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Trier, RIC IX 027f, AR Siliqua, -/-//TRPS•, VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, #1
avers: D N GRATIA NVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//TRPS•, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 2,16g, axes: 6h,
mint: Trier, date: 367-383 A.D.,
ref: RIC IX 027f, RSC 86b.,
Q-001
quadrans
16-Alex-Aradus-P3396.jpg
16. Aradus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.65 viewsTetradrachm, 196 / 195 BC, Aradus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Palm tree at left, ΑΡ monogram under throne, ΔΞ in exergue.
17.00 gm., 30 mm.
P. #3396.

Dating this coin: ΔΞ = year 64 = 196 / 195 BC. The era dates to 259 BC when Aradus gained its autonomy. In this series there are 35 different dates between year 17 (243 / 242 BC) and year 94 (166 / 165 BC). There are several breaks in the series (after years 45 and 69 for example) which reflect different political situations in Phoenecia.
Callimachus
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_-unofficial_mint,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_25,5mm,_2,47g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01136 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: Illegible legend instead of "REX BELA REX STS", Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 2,7g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, unknown sigla in exergue right site, lying retrograde "S".
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-002_9h_27,0mm_3,04ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01113 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-003_10h_26,5mm_3,50ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #0199 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_a1_7-8,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_9h,_26mm,_2,79g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01120 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,79g, axis:9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.07./008.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-0x1_axis-10h_27,0mm_3,22g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01150 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.23./024.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-005_4h_26,0mm_2,56g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01154 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a10.01./183.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_d1c1_2-334,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_0h,_26,5mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01131 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./d1c1.01./334.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_k3_1-258,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5mm,_2,33g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01133 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 2,33g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./k3.01./258.,
Q-001
quadrans
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London0 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET•mintmark (Rose)• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
Flaccilla_AE-2_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_CON-Gamma_RIC-IX-55-p229_Constantinopolis_378-88-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1286 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//CONΓ, diameter: 22mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 55, p-229,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_SMHA_RIC-IX-17-1_p-196_Heraclea_378-83-AD_Q-001_11h_14-14,5mm_1,18g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #191 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 14-14,5mm, weight: 1,18g, axis: 11h, R!
mint: Heraclea, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 17-1, p-196,
Q-001
quadrans
faustina2 RIC745(M.Aurelius).jpg
161-176 AD - FAUSTINA Junior AR denarius - struck 176-180 AD27 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA (draped bust right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (throne with scepter across it, peacock below & standing right)
ref: RIC III 745 (M.Aurelius), RSC 73 (3frcs) , BMC 723
2.10gms, 18mm
Scarcer type
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC890.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 163-164 AD44 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M (laureated bearded head right)
rev: VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III (Victory standing right holding trophy a captive Armenian at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC 890 (S), Cohen 984 (12 Francs 1878), BMC 1092
21.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

History: After the death of Antoninus Pius the parthian king, Vologaesus III run over Armenia in 161 AD. The Expeditio orientalis was started the next year from Capua,Italy. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus were entrusted with command of the legions while Marcus Aurelius conducted affairs of the state back in Rome. The 5 year campaign (161 – 166 AD) against Parthia proved to be as decisive as any war in recent Roman history. A Roman candidate once again sat the Armenian throne and Parthia had been thoroughly defeated. This coin commemorate the end of the first phase of the Parthian War.
berserker
a_088.JPG
162-150 BC51 viewsDemetrios I Soter
Tetradrachm

Obverse:His diademed head right within laurel-wreath
Reverse:BASILEWS DHMHTPIOY;Tyche seated left on throne ,supported by tritoness;monogram at left field

29.80mm 16.37gm

Sear 7014
2 commentsmaik
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
Eudoxia_AE-3_AEL-EVDOXIA-AVG_GLORIA-ROMANORVM_Cross_CONA_RIC-X-79_Constantinopolis-_Q-001_axis-11h_14,5mm_2,28g-s.jpg
166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC X 079, -/†//CONA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, Scarce! #1103 views166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC X 079, -/†//CONA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, Scarce! #1
avers: AEL EVDOXIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace and earrings, crowned by the hand of God. (Ex1/Fh3)
reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, arms crossed over the breast, crowned by the hand of god., † in the right field.
exergue: -/†//CONA, diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 2,28g, axis:11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 395-401 A.D., ref: RIC X 079, p-247, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
commodus_RIC54.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 183 AD34 viewsobv: M.COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS (laureate head right)
rev: TRP VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP (Mars walking right with trophy & spear)
ref: RIC III 54, RSC 878
2.38gms, 17mm

In 183 AD Commodus assumed the title 'Pius'. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign.
berserker
LouisXVICoronation1775.JPG
1775. Coronation of Louis XVI at Rheims143 viewsObv. Crowned bust of Louis XVI LUDOVICUS XVI REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. King kneeling at altar, an angel anointing his head DEO CONSECRATORI, exergue UNCTIO REGIA REMIS XL JUN MDCCLXXV
Signed B DUVIVIER F

AR42.

Louis XVI succeeded his grandfather Louis XV to the throne of France in 1774 and his coronation ceremony took place in Rheims the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
201Hadrian__RIC178.jpg
178 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-28 AD Pudicitia30 viewsReference.
RIC 178d; C 393; Hill 343

Obv. HADRIANVS–AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. COS–III
Pudicitia, veiled, seated left on throne pulling veil.

3.41 gr
1 commentsokidoki
926Hadrian_RIC178.jpg
178 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-28 AD Pudicitia48 viewsReference.
RIC 178d; C 393; Hill 343

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Pudicitia, veiled, seated left on throne pulling veil.

3.23 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
Münzhandlung Dr. Waldemar Wruck, Berlin
2 commentsokidoki
RI_179i_img.jpg
179 - Valens, Siliqua, RIC IX Trier 27b 16 viewsObv:– D N VALENS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VRBS ROMA, Roma,helmeted and draped, seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe in righthand and spear in left
Minted in Trier (//TRPS•). 24th August A.D. 367 - 17th November 375
Reference:– RIC IX Trier 27b (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
280_Hadrian_RIC179.jpg
179 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-28 AD Pietas28 viewsReference.
RIC 179; BMC 413; Cohen 394.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III
Pietas, veiled, seated left on throne with globe in exergue.

3.24 gr
19 mm
7h
okidoki
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
RI_185a_img.jpg
185 - Magnus Maximus, AR Siliqua, RIC IX 84b133 viewsObv:– D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
Minted in Trier (TRPS), A.D. 383-388
Reference:– RIC IX, 84b1. RSC 20a.
maridvnvm
19-Alex-Mesembria-P1055.jpg
19. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.23 viewsTetradrachm, ca 175 - 125 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑ and Corinthian helmet to left, monogram under throne.
16.57 gm., 30 mm.
P. #1055; M. #472.
Callimachus
4i.jpg
1922 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 48 views
OBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 16.6mm

Weight 3.0 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
4m.jpg
1922A ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 38 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.9gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1922c.jpg
1922B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 17 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 3.6 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This is a thick square coin, very unusual beveled edges.
Simon
4p.jpg
1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 18 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 41 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
sear1923b.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.436 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17.48mm

Weight 4.8

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm.
Simon
c1.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 40 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 15.64mm

Weight 4.6

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm. My example is running heavy at 4.6gm
Simon
h6~0.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 14 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 3.96

Weight 17.mm

A really nice example

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)


DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm
Simon
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL11 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*Alex
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193822 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
d3~0.jpg
1939 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 2 Constantinople Second Coinage SBCV-193920 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: r hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.
REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 32mm

Weight 4.38gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 3.73gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 30 mm to 34mm
Simon
b5~0.jpg
1940 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 3 Constantinople Third Coinage Variation B SBCV-194026 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Pellet in each limb of the cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 30.57mm

Weight 4.3gm

DOC lists 5 examples of type B with weights from 4.22gm to 4.43gm and sizes from 30 mm to 31mm
Simon
p6~0.jpg
1941 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8 Constantinople SBCV-194117 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, holds sword in l. hand.

Size 31.13 mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists several variations 4 examples total with weights from 3.56gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 32 to 34 mm.
Simon
q6~0.jpg
1942 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8c Variation II Constantinople SBCV-194214 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold patriarchal cross on a long shaft at the base of which three steps.

Size 30.47mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 9 examples total with weights from 3.11gm to 4.40gm and sizes from 30 to 33 mm.
Simon
1943~0.jpg
1943 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 9 Constantinople SBCV-194315 viewsOBV MP OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne without back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma,short military tunic, and sagion; holds in right hand labarum on long shaft, and in left gl.cr

Size 28.71mm

Weight 3.6gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.59gm to 3.92gm and sizes from 29 to 30 mm.
Simon
s6~0.jpg
1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194712 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
y4~1.jpg
1951 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8e Thessalonica SBCV-195117 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold between them labarum on a long shaft at the base of which a small globe.

Size 30.48mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.98gm to 4.12gm and sizes from 31 to 33 mm.
Simon
g3.jpg
1952 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 11 Thessalonica SBCV-1952 19 viewsOBV MO OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion , seated upon throne without back; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast

REV Full-Length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 27.19mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 5 examples total with weights from 2.65gm to 4.46 gm and sizes from 27 to 28 mm.
Simon
s-1998e.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A28 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 22.52mm

Weight 2.7gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.
Simon
s-1998f.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 28 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.20mm

Weight 3.4gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
1o.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 46 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.5/20mm

Weight 4.2

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire. This issue is heavier than normal, Isaac is wearing a sash at waist.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm

Really a nice example, all detail is still there , some wear but beautiful example.
Simon
1i.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6B 49 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross. The coin differs with a Circular legend

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.35mm

Weight 2.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This coin is listed in CLBC as rare, it differs from the normal coin is the circular legend. Other variations of this coin appear in Isaacs attire. This coin brags of a beautiful green yellow Patina and an unusually detailed reverse.
Simon
s-1998.jpg
1998A ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 60 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.26mm

Weight 3.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
m5.jpg
1999 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1999 DOC 10B CLBC 6.3.7 22 views

OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on RIGHT. crowned by virgin nimbate on l.. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in L hand scepter cruciger and in r. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.72mm

Weight 2.9gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 examples with a weight of 2.84 gm and sized at 19mm

This issue is considered to be very rare, 5/5 , Grierson considers it to be an error of S-1998 and I must agree, still a wonderful piece to add to my collection
1 commentsSimon
DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
1 commentsBlindado
JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
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AntonPiusAsWreath.jpg
1bh Antoninus Pius48 views138-161

As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
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DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
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CaracallaDenMars.jpg
1bu Caracalla29 views198-217

Denarius

Laureate head, right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Mars, MARTI PROPVGNATORI

RIC 223

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Severus, records: As he was advancing against Albinus, moreover, and had reached Viminacium 4 on his march, he gave his elder son Bassianus the name Aurelius Antoninus 5 and the title of Caesar, in order to destroy whatever hopes of succeeding to the throne his brother Geta had conceived. His reason for giving his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. It was because of this dream, some believe, that Geta also was called Antoninus, in order that he too might succeed to the throne. . . . [After defeating Niger], he bestowed the. toga virilis on his younger son, Geta, and he united his elder son in marriage with Plautianus' daughter [Plautilla]. . . . Soon thereafter he appointed his sons to the consulship ; also he greatly honored his brother Geta. . . . Severus [in 198] invaded Parthia, defeated the king, and came to Ctesiphon; and about the beginning of the winter season he took the city. For this feat, likewise, the soldiers declared his son, Bassianus Antoninus, co-emperor; he had already been named Caesar and was now in his thirteenth year. And to Geta, his younger son, they gave the name Caesar. . . .

In the life of Caracalla, the history continues: He himself in his boyhood was winsome and clever, respectful to his parents and courteous to his parents' friends, beloved by the people, popular with the senate, and well able to further his own interests in winning affection. Never did he seem backward in letters or slow in deeds of kindness, never niggardly in largess or tardy in forgiving at least while under his parents. . . . All this, however, was in his boyhood. For when
he passed beyond the age of a boy, either by his father's advice or through a natural cunning, or because he thought that he must imitate Alexander of Macedonia,he became more reserved and stern and even somewhat savage in expression. . . .

After his father's death he went to the Praetorian Camp and complained there to the soldiers that his brother was forming a conspiracy against him. And so he had his brother slain in the Palace. . . . After this he committed many further murders in the city, causing many persons far and wide to be seized by soldier sand killed, as though he were punishing a rebellion. . . . After doing all this he set out for Gaul and immediately upon his arrival there killed the proconsul of Narbonensis. . . . Then he made ready for a journey to the Orient, but interrupted his march and stopped in Dacia. . . . Then he journeyed through Thrace accompanied by the prefect of the guard. . . . After this, turning to the war with the Armenians and Parthians, he appointed as military commander a man whose character resembled his own. . . . Then he betook himself to Alexandria. . . . [H]e issued an order to his soldiers to slay their hosts and thus caused great slaughter at Alexandria. . . . Next he advanced through the lands of the Cadusii and the Babylonians and waged a guerilla-warfare with the Parthian satraps, in which wild beasts were even let loose against the enemy. He then sent a letter to the senate as though he had won a real victory and thereupon was given the name Parthicus. . . .

After this he wintered at Edessa with the intention of renewing the war against the Parthians. During this time, on the eighth day before the Ides of April, the feast of the Megalensia and his own birthday, while on a journey to Carrhae to do honor to the god Lunus, he stepped aside to satisfy the needs of nature and was thereupon assassinated by the treachery of Macrinus the prefect of the guard, who after his death seized the imperial power.
1 commentsBlindado
JuliaMamaeaDenVesta.jpg
1cg Julia Mamaea17 viewsDenarius

Diademed, draped bust, right, IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Vesta stg., VESTA

Severus Alexander's mother was the power behind the throne.

RIC 360
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PhilippusAntLiberalitas.jpg
1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
Apollo stg, APOLLONI CONS

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded, "Quintillus, the brother of Claudius, was then declared emperor. He had reigned but a few months, and had performed nothing worthy of notice, before Aurelianus was raised to the imperial throne. Some writers inform us, that Quintillus was advised by his friends, as soon as they heard of Aurelianus being made emperor, to die by his own hand, and give place voluntarily to a man of so much greater merit. They report, that he complied by opening a vein and bleeding to death. "
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
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AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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20. Odessus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.44 viewsTetradrachm, ca 125 - 70 BC, Odessus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΘΕ at left, monogram under throne.
16.36 gm., 34 mm.
P. #1181; M. #419.
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201b. Clodius Albinus20 viewsClodius Albinus

Governor of Britain at the death of the emperor Pertinax, Decimus Clodius Albinus attempted to seize the throne but ended up as Caesar in alliance with another imperial contender, Septimius Severus. After Severus defeated two other rivals, the now expendable Albinus was forced into another attempt at usurpation, an attempt that came to an end at the bloody battle of Lyon. Albinus, defeated and was trapped in a house along the river Rhine, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

AR Denarius. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / FELICITAS COS II, Felicitas standing, head left, holding caduceus and scepter. RSC 15 var. Ex-Flan
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201c. Pescennius Niger125 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Ć 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
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202. Septimius Severus50 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Ć As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
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204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
coin232.JPG
204c. Julia Soaemias29 viewsJulia Soaemias Bassiana (180-March 11, 222) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Avita Mamaea.

She was married to Sextus Varius Marcellus, a Syrian Roman of an Equestrian family (meaning not a member of the Roman senate). As members of the imperial Roman family, they lived in Rome, where their numerous children were born. In 217, her cousin emperor Caracalla was killed and Macrinus ascended to the imperial throne. Julia's family was allowed to returned to Syria with the whole of their financial assets. They would not allow the usurper to stand unopposed. Together with her mother, Julia plotted to substitute Macrinus with her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus). To legitimise this plot, Julia and her mother spread the rumour that the 13-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. In 218 Macrinus was killed and Heliogabalus became emperor. Julia then became the de facto ruler of Rome, since the teenager was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222. Julia was later declared public enemy and her name erased from all records.

Julia Soaemias Denarius. 220 AD. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left, holding scepter, extending her hand to Cupid standing before her. RSC 14.
ecoli
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was a niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana.

She was married to Gessius Marcianus had a son, later emperor Alexander Severus. Unlike her sister, Julia Mamaea was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. As a member of the Imperial Roman family, she watched closely the death of her cousin Caracalla and the ascent to power of her nephew Heliogabalus, the oldest grandson of Julia Maesa and her choice to the throne. But eventually Heliogabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favour fell on Alexander, Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Heliogabalus's murder by the Praetorian Guard. Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort). It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna (Septimius Severus's wife). Thus she travelled to the East, for the campaign against the Parthian empire, and to the Germania provinces. Julia Mamaea was with Alexander in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), capital of Germania Superior, when he was assassinated by his troops. She suffered the same fate.

Julia Mamaea Denarius. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter. RSC 81.
ecoli
a7.jpg
2115 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron SBCV- 2115 DOC 5738 views

OBV Head of Cherub with 4 wings, Pellets flanking on l. side

REV John III seated facing on throne with back, wearing stamma with pendilia, chlamys, holding labarum and gl cr.

Size 19.33mm

Weight 1.974 gm
2 commentsSimon
395Hadrian_RIC212g.jpg
212 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-134 AD Indulgentia21 viewsReference.
RIC 212g;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head left

Rev. INDVLGEN-TIA AVG in ex. COS III P P
Indulgentia, draped, seated left on throne, holding out right hand and holding vertical sceptre in left

3.24 gr
18 mm

Vcoins B Murphy
okidoki
349Hadrian_RIC214.jpg
214 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Justitia37 viewsReference.
RIC 214var; C. 884 var.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Bare Head right, aegis on left shoulder and across back of neck.

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG in Ex. COS III P P
Justitia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

3.11 gr
19 mm
2 commentsokidoki
827Hadrian_RIC218.jpg
218 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Pietas24 viewsReference
RIC II 218 corr. (seated right in error) ; Strack 346; C. 1039

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Bareheaded bust right, with slight drapery.

Rev: PIETAS AVG COS III P P.
Pietas seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre.

3.16 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
ex FORVM
okidoki
rjb_2016_07_07.jpg
2197 viewsJulia Paula
Denarius
Obv:IVLIA PAVLA AVG
Draped bust right
Rev: VENVS GENETRIX
Venus enthroned left holding apple and sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 222
mauseus
LarryW1938.jpg
220 Romanus III Argyrus, AD 1028-103462 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 26mm, 4.37g, VF
Struck at Constantinople AD 1028-1029
+IhS REX REGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wears nimbus cruciger and colobium, raises right hand and holds Gospels with left; double border / ΘCE bOHΘ RWMANW MΘ, the figures of Romanus (left) and the Virgin standing facing; bearded Romanus wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger; the nimbate Virgin wears pallium and maphorum, and with right hand crowns the emperor; double border
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 1d; Sear 1819; Berk 296
Lawrence Woolslayer
22047.jpg
22047 Theodosius II /Concordia15 viewsTheodosius II /Concordia
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly r., holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with cross.
Rev: CONCORDI-A AVGG
Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head r., foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; SMK_ in Exergue
Mint: Cyzicus 17.1mm 2.5g
RIC X 96. Scarce.
Blayne W
22116.jpg
22116 Domitian/Vesta Reverse16 viewsDomitian/Vesta struck under Vespasian 79 AD
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI
Head of Domitian, laureate, right
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS
Vesta, draped, hooded, seated left on throne, holding palladium in ext right hand and transverse sceptre in left
Mint: Rome 17mm., 3,14g
RIC II, Part 1 (second edition) Vespasian 1087
Ex: Savoca Auction 16th Blue Auction
1 commentsBlayne W
orbiana denar-.jpg
225 AD - ORBIANA denarius28 viewsobv: SALL.BARBIA.ORBIANA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA.AVGG (Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae)
ref: RIC319(SevAlex)(S), C.1(20fr.)
2.37gms, rare
Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta was the wife of Severus Alexander who was banished on the whims of Julia Mamaea, who's control of her son she felt was threatened. In 227 on the charge of attempted murder of the emperor, Orbiana was sent in exile to Libya.
berserker
24-Seleukos-I.jpg
24. Seleukos I.96 viewsTetradrachm, ca 305 - 304 BC, Seleuceia ad Tigram mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram at left, ΔΙ under throne.
16.93 gm., 26 mm.
Houghton #941; ESM #4; BMC 4.1, 5.

In Eastern Seleucid Mints, E.T. Newell has this coin in Series 1, Group A. He suggests a date of 305 - 304 BC. Martin J. Price lists a coin in the name of Alexander the Great (#3784) with the exact same monograms. He suggests a date of ca 295 BC for the coin, but admits the whole attribution is very tentative.
2 commentsCallimachus
320_P_Hadrian.jpg
2608 PHRYGIA, Acmoneia Hadrian, Kybele19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2608; BMC PHRYGIA, 54 (pag. 12); Sr GIC 1190

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP
Laureate bust right, aegis tied at shoulder.

Rev. AKMO NEΩN
Cybele wearing polos chitos and peplos, enthroned right, holding in left tympanum, and in right sceptre; beside her, Lion right.

4.29 gr
20 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1334_P_Hadrian_RPC2608.jpg
2608 PHRYGIA, Acmoneia Hadrian, Kybele2 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2608; BMC PHRYGIA, 54 (pag. 12); Sr GIC 1190

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP
Laureate bust right, aegis tied at shoulder.

Rev. AKMO NEΩN
Cybele wearing polos chitos and peplos, enthroned right, holding in left tympanum, and in right sceptre; beside her, Lion right.

4.52 gr
22 mm
h
okidoki
39Hadrian__RIC280~0.jpg
280 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Venus36 viewsReference.
RIC 280a var Globe; C 1449 (no globe); Strack 276(no globe)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
laureate head right

Rev. VENERIS FELICIS
Venus, mantled and diademed, seated left on throne, holding statuette of Cupid, and sceptre,globe in exergue

3.04 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
1033_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

11.05 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1262_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.15 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
390_P_Hadrian.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.04 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
ex Lindgren 1735
1 commentsokidoki
21_P_Hadrian__SNG_von_Aulock_6538-9.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

10.2 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
937_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.JPG
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian Ć 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.26 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1035_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.jpg
2955cf CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne17 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 2955; cf SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316. (crescent)

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes and below crescent; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.15 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
a42.jpg
3. Justin II, follis37 viewsConstantinople Mint - delta officina
Year 6 - AD 571 (G)
DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin II and Sophia on the throne
follis (M)
Zam
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
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3.4 Vespasian IVDAEA denarius84 views69 - 70 AD
Rome Mint
rev. IVDAEA captive Jew seated at the base of a Roman trophy
commemorates Vespasian and Titus' conquest of the rebellious Jewish state following an four year uprising.
This was the springboard for Vespasian in his ambition for the throne. It made him very popular, and this Judaea Capta series was meant to cement that popularity.

i had been looking for one for quite a while!
Zam
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301. Maximinus37 viewsMaximinus Thrax

The first of the "soldier-emperors," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent all three years of his reign on campaign. Although Rome's senatorial elite was eventually able to bring about the downfall of this non-aristocratic emperor, the victory was only a temporary check on the rising importance of the military in the third century. The historical tradition has been universally unkind to Maximinus. His arrival on the throne was similar to that of Macrinus, the only previous emperor who had not been a member of the senatorial class at the time of his accession. Yet unlike Macrinus, Maximinus was a career soldier from a backwards province who had little or no formal education. Maximinus came to be described as a ruthless, semi-barbarian tyrant, and by late antiquity he was regularly referred to with the ethnic epithet Thrax, "the Thracian."

Denarius. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory running right. RIC 16, RSC 99
ecoli
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305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
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305c. Hostilian23 viewsGaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus (died 251), was Roman emperor in 251. Hostilian was born in an unknown date, after 230, as the son of the future emperor Trajan Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla. He was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus.

Following his father's accession to the throne, Hostilian received the treatment of an imperial prince, but was always kept in the shade of his brother Herennius, who enjoyed the privileges of being older and heir. In the beginning of 251, Decius elevated his son Herennius to co-emperor and Hostilian succeeded him in the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth). These dispositions were made previous to a campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him over the raids on the Danubian frontier. Hostilian remained in Rome due to his inexperience, and empress Herennia was named regent.

The campaign proved to be a disaster: both Herennius and Decius died in the Battle of Abrittus and became the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle. The armies in the Danube acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but Rome acknowledged Hostilian's rights. Since Trebonianus was a respected general, there was fear of another civil war of succession, despite the fact that he chose to respect the will of Rome and adopted Hostilian. But later in 251, plague broke out in Rome and Hostilian died in the epidemic. He was the first emperor in 40 years and one of only 13 to die of natural causes. His timely death opened the way for the rule of Trebonianus with his natural son Volusianus.

Hostilian. Moesia Superior. Viminacium AE 25 mm. 11.7 g. Obverse: C VAL HOST M QVINTVS CAE. Draped bust right. Reverse: P M S COL VIM AN XII. Moesia standing left between lion and bull.
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306. Trebonianus Gallus28 viewsGaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August, 253), was Roman emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry and a senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: the future emperor Gaius Vibius Volusianus and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was typical with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus was a key figure in repelling the frequent invasion attacks by the Gothic tribes of the Danube and became popular with the army.

On July 1, 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the battle of Abrittus, at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. When the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. Gallus did not back down from his intention to became emperor, but accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. While Gallus marched on Rome, an outbreak of plague struck the city and killed the young Hostilian. With absolute power now on his hands, Gallus nominated his son Volusianus co-emperor.

Eager to show himself competent and gain popularity with the citizens, Gallus swiftly dealt with the epidemic, providing burial for the victims. Gallus is often accused of persecuting the Christians, but the only solid evidence of this allegation is the imprisoning of Pope Cornelius in 252.

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, king Shapur I of Persia invaded and conquered the province of Syria, without any response from Rome. On the Danube, the Gothic tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. The army was not pleased with the emperor and when Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the Goths, the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. With a usurper threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from the Rhine frontier. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus marched onto Italy ready to fight for his claim. Gallus did not have the chance to face him in battle: he and Volusianus were murdered by their own troops in August 253.
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306a. Volusian22 viewsVolusianus was given the title of Caesar upon the accession of his father, Trebonianus Gallus, to the imperial throne of Rome. He was shortly promoted to emperor along with his father. They were both killed in A.D. 253 by mutinous troops who supported another contender for the throne, Aemilianus.

Obverse: IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS II emperor standing left with branch and scepter
RSC 92, RIC 140
ecoli
l_096.jpg
312-280 BC38 viewsSeleukos I Nikator
Tetradrachm Ecbatana mint

Obverse:Head of Herakles right wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus Aetophoros on throne;ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ;monogram,anchor and forepart of horse grazing left throne; monogram under throne.

28.00mm 16.74gm

SC 204-4, SEAR 6829var
maik
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314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
940_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
3168A CAPPADOCIA, Hierapolis (Comana). Hadrian Didrachm Tyche36 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3168A (Same obverse die)

Obv: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒΑСΤΟС.
Laureate head right.

Rev: ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ.
Tyche seated left on throne, holding rudder and cornucopia.

5.83 gr
21 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
666_P_Hadrian_RPC3169.jpg
3169 CAPPADOCIA, Hierapolis (Comana). Hadrian Drachm Tyche28 viewsReference. Very rare
RPC III, 3169; S 278a, Metcalf Conspectus 113a

Obv: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒΑСΤΟС.
Laureate head right.

Rev: ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ.
Tyche seated left on throne, holding rudder and cornucopia.

3.09 gr
18 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
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319-310 BC Philip III 25 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaeus
Drachm Colophon

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY ;Zeus on throne;Lyre left throne

17.20mm 4.02gm

Price P 43a
maik
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321b. Nigrinian29 viewsMarcus Aurelius Nigrinianus, known in English as Nigrinian (d. 284/285), was probably the son of Roman Emperor Carinus and an heir to the throne. Not much is known about him. It is assumed that Carinus' wife Magnia Urbica was his mother, but it has been proposed that he was actually the son of Aurelia Paulina, Carinus' sister and thus the Emperor's nephew. Nigrinian died in infancy in late 284 or early 285. After his death he was given divine status

Divus Nigrinian. Died circa AD 284. Antoninianus (21mm, 2.11 g, 12h). Rome mint, uncertain officina. 5th emission of Carinus, November AD 284. Radiate head right / Eagle standing facing, head left, with wings spread; KA[?]. RIC V 472; Pink VI/2, p. 39. Fair, rough surfaces.
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322. Numerian30 viewsMarcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus was the younger son of the later emperor Carus, born in about AD 253.
Numerian and his elder brother Carinus were raised to the rank of Caesar in AD 282, soon after their father became emperor.

In AD 282 Numerian accompanied his father to the Danube to defeat the Sarmatians and the Quadi.
Then in December AD 282 or January AD 283 Carus took Numerian with him on his expedition against the Persians to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Carinus stayed in Rome to rule the west.

When Carus died, Numerian succeeded him, thereby becoming joint emperor with his brother Carinus who had been granted the rank of Augustus shortly before Carus' death.

At first, immediately after his father's death, Numerian sought to continue the Persian campaign.
Apparently this was much favoured by Arrius Aper, the prefect of the praetorians and suspect in Carus' death. Conditions for war were favourable. The Persian side was still thought to be weak. But Numerian's initial efforts were not followed by success.
Numerian was to all effect appeared more of an intellectual than a man of war. He wrote poetry, some of which won him critical acclaim in his day.
This lack of ruthless military talent might well have been the reason why Carinus alone had been promoted Augustus, while Numerian remained Caeasar (junior emperor).
And so, after these initial setbacks, Numerian decided it unwise to continue the war.
He sought instead to return back to Rome and the army was not displeased to pull back into Syria were it spent the winter of AD 283.
Thereafter the army set out on its march back west through Asia Minor (Turkey).
Numerian fell ill near Nicomedia, suffering from an eye disease, which he might have caught while still on campaign in Mesopotamia with his father. The illness was explained with severe exhaustion (Today it is believed this was a serious eye infection. This left him partly blind and he had to be carried in a litter.

Somewhere at this time it is believed Arrius Aper, Numerian's own father in-law, had him killed. It;s widely believed that Aper hoped that it would be assumed that Numerian had simply succumbed to his illness and that he, the praetorian prefect, would succeed to the throne in his place.
But why he should have kept up the charade that Numerian was still alive remains a mystery. Perhaps he was waiting for he right moment.
For several days the death went unnoticed, the litter being carried along as usual. Soldiers inquired about their emperor's health and were reassured by Aper, that all was well and that Numerian simply was too ill to appear in public.

Eventually though the stench of the corpse became too much. Numerian's death was revealed and the soldiers realized that Rome had lost yet another emperor (AD 284).

Had it been Aper who hoped to fill the vacancy, then it was Diocletian (still known as Diocles at the time), commander of the imperial bodyguard, who emerged the victor. It was Diocletian who was made emperor by the troops after Numerian's death. It was he who sentenced Aper to death and even executed the sentence himself. Therefore it was he who, benefited most from the deaths of Carus and Numerian. And in his role as body guard he held a key position, enabling him to prevent or enable any action against the emperor. Hence it is unlikely that Diocletian did not have anything to do with the murder of Numerian.

Numerian Antoninianus / Numerian with globe and spear

Attribution: RIC 361
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian l. holding globe and spear
Size: 22.39 mm
Weight: 3.5 grams
Description: A nice ant of a scarcer emperor while serving as Caesar
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323-317 BC Philip III 38 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaeus
Tetradrachm Babylon

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ;Zeus on throne;M left throne, LY under throne

25.93mm 17.00 g
PRICE P 181b
maik
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323-317 BC Philip III 36 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaeus
Tetradrachm Babylon

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:FILIPPOY BASILEOS;Zeus on throne;M left throne, LY under throne

25.24mm 17.12gm

Price P181b
maik
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323-317 BC Philip III16 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaeus
Drachm Colophon

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:Zeus on throne;ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ;Monogram at left field

17.57mm 4.17gm


PRICE P 46c
maik
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323-317 BC Philip III Aridaios 15 viewsPhilip III Aridaios
Drachm Colophon

Obverse:Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Reverse:Zeus on throne;FILIPPOY;Monogram at left field

16.41mm 4.03g
PRICE P 46c
maik
489_P_Hadrian_Prieur_763.jpg
3260 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche52 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3260/14; Prieur --; SNG France 1404; SNG Levante –.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC CΕ
Laureate bust right, slight drapery

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding palm frond and cornucopia; at feet, half-length figure of river-god Cydnus swimming left; all within wreath.

10.38 gr
25 mm
12 h

From the Olav E. Klingenberg Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 88 (14 September 2011), lot 1004.
Note from CNG
Most of the references do not distinguish the silver issues of Hadrian from Tarsus, but it is clear there are two distinct denominations. The heavier, at about 14 grams, is the traditional tetradrachm. The lighter, at slightly over 10 grams, is most likely a tridrachm.
1 commentsokidoki
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3278 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian, Demos of Tarsus14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3278; BMC 152; NG Levante 1003 = SNG von Aulock 5987; SNG France -

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗС ΤΑΡСΟΥ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ⊏ ⊏ΕΒΑСΤΟ⊏ (square sigmas)
laureate, right, with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. ΔΗΜΟ⊏ ΤΑΡ⊏ΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩ⊏
Demos, wearing himation over left. arm and lower limbs, seated, left., on throne, holding wreath in right hand.

18.27 gr
25 mm
5h
okidoki
1163Hadrian_RIC361.JPG
361 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Indulgentia41 viewsReference.
RIC 361; C. 845

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate, head right

Rev. INDVLGENTIA AVG COS III
Indulgentia, draped, seated left on throne, holding out right hand and holding transverse sceptre in left

3.29 gr
18 mm
6h
4 commentsokidoki
185Hadrian_RIC362var.jpg
362 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia20 viewsReference.
RIC 362 var; Strack 199 (same die pair); C. 882

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG, COS III in ex,
Justitia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

2.96 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius49 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Ć 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ćlia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallćcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menća and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
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515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
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517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
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622Hadrian_RIC535b.JPG
535b Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 117 AD Concordia73 viewsReference.
RIC cf535b; BMC cf1104; Strack cf502; Banti 145 ( 1 example)

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER,
Laureate, heroically nude bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front

Rev DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P, CONCORDIA and S C in field
Concordia seated left on throne, cornucopia at side, holding patera and resting elbow on statuette of Spes standing left set on low basis.

24.78 gr
35 mm
6h


When he became emperor following the death of Trajan in 117 AD, questions immediately arose regarding the validity of Hadrian's succesion. Although it is clear from Hadrian's early career and marriage to Sabina (Trajan's grand-niece) that the emperor brought his young kinsman within the imperial court, Trajan, unlike Nerva before, made no move to adopt Hadrian formally, instead possibly preferring others. This fact prompted Hadrian, in the early days of his reign to emphasize his legitimacy to the succession. Hadrian declared Trajan divus and ordered his ashes installed in the Column of his newly complete Forum. Trajan's name and titles were incorporated into the new imperial nomenclature, a privilege reserved solely for legitimate heirs. At the same time, coins were struck to associate the new reign with the previous administration and declare a peaceful transferral of power. The legend DAC PARTHICO (in the dedicatory dative), clearly refers to Trajan, while the Concordia reverse type (to date, uncommon with the addition of Spes), emphasized by the inclusion of CONCORDIA in the exergue, demonstrated Hadrian's potential willingness for the time to continue Trajan's policies, thereby insuring continued political harmony, something which disintegrated as Hadrian's reign progressed.
1 commentsokidoki
769Hadrian_RIC538b.jpg
538 Hadrian Dupondius 117 AD Concordia127 viewsReference.
RIC 538b; C. 260; BMC 1107; Strack 502

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER
Radiate, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P S C
Concordia enthroned facing left, holding patera in right hand, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes on small column, cornucopiae below throne.

12.31gr
28 mm
12h
.
Note.
CNG Sale 11/09.
From the Estate Collection of Dr. Richard Doty
10 commentsokidoki
1157Hadrian_RIC557.jpg
557 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 118 AD Fortuna8 viewsReference.
RIC 557 var. (no balteus);Spink 3663; C. 757

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG.
Radiate bust right, heroically nude bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S - C / FORT RED.
Fortuna seated left on throne, holding cornucopia and rudder.

12.39 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
2JustinII565AD.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia28 viewsAe 1/2 follis; 23mm; 7.32g

DNIVSTI-NVS PP AVG
Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre

Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right
KYZ in exergue

SB 373, MIB 51, DO 132.1
Cyzicus Mint, 573/4 AD
2 commentsRobin Ayers
3JustinII560AD.jpg
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia23 viewsAe Follis; 30mm; 15.06g

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin on left holding cross on globe and Sophia on right, holding sceptre topped by cross, both nimbate, seated facing on double-throne

Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right II over II, officina A below
CON in exergue

SB 360; MIB 43; DO 25a
Constantinople, 568/9 AD
1 commentsRobin Ayers
2-2014-11-12_coinsnov20142.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia18 viewsAe Follis; 28-29mm; 11.87g

DNIVSTI-NVS PP AVG
Justin & Sophia, seated facing on double throne

ANNO in left field, cross/Large M/I, U in right field
NIKO in exergue

SB369; Nicomedia mint
Robin Ayers
2-2014-11-12_coinsnov20143.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II and Sophia13 viewsAe half follis; 20mm; 5.16g

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross
on globe, Sophia holding scepter

ANNO in left field, cross/Large K, II/III
TES in exergue

SB366, MIB 70
Robin Ayers
346_P_Hadrian_Emmett888.jpg
5770 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 130-31 AD Sabina33 viewsReference.
Emmett 888.15 (R5); Köln 1030 var. (placement of date); Dattari (Savio) 1260; K&G 32.507; RPC III, 5770

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. CABEINA CEBACTH L I-E (date) across field.
Sabina seated left, holding two grain ears and scepter.

12.33 gr
23 mm
12h
Rare Depiction of Sabina Enthroned
2 commentsokidoki
500_P_Hadrian_Emmett892_16.jpg
5789 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 131-32 AD Sarapis56 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5789; cf Emmett 892.16; Köln 1044; Dattari (Savio) 1477; K&G 32.514

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from behind

Rev. L ΙϚ (year 16)
Sarapis seated left on ornate throne decorated with crowning Nikai, extending right hand over seated Cerberus, holding long scepter in left.

13.09 gr
24.50 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
65_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1038.jpg
5813 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 131-32 AD Isis as mother30 viewsReference.
Emmett 1138.16 Köln 1046; K&G 32.530; RPC III, 5813

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. L Iς (date) across field.
Isis enthroned right, nursing Harpocrates, holding a lotus bud

10.47 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
279_Hadrian_RIC583a.jpg
583a Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-21 AD Libertas44 viewsReferentc.
RIC 583a; C 948. BMC 1190A.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA
Libertas, draped, seated left on throne, holding branch in right hand, which rests on lap, and vertical sceptre in left
in exergue, S C.

26.50 gr
2 commentsokidoki
1230Hadrian_RIC583.JPG
583b Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-21 AD Libertas14 viewsReference
RIC 583b; C 948. BMC 1190A.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA
Libertas, draped, seated left on throne, holding branch in right hand, which rests on lap, and vertical sceptre in left
in exergue, S C.

24.24 gr
34 mm
6h

Note.
ex Münzzentrum Köln, Auktion 45, 1981, Los 554
3 commentsokidoki
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I384 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
1018_P_Hadrian_RPC6123_2.jpg
6123 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 135-36 AD Isis as mother9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6123.2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 84, 7707 (this coin) Emmett 1092.20

Issue L K = year 20

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L K
Isis enthroned right, crowned with horns and disk, suckling the infant Harpokrates, who is crowned with skhent and holding a lotus stalk

13.90 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
a43.jpg
7. Manuel Comnenus AE Trachy45 viewsManuel Comnenus
1143 - 1180
Constantinople Mint
AE Trachy

obv. IC - XC Jesus enthroned
rev. Manuel standing on left, being crowned by Mary
Zam
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
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708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
LarryW2235.jpg
7276 Nikomedes IV, Philopator, 94-74 BC134 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 34.4mm, 15.61g, EF
Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus standing left holding wreath and sceptre, eagle on thunderbolt over monogram and date EΣ (year 205 or 94 BC) in inner left field.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 7276; BMC Pontus, page 215, #1; SNG von Aulock 265; SNG Cop 650
My personal favourite of this small collection because of the finely detailed portrait, 'perfect' toning, and minor imperfections like small die breaks that for me, add 'character.'
Note (courtesy Joe Sermarini): During the first year of his reign, Mithradates, king of Pontus, expelled him and placed his younger brother Socrates on the throne. The next year he was restored by the Roman army under Aquilius. Aquilius was later defeated and killed and in 88 BC, Mithradates destroyed Nikomedes' army forcing him to flee to Italy. Nikomedes' throne was again restored when Rome defeated Mithradates in 84 BC. He died childless and his will left his kingdom to Rome.