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ENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .32 viewsENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .
Mint and moneyer uncertain . 1.0 gr
Crowned and diademed bust of king right, holding sceptre in his right hand .
Cross moline, with a fleur each angle .
North 873; SCBC 1278
Vladislav D
Cnut_Lot_1402_LCG.jpg
ENGLAND. King Cnut AR penny31 viewsENGLAND. CANTERBURY, Royal mint, Cnut (1016-35), Silver Penny, 0.91g, 17.52 mm, Short Cross type moneyer Wulfwig.
Obv: Diademed bust left with lis sceptre, +CNVT - RECX:
Rev: Short voided cross, central annulet enclosing pellet, +PVLFPIGONCANT
Good Very Fine, slightly creased and pecked
North 790
London Coin Galleries, Auction 4 - Part 2 Lot 1402 June 1, 2017
1 commentsorfew
England-AR-penny-John-030000-temp-1.jpg
England: silver Short Cross penny of King John (1199-1216), struck in the name of Henry II, ca. 1205-120739 viewslordmarcovan
penny_18.jpg
Gaucher de Chatillon, Yves mint, Mayhew 237-910 viewsmauseus
penny_17.jpg
John the Blind, Luxembourg mint, Mayhew 26511 viewsmauseus
penny_20.jpg
Robert of Bethune, Alost mint, Mayhew 2195 viewsmauseus
penny_07.jpg
William of Hinault, Bishop of Cambrai, Cambrai mint, Mayhew 87-9010 viewsmauseus
penny_19.jpg
William of Namur, Namur mint, Mayhew 3617 viewsmauseus
00091x00.jpg
91 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837.
CU Penny Token (34.5 mm, 14.27 g, 6 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835.
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-4A2; Breton 870

Canadian catalogs traditionally give this issue to an illicit mint in Montreal. Wayne Jacobs1 argues that these were struck in Belleville. While his methodology is somewhat questionable - most of his theory is based off a unreliable editorial in an 1893 edition of the Newark Sunday Call - his reasoning regarding this series is sound. He is able to clearly demonstrate that the halfpenny and penny tokens in question are a product of a single, cohesive establishment which could not have been located in Lower Canada. Finally, Jacobs' claim can be supported by documentary evidence from the Belleville mint's primary competitor, the Scoville Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. A letter from J.M.L. to W.H. Scoville, dated April 4 1839, states that, "a competitor was stamping Canada Nova Scotia and Southern coins at 35 cents a pound."

1. Jacobs, Wayne. 1996. “The Shadowy Issues of the Belleville Mint.” Canadian Numismatic Journal 41 1: 13–26.
1 commentsArdatirion
QXk0g1k.jpg
20 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A1; Corteau 277; Breton 871

The first obverse die for the series. This obverse would be extensively reused, eventually rusting, being polished and re-engraved, and develop the diagnostic die break before the nose.
Ardatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
31 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278, tentative die state 6; Breton 871

“Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin.” R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
0IEu73C.jpg
14 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 (over 1382) below
Charlton NS-3C; Corteau 281; Breton 871

This reverse die was initially engraved with the anachronistic date 1382, but was quickly caught and corrected, leaving only a handful of that extremely rare variety known today.
Ardatirion
NOwh23l.jpg
19 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3D1; Corteau 282; Breton 871
Ardatirion
00090x00.jpg
71 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token (28mm, 8.47 g, 6 h)
John Walker & Company's mint. Dated 1832
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of George IV right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-1D1; Breton 871
1 commentsArdatirion
00036x00.jpg
48 viewsUNITED STATES, Pre-Federal. New Jersey. 1786-1789.
CU Penny. (27mm, 9.37 g)
Rahway Mills mint.
Dated 1787
* NOVA * CÆSAREA *, head of horse right; plow below
* E * PLURIBUS * UNUM *, shield
Whitman 5225; Maris 43-d
1 commentsArdatirion
DSC_2712.jpg
55 viewsBRITISH TRADE TOKENS, Middlesex. London & Middlesex. Robert Reynolds & Co.
CU Halfpenny Token (31mm, 12.42 g, 6 h)
Dated 1799
LONDON & MIDDLESEX, draped bust of William Shakespeare left
HALFPENNY, Abundatia seated left on bale of cotton, extending hand and holding cornucopia; ship to left; 1799 in exergue
D&H 928
Ardatirion
edilred2-denier-crux.JPG
S.1148 Aethelred II (crux penny, Winchester)17 viewsAethelred II, king of the English (978-1013 and 1014-1016)
Crux penny (moneyer: Brithmaer, mint: Winchester)

A/ +ΛEDELRED REX ΛNGLR X (AE and NG ligated) around central circle enclosing diademed & draped bust left holding a scepter
R/ BYRTHMΛER M-O PIN (AR ligated) around central circle containing voided cross with pellet center, C R V X in angles

silver, 1.65 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h
1 commentsDroger
aethelred2-long-cross.JPG
S.1151 Aethelred II (long cross penny, Winchester)8 viewsAethelred II, king of the English (978-1013 and 1014-1016)
Long cross penny (moneyer: Godwine, mint: Canterbury, 997-1003)

A/ +ΛEDELRED REX ΛNGLO (AE and NG ligated) around central circle enclosing draped bust left
R/ +GODE-PINE-MΩO-CΛENT (NE and ΛE ligated) ; long voided cross with terminal lunettes

silver, 1.65 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h
Droger
cnut-pointed-helmet.JPG
S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)17 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
edouard-conf-penny-hammer-cross.JPG
S.1182 Edward the Confessor (hammer cross penny, York)5 viewsEdward the Confessor, king of England (1042-1066)
Hammer cross penny (moneyer: Thorr, mint: York, 1059-1062)

A/ +EΛDPΛRD-DRE; crowned, bearded bust right, scepter before
R/ +DORR ON EOFRPICE (barred D); hammer cross, annulet in one quarter

silver, 1.40 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h



Droger
guillaume1-penny-paxs.JPG
S.1257 William I the Conqueror (PAXS penny, London)15 viewsWilliam I the Conqueror, king of England (1066-1087)
PAXS penny (moneyer: Alfred, mint: London, 1083-1086?)

A/ +PILLELM RE; crowned bust facing, sceptre to right; clasp on shoulder
R/ +IELFRE ON LVNDN; cross with the letters PAXS in circles in the angles

silver, 1.40 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h

This type may have been struck by William II, son of William I.


2 commentsDroger
henry7-souverain.JPG
S.2233 Henry VII Tudor (sovereign type penny, Durham)6 viewsHenry VII Tudor, king of England (1485-1509) and Bishop Richard Fox
Sovereign type penny (mint: Durham)

A/ [hENRIC] DI [GRA RE]X A[NG]; king seated on throne with one pilar, holding scepter and orb
R/ [CIVI-TA]S-DIR-hAm; royal shield on cross, mitre above, D and R on the sides

silver, 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 8h
Droger
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
TIBERIUS_FOURREE_RES.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS27 views14 - 37 AD
AR DENARIUS FOUREE (TRIBUTE PENNY) 18 mm 2.82 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD RIGHT
R: LIVIA SEATED RIGHT HOLDING SCEPTER AND BRANCH
ROME
laney
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
Tribute_pennyBlack.jpg
02 Tiberius RIC 2639 viewsTiberius 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 14-37 AD. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head facing right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre and branch.
RIC 26; BMC 34; RSC 16.

Ex: Ancient Delights
Paddy
Tiberius-RIC-3.jpg
021. Tiberius.23 viewsDenarius, ca 16 - 37 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS / Laureate bust of Tiberius.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM / Livia seated, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre.
3.56 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #1763.

Because this is the denarius that was in circulation at the time of Jesus, this coin is often called the "Tribute Penny" -- a name which is derived from the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible where the word denarius was translated as penny.
Callimachus
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30149 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)33 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-05 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 18.5 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberius_RIC_30_2_Fourree.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)45 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario Tiberio RIC 26.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)108 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #5 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)85 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_30_1.jpg
04-14 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)89 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
1 commentsmdelvalle
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England31 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis:1
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland19 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Hugh and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England21 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer, Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
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1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland7 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer, Roberd.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
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1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Long cross penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
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1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
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1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
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1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB +. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. In 1308 he married Isabella, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, to try and resolve tensions between the two countries.
Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston, who was arrogant with the power he had as Edward's favourite. In 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms and the newly empowered barons had Gaveston banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was obliged to sign a truce which brought an end to almost thirty years of warfare between the two countries.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reportedly gruesomely murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
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1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England4 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
tiberius tribute penny.jpg
16 - 37 A.D. Tiberius - Ric 30 "Tribute Penny"153 viewsSilver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 3.494g, 18.8mm, 225o, 16 - 37 A.D.;
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right;
PONTIF MAXIM, Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; nicely centered
RIC 30, RSC 16a, S 1763, VF

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
2 commentsjimwho523
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London0 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET•mintmark (Rose)• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY10 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*Alex
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
1696_WILLIAM_III_HALFPENNY.JPG
1696 WILLIAM III AE HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1696.
Centre of reverse weakly struck.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3554
*Alex
1724_George_I_Halfpenny.JPG
1724 GEORGE I AE Halfpenny8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1724.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3660

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1734_George_II_AE_Halfpenny.JPG
1734 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Halfpenny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1734.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3717

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1747_GEORGE_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1747 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Halfpenny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1747.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.8gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3719

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*Alex
George-3_halfpenny_1771.JPG
1771 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny11 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1771.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3774

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*Alex
1789_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY_CYPHER.JPG
1789 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.115 viewsObverse: MACCLESFIELD. Ornamental cypher of “R & Co” (Roe & Company), surmounted by a beehive and six bees.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and an eight spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1789.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 13
RARE

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_HULL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.39 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS TERTIUS REX •. Equestrian statue of King William III facing right; in exergue, MDCLXXXIX.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between sprigs of oak, 1791 above.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IONATHAN GARTON & Co • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
There is slight die damage, a common feature of 18th century tokens, visible at the horse's breast on the obverse.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
The equestrian statue of William III depicted on this token is one of Hull's key landmarks, it has been standing in the centre of the city square since 1734.
*Alex
1791_Hull_Halfpenny_Ship.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.31 viewsObverse: No legend. A ship sailing right, two laurel branches below.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY / 1791. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between two sprigs of oak with eight acorns on each branch.
Edge: PAYABLE IN HULL AND IN LONDON • X X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 7
Dalton & Hamer: 22

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
The dies for this token were engraved by John Gregory Hancock who was also probably responsible for manufacturing it.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. The College of Arms, the institution which regulates heraldry in England, confirmed the right of the Borough (now City) of Hull to use the crowns in the 1600s. Since then, virtually every public building in the City has been decorated with the coat of arms.
A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
*Alex
1791_Leeds_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Leeds, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: ARTIS NOSTRÆ CONDITOR •. Standing figure of Bishop Blaize (patron saint of woolcombers) holding a wool comb in his raised right hand and a book and crosier in his left; at his feet, to right, a lamb facing right with it's head turned to left.
Reverse: LEEDS HALFPENNY 1791. Coat of arms of the City of Leeds consisting of a shield containing three stars and a hanging fleece, crested by an owl. The date, 17 - 91, bisected by the base of the shield.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF RICHARD PALEY •XX•".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 6
Dalton & Hamer: 45 | Conder: 20 (Yorkshire)

This token was issued by Richard Paley, a freeholder, maltster, soap-boiler and chandler with a business in a locality known as the “Calls” in Leeds. The token was manufactured by Matthew Bolton at his SOHO Mint in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by Henry Brownbill.

Bishop Blaise, also known as Saint Blasius, was a well-known martyr from Armenia, who as the price of his faith, back in the 4th century, had been put to death by being raked with red-hot rakes. Later he was adopted as the Patron Saint of Woolcombers and, appropriately, his effigy is usually shown holding a rake. On this token, however, Bishop Blaise is shown holding the traditional bishop's crosier.
*Alex
1791_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.71 viewsObverse: CHARLES ROE ESTABLISHED THE COPPER WORKS 1758 • Bust of Charles Roe, facing right.
Reverse: MACCLESFIELD HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and a six spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1791.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 55

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.26 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
1792_NORFOLK___NORWICH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Norwich, Norfolk.21 viewsObverse: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH •. The arms of Norwich consisting of a three turreted gateway over a lion with raised paw; PRO BONO PUBLICO in smaller letters below.
Reverse: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY•. The Duke of Norfolk’s coat of arms; below shield, 1792.
Edge: PAYABLE AT N • BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER & C • NORWICH • X •.
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was issued by Nathaniel Bolingbroke, a haberdasher and silversmith with a business in the market place in Norwich, the manufacturer and diesinker are uncertain.

Norwich, a city in England, is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1792_ROCHDALE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.37 viewsObverse: No legend. View of a male weaver, seated facing right, working in his loom.
Reverse: ROCHDALE HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of the Clothworker's Company with a Ram Crest above and 1792 below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 143

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen factory in the town.

The Clothworkers' arms were granted in 1530 by Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms, two years after the foundation of the Company. It consists of a shield with a chevron containing five teasel heads between two habicks above and a teasel plant beneath. The habicks and the teasel represent essential tools for the clothworkers' craft. The habicks were the hooks used to attach the fabric to the forms on which it was stretched for teaselling. The teasels were used to raise the nap of the fabric prior to shearing.
*Alex
1792_YARMOUTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Yarmouth, Norfolk.23 viewsObverse: LET YARMOUTH FLOURISH :. Coat of Arms of Yarmouth over crossed sprigs of oak. Small incuse rosette countermark in field to right of shield. The Coat of Arms combines three lion's heads from the Royal Arms with the tails of three silver herrings, believed to come from the original arms of Yarmouth.
Reverse: YARMOUTH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; 1792, in panel below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE GLASS WAREHOUSE OF W. ABSOLON • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 52

This token was issued by William Absolon (1751 – 1815), a British ceramist who, from 1784, sold English and foreign china and glass but also later offered gilding, enameling and painting services at his shop, No 4, at the lower end of Market Row in Yarmouth.
Absolon bought in wares from the Wedgewood, Davenport, Turner and Staffordshire factories, which he then decorated. He painted dessert services with botanical subjects with the Latin name of the plant inscribed on the plate or dish and also his mark; Absolon Yarm and No 25. He also decorated Turner Ware and Cream Ware Jugs adding mottoes, such as; a Trifle from Yarmouth, or Success to the Trade. Absolon died in 1815 and although his business continued, the quality declined. Today, his work attracts high prices at auction.
*Alex
1793_Leek_Halfpenny.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny Token. Leek, Staffordshire.21 viewsObverse: ARTE FAVENTE NIL DESPERANDUM. Two clasped hands with olive branch behind and rosette below.
Reverse: LEEK COMMERCIAL HALFPENNY • 1793. Caduceus leaning against a large wool bale and a tea chest.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LEEK • STAFFORDSHIRE + +".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 11

This token was probably issued by Messrs Ford and Phillips, about whom little is known, it was manufactured by Peter Kempson and the dies were engraved by Allan Wyon. Allan Wyon was a member of the “Wyon” family of medallists and die engravers, and was the youngest of three brothers to succeed their father as chief engraver of the seals.
*Alex
1797_EMSWORTH_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: PEACE AND PLENTY. Dove carrying olive-branch flying above cornucopia spilling out the fruits of the earth.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 11

Issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer from Hampshire, this token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. This token is a mule of the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 10 (Hampshire), here used as the obverse and the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 11. It may have originally been intended that these mules would be sold to collectors, but as a large number exist it seems that they must have been sold to merchants and entered general circulation.
*Alex
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex13 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left £200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
1794_Whale_Fishery_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. London Middlesex.24 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY•. Bust of Neptune, with trident across his right shoulder, facing right.
Reverse: PAYABLE AT I:FOWLER’s LONDON•. Whale fishing scene consisting of four men in a small boat harpooning a whale; below, WHALE FISHERY / 1794 in two lines.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 306

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Thomas Mynd in Birmingham.
The token was issued by J. Fowler who was an oil merchant and tin-plate worker with a business at 78, Long Acre, at the West End of London.
*Alex
1794_Spalding_Halfpenny_.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Spalding, Lincolnshire.47 viewsObverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Reverse: SPALDING HALFPENNY. A shield edged with sprays containing the initials TJ (for Thomas Jennings) in the form of a cypher; above shield, a couped lion rampant crest; below shield, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT T. JENNING'S SPALDING & HOLBEACH - X -.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 6
RARE

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock or Thomas Wyon.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713.
*Alex
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.84 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.23 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1795_Petersfield_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny Token. Petersfield, Hampshire.32 viewsObverse: PETERSFIELD. Mounted dragoon presenting sword, on horse trotting to left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 49
RARE

This halfpenny token is one of a series of mules manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Petersfield is a market town situated on the northern slopes of the South Downs, 17 miles north of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, England. The town is on the crossroads of well-used north–south and east–west routes and it grew in prosperity due to its position as a coach stop as well as it's local sheep farming, and cottage industries of leather and cloth.
The town was founded during the 12th century by William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and confirmed by charter in 1198 by John, Count of Mortain, the later King John.
*Alex
1795_Kilvington.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Brunswick, Middlesex.78 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT J.KILVINGTONS. Laureate head facing left.
Reverse: BRUNSWICK HALFPENNY • . Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 346

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.

The token was issued by John Kilvington, a grocer and tea dealer at No. 153 Drury Lane, London.

The identity of the bust on the obverse of this token is uncertain, but it may represent a member of the Royal family, even George III himself since the Duke of Brunswick was among his titles.
*Alex
1795_Bee-hive_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Cambridgeshire County.50 viewsObverse: INDUSTRY HAS IT’S SURE REWARD. Thirty-four bees swarming around a beehive set on a table.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “BERSHAM BRADLEY WILLEY SNEDSHILL".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 14
SCARCE

The diesinker for this token was Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham.
1 comments*Alex
1795_CHELSEA_HALFPENNY__.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Chelsea, Middlesex.23 viewsObverse: CHELSEA✶. Sailor with wooden leg standing facing left presenting petition to Britannia facing right, seated on bale and holding spear in her right hand, right arm resting on shield, her left hand extended toward supplicant; in exergue, HALFPENNY.
Reverse: THE SUPPORT OF OUR ENDEAVOUR. Hope facing right, leaning on anchor; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 277

The engraver and diesinker for this token was F. Arnold, and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham.

Although the authority responsible for the issue of this token is unknown, it is possibly associated with the Chelsea Military Hospital, home of the "Chelsea Pensioners". This token may have been issued as a reminder to the Nation of the debt owed to the army and navy, the obverse has been designed to attract attention to their plight, especially since the defeated troops from the disastrous Flanders Campaign of 1794 would have just returned home. The reverse is a reminder that the navy should not be neglected.
*Alex
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.62 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Mule_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland56 viewsObverse: NUNQUAM ARESCERE. River God reclining facing right, right arm resting on an urn, inscribed CLYDE, from which water flows, left hand holding oar inscribed with St Andrew's cross; in exergue, MDCCXCI (1791).
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
RARE

This is one of a series of mule halfpennies by Lutwyche. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

The inscription NUNQUAM ARESCERE (Never dries) is taken from a passage in Ovid's Metamorphoses, "Naidas his venam, quae nunquam arescere posset, supposuisse ferunt" (They tell us that the Naiads converted them into a stream which never dries).
*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.29 viewsObverse: LET GLASGOW FLOURISH. The arms of Glasgow; Shield containing tree with a bird and a bell in it's branches and a fish across it's trunk.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Striking flaw visible next to the “H” in FLOURISH
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 7.3gms.
Dalton & Hamer: 6a

Manufactured by Matthew Boulton at his SOHO mint in Birmingham, the diesinker was probably Thomas Wyon.
Reputedly issued by Gilbert Shearer & Co. who were, according to Jones's Directory dated 1789, woollen drapers with a shop at No.19 Trongate, Glasgow.
*Alex
1795_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, North Wales, Anglesey.17 viewsObverse: No legend. Druid's head wearing cowl facing left, surrounded by oak wreath; engraver's initial "W" (for Wyon) in raised letters at bottom of bust (see inset).
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 429
RARE

The diesinker for this token was Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham.
The Druid's head was a feature of the Parys Mine in Anglesey, North Wales and was used on some of the earliest issues of 18th century Tokens.
This piece was issued for general circulation.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1797_PERTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny Token. Perth, Scotland.23 viewsObverse: PRO REGE LEGE ET GREGE (For King, Law and Flock). Coat of Arms of the City of Perth consisting of double-headed eagle with shield, displaying lamb holding saltire flag.
Reverse: PERTH • HALFPENNY • • • •. A hank of yarn above a package of dressed flax; 17 - 97 across field.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT THE HOUSE OF PAT. K MAXWELL X X".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
SCARCE

This token was issued by Patrick Maxwell, a grocer and spirit dealer on the High Street in Perth. In later years this business became known as Maxwell & Son. The hank of yarn and bale of flax refers to the linen trade in the town which was its main industry at the time of this token’s issue.
This token was engraved and manufactured by Joseph Kendrick at his works in Birmingham, England.
*Alex
leith_halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Leith, Scotland.60 viewsObverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; laurel branches below.
Reverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LEITH EDINBURGH & GLASGOW ✤ ✤".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 60

Probably manufactured by Bonham Hammond, a button manufacturer from Birmingham. Bonham Hammond, has been credited with only this single large 18th-century token issue which was likely struck at his factory, then called Hammond, Turner, & Dickenson, located at Snow Hill in Birmingham.
1 comments*Alex
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
1797_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, North Wales and London.48 viewsObverse: NORTH WALES HALFPENNY. Script monogram of "RNG" in centre with 1793 above.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 18
RARE

Possibly engraved by Rambert Dumarest (Britannia) and Thomas Wyon (cypher). Manufactured by William Lutwyche and/or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.

This token, apparently a mule, was issued by, or is in imitation of, the Parys Mine Company from North Wales. In the 18th century the token manufacturers supplied orders for a great variety of tokens. These manufacturers often used the dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, i.e. tokens produced by using the dies of two different tokens, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to “benefit” the collectors of the day.

The undeciphered “RNG” cypher is very similar to the “PMC” cypher used for the Parys Mine Company's first tokens.
*Alex
1797_SIR_BEVOIS_SOUTHAMPTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Southampton, Portsmouth or London.43 viewsObverse: FOR GENERAL CONVENIENCE. Helmeted and armoured bust, possibly of Sir Bevois, facing right.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1019 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Although the die-sinker is uncertain the dies were probably engraved by Rambert Dumarest due to the close similarity between this image and Dumarest's "Sir Bevois" image on Southampton issues. This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham.
*Alex
George_3_Cartwheel_Penny_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" PENNY10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 36mm
SPINK: 3777

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

This was the year that the first copper penny was struck, it was also the first time that the figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear. The coin was struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham but, weighing a full one ounce (28.3g) and with a diameter of 36mm, it was rather heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales.
*Alex
1797_(Undated)_MAIL_COACH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex27 viewsObverse: Mail Coach, with GR cypher on it's door, drawn by four horses galloping right; above, HALFPENNY PAYA-BLE IN LONDON; below, TO TRADE EXPEDIN & TO PROPERTY PROTECTION.
Reverse: THIS IS INSCRIBED ✤ TO J. PALMER ESQ. around AFH cypher within palm branches.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 28mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 366

There were several issues of Mail Coach halfpennies, the last dated issue being in 1797. This, the final token in the series is undated, its Mail Coach obverse is similar, but the inscription is different and the reverse has the cypher AFH which has been linked to Anthony Francis Holdinhand, a merchant of 51 St. Mary-Axe in London. St. Mary-Axe is now the site of the well-known "Gherkin" skyscraper which was opened there in 2004.

Though these “Mail Coach” tokens are associated with John Palmer, he did not issue them. Famous in his day the story goes that, on 2nd. August 1784 at 4.00 pm, Palmer began an experimental journey from the "Rummer" Tavern in Bristol. The coach reached the "Three Tuns" in Bath at 5.20 pm and, travelling overnight, arrived at "The Swan with Two Necks" Inn in London at 8.00 am. Palmer, who knew how to operate a fast system of chaises between Bath and Bristol in order to get a quick exchange of actors and properties, had predicted the sixteen hour journey which the Post Office surveyors had said was impossible. The Post Office's mounted 'Post Boys' were taking nearly two days to carry the mail from Bath to London at the time. Palmer's successful experiment led to his appointment as Comptroller-General of the Post Office and, helped by road improvements, a network of routes served by dedicated Mail Coaches spread rapidly.
1 comments*Alex
George_III_HALFPENNY_1799.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1799. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 30mm.
SPINK: 3778

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
1800_penny_NGC-AU58.jpg
1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU5871 viewsGreat Britain 1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU58
*no dots between titles on obverse.
obv:
GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA
rev:
MAG.BRI.FR.ET.HIB.REX
.1800.
2 commentsrexesq
George-3_halfpenny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 28m | Weight: 9.6gms
SPINK: 3781

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
George_3_Penny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Penny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 34mm | Weight: 19.2gms
SPINK: 3780

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.152 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Mercury_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "MERCURY" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.65 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Mercury wearing Petasus facing left, caduceus behind.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Davis 36 | Coxall type 3

The principal die engraver was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
Walthamstow_VINCIT_Halfpenny.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.38 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Small laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17, Coxall type 10

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1811_Vincit_Large_head.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.32 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Large laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Die damage, a common feature of these tokens, is visible at 10 o'clock on the obverse.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1811_Staffordshire_Penny.JPG
1811 AE Penny, County of Staffordshire.46 viewsObverse: STAFFORDSHIRE. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right; PENNY TOKEN in smaller letters below.
Reverse: COMMERCE. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive and palm branches, shield at her side; 1811 in exergue.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter: 34mm
Withers:1090 | Davis:17

This token was issued by H. Bayliss and Company, Birmingham.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.21 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
1812_SHEFFIELD_PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1812 AE Penny. Sheffield, North Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: FOR PUBLIC ACCOMODATION. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right; SHEFFIELD in smaller letters below.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN. Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, shield at her side, small ship in background at her feet; in exergue, 1812.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter: 34mm
Davis:120

This token appears to have been struck at Heaton's mint in Birmingham, as is indicated by a small H on George III's shoulder.
1 comments*Alex
1812_Sixpence_token.JPG
1812 AR Sixpence, Non-local issue.44 viewsObverse: SIX PENNY TOKEN incuse on a 6 within oak branches; small incuse W (for Westwood) at top of 6.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia, holding laurel branch in her right hand, seated facing left on cannon.
Edge: Engrailed.
Pierced, graffito on obverse.
Diameter: 21mm.
Davis 14
RARE

Probably engraved and manufactured by John Westwood c.1812.
*Alex
1813_Walthamstow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1813 "LION" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.31 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY. A lion walking left; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, small BCC below shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Withers: 610

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.22 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
1813_PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: VIMIERA•TALAVERA•BADAJOZ•SALAMANCA•VITTORIA •. Bust of Duke of Wellington facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN. Britannia seated on shield facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and trident in left; 1813 in exergue.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm
Withers:1507 | Davis Yorkshire No: 93 | Charlton No: WE-12
VERY RARE.

The inscription on the obverse of this token is a list of battles fought in the Peninsular War. The dies were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780 – 1854) and the token was manufactured by Edward Thomason. The type was one of several issued by J.K.Picard in his “Peninsular” series which were struck for use by the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal and Spain. These tokens bear the portrait of Wellington, who was a good friend of the Prince Regent, the future George IV, on the obverse.

This token was issued by John Kirby Picard, the owner of the Hull Lead Works. Picard spent a lot of his time in London and became friendly with the Prince of Wales' circle of aquaintances. He gambled heavily, and became bankrupt in 1827 after eventually gambling his fortune away. He died in reduced circumstances in 1843.
*Alex
1813_SHEFFIELD_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Sheffield, Yorkshire.28 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT S. HOBSON & SON's, BUTTON MANUFACTURERS, incuse letters on a raised rim. Arms consisting of eight arrows arranged saltirewise, bound together with a ribbon; pheon on either side; above, a facing winged cherubim; below, SHEFFIELD.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN 1813 incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; small “H” (for Halliday) below shield.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm
Davis:138

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780-1854). Active in the early 19th century, Halliday originally worked as an engraver at Matthew Boulton's Soho Mint in Handsworth and set up on his own as a medallist and token-producer from 1801. Established in Newhall Street, Birmingham about 1810, he engraved dies for the trade, or engraved and manufactured tokens and medals at his own works for all traders who wished to issue them.

This token was issued by Hobson & Son who were button manufacturers with a business in Sheffield.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
George_IV_Halfpenny_1826.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm | Weight 9.32gms
SPINK: 3824

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
1826_GEORGE_IV_Penny.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE PENNY3 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: . Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3823

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
William_IV_Halfpenny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3847

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
William_IV_penny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3845

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is sometimes marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck. This coin, however, is one of those that do not bear Wyon's initials.
*Alex
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1853_VICTORIA__PENNY.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" PENNY6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3948

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Penny_1891.JPG
1891 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1891 in exergue.
SPINK: 3954

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Clipboard055.jpg
1892 Victoria Penny95 viewsLaureate bust of Victoria left, bun head

VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D:

Britannia seated right, holding trident and shield, lighthouse behind, ship under sail to right, H (Heaton) below date

ONE PENNY

1892 in exe.

30.81mm, 9.4500g

S3954
Will Hooton
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
bp19.jpg
1898 british One Penny9 views1 commentsNORMAN K
e003.jpg
1898-1900? Victoria Half Penny147 views2 commentsrandy h2
VHC19-coin.JPG
19- GREAT BRITAIN, 1/2 PENNY, KM789.17 viewsSize: 25.5 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 11,127,000.
Grade: PCGS MS64 RD.
Comments: A gift from Don Rupp, 04/2010.
lordmarcovan
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_penny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" PENNY1 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
SPINK: 3961

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
1902_Edward_VII_halfpenny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE HALFPENNY3 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1902.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3991

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
1902_Edward_VII_One_penny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1902 in exergue.
SPINK: 3990

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
Clipboard5~3.jpg
1905 Indian Head Penny.55 viewsVF with emerald green patina.1 commentsancientone
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*Alex
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
George_5_halfpenny_1920.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Halfpenny2 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4056

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
George_V_1920_Penny.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue. Weakly struck reverse.
SPINK: 4051

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
George_V_1927_Penny.JPG
1927 GEORGE V "Modified Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1927 in exergue. Some original mint lustre.
SPINK: 4054

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

No pennies were struck from 1923 to 1925 while the mint made an effort to stop the ghosting which plagued the earlier George V penny issues. Ghosting is when the design from one side of a coin shows through on the opposite side, in this case it is the portrait's outline which can be seen on the reverse. The first attempt at a solution, in 1926, had been to alter the bronze alloy from 95% Copper, 4% tin and 1% Zinc to 95.5% Copper, 3% tin and 1.5% Zinc but this, coupled with modifications to the portrait, proved unsuccessful in addressing the ghosting problem. In 1927, in a further attempt to address the problems of ghosting, both the King's portrait on the obverse and Britannia on the reverse were modified so that the details were more clearly defined and struck in slightly lower relief. However, the ghosting problem was not completely resolved until 1928 when the portrait of the King was reduced in size.
*Alex
George_V_Halfpenny_1935.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4058

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

In common with the pennies, from 1928, the King's portrait was reduced in size to finally solve the problem of ghosting which had plagued earlier George V issues.
*Alex
George_5_1935_One_Penny.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
SPINK: 4055

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
George_6_1947_Penny.JPG
1947 GEORGE VI AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX F:D:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1947 in exergue.
SPINK: 4114

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*Alex
George_6_1949_Penny.JPG
1949 GEORGE VI AE PENNY8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX FIDEI DEF. Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1949 in exergue.
SPINK: 4117

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1953.JPG
1953 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRA:BRITT:OMN:REGINA F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1953 in exergue.
SPINK: 4154

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the bust.
Demand for pennies was low on the accession of Queen Elizabeth II, so the only pennies issued were in the coin sets made in time for the Coronation. These sets were often broken up, so 1953 pennies could occasionally be found in change. The next year (1954) all the other denominations were re-designed with a revised inscription which omitted BRITT.OMN, but no more pennies were struck for circulation until 1961.
*Alex
eli1963.jpg
1963 Elizabeth II, One Penny9 views9.6 g., 30.76 mm.NORMAN K
uk64.jpg
1964 UK penny7 viewsNORMAN K
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1967.JPG
1967 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1967 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This was the last year of issue of the "Britannia" penny (other than a proof version dated 1970) prior to the introduction of decimal coinage in Britain in 1971. It was struck in enormous numbers to satisfy the large, mainly speculative, demand for the coin.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1970.JPG
1970 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY9 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1970 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157 PROOF

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This coin, dated 1970, is a proof issue struck from polished dies, no pennies were issued for general circulation after 1967.
*Alex
trib_p5_TN.jpg
2. Tiberius Denarius "Tribute Penny"114 viewsDenarius, Lugdunum Mint
AD 16 to 37
Obv. TICAESARDIVI AVGFAVGVSTVS
Rev. PONTIF MAXIM; female figure, possibly Livia, holding scepter and branch
1 commentsZam
VHC20-coin.jpg
20- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 PENNY (BRONZE), KM790.18 viewsSize: 30.8 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 22,206,000.
Grade: NGC MS63 RB (Cert.# 4080257-008).
Comments: Purchased raw from Don Rupp in 2009, to upgrade a less Red example.
lordmarcovan
VHC21-coin.jpg
21- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 PENNY (SILVER MAUNDY), KM775.18 viewsSize: 11.15 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.0140 oz. Mintage: 18,000.
Grade: NGC MS63 (Cert. #1756441-012)
Comments: Ex-Dimitri Gotzamanis, Richard Abrahams ("greattoning"). The apparent haze on the obverse picture is actually a reflection from the holder.
lordmarcovan
22-Offa.jpg
22. Offa.30 viewsPenny, ca 787-792, Canterbury mint.
Obverse: +OFFA REX+ / bust of Offa.
Reverse: +LULLA
Moneyer: Lulla.
1.05 gm., 16 mm.
North #313; Seaby #906 (old #905).
Callimachus
23-Burgred.jpg
23. Burgred.23 viewsPenny, ca 866-874; possibly minted in London.
Obverse: BVRGRED REX M / Diademed bust of Burgred.
Reverse: MON / +HVSSA / ETA / Three pellets after ETA.
Moneyer: Hussa.
1.38 gm., 19 mm.
North #423; Seaby #938.
Callimachus
24-Alfred.jpg
24. Alfred.35 viewsPenny, first coinage 871-875, mint ?.
Obverse: +AELBRED REX / bust of Alfred.
Reverse: MON / EALHERE / ETA
Moneyer: Ealhere.
1.21 gm., 19 mm.
North #627; Seaby #1057.

The similarities of the lunnettes coinage of Burgred and the first coinage of Alfred has long been noted. There is evidence of an agreement between Mercia and Wessex to produce a unified coinage in the two states. This agreement was continued by Burgred and Alfred. At the beginning of Alfred's reign in 871, there were just two mints operating in Mercia and Wessex: London and Canterbury. Philip Grierson, in his book Medieval European Coinage: Volume 1, The Early Middle Ages, has Ealhere a moneyer in Canterbury.

A more detailed analysis of Alfred's coinage comes to a different conclusion. The Lunettes Coinage of Alfred the Great by A. W. Lyons & W. A. Mackay (2008, BNJ 78, 4) places this obverse die in Group 2 Mercian Style Lunettes, variant IV: "Horizonal bust." Characteristics: Bust lacks a bonnet, the hair is comprised of several horizontal lines usually ending in pellets and sloping between 45 to 60 degrees. Double-banded diadem surmounted by a crescent. Distinctively cut "wedge" lips. The eye is a small circle with a dot in the center.

The reverse die of this coin is Lunettes type C (illustrated under Burgred in North, p. 67.) However, Table 2B does not show the moneyer Ealhere using reverse type Lunette C. So coins with this die combination were evidentally not known to Lyons & Mackay.

Table 2D, listing all the moneyers of Alfred's Lunette coinage, says Ealhere used obverse dies of Group 1 variant I, and Group 2 variant IV (the obverse die on this coin). Lyons & Mackay suggest that Ealhere was located in central or west Wessex as he used London and Canterbury dies.
Callimachus
25-Viking-Edmund.jpg
25. Danelaw: Vikings of East Anglia: St Edmund Memorial Coinage.22 viewsPenny, ca 890-905.
Obverse: +SC EADMVN RI / Large A with small crosses on each side.
Reverse: +DAEMOND MOTI / Large cross.
Moneyer: Daemond.
1.29 gm., 18 mm.
North #483; Seaby #960.

There are over 60 moneyers with Germanic or Norse names found on the St Edmund coins in the Cuerdale Hoard (c. 905). This number suggests there were quite a few mints producing this coinage. Several of the moneyers are also found on coinage of Edward the Elder and Athelstan from other parts of the country. This suggests that this issue, although in the name of the martyred East Anglian king, extended beyond East Anglia, and perhaps continued until East Anglia was regained by the English in 917-18. For more information, see A New History of the Royal Mint by Christopher E. Challis (Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Callimachus
26-Viking-Cnut.jpg
26. Danelaw: Vikings of York.19 viewsPenny, ca 897-903, York mint.
Obverse: CRTENXV (CNVT REX) / Patriarchal cross.
Reverse: +CVNNETTI / small cross.
1.28 gm., 20 mm.
North #501; Seaby #993.

The inscriptions on this coin are somewhat of a mystery. Over the last 150 years there have been many theories as to their meaning. At various times Cvnetesford (Knutsford, Cheshire), Cvnetio, (the Latin name of Marlborough,Wiltshire), and Counde, Shropshire (Cuneet in the Domesaday Book) have been proposed as the city where the CVNNETTI coinage was minted. Still others saw a French origin for the CVNNETTI coinage: similar coins are inscribed with two known locations in France -- QVENTOVICI (no longer exists) and EBRAICE (Evreux, Normandy).

Today it is fairly certain the CVNNETTI coinage was minted in York. The inscriptions on this coin are thought to be Latinized versions of Knutr and Hunedeus, two Viking war leaders who operated in northern England in the late ninth century.

The name Cnut is arranged on the arms of the cross in the manner Christians cross themselves during prayer. This shows that "King Cnut," whoever he was, thought of himself as a Christian. He is not to be confused with the Cnut who was King of England from 1016-1035.
Callimachus
27-Edward-Elder.jpg
27. Edward the Elder.25 viewsPenny, 899-924.
Obverse: +EADVVEARD REX / small cross.
Reverse: DEORV / + + + / VALD MO
Moneyer: Deorwald.
1.57 gm., 21 mm.
North #649; Seaby #1087.
Callimachus
28-Aethelstan.jpg
28. Aethelstan.38 viewsPenny, 927-939, York mint.
Obverse: +EÐELSTAN REX TO BRIT / small cross; C privy mark at left of cross.
Reverse: +REGNALD MO EFORǷIC / small cross.
Moneyer: Regnald.
1.48 gm., 22.5 mm.
North #672; Seaby #1093.

Aethelstan was the first British king to be styled "King of All Britain" on his coins (Rex Totius Britanniae). Regnald was also a moneyer for the Vikings when they were in control of York.

Provenance: the Schembrai Collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
29-Eadmund.jpg
29. Eadmund.17 viewsPenny, 939-946.
Obverse: +EADMVND REX / Small cross.
Reverse: HVNSI / + + + / GE MO
Moneyer: Hunsige.
1.22 gm., 22 mm.
North #689; Seaby #1105.

Perhaps of interest on this coin is the up-side-down A instead of a V in the king's name.
Callimachus
30-Eadred.jpg
30. Eadred.24 viewsPenny, 946-955.
Obverse: +E.AD.RED.REX A / Small cross.
Reverse: ÐEODM / +++ / AER M
Moneyer: Theodmaer.
1.44 gm., 22 mm.
North #706; Seaby #1113.

Provenance: Ex Richard Cyril Locket (1873-1950), Glendinings Part I, June 1955, lot 592 (part).
Callimachus
31-Eadwig.jpg
31. Eadwig.11 viewsPenny, 955-959, possibly minted in York.
Obverse: +E-A-DǷIG REX / Small cross.
Reverse: HERIG / +++ / 'ER MO
Moneyer: Heriger.
1.40 gm., 21 mm.
North #724; Seaby #1122.

Provenance: Tetney Hoard, 1945.
E.J. Winstanley Collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
32-Eadgar.jpg
32. Eadgar.28 viewsPenny (group HT 1 NE V (northeast Midlands)), 959-975.
Obverse: +EADGAR REX / small cross.
Reverse: IVE M / +++ / ONET
Moneyer: Ive.
1.34 gm., 21 mm.
North #741; Seaby #1129.
1 commentsCallimachus
33-Edward-Martyr.jpg
33. Edward the Martyr.41 viewsPenny, 975-978, Stamford mint.
Obverse: +EADǷEARD REX ANGLO / Diademed bust of Edward.
Reverse: +ǷACER M-O STAMFO. / small cross.
Moneyer: Wacer.
1.36 gm., 20 mm.
North #763; Seaby #1142.
Callimachus
34b-Aethelred-II-N766.jpg
34a. Aethelred II.46 viewsPenny, 979-985, First Hand type, York mint.
Obverse: +ÆÐELRED REX ANGLOX / Diademed bust of Aethelred, right.
Reverse: +ZTYR M-O EOFER / Hand of Christ between A and ω .
Moneyer: Ztyr.
1.42 gm., 21 mm.
North #766; Seaby #1144.

The moneyer Ztyr is not listed as being a moneyer for Aethelred's First Hand type from York. However, there is a moneyer named Styr at York who coined for Edward the Martyr, 975-978. Ztyr is probably the same man.
2 commentsCallimachus
34-Aethelred-II.jpg
34b. Aethelred II.39 viewsPenny, 991-997, Lincoln mint.
Obverse: ÆÐELRED REX ANGLOX / Bust of Aethelred, scepter in front of face.
Reverse: +COLGRIM M-O LIN / Cross with the letters CRVX in angles.
Moneyer: Colgrim.
1.15 gm., 20 gm.
North #770; Seaby #1148
1 commentsCallimachus
35-Cnut.jpg
35. Cnut.27 viewsPenny, 1023-1029; London mint.
Obverse: +CNVT REX AN / Bust of Cnut, wearing pointed helmet, sceptre in front.
Reverse: +EADǷOLD ON LVND / short cross, voided.
Moneyer: Eadwold.
1.08 gm., 18 mm.
North #787; Seaby #1158.
Callimachus
36-Harold-I.jpg
36. Harold I.15 viewsPenny, ca 1038-1040; Norwich mint.
Obverse: +HAROLD REC / Diademed bust of Harold, in armor, with shield and sceptre in front.
Reverse: +MANNA ON NORÐ / Long cross, voided; with fleur-de-lis in angles.
1.16 gm., 19 mm.
North #803; Seaby #1165.
Callimachus
37-Harthacnut.jpg
37. Harthacnut.24 viewsPenny, 1035-1042; Lund, Denmark (now Sweden) mint.
Obverse: +HARÐECNVT / Crowned and cuirassed bust of Harthacnut.
Reverse: +TOCI ON LVDI / Cross, with a crescent in the second and fourth quarters.
Moneyer: Toci.
1.02 gm., 17 mm.
Seaby #1170.
Callimachus
38-Edward-Confessor.jpg
38. Edward the Confessor.15 viewsPenny, 1059-1062; Hastings mint.
Obverse: +EADǷAIRD RE / Crowned bust of Edward, bearded, with sceptre in front.
Reverse: +DVNING ON HEST / Short cross, voided, with hammer ends.
Moneyer: Duning.
1.28 gm., 19 mm.
North #828; Seaby #1182.
Callimachus
40-Harold-II.jpg
40. Harold II.76 viewsPenny, 1066; London mint.
Obverse: +HAROLD REX ANG / Crowned bust of Harold, sceptre in front.
Reverse: +SǷETMAN ON LVN / Across field and between two lines: PAX
Moneyer: Swetman.
1.20 gm., 19 mm.
North #836; Seaby #1186.
1 commentsCallimachus
41-William-I.jpg
41. WIlliam I.39 viewsPenny, 1086-1087, Southwark mint.
Obverse: +ǷILLELM REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre to right.
Reverse: +OSMVND ON SVÐI / Cross with one letters of PAXS in each angle.
1.41 gm., 19 mm.
North #848; Seaby #1257.
1 commentsCallimachus
42-William-II.jpg
42. William II.34 viewsPenny, 1093-1096; London mint.
Obverse: +ǷILLELM REIX / Crowned bust, facing, between two stars.
Reverse: +ǷVLFPORD ON LV / Voided cross.
Moneyer: Wulfword.
1.38 gm., 21 mm. North #853; Seaby #1260.

The moneyer ǷVLFPORD (Wulfword) is found at three mints: London, Ipswich, and Stamford. On this coin the city is not well-struck, but enough can be made out to determine it is LV, which is London.
1 commentsCallimachus
43-Henry-I.jpg
43. Henry I.33 viewsPenny, 1122-1124; Sandwich mint.
Obverse: +HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, holding sceptre.
Reverse: + VL N: SANǷI / Quatrefoil with star in center, pellets on limbs, and four lis around.
1.32 gm., 20 mm. North #870; Seaby #1275.

The moneyer's name can not be read. At Sandwich there were three moneyers who had a VL near the front of their names: Wulfric, Wulfwart, and Wulfstan.
1 commentsCallimachus
44-Stephen.jpg
44. Stephen.36 viewsPenny, Colchester mint.
Obverse: FNE / Crowned bust, holding sceptre.
Reverse: D . ON : COL / Cross moline with a fleur in each angle.
1.13 gm., 17 mm.
North #873; Seaby #1278

The only moneyer at Colchester with a name ending in a D is Edward.
1 commentsCallimachus
45-Henry-II.jpg
45. Henry II.28 viewsPenny, 1180-1189; London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS . REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +PIERES . ON . LVND / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Pieres.
1.44 gm., 21 mm. North #963; Seaby #1344.

Classification from North Vol. 1, p. 163-64, and Seaby 1994 p. 87:
- Class 1: Narrow face, five pearls to crown, five curls to right and two to left.
- b : Round C and E. Seaby also mentions "a stop before REX on most coins."


1 commentsCallimachus
46-Richard-I.jpg
46. Richard I.19 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +STIVENE . ON . LVN / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Stivene.
1.36 gm., 19 mm.
North #968; Seaby #1348A (old #1348).

Classification from North, Vol.1, p. 163-64, 170, Addendum; and Seaby 1994:
- The moneyer Stivene coined types 2 - 4b.
- Types 2 and 3 can be eliminated because the beard consists of small curls.
- Type 4 has beard consisting of pellets (as does this coin).
- Type 4b has a much coarser portrait and letters; the pellets in the crown run into one line.

North (1963) assigns type 4 to John, but later works (Seaby 1994, for example) assign 4a-4b to Richard. It appears that Stivene coined only for Richard. The difficulty in attribution stems from the fact that both Richard and John kept the name of their father (Henry II) on their coins.

Callimachus
47-John.jpg
47. John20 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +ILGER . ON . LVND / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Ilger.
1.46 gm., 18 mm.
North #970; Seaby #1351.

Classification from North Vol. 1, p. 163-64:
- Type 5 had oval eyes, two curls on each side enclosing a pellet, and five pearls on crown.
- Type 5a or 5b has a small X.
- Type 5b has a cross pattee as a mint mark on the reverse, and a normal S.

The difficulty in attribution stems from the fact that both Richard and John kept the name of their father (Henry II) on their coins.

Callimachus
48-Henry-III.jpg
48. Henry III18 viewsPenny, ca 1251-1272; London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX III / Crowned bust, facing, sceptre in right hand.
Reverse: HENRI ON LVNDE / Long cross voided, with three pellets in each angle.
Moneyer: Henri.
1.49 gm., 18 mm.
North #992; Sear #1368.

Classification from North, Vol. 1, p. 166-68:
- Type 4 and 5 are with sceptre.
- Type 5 has legend starting at left above sceptre.
- Types 5a and 5b have new crown (fig.3) and round eyes.
- Type 5b has wedge tail on R.

Callimachus
49-Edward-I.jpg
49. Edward I19 viewsPenny, ca 1280-1281; London mint.
Obverse: EDW R' ANGL' DNS HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
1.45 gm., 19 mm.
North #1022; Seaby #1393.

Classification from North, Vol. 2, p. 19-21:
- This coin has the following characteristics of type 3:
barred A, closed E and C, Roman N, no annulet on breast.
- The following characteristics indicate sub-type g:
small bust, narrow face, new side fleurs on crown (fig. 29).
- This coin is type 3g.

Callimachus
50-Edward-II.jpg
50. Edward II15 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWAR R ANGL DNS HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
1.41 gm., 19 mm.
North #1065; Seaby #1468.

Classification from North, Vol. 2, p. 24-25; and Seaby 1994:
- E with angular back = types 11b - 15b.
- Bifoliate crown = types 10a - 15b.
- The distinguishing feature is the central fleur of the crown with straight sides and tall lis (fig. 13 on p. 25 of North, vol. 2.)
- Along with this goes the "large smiling face with leering eyes."
- This coins is therefore type 14 -- which is attributed to Edward II.

Perhaps unusual is the obverse legend with two Rs in it, not mentioned by North or Seaby.
Callimachus
53-Richard-II.jpg
53. Richard II.12 viewsHalf penny, London mint.
Obverse: +RICA . . . . . ANGL / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
.58 gm., 14 mm.
North #1331; Seaby #1699.

Classification from Seaby 1994, p. 113; and North, Vol. 2, p. 45:
Seaby lists four types of half pennies for Richard II. The type of lettering on this coin excludes types 3 and 4. The 1'st type is excluded because there is no annulet on the breast and there are no Roman Ns in LONDON. So this coin is the second "intermediate" type with no marks on the breast and Lombardic Ns in LONDON.
Callimachus
54-Henry-IV.jpg
54. Henry IV.26 viewsPenny, heavy coinage: 1399-1412, York mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, quatrefoil at center.
Classification: The identifying feature of the mint of York is the Quatrefoil at the center of the reverse cross. The broad face with rounded chin identifies the specific catalog numbers in both North and Seaby.

1.03 gm., 18 mm.
North #1351; Seaby #1722.

Provenance: ex. Lord Stewartby collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
79-George-III.jpg
79. George III.25 viewsPenny "cartwheel," 1797.
Obverse: GEORGIUS III D G REX / Laureate bust, right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797 / Britannia seated, left.
27.94 gm., 36 mm.
Seaby #3777.
Callimachus
80-George-III.jpg
80. George III.18 viewsPenny, 1806.
Obverse: GEORGIUS III D G REX 1806 / Laureate bust, right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA / Britannia seated, left.
18.86 gm., 34 mm.
Seaby #3780.
Callimachus
81-George-IV.jpg
81. George IV.62 viewsPenny, 1826.
Obverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1826 / Larueate bust, left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR REX FID DEF / Britannia seated, right.
19.39 gm., 33 mm.
Seaby #3823.
2 commentsCallimachus
82-William-IV.jpg
82. William IV.25 viewsPenny, 1831.
Obverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831 / bare-headed bust, right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR REX FID DEF / Britannia seated, right.
19.12 gm., 33 mm.
Seaby #3845.
Callimachus
83-Victoria.jpg
83. Victoria.16 viewsPenny, 1841.
Obverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1841 / diademed bust, left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR REG FID DEF / Britannia seated, right.
18.98 gm., 33 mm.
Seaby #2948.
Callimachus
86-Edward-VII.jpg
86. Edward VII.32 viewsPenny, 1908.
Obverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP / Bare-headed bust, right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY 1908 / Britannia seated, right.
9.62 gm., 31 mm.
Seaby #3990.
Callimachus
87-George-V.jpg
87. George V.30 viewsPenny (small head), 1935.
Obverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP / Bare-headed bust, left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY 1935 / Britannia seated, right.
9.37 gm., 31 mm.
Seaby #4055.
Callimachus
89-George-VI.jpg
89. George VI.31 viewsPenny, 1950.
Obverse: GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF / Bare-headed bust, left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY 1950 / Britannia seated, right.
9.39 gm., 31 mm.
Seaby #4117.
Callimachus
90-Elizabeth-II.jpg
90. Elizabeth II.48 viewsPenny, 1962.
Obverse: +ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D / Laureate bust, right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY 1962 / Britannia seated, right.
9.47 gm., 31 mm.
Seaby #4197.
Callimachus
Cnut_HT_Aeth_Eor.jpg
A.D. 1016-1035 - Cnut - Helemt Type Penny80 viewsObv:- CNVT R-EX ANG, Helmeted bust left holding sceptre
Rev:- AEDELRINE MO EOR, Short cross voided, limbs united at base by two circles, in centre a pellet; in each angle a broken annulet enclosing a pellet
Minted in York (EOR) by moneyer Aethelwine (AEDELRINE) A.D. 1024-1030
Reference:- North 787
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Cnut_QF_Cnit_Camb.jpg
A.D. 1016-1035 - Cnut - Quatrefoil Penny43 viewsObv:- CNVT REX ANGLORVM, Crowned bust left within quatrefoil
Rev:- CNIHT MO GRAI, Quatrefoil with pellet at apex of each cusp, long cross voided, each limb terminating in three crescents
Minted in Cambridge (GRAI) by moneyer Cnit (CNIHT) A.D. 1017-1023
Reference:- North 781
maridvnvm
Cnut_SC_Farth_Eor.jpg
A.D. 1016-1035 - Cnut - Short Cross Penny35 viewsObv:- CNVT RECX, Diademed bust left holding sceptre
Rev:- FERDEIN ON EOR, Short cross voided; in centre, a circle enclosing a pellet
Minted in York (EOR by moneyer Farthein (FERDEIN) A.D. 1029-1035/6
Reference:- North 790
maridvnvm
Cnut_SC_Lifinc_Linc.jpg
A.D. 1016-1035 - Cnut - Short Cross Penny40 viewsObv:- CNVT REX, Diademed bust left holding sceptre
Rev:- LIFINC ON LINCO, Short cross voided; in centre, a circle enclosing a pellet
Minted in Lincoln (LINCO by moneyer Lifinc (LIFINC) A.D. 1029-1035/6
Reference:- North 790
maridvnvm
Edw_I_Bristol_img.jpg
A.D. 1272-1307 - Edward I - Class 3c-d Penny (Bristol)31 viewsObv:- EDW R ANGL DNS HYB, Crowned facing bust with drapery
Rev:- VILLA BRISTOLLIE, Long cross pattee with three pellets in each angle
Class 3c-d
Minted in Bristol A.D. 1280-1281
Reference:- North 1018/9
maridvnvm
Aethelred_II.jpg
Aethelred II - Canterbury, England184 viewsAethelred II (968-1016). King of England 978-1013 and 1014-1016. AR (20 mm, 1.62 g) penny of long cross type struck at Canterbury; moneyer Leofric.
Obverse: ÆTDELRÆD REX ANGLO.
Reverse: LEOFRIC M O CÆNT.
References: North 774; Sear 1151.
5 commentsjbc
alexpen.jpg
Alexander III (1249 - 1286 A.D.)34 viewsAR Penny
Scotland, Second Coinage Class MB2
O: ม ΛLЄXΛ(ND)ЄR DЄI GRΛ, crowned head left
R:  + RЄX SCO TOR VM, long cross pattée, with 24 points on mullets in quarters.
Berwick Mint
.99g
23mm
Burns 45 (fig. 179); Stewart & North 14; SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian) 231; SCBC 5054
2 commentsMat
Picture 090.jpg
Alexander III halfpenny54 viewshooverman
tributepenny.jpg
ancient imitation of a tribute penny22 views17mm, 3.59g
obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (blundered); laureate head right
rev: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia on throne right, scepter in right, branch in left hand
areich
AncientRomanEmpire-AR-denarius-Tiberius-026000.jpg
Ancient Rome (Imperial): silver denarius of Tiberius, ca. 14-37 AD: the biblical "Tribute Penny"19 viewslordmarcovan
Anglesey_19.jpg
Anglesey 1960 viewsObv: Head of a Druid facing left within an oak wreath (acorn at tie below the ribbon).

Rev: A monogram cipher P. M. Co. WE PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ONE PENNY • 1787 (curved 1 that points to the last limb of N. The lower flourish ends over E).

Edge: • XX • ON DEMAND IN LONDON LIVERPOOL OR ANGLESEY

Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Anglesey 19
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Anglesey_Mines.jpg
Anglesey Mines 14 viewsHalfpenny token coin of the Parys Mine Company, Anglesey. 1788.

Reverse: "P M Co." in monogramme , encircled by legend THE ANGLESEY MINES - HALFPENNY. Dated 1788.
Obverse: Druid within wreath with acorns.

Holed.
Belisarius
Angusshire_10.jpg
Angusshire 1020 viewsObv: DUNDEE HALF-PENNY 1795, the ancient tower of Dundee, OLD TOWER FOUNDED 1189, in exergue.

Rev: COMMERCE AUGMENTS DUNDEE, a view of a harbor, with a ship alongside a quay, DEI DONUM arms supporters and motto below, WRIGHT DELIN, at the sides.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ALEXR. MOLISON

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer, Angusshire, Dundee 10
SPQR Coins
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
Australia.jpg
Australia89 viewsKm22 - ½ Penny - 1919
Km78 - 1 cent - 1987
Km63 - 2 cents - 1978
Km64 - 5 cents - 1966
Km65 - 10 cents - 1967
Km66 - 20 cents - 1981
Daniel F
Tiberius_37.jpg
B265 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
BCC_G24,_G25_Penny.jpg
BCC G24, G25 scale23 viewsGreen Glass Gem Stones
Caesarea Maritima
Uncertain Date
v-drome
BOHEMIA_LUDOVICUS.jpg
BOHEMIA - Louis I98 viewsBOHEMIA - Louis I (1516-1526) AR "Weiss Heller", or White Penny. Obv: Bohemian Lion rampant left; LVDOVICUS PRIMUS. Reverse is blank. Donebauer #997.dpaul7
1819_2_Oboli_Ionia.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1819 GEORGE III AE 2 Oboli (Penny)18 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ:. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1819 below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, shield leaning at her side, right hand resting on her right knee and holding laurel-branch, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 34mm (Penny) | Weight: 18.4gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 33 | Pridmore 18
Very Rare

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London. This issue, the 2 Oboli, was only struck in 1819.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
1820_2_Lepta_Ionia.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1820 GEORGE III AE 2 Lepta (Farthing)13 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ:. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1820• below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated on globe facing left, shield leaning at her side, right hand resting on her right knee and holding laurel-branch, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 22mm (Farthing) | Weight: 4.67gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 31 | Pridmore 21

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
1862_LEPTON.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1862 VICTORIA AE Lepton9 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ•. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1862• below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield at her side, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 16.5mm | Weight: 1.75gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 34

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
British_West_Africa.jpg
British West Africa57 viewsKm20 - 1/10 Penny - 1943
Km21 - 3 Pence - 1938H
Daniel Friedman
gb_1730_george-II_halfpenny_o_07_r_07.JPG
Bronze - 1730 Half Penny94 views~
~~~
Bronze Half Penny dated 1730
King George II
~~~
~
rexesq
gb_1730_george-II_halfpenny_o_06_r_06.JPG
Bronze - 1730 Half Penny142 views~
~~~
Bronze Half Penny dated 1730
King George II
~~~
~
rexesq
gb_1730_george-II_halfpenny_o_01_r_04.JPG
Bronze - 1730 Half Penny93 views~
~~~
Bronze Half Penny dated 1730
King George II
~~~
~
rexesq
england_1862_half-penny_02_obv_06_rev_04.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny99 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
england_1862_half-penny_02_obv_04.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Obverse134 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
england_1862_half-penny_02_rev_07.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Reverse104 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
Buckingham_7.jpg
Buckinghamshire, Aylesbury 723 viewsObv: TO THE FRIENDS FOR THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, laureate bust of William III facing right within a circle.

Rev: AYLESBURY TOKEN 1796, radiated cap of Liberty on a pole, four banners crossed.

Edge: Milled

Note The significantly weak obverse and reverse strike is typical for this issue

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Buckinghamshire 7
SPQR Coins
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001674 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
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CITY-GATE, Norwich Halfpenny 1792156 viewsNot that old, but it matches the category. This is a Norwich Halfpenny token from 1792. OBVERSE: The Armorial bearings of the City of Norwich. (A castle triple-towered, in base a lion passant gardant.)

Legend: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH. PRO BONO PUBLICO

Reverse - Arms: (Gules, on a bend between six crosses crosslets fitchée argent, an escutcheon or, charged with a demi-lion [a lion on the token], rampant pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure flory, counter-flory gules.) [The tressure is not so shown, and the tincture would be impossible to engrave at this minute scale] of the Howard Family — the Duke of Norfolk's. Behind the shield are two truncheons or Marshal's staves, in saltire or, enamelled at each end sable. [This tincture is omitted on the token.]
Legend: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY. 1792

Edge: PAYABLE AT N. BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER &C NORWICH .X.
aarmale
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Cnut36 viewsPenny of Cnut, king of Denmark 1018-1035, England 1016-1035, and Norway 1028-1035
Moneyer: Brunman
Mint: London
S. 1159
O: +CNVT REX A
R: +BRVNMAN ON LV

Ex- Harlan J. Berk
1 commentsNap
COVENTRY_HALF-PENNY_GODIVA.jpg
COVENTRY HALF-PENNY225 viewsCOVENTRY HALF-PENNY - CU 1797 Coventry half-penny. Obv.: Lady Godiva rides horse left. Above: PRO BONO PUBLICO - Date in exurge. Reverse: Elephant with tower on back walks right. COVENTRY HALF-PENNY. Reference: Conder #68.
From the Birmingham Museum: In the late 18th century the Royal Mint did not make enough low value coins to satisfy the growing demand for small change. As a result, many towns and cities started producing their own token money. This halfpenny token was issued at Coventry in Warwickshire. It depicts the famous story of Lady Godiva, who supposedly rode naked through the streets to win a reduction in the city’s taxes from her husband, Earl Leofric. The reverse shows that the die cutter had clearly never seen a real elephant!
dpaul7
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Edward I "Longshanks" 1272-130720 viewsSilver hammered penny

Obverse: EDWR ANGL DNS HYB, Crowned bust facing
Reverse: Uncertain mint, long cross with three pellets in each angle
Dk0311USMC
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Edward I (1272 - 1307 A.D.)40 viewsAR Penny
O: + ЄDWR’ ANGL’ DИS’ hУB, crowned and draped facing bust.
R:  / CIVI | TAS | LOИ | DOИ, long cross pattée; trefoils in quarters.
1.43g
19mm
 SCBI 39 (North), 60; North 1015; SCBC 1386.
4 commentsMat
Edward_I.png
Edward I AR Penny 28 viewsEngland, Plantagenet Kings
ND AR Penny Edward I
1272-1307 London
(19.1 mm 1.4 g)
Class III g, late “S”.
North 1022
Purchased from H. J. Berk May 15, 2017
1 commentsorfew
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Edward I penny18 viewsCaffaro
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Edward I “Longshanks” (A.D. 1272 - 1307)7 viewsAR Penny, A.D. 1299 - 1300, Bury St. Edmunds, 18mm, 1.36g, ~180°, Class 9b1.
Obv: +EDW R ANGL DNShYB. Facing bust of Edward, star on breast.
Rev: VILL/SCIE/DMV/NDI. Long cross, three pellets in each angle.
Marti Vltori
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Edward I, Canterbury mint, class 9b9 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, Durham mint, class 4b (?), Bishop Bec5 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, London mint, class 3c6 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, London mint, class 9b9 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, London mint, class 10 (farthing)4 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, London mint, class 10 (farthing)6 viewsmauseus
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Edward I, London mint, class 10d5 viewsmauseus
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Edward II (1307-1327 A.D.)33 viewsAR Penny
Class 15b
O: EDWAR R ANGL DNS HYB, Crowned facing bust.
R:VILL SCI EDMVNDI, Voided long cross pattée; three pellets in quarters
17.8mm
1.03g
Bury St Edmunds (1320 - c.1333)
Spink # 1462. North 1067.
4 commentsMat
Edward_III.jpg
Edward III AR penny21 views1327-1377
Obv: EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Facing crowned bust.
Rev: CIVITAS LONDON. Longcross with trefoil pellets in each angle.
Cross 1, Lombardic M, Reversed barrred N, wedge tailed R, annulets in each quarter.
Spink – 1584 North - 1149
Purchased from Hammered British Coins August 1 2017
orfew
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Edward III, York mint4 viewsmauseus
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Edward VIII9 viewsPenny of Edward VIII (1936)
British West Africa issue
Mint: Kings Norton (Birmingham)
O: EDWARDVS VIII REX ET IND:IMP: ONE PENNY
R: BRITISH WEST AFRICA 1936

Coins of Edward VIII were not produced in the UK other than a few patterns, which are very rare. His early abdication made coinage unnecessary. Coins were produced in his name for some of the territories, including British West Africa (Nigeria and Ghana).

Ex- eBay
Nap
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England (Anglo-Saxon): silver penny of Aethelred II (978-1016 AD), struck ca. 997-1003 AD25 viewslordmarcovan
EDW1.jpg
ENGLAND - EDWARD I134 viewsAR Penny, London Mint.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Edward I70 viewsENGLAND - Edward I "Longshanks" (1272-1307) AR penny. Long cross, class 4a3, London mint. EDWARD ANGL' DNS HIB, crowned facing bust / CIVITAS LONDON, long cross with trefoils. North 1023. Seaby 1394dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Edward I35 viewsENGLAND - Edward I "Longshanks" (1272-1307) AR penny, London mint. Long cross,Class 10cf3(b). Obv.: Crowned bust of king facing; +EDWAR R ANGL DNS HIB Rev.: CIVITAS LONDON, long cross with trefoils. Reference: Seaby #1411/2dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Edward II61 viewsENGLAND - Edward II (1307-1327) AR PEnny. Sear 1460. London Mint. EDWAR ANG DNS HYB/CIVITAS LONDON.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - EDWARD III100 viewsEdward III (1327-1377) Hammered Silver Round Halfpenny. Third coinage, EDWARDVS REX... London mint.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - EDWARD IV70 viewsEDWARD VI (1461-1483) Hammered Silver York Penny. Reverse quatrefoil, no marks by neck.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - GEORGE I87 viewsGeorge I - Rev.: Britannia seated. 1719 1/2 PENNY - G. KM-557dpaul7
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ENGLAND - GEORGE II71 views1754 Farthing (1/4 Penny). Bust of George II obverse/Reverse: Britannia. Copper. KM-581.2.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - GEORGE III98 viewsGREAT BRITAIN 1797 PENNY, COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE "CART WHEEL" PENNY, A PHRASE ALLUDING TO IT'S HEFTY SIZE AND WEIGHT AND DESIGN. AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE WITH ONLY A COUPLE OF MINUTE RIM NICKS INSTEAD OF NUMEROUS ONES AS USUALLY FOUND. KM.618. GRADED: FINE +.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - GEORGE III70 viewsENGLAND - GEORGE III (1760-1820) 1/2-Penny -1787- CONTEMPORARY COUNTERFEIT! Britian did not make an officical issue this year. Many counterfeits circulated in this era alongside regular coinage. Obv: ARmored bust right, GEORGIUS III REX/Reverse: Brittania seated left with shield, holding branch. "BRITAN-NIA" around, date 1787 in exurge. Counterfeit of KM #601.1 commentsdpaul7
HENRY III.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY III93 viewsHENRY III 1216-1272. AR Penny (1.39 gm). Long Cross class 5g, circa 1251-1272. Canterbury mint; Alein, moneyer.
dpaul7
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ENGLAND - HENRY III 30 viewsENGLAND - HENRY III (1216-1272), AR Penny, Voided Long Cross Coinage, Class 5c, (1251-1272), Ricard - London minter. Obv.: Crowned facing bust of Henry, HENRICVS REX III Rev.: Voided long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, RICARD ON LVND Reference: (N.997; S.1373).dpaul7
HENRY V.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY V103 viewsEngland, Henry V, 1413-1422, AR Penny (15mm), VG/F, Seaby/Spink 1788 or 1790, York mint. Obv.+ hENRIC REX ANGL, crowned bust facing, mullet to left, trefoil to right. Rev. CIVITAS EBORACI, long cross with three pellets in each angle, quatrefoil in center. The coin is gray, on a clipped flan. Very little of the obverse legend is pesent, and only about 1/3 of the reverse legend, as most letters are off of the flan. The crown on the portrait is clear, but little else is visible. The reverse is better struck.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Henry VI51 viewsENGLAND - Henry VI (1422-1461) Silver Hammered Halfpenny. Circa 1422. It is of the Annulet issue and was minted in Calais. The Spink reference is 1849. dpaul7
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ENGLAND - HENRY VII47 viewsHenry VII Hammered Silver Sovereign Penny. 1485-1509 Bishop Sherwood of Durham (D-S by Shield)dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Henry VIII44 viewsENGLAND - Henry VIII (1509-1547). AR Penny, Durham ecclesiastical mint, 1509-1523 AD. Obv.: King enthroned holding orb and scepter, HE[NRIC DI] GRA REX AG[L (Z F)]. Rev.: Royal shield over cross fourchée, which divides the legend; T D above shield; CIVI[TAS] DVRRAM. Reference: Spinks 2331. Struck by Bishop Ruthall. Ex-Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
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ENGLAND - HENRY VIII56 viewsHenry VIII (1509-1547), First Issue Hammered Silver Half Penny, 1509-1526 portcullis mm Londondpaul7
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ENGLAND - John I79 viewsENGLAND - John I (1199-1216) - Silver penny, Seaby 1350B North 969, VF detail, broken flan, 1.139g, 18.0mm, obverse HENRICVS REX, the S inverted, facing bust, holding scepter; reverse short cross, with four smaller crosses in quadrants. London mint.1 commentsdpaul7
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ENGLAND - Richard I 48 viewsENGLAND - Richard I "The Lionhearted". AR Penny. Moneyer: Henri. Crowned facing bust; HENRICVS REX Rev: Short cross, cruciform pellets in angles; HENRI ON LVND. S-1348c. Type 4b. dpaul7
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ENGLAND - Richard I13 viewsENGLAND - Richard I (1189-1199) AR short-cross Penny. Obv.: + hENRICVS REX, crowned bust facing, holding scepte. Rev.: HVE ON EVERV short cross with four pellets in each angle. York mint. Reference: Seabby 1348A. Weak obverse; nice reverse!dpaul7
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ENGLAND - RICHARD II44 viewsENGLAND - RICHARD II (1377-1399) Halfpenny, AR. Late style, fishtail letters. Obv.: facing crowned bust of the king, no marks, "+RICARDVS REX ANGL" Rev.: Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, "CIVITAS LONDON", .50 g. N. 1332A, s-1700. dpaul7
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England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny24 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Æthelred the Unready, or Æthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryth. Æthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Æthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ælfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Æthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Æthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Æthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unræd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Æthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).

Purchased on eBay

NGC AU-55 – An exceptional grade

Cost $438
1 commentsRichard M10
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England, Edward I60 views England, Edward I (1272-1307), Penny, 1.26g., New coinage, class 9a1 (c.1299 to 1300/1), London mint, facing bust of King, star on breast, +EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB, rev., long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, CIVITAS LONDON (N.1036/1; S.1407), struck flat in parts, fine. 5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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England, Edward I.30 viewsEngland, Edward I (Longshanks) 1272-1307, silver penny.
New coinage, class 4b (1282 to 1289).
Obverse- Tall central fleur to crown, sinister side-fleur broken, late S, facing bust of King, +EDWR ANGL DNS HYB.
Reverse- Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, CIVITAS LONDON.
(N.1024; S.1395) 1.41g., London mint.
b70
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England, Edward II (1307-1327 A.D.)46 viewsAR Penny
Durham mint, 1311-1316
Bishop Kellawe issue
19mm, 1.43g

Obverse:
+ EDWA R ANGL DNS hYB
Crowned bust facing

Reverse:
CIVITAS DUNELM
Long cross, crozier (bishops crook) on top with trefoil of pellets at each angle.
rubadub
Henricus-III_star-HENRICVS-REX-IIP_NIC-OLE-ONC-ANT_Canterbury_Mon-Nicole_Seaby-1362_North-988_1180-1189-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
England, Henricus-III., (1216-1272 A.D.), North-988, AR-Penny, Canterbury mint, #1211 viewsEngland, Henricus-III., (1216-1272 A.D.), North-988, AR-Penny, Canterbury mint, #1
Long Cross type, without scepter; portrait class 3c issue. Moneyer, Nicole.
avers: *hENRICVS REX:III', (NR are ligate), Around central beaded circle enclosing a crowned and bearded face frontal.
reverse: NIC OLE ONC ANT, ( ON and AN are ligate), Spaced around arms, long voided cross with pellet center and finials, over central beaded circle, with pellet trefoil in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 1,36g, axis: 2h,
mint: Canterbury, Moneyer: Nicole, date: 1247-1272 A.D., ref: Seaby-1364, North-988,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
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England, Henry III 1248 - 1250 3 viewsSilver Penny - London

Moneyer - Nicole

NGC Graded AU-55

S-1361A

Purchased from Australia

My cost was $190
Richard M10
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England, House of Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, Silver Penny, 6th Issue. Metal Detecting find from Yorkshire.1 viewsTower 1595-98 A.D. 0.46g - 13.7mm, Axis 1h.

Obv: E • D • G • ROSA • SINE • SPINA - (Key Mintmark) Crowned bust left.

Rev: CIVITAS LONDON - Long cross fourchee over quartered shield of arms.

Spink 2680.
Christian Scarlioli
England,_John_Lackland,_(1199-1216_AD),_AR-Penny,_HENRICVS_R_EX,_Cross_ABELON_LVN_DE,_London,_Abel,_class-Vc_,_Seaby_1352,_N__971,_1204-9_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_18-19mm,_1,33g-s.jpg
England, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Seaby 1352, AR-Penny, London mint, Moneyer: Abel, Short cross, #166 viewsEngland, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Seaby 1352, AR-Penny, London mint, Moneyer: Abel, Short cross, #1
Short Cross type, with scepter, Class Vc,
avers: Scepter hENRICVS R• EX, Crowned bust facing, crowned, with a beard, two curls on each side of the head, scepter in right hand.
reverse: ✠ABELON•LVN•DE•, Short cross voided, cross botonnée in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 1,33g, axis: 4h,
mint: London mint, Moneyer: Abel, date: c.1204-1209 A.D., ref: Seaby 1352, N. 971,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
England_John_Lackland,_1199-1216_AD_AR-Penny_HENRICVS_REX_Cross-RAVF_ON_LVN_DE__London_mint_CI_5b_-Seaby-1351_AD_Q-001_0h_19,8mm_1,34g-s.jpg
England, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Spink 1351, AR-Penny, London mint, Short cross, #1109 viewsEngland, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Spink 1351, AR-Penny, London mint, Short cross, #1
Short Cross type, with scepter; Class 5b,
avers: Scepter hENRICVS R•EX, Crowned bust facing, crowned, with beard, two curls on each side of head, sceptre in right hand.
reverse: ✠RAVLF•ON•LVN•DE•, Short cross voided, cross botonnée in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,8mm, weight: 1,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: London mint, Moneyer: Ralph, date: c.1204-09 A.D., ref: Spink 1351,
Q-001
quadrans
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England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307)54 viewsNorth 1018-19; Spink 1389-90

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 3c-d, (1280-1281), London mint. 1.43 g. 19.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: + (cross potent) EDW R’ ANGL’ DNS hyB (round E; barred A; normal barred Ns; composite S; incurved tail on h; thin-wedge contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight trifoliate side-fleurs; arrowhead intermediate ornaments; drapery of two triangular pieces).

Rev: CIVI-TAS LON-DON (rounded C; barred A; composite S; normal barred Ns), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
2 commentsStkp
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England. King John Penny66 viewsJohn (1199-1216), Penny, class VIa2, London,
Walter, walter · on · lvn, 1.40g/4h
(SCBI Mass 1755, this coin; N 974/2; S 1353).
Good fine, dark-toned
J.D. Brand Collection [from Baldwin October 1960];
J.P. Mass Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 61, 17 March 2004, lot 355 (part);
J. Sazama Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 93, 26 September 2011, lot 1140 (part)
The collection of the late ray Inder
DNW Auction Coins tokens and Historical Medals September 18-20 2018, lot 192.
5 commentsorfew
MISC_England_Edward_I_Canterbury_Class_10ab1.jpg
England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307) 8 viewsNorth 1039/1; Spink 1409B

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 10ab1b (1301), Canterbury mint. 1.42 g.18.92 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: + (cross patteé) + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB (=EDWARDVS REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE = Edward, King of England, Lord of Ireland) (round E; unbarred As; normal barred Ns; non-composite S; no contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight bifoliate side-fleurs).

Rev: CIVI-TAS-CAN-TOR (rounded Cs; unbarred As; non-composite S; normal barred N), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
Stkp
MISC_England_Henry_III.jpg
England. Plantagenet. Henry III (1216-1272)12 viewsNorth 988; Spink 1364

AR penny, voided long cross coinage, Lawrence System class 3c (struck 1248-1250), refined by Churchill and Thompson as class 3d1 (struck 1250) Type L446, London mint, by moneyer Nicholas of St. Albans. 1.38 g., 18.35 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: Initial mark: [Six-pointed star with rounded or angular points (MM4)], hENRICVS REX : III apostrophe (NR ligated; wedge-footed R [R1]; pellet in S), Crowned facing bust with pointed chin, pellets above lower hair curls (PL4), beard of pellets, no scepter.

Rev: NIC-OLE ON L-VND (ON and ND ligated, pellets on Ns in third and fourth quadrants), voided long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, eight pellets per quadrant in inner circle.

Note: There were 711 class 3d1 coins issued by Nicholas of St. Albans from the London mint in the Brussels Hoard, spread between 11 Churchill and Thompson types. Type L446 coins were the most common type, represented by 520 coins.
1 commentsStkp
Evasion_314.jpg
Evasion Token 31428 viewsObv: GOD SAVE THE KING, laureate bust of George III, facing right.

Rev: BE AS YOU SEEM TO BE, two hands clasped before a tree decorated with three crowns, 1796 in exergue.

Note: Although, this piece is not a Conder token, it was produced around the same time, and is reminiscent of the political types of the series.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Evasion Token

Atkins 314
SPQR Coins
Fiji.jpg
Fiji43 viewsKM7a - 1 Penny - 1943-S (San Francisco mint)
KM21 - 1 Penny - 1967 (BU)
Daniel F
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George III (A.D. 1760 - 1820)3 viewsHalf Penny, 1799, Soho, 31mm, 12.59g, 180°, KM 647.
Obv: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated left holding branch and trident, shield at side, ship with five incuse gunports, SOHO on brick, 1799 below.
Marti Vltori
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George III 1797 Cartwheel Penny79 viewsGreat Britain. George III 1797 Cartwheel Penny. S 3777. Proclamation coin1 commentsCGPCGP
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George III Two pence43 viewsGEORGIUS III . D.G. REX

Bust of King George right,

BRITANNIA

Britannia seated holding trident and olive branch, with shield at feet.

1797 in exe.

Will Hooton
Gibraltar.jpg
Gibraltar41 viewsKm20 - 1 Penny - 1991Daniel F
Gloucester_38.jpg
Gloucestershire 3827 viewsObv: INDUSTRY LEADS TO HONOUR, a shield standing before an apple tree.

Rev: SEVERAL THOUSANDS YOUNG HEALTHY & FINE CRAB APPLE & PEAR STOCKS RAISED FROM THE KERNAL TO BE SOLD BY J • MORSE NEWENT GLOCESTERSHIRE 1796 spiraling to the center.

Edge: PAYABLE AT NEWENT

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Gloucestershire 38
SPQR Coins
Great_Britain_Penny_1826_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1 Penny - 1826 (George IV)21 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.

33.95 mm. 17.70 gms.
maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Penny_1854_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1 Penny - 1854 (Victoria)15 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.

34.20 mm. 18.18 gms.
maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Penny_1858_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1 Penny - 1858 (Victoria)25 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.

34.20 mm. 18.89 gms.
maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Penny_1858_2_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1 Penny - 1858 (Victoria)14 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.

34.20 mm. 18.74 gms.
maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Half_Penny_1738_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1/2 Penny - 1738 (George II)19 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Victoria_Half_Penny_1855_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1/2 Penny - 1855 (Victoria)12 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.maridvnvm
Great_Britain_Victoria_Half_Penny_1858_img.jpg
Great Britain - 1/2 Penny - 1858 (Victoria)14 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.maridvnvm
EDWARD_I_ENGLAND_2.jpg
GREAT BRITAIN - Edward I41 viewsGREAT BRITAIN - Edward I (1272-1307), AR Penny. Bristol mint.
“+ EDW R ANGL DNS HYB“ - crowned and draped bust facing / “VILLA BRISTOLLIE“ - long cross with three pellets in each angle. North 1015, Class 2b. Seaby SE1386.
dpaul7
Great Britain new.jpg
Great Britain - New Coinage81 viewsKM914 - 1/2 penny - 1971
KM986a - 1 penny - 2000
KM916 - 2 pence - 1971
KM911 - 5 pence - 1969
KM937b - 5 pence - 1991
KM912 - 10 pence - 1969
KM990 - 20 pence - 2001
Daniel Friedman
Great Britain old.jpg
Great Britain - Old Coinage82 viewsKM837 - 1/2 penny - 1929
KM838 - 1 penny - 1936
KM777 - 3 pence - 1900
KM849 - 3 pence - 1943
KM815 - 6 pence - 1913
KM890 - 1 shilling - 1953 (English Arms)
KM865 - 2 shillings - 1948 (with IND:IMP)
Daniel Friedman
UK_Penn7_1793_secret_box.jpg
Great Britain, George III, 1760 - 1820, Modified Into a "Secret" Box21 viewsBronze penny, SCBC 3777, VF, altered into a screw top box, screws worn, Soho mint, weight 20.008g, maximum diameter 35.4mm, die axis 0o, 1797; obverse GEORGIUS III D G REX, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse BRITANNIA 1797, Britannia seated left on rocks, olive-branch in right hand, trident in left, Union shield at side, tiny SOHO on rock below, sailing ship on water at a distance on left, diving whale right, waves in exergue.

In 1797, at the Soho Mint, James Watt and Matthew Boulton used their steam powered presses to strike 450 tons of the new "cartwheel" pennies, at 1 ounce of copper per coin. The penny was found to be too heavy for regular use and was only struck for that single year.

Similar boxes made from American silver dollars are sometimes called "Opium Dollars."

Valentine's Day present from my wife!

PURCHASED FROM FORVM
Sosius
GB_Half_P_1853.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190115 viewsObv: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, young head of Queen Victoria facing left, 1853 below.

Rev: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated right, upon a shield, holding a trident; rose, thistle, and shamrock in exergue.

Half Penny

9.5 grams, 28.11 mm
Matt Inglima
GB-Gilt-halfpenny-1806-077500-coinpic3.jpg
Great Britain: gilt copper proof halfpenny of George III, Soho Mint, 180629 viewslordmarcovan
Hampshire_65.jpg
Hampshire 6516 viewsObv: Neptune standing in his chariot presenting a wreath to Jervis seated.

Rev: SR JOHN JERVIS | WITH 15 SAIL | PURSUED & DEFEATED | THE SPANISH FLEET OF | 27 SAIL OF THE LINE | FEBRUARY 14 | 1797.

Edge: PORTSMOUTH HALFPENNY PAYABLE AT THOS SHARPS • X •

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Hampshire 65
SPQR Coins
Hanover,_George_III,_1760-1820,_CU_Halfpenny_-_CNG_892043.jpg
Hanover, George III, 1760-1820, Cu Halfpenny, Tower (London) mint 1771 25 viewsGEORGIVS · III · REX · laureate and armoured bust right.
BRITAN NIA · Britannia seated left on globe, holding olive branch and long transverse sceptre, Union shield to lower right, 1771 in exergue.

Peck 898; SCBC 3774.

(28 mm, 9.88 g, 6h).

Classical Numismatic Group; ex- C. W. Pearson Collection.
2 commentsn.igma
harthacnut.jpg
Harthacnut49 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of Denmark 1035-1042 and England 1040-1042
Moneyer: Toci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170, Hbg 28 (var.)
Hauberg 28
O: NARÐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
CT-Mat-MedievalWafer.jpg
Henry II (1154-1189 A.D.)44 viewsAR Penny
Short Cross coinage, class G or I.
O: ҺЄNRICVS • R ЄX, crowned facing bust, holding scepter.
R: + GOCELM • ON • WINC, voided cross; quatrefoils in angles.
1.03g
20mm
Wincester mint; Gocelm, moneyer, 1180 AD
North 962/1; SCBC 1343A/1343 (obv./rev.).
6 commentsMat
Henry_II_ab.jpg
Henry II - London, England112 viewsHenry II Curtmantle (1133-1189). King of England 1154-1189, House of Plantagenet. AR (20 mm, 1.45 g) short cross penny minted in London by moneyer Reinald.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX.
Reverse: REINALD M O LVN.
Reference: Sear 1344 Class 1b1.
Jan (jbc)
henry_II_tealby.jpg
Henry II AR Tealby penny43 viewsHenry II. 1154-1189. AR Tealby penny. 1.43 gm. 21 mm. Facing bust with scepter, curl on right / Large cross potent with a small cross potent in each angle; WIL…. S. 1339. N. 956. Very Fine; central parts clear as struck with a rusty die; no legends visible; good metal. The Douglas Bayern Collection. Ex: Davissons Printed Auction 37 Lot 135. Feburary 21, 2018.3 commentsorfew
30737.jpg
Henry III7 viewsEngland. Henry III. 1216-1272. AR penny (17.56 mm, .92 g, 1 h). hЄnRICVS x RЄX x AnGLIЄ, Crowned facing bust of Henry III (no beard?), annulets at bottom of hair curls on both sides / Long cross potent divides moneyer's name and city abbreviations; three pellets in each quarter, two sets of three are joined by an annulet between them. aVF, clipped.ecoli
heniii.jpg
Henry III (1216-1272 A.D.)27 viewsAR Penny
Long Cross type Class 3b
Engraver: Henry Frowik
O: hЄNRICVS RЄX | III, Crowned facing portrait of King Henry III, 6 pointed star straddles central crown ornament, legend from 12 o'clock.
R: /hEN/RIO/NLV/NDE, Voided long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle.
London mint
18mm
1.31g
North 987, SBC 1363
2 commentsMat
henryIIIpenny.jpg
Henry III penny20 viewsCaffaro
Henry_V_new.jpeg
Henry V AR Penny 24 viewsENGLAND. Henry V, 1413-1422 AD. AR Penny (17.46 mm 0.94 gm) of York.
Obv: Crowned bust facing with mullet and broken annulet
Rev: Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
S.1785. Toned aVF.
Pegasi Auctions (hosted by Agora Auctions) #34 Lot 756.
May, 2016.
orfew
Enrico_VI_1422_1461.jpg
Henry VI (1422-1461), mezzo penny d'argento. Gaviller & Boyd collection88 viewsHenry VI, First Reign (1422-1461), Calais mint
Silver halfpenny, pinecone-mascle issue (1430-34)
AR, 0.51 gr, 12 mm, VF
D/ crowned facing bust
R/ VIL(mascle) LACALISIE (pinecone), long cross pattée, three pellets in angles
N.1469; S.1885
Provenance: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 gennaio 2011, numero catalogo 121); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005); ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005); ex W.C.Boyd collection (London 1886), ex George Henry Gaviller collection (morto nel 1886).
paolo
Henry_VI_penny.jpg
Henry VI AR Penny23 viewsHenry VI AR Penny (17mm, 0.84g). Calais mint; im: initial cross V. Struck circa 1422-1430.
Obv:+ henRICVS ReX crowned facing bust; annulets to left and right of neck,
Rev:(saltire stops), long cross pattée; quarters triple pellets; triple pellets around central annulet in first and third
SCBC 1844.F+ toned.
Ex: Geoffery Bell Auctions August 12. 2018
1 commentsorfew
CONDER_TOKEN_-_IPSWICH.jpg
IPSWICH HALF-PENNY TOKEN21 viewsIPSWICH HALF-PENNY TOKEN - Cu 1/2-Penny Token, Ipswich, Suffolk, England; 1794. Obv.: Ancient market cross; IPSWICH CROSS, 1794 in exurge. Rev.: PAYABLE AT CONDER'S DRAPERY WAREHOUSE, IPSWICH. Reference: D&H-35, Conder-38.dpaul7
Ireland1.jpg
Ireland54 viewsKm9 - 1 Farthing - 1953 - Eire
Km137 - 1/2 Penny - 1805 (holed)
Km10 - 1/2 Penny - 1953
Km19 - 1/2 Penny - 1971
Km3 - 1 Penny - 1935
Km20 - 1 Penny - 1971
Daniel Friedman
IRELAND_EDWARD_I_PENNY.jpg
IRELAND -- Edward I of England (1272–1307)58 viewsIRELAND -- Edward I of England (1272–1307) AR penny, 1283 (third issue) Dublin Mint. Obv.: Crowned bust facing in triangle, + EDW . R. ANGL DNS HYB Rev.: long cross with three pellets in each angle, CIVITAS DVBLINIE. This coin illustrates all the traits of a third issue coin: On the obverse it has the characteristic small cross before a straight backed E - a trefoil on the breast (as the first three issues have) and punctuation; commas and stops in the legend and a contraction bar above the S. On the reverse it has a Lombardic 'n' rather than a Roman 'N' in the mint signature. Many third issue coins have only obverse or reverse die characteristics rather than both, in these cases the other die is a second issue one. Reference: S-6248dpaul7
Ireland,_AE-25,_GEORGIUS_DEI_GRATIA_REX,_HIBERNIA_1723,_Q-001,_6h,_25,5mm,_7,52g-s.jpg
Ireland/Colonial America, Georg I., (1714-1727 A.D.), Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny, HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, #1107 viewsIreland/Colonial America, Georg I., (1714-1727 A.D.), Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny, HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, #1
avers: GEORGIUS•DEI•GRATIA•REX•, Laureate head right.
reverse: HIBERNIA•1723, Hibernia seated left, leaning on a harp.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5mm, weight: 7,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: ,date: 1723 A.D., ref: Bristol S:6601, Cu-1/2 Penny,
Q-001
William Wood's Coinage (also used in North America).
quadrans
Jamaica.jpg
Jamaica69 views(From right to left - sorry!)

Km33 – 1 Farthing – 1950-1952
Km25 – ½ Penny – 1914-1928
Km31 – ½ Penny – 1938-1947
Km37 – 1 Penny – 1953-1963
Km45 – 1 Cent – 1969-1971
Km64 – 1 Cent – 1975-2002
Km46 – 5 cents – 1969-1989

-----

Km47 – 10 Cents – 1969-1989
Km146.1 – 10 Cents – 1991-1994
Km146.2 – 10 Cents – 1995-2003
Km49 – 25 Cents – 1969-1990
Km147 – 25 Cents – 1991-1994
Km167 – 25 Cents – 1995-2003

-----

Km65 – 50 Cents – 1975-1990
Km57 – 1 Dollar – 1971-1979
Km145 – 1 Dollar – 1990-1994
Km164 – 1 Dollar – 1994-2006
Km163 – 5 Dollars – 1994-1995
Km181 – 10 Dollars – 1999-2005
Km182 – 20 Dollars – 2000-2002
Daniel F
jamaica_halfpenny_1938_DSC00416_DSC00443_o-r_o-90%.JPG
Jamaica - Half-Penny - 193847 viewsJamaica
King George VI
Half Penny, 1938
rexesq
John_ab.jpg
John - London, England54 viewsJohn Lackland (1166-1216). King of England 1199-1216, House of Plantagenet. AR (19 mm, 1.40 g) short cross penny minted in London by moneyer Ilger.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX.
Reverse: ILGER ON LVNDE.
Reference: Sear 1351 Class 5b2.

Jan (jbc)
lim.JPG
John penny of Ireland12 viewsWillem on Limer (ick)hooverman
widows_mite3.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. (Widow's Mite)21 viewsBronze lepton, Hendin 472, Fair, Jerusalem, 1.065g, 14.1mm, 78 - 76 B.C.;
obverse - barbaric, blundered legend, BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, anchor upside-down, as if hanging on the side of a boat, inside circle;
reverse - barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by circle of dots;

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
b70
Kent_13.jpg
Kent 1319 viewsObv: KENTISH LIBERTY PRESERVED BY VIRTUE & COURAGE, Kentish men meeting William the Conqueror, who is on horseback, 1067 below.

Rev: PROSPERITY TO THE WOODEN WALLS OF OLD ENGLAND, the stern of the ROYAL GEORGE, KENT HALFPENNY / 1795 / TDH.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THO’S HAYCRAFTS DEBTFORD

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Kent 13
SPQR Coins
Edward I AR Penny. Class 3b, Canterbury, CIVITAS CANTOR.JPG
King 009, Edward I 1272-1307. AR Penny, Class 3b, Canterbury. 41 viewsObv. Crowned head of Edward I facing EDWR ANGL DNS HYB
Rev. Long Cross CIVITAS CANTOR.
Class 3b, Canterbury mint.
LordBest
Henry III AR Penny. Class Vb, London, NICOLE ON LVND.JPG
King 08, Henry III 1216-1272. AR Penny, Class Vb, London mint. NICOL ON LVND.59 viewsObv. Crowned head of Henry III facing, with sceptre hENRICVS REX III
Rev. Long cross NICOL ON LVND
Class Vb, London mint.
LordBest
8.PNG
King CHARLES II4 viewsKing CHARLES II (1660-1685) SILVER HAMMERED penny dated 1660-2

Obverse Inscription - Obverse: Crowned bust of Charles II left. Value numeral (I) in right field.
Legend: CAROLVS. II. - D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET. HIB. REX

Reverse Inscription - Reverse: Coat-of-arms over cross fourchee. Mint mark (crown) above.
Legend: CHRISTO.ABSPICE.REGNO.(I reign under the auspices of Christ)

Grade:Fair Size:14mm
discwizard
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King EDWARD I3 viewsKing EDWARD I (1272-1307) SILVER HAMMERED penny long cross

Obverse Full face crowned portrait of King Edward I, with numerous minor variations of style and lettering.
EDW REX ANGL DNS HYB

Reverse Long cross dividing the coin into four quarters, in each of which are four pellets.CIV/TAS EBO/RACI,

Grade:Fair Size:17mm
discwizard
5.PNG
King Edward VII5 viewsKing Edward VII (1901 to 1910) 1 penny Bronze Date-1910

Obverse:EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF: IND:IMP: Meaning Edward VII King of all Britain, Defender of the Faith and Emperor of India

Reverse:Britannia seated holding a Trident in her left hand and her right hand is resting on a shield emblazoned with a Union Flag: ONE PENNY

Grade:FAIR Size:30.81mm
discwizard
2~0.PNG
King GEORGE I 7 viewsKing GEORGE I (1714-1727) COPPER HALFPENNY 1/2d Dated-1723

Obverse Inscription - PORTRAIT FACING LEFT Legend continous over bust

Reverse Inscription - Britannia seated left

Grade:POOR Size:28mm
discwizard
1~0.PNG
King George II6 viewsKing George II (1727-1760) Copper Halfpenny

Obverse :Old laureate bust of George II facing left wearing armour; around, GEORGIVS II REX

Reverse : Britannia seated facing left on globe, extending olive branch and holding spear, by her side rests a shield decorated with the combined crosses of St. George and St. Andrew; around, BRITANNIA.; i

discwizard
2~1.PNG
King GEORGE III11 viewsKing GEORGE III (1760-1820) Half Penny DATED 1775

obverse:with the head of the king, laureate, and in armor surrounded by the words, "GEORGIUS III REX".

Reverse:The word "BRITANNIA" is on the periphery and a seated woman is in the center. The date is under the seated figure spray and spear.

Grade:VERY FINE Size:29mm
discwizard
2~2.PNG
King GEORGE III3 viewsKing GEORGE III (1760-1820) COPPER Half Penny DATED 1799

Obverse:GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX BUST RIGHT

Reverse:Britannia seated left, branch upward in right hand, trident in left, shield at side, ship with five incuse gunports, SOHO on brick, 1799 below

Grade:POOR Size:31mm
discwizard
3~9.PNG
King George V HALF PENNY BRONZE52 viewsKing George V (1910 to 1936) HALF PENNY BRONZE Date-1912

Obverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: - By the Grace of God George V King of all Britain, Defender of the Faith and Emporour of India.

Reverse: Britannia seated facing right with a Trident in her left hand and her right hand is resting on top a oval shield emblazoned with the Union Flag.

Grade:FAIR Size:26mm
discwizard
8~0.PNG
King George V-ONE PENNY BRONZE56 viewsKing George V (1910 to 1936) ONE PENNY BRONZE Date-1913

Obverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: - By the Grace of God George V King of all Britain, Defender of the Faith and Emporour of India.

Reverse: Britannia seated facing right with a Trident in her left hand and her right hand is resting on top a oval shield emblazoned with the Union Flag.

Grade:FAIR Size:30.81mm
discwizard
5~3.PNG
King George VI Half Penny24 viewsKing George VI (1936 to 1952) Half Penny Dated-1937

Obverse
Portrait of George VI facing left.
Latin legend which reads: GEORGE VI DE: G: BR: OMN: REX F:D: IND: IMP (George VI by the Grace of God King of all the Britons, Defender of the Faith and Emperor of India)

Reverse:
The reverse features sailing ship, with name of the denomination above with date below.
The legend reads:-HALF PENNY
discwizard
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King George VI ONE PENNY BRONZE24 viewsKing George VI (1936 to 1952) ONE PENNY BRONZE Date-1937

Obverse: George's portrait faces LEFT:GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX F:D: IND:IMP - By the Grace of God George VI King Of All Britain

Reverse Britannia seated facing right, holding a Trident in her left hand and her right hand is resting upon a shield which is emblazoned with a Union Flag.

Grade:FINE Size:30.81mm
discwizard
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King Henry III Short Cross Penny Silver18 viewsKing Henry III (1216-1272) Short Cross Penny Silver Dated-(1248-1250)

Obverse: facing bust holding sceptre to left with legend +HENRICVS R EX

Reverse: short cross with four pellets in each quarter and legend +ILGERONLVND
discwizard
Capture~10.PNG
King Henry VI13 viewsKing Henry VI Hammered Silver Penny Annulet Issue. 1422-1430

obverse.HENRICVS REX ANGLIE, Crowned facing bust, annulet to each side of neck

Reverse.VIL LA CAL IS, Long cross with three pellets in each quadrant, with an annulet in two quarters

Weight.0.79 grams

Diameter.17.47 mm
Macedonian Warrior
Capture~12.PNG
KING Richard II12 viewsKING Richard II Halfpenny c.1377-1399)

Obverse: facing bust with +RICARD REX ANGLIE

Reverse: long cross and pellest dividing CIVI TAS LN DON legend for London mint

Spink 1700, London - Type III, Good clear detail with a attractive tone. (HHC2539)

Weight: 0.55g, Diameter: 14.4mm
Macedonian Warrior
1~4.PNG
King William III and Queen Mary II3 viewsKing William III and Queen Mary II - 1694 - Thick Flan Halfpenny

Obverse: co-joined profile busts with GVLIELMVS ET MARIA legend.

Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding a spear and an olive branch, her left arm rests on a shield decorated with the combined crosses of St. George and St. Andrew; around, BRITANNIA
discwizard
Edward_I_penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Edward I AR Penny20 viewsEdward I
Kingdom of England
AR Penny
Durham mint
+EDWR' ANGL' DNS hYB
Crowned head facing
+CIVITAS DVREME
Long cross with quartered pellets
Ardatirion
Elizabeth I penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I, AR penny, 1560-1561 AD37 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Queen crowned facing left
E D G ROSA SINE SPINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend, Martlet mintmark
CIVITAS LONDON
Spinks 2558
Ardatirion
Henry_V_penny,_1413-1422_AD,_York.JPG
Kingdom of England - Henry V penny, 1413-1422 AD, York33 viewsHenry V
AR Penny
York, 1413-1422
HENRICVS REX ANGLIE
Crowned bust of king facing; mullet to left and whole annulet to right of crown.
CIVITAS EBORACI
Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle; quatrefoil at centre.
Spink 1786
Ardatirion
Henry VIII Ecclesiastical Penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Henry VIII Ecclesiastical Penny80 viewsHenry VIII, AD 1509-1547
Durham ecclesiastical mint, 1509-1523 AD
King enthroned holding orb and scepter
HE[NRIC DI] GRA REX AG[L (Z F)]
Royal shield over cross fourchée, which divides the legend; T D above shield
CIVI[TAS] DVRRAM
Spinks 2331
2 commentsArdatirion
Alexander_III.jpg
Kingdom of Scotland - Alexander III AR penny, 1280-1286 AD47 viewsAlexander III
Kingdom of Scotland
AR Penny, 1280-1286 AD
+ ΛLЄXΛNDЄR DЄI GRΛ
Crowned head l., scepter to l.
RЄX SCO TOR VM +
long cross; mullet of six points in each angle
Burns 44 (fig. 178); SCBI 35 (Ashmolean & Hunterian) 216-9; SCBC 5054
1 commentsArdatirion
Lincoln_Kennedy.jpg
Lincoln Kennedy 196430 viewsU.S. penny stamped with the portrait of
John Kennedy facing Lincoln
18.5mm 3.07gm. Axis:180
v-drome
lower_canada_bank_montreal.jpg
LOWER CANADA31 viewsLOWER CANADA - (Quebec) CU half-penny token, 1844, Bank of Montreal. Made to circulate as coin due to shortage of small coinage. KM#Tn18.dpaul7
1guberman_unita.jpg
Maximinus II Daia, follis (Boyd & Guberman collections)26 viewsMaximinus II (309-313 d.C.), follis ridotto, zecca di Treveri
AE, gr 5,1, mm 32,0, BB
D/ IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG, busto laureato e corrazzato a dx
R/ GENIO POP ROM T-F, Genio in piedi a sx, testa torreggiata, lombi drappeggiati, con patera e cornucopia, PTR in ex
RIC 845a Cohen 69v
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (13 ottobre 2010, numero catalogo 120); ex Wayne von Hardenberg collection (Copper Penny, Wethersfield, Ct Usa, 2008); ex Jay Guberman collection (Hartford Connecticut Usa, 29 aprile 2007); ex Antony Wilson (Yorkcoins, London, 2005); ex Baldwins auction 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005, parte del lotto 688); ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, febbraio 1892); ex Spink (London 1891).
paolo
Screenshot_2019-01-24_12_46_47.png
Medieval England, Edward IV, Silver Penny, Second Reign, Under Archbishop Lawrence Booth, Mintmark Rose.6 viewsYork 1471-1483 A.D. 0.64g - 15.9mm, Axis 10h.

Obv: (Rose) ЄDWΛRD’ DI GRΛ’ RЄX ΛnGL x - crowned bust facing; B and Key next to neck.

Rev: CIVITAS EBORACI - Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle; quarterfoil in the centre.

Spink 2132.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-14_12_57_10.png
Medieval England, Henry VII, Silver Sovereign Penny, Minted under Bishop Sherwood.10 viewsDurham 1489-1493 A.D. 0.66g - 16.1mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: + hЄnRIC DI GRA RЄX - Enthroned facing portrait of King Henry VII, holding lis-tipped sceptre and globus cruciger, one pillar, crozier to the right.

Rev: CIVITAS DVRhAm - Long cross over arms and initials D - R at sides.

Spink 2231.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-11-26_10_30_45.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross cut Halfpenny, Class 7b-7c, UK Metal Detecting find from Suffolk and recorded with PAS.6 viewsLondon 1216-1247 A.D. 0.68g - 17.8mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: ......ON LVN - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-24_19_41_54.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7a, Moneyer: Abel. UK Metal Detecting find.1 viewsLondon 1216-1247 A.D. 1.31g - 19.1mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + ABEL•ON•LVND - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356A.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-01-24_16_01_38.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7a3, Moneyer: Willelm. UK Metal Detecting find from Cambridgeshire.6 viewsBury St Edmunds 1216-1247 A.D. 1.20g - 13.2mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + WILLELM ONSANT - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356A.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-11_12_49_36.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7b, Moneyer: Ioan. 9 viewsCanterbury 1216-1247 A.D. 1.00g - 17mm, Axis 2h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: +IOAN ON CANTE - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356b.
2 commentsChristian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7b1, Moneyer: Iun, (Hiun).1 viewsCanterbury 1216-1247 A.D. 1.31g - 17.9mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + IVN ON CANTERD - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356B.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, King John, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 6a1, Moneyer: Abel.6 viewsLondon 1199-1216 A.D.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust facing.

Rev: + ABEL·ON·LVND - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1353.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, Richard II, Silver Penny, Type I. UK Metal Detecting find from Cambridgeshire.12 viewsYork 1377-1399 A.D. 1.02g - 17.3mm, Axis 11h.

Obv: + RICARDVS REX ANGLIE - Crowned bust facing, cross on breast.

Rev: CIVITAS EBORACI - Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle. quatrefoil in centre.

Spink 1690.
2 commentsChristian Scarlioli
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Medieval Ireland, King Henry III, Silver Irish Long Cross cut Halfpenny, Class 1a, Moneyer: David. UK Metal Detecting find from Suffolk and recorded with PAS.6 viewsDublin 1251-1254 A.D. 0.66g - 18.6mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: hЄN[RI CVS R Є]X III - Crowned facing bust, holding sceptre; cinquefoil to right; all within a double triangle.

Rev: DAV[ION DIV]ELI - Voided long cross, with trefoil in each angle.

Spink 6235.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval Scotland, King Alexander III, Silver Penny, Class E, 2nd Coinage.1 viewsBerwick 1280-1286 A.D. 1.20g - 19.3mm, Axis 9h.

Obv: +ALEXANDER DEI GRA - Crowned bust left, holding sceptre.

Rev: REX SCOTORVM+ - Long cross pattée with mullets and 24 points.

Spink 5056.
Christian Scarlioli
cnut.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Anglo Saxon England, Cnut, AR Penny, 1016-1035 AD.39 viewsAnglo-Saxon Kings of England, Cnut AR Penny. AD 1016-1035. Short Cross type (BMC xvi, Hild. H). Lundene (London) mint; Godman, moneyer. Struck circa 1029-1035/6.
Obverse: + CNVT T R·ECX:, diademed bust left; sceptrE before
Reverse: + GODMΛN ON LVN, voided short cross with pellet-in-annulet in center.
SCBI 14 (Copenhagen), 2601-3 var. (same obv. die, mint name); Hild. 2426; BMC –; North 790; SCBC 1159; CNG 90, lot 2396 (same dies). 1.14g, 17mm, 3h.
chance v
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MEDIEVAL, England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny64 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Æthelred the Unready, or Æthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ælfthryth. Æthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Æthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ælfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Æthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Æthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Æthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unræd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Æthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).
Richard M10
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Medieval, England, EDWARD I (1272 - 1307), AR Penny minted at London in 1279.9 viewsObverse: EDW REX ANG DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 1382

Undated Penny, type 1c. Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".
*Alex
edward1.jpg
MEDIEVAL, ENGLAND, Edward I (1272-1307), AR Penny, Class 3g, London.102 viewsEdward I, Plantagenet king of England (1272-1307)

Obverse: +EDW R ANGL DNS HYB, Facing small neat bust of Edward I with narrow face and spread crown.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON, Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle.
Weight: 1.35g.
N.1022; SPINK.1393

New coinage, class 3g penny (struck 1280 to 1281) London mint.

2 commentsAnemicOak
EnglandND1Penny1.jpg
Medieval, England, Edward I, (1272-1307) 1 Penny.22 viewsEngland N.D. (1272-1307) 1 Penny.

Newcastle-On-Tyne Mint.

King Edward I (1272-1307).

King Edward I was commonly known as the 'Hammer of the Scots',as he tried to take over Scotland in the turmoil that ensued as a result of the death of King Alexander III of Scotland (1249-86).

King Edward I's silver 1d. coins are the commonest English hammered coins - but not from some of the provincial mints though.
BCNumismatics
Edward_I.jpeg
MEDIEVAL, ENGLAND, Edward I, AR Penny.11 viewsStruck A.D.1302 - 1307
Seaby: 1414
Steven H3
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Medieval, England, Henry III (1216 – 1272), AR Penny struck 1248 - 1250 at London17 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363
*Alex
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MEDIEVAL, England, Henry lll cut Penny54 viewsNervousRex
John_penny~0.png
Medieval, King John Penny: SCBI 56 Mass 1755 (this coin)26 viewsJohn (1199-1216), Penny, class VIa2, London,
Walter, walter · on · lvn, 1.40g/4h
(SCBI Mass 1755, this coin; N 974/2; S 1353).
Good fine, dark-toned
J.D. Brand Collection [from Baldwin October 1960];
J.P. Mass Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 61, 17 March 2004, lot 355 (part);
J. Sazama Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 93, 26 September 2011, lot 1140 (part)
The collection of the late ray Inder
DNW Auction Coins tokens and Historical Medals September 18-20 2018, lot 192.
orfew
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MEDIEVAL, SCOTLAND, ALEXANDER III (1249 - 1286), AR Penny minted at Roxburgh, Scotland11 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054
*Alex
ScotlandND1Penny1.jpg
Medieval, Scotland, Alexander III, (1280-86) 1 Penny.23 viewsScotland N.D. (1280-86) 1 Penny.

King Alexander III (1249-86).

The death of King Alexander III of Scotland led directly to turmoil that allowed England to interfere in Scots affairs, and in which King Edward I tried to take over Scotland.
BCNumismatics
CONDER_TOKEN_-_INDUSTRY.jpg
MIDDLESEX 1/2-PENNY TOKEN81 viewsMIDDLESEX 1/2-PENNY TOKEN - Cu token, Middlesex, Obv.: A stag left; FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Rev.: Plough left; date 1796 below; INDUSTRY *R SUPPLIETH WANT. The *over R character between INDUSTRY and SUPPLIETH is possibly a maker's mark? Reference: D&H-1041B, Conder 179.1 commentsdpaul7
Middlesex_1016e.jpg
Middlesex 1016e16 viewsObv: A MAP OF FRANCE. 1794, “HONOR” trodden under foot, “throne” turned upside down, FRA-NCE divided, RE-LI-GI-ON cut in pieces, “GLORY” defaced, “FIRE” in each corner, murder (i.e. daggers) on every side, and bloodshed all over.

Rev: MAY / GREAT BRITAIN / EVER REMAIN / THE / REVERSE, radiated within an oak wreath, the first and last letter of the second line of legend touches the wreath.

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Political Series 1016e
SPQR Coins
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Middlesex 1039b25 viewsObv: AM I NOT A MAN AND A BROTHER, kneeling African man in chains.

Rev: MAY SLAVERY & OPPRESSION CEASE THROUGOUT THE WORLD, two clasped hands.

Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL

Note: The "Am I Not a Man..." slogan, with the image of a man in chains was also adopted by the abolitionist movement in the United States. In the 1830's it was modified into a uniquely American token that reversed the gender of person. Depicting a similarly bound woman, it stated: "Am I Not a Woman and a Sister?"

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Slavery 1039b
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Middlesex 104814 viewsObv: TOM TACKLE IS RICH - FOR KING AND COUNTRY, a sailor brandishing a cutlass.

Rev: TOM TACKLE IS POOR - MY COUNTRY SERVD, a sailor on crutches with a wooden leg begging.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Tom Tackle 1048
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Middlesex 283a25 viewsObv: G. WASHINGTON THE FIRM FRIEND OF PEACE & HUMANITY, military bust of George Washington facing right.

Rev: PAYABLE BY CLARK & HARRIS 13 WORMWOOD ST. BISHOPSGATE - LONDON - 1795, fire grate.

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Note: This token is also listed among American colonial pieces.

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 283a
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Middlesex_287.jpg
Middlesex 28714 viewsObv: LONDON CORRESPONDING SOCIETY, a scholar instructing his pupils on the lesson of the bundle of sticks (strength through union).

Rev: GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES, bust facing right.

Edge: AN ASYLUM FOR THE OPPRESS’D OF ALL NATIONS – X –

Note: The edge inscription is associated with tokens that were produced in England and distributed in the United States.

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 287
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Middlesex 30217 viewsObv: A crown and the date 1795 encircled with the notes of “GOD SAVE THE KING.”

Rev: WM. FORSTER, VIOLIN, TENOR, & VIOLONCELLO MAKER • NO. 348 STRAND LONDON, The Prince of Wales’ crest with a double circle.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 302
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Middlesex 31715 viewsObv: MRS. NEWSHAM THE WHITE NEGRESS, a woman standing half left.

Rev: TO BE HAD AT THE CURIOSITY HOUSE CITY ROAD • NEAR FINSBURY SQUARE LONDON 1795

Edge: Plain

Note: Hall's Curiosity House in London boasted many "oddities" of the day. There were animals, people with deformities, and an albino woman from Africa. Many of Hall's "curiosities" appeared on tokens advertising his business.

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 317
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Middlesex 478a17 viewsObv: WE NE’ER SHALL LOOK UPON HIS LIKE AGAIN, bust of David Garrick (British actor 1717 – 1779) to right. C. JAMES F below.

Rev: SIMS RUSSELL COURT, masks of comedy (with a horn through its eye) and tragedy (with a dagger through its eye), a thistle and crown above, sprigs below.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 478a
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Middlesex 522a27 viewsObv: ST. PAULS COVENT GARDEN, a view of a church, JAMES below, LONDON in exergue.

Rev: DESTROY’D, BY, FIRE, SEPR: 17TH, a view of the same church in ruins, 1795 in exergue.

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex Skidmore's 522a
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Middlesex_63.jpg
Middlesex 6314 viewsObv: MONUMENT ERECTED 1677, The Monument of London.

Rev: LONDON PENNY TOKEN, the crest of London within a wreath.

Edge: Plain

Note: Part of Kempson’s extensive series of London landmarks.

Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 63
SPQR Coins
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Middlesex 68648 viewsObv: T SPENCE 7 MONTHS IMPRISON’D FOR HIGH TREASON, bust of Thomas Spence to left. Artist’s name JAMES and date 1794 below.

Rev: ODD FELLOWS A MILLION HOGG 1795 A GUINEA PIG, the head of a man and an ass conjoined.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 686
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_689.jpg
Middlesex 68943 viewsObv: T SPENCE 7 MONTHS IMPRISON’D FOR HIGH TREASON, bust of Thomas Spence to left. Artist’s name JAMES and date 1794 below.

Rev: AFTER THE REVOLUTION, three men dancing and one eating at a table, under a tree.

Edge: Over print on lettering. Edge inscription appears to read: SPENCE X DEADEALER X IN X COINS XX ILONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 689
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_730.jpg
Middlesex 73045 viewsObv: BRITISH LIBERTY DISPLAYED 1795, a sailor holding a club and seizing a landsman.

Rev: A FREE BORN ENGLISHMAN 1796, a man in chains with his hands bound behind his back and a pad lock on his mouth.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 730
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_760.JPG
Middlesex 76052 viewsObv: ENGLISH SLAVERY, a fat man seated at a table eating, JACOBS below.

Rev: FRENCH LIBERTY, a skinny man seated on the floor gnawing on a bone.

Note: The design of this token was copied from an anti-revolution cartoon by James Gillray, published on 21 December 1792.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 760
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_766.jpg
Middlesex 76639 viewsObv: RT. HE. C. J. FOX, Bust of Charles James Fox facing right.

Rev: LET TYRANTS TREMBLE AT THE CROW OF LIBERTY 1795, a lion dismayed at a cock crowing.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 766
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_770.jpg
Middlesex 77040 viewsObv: RT. HE. C. J. FOX, Bust of Charles James Fox facing right.

Rev: WE ALSO ARE THE PEOPLE - 1796, A soldier shaking hands with two citizens.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 770
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_819.jpg
Middlesex 81941 viewsObv: THE END OF OPPRESSION, Two men dancing beside a pyre.

Rev: ROUSE BRITANNIA! Britannia seated, the cap of liberty falling from her staff.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 819
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_829a.jpg
Middlesex 829a67 viewsObv: END OF PAIN, a man hanging from a gibbet with a church in the distance.

Rev: PANDORA’S BREECHES, a pair of breeches on fire, a serpent with a man’s head beneath.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 829a
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_833.jpg
Middlesex 83364 viewsObv: END OF PAIN, a man hanging from a gibbet with a church in the distance.

Rev: An open book, inscribed: THE WRONGS OF MAN. JANY 21: 1793

Edge: Engrailed

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 833
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_837.jpg
Middlesex 83766 viewsObv: NOTED ADVOCATES FOR THE RIGHTS OF MEN 1796, three men hanging on a gibbet.

Rev: A WAY | TO PREVENT | KNAVES | GETTING | A TRICK.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 837
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_842b.jpg
Middlesex 842b62 viewsObv: A pig trampling on the emblems of royalty, parliament, and the church. A banner in the pigs mouth reads, “Pig’s meat Published by T • Spence London.” Cap of Liberty above.

Rev: THOS. SPENCE | Sir THOS. MORE | THOS. PAINE in three lines in the center, NOTED ADVOCATES FOR THE RIGHTS OF MAN around.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 842b
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_860.jpg
Middlesex 86030 viewsObv: A shepherd reclining under a tree, countryside and mountain peak in the distance. 1790 in exergue.

Rev: A stag sprinting past a tree.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 860
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_862.jpg
Middlesex 86246 viewsObv: A SNAIL MAY PUT HIS HORNS OUT, a snail in the foreground with a tree and a man fishing off of a bridge in the background.

Rev: A stag sprinting past a tree.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 862
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_865.jpg
Middlesex 865 Copper39 viewsObv: JOHN THELWALL, bust of Thelwall facing right, name of artist JAMES below.

Rev: LIBERTAS • 1796, radiate cap of Liberty on top of a pole.

Edge: SKIDMORE HOLBORN LONDON

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 865
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_871.jpg
Middlesex 87139 viewsObv: JOHN THELWALL, bust of Thelwall facing right, name of artist JAMES below.

Rev: LITTLE TURNSTILE HALFPENNY 1796, two boys playing on a turnstile.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 871
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_887.jpg
Middlesex 88783 viewsObv: TREE OF LIBERTY, four men dancing around a pole, surmounted by a head radiated (supposedly the head is that of Prime Minister William Pitt).

Rev: THE GALLANT GARB OF SCOTLAND, a Scottish Highlander standing.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 887
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_890.jpg
Middlesex 89084 viewsObv: TREE OF LIBERTY, four men dancing around a pole, surmounted by a head radiated (supposedly the head is that of Prime Minister William Pitt).

Rev: AFTER THE REVOLUTION, three men dancing and one eating at a table, under a tree.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 890
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_892.jpg
Middlesex 89288 viewsObv: TREE OF LIBERTY, Four men dancing around a pole, surmounted by a head radiated (supposedly the head is that of Prime Minister William Pitt).

Rev: HALFPENNY, a guillotine and part of a house.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 892
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_911.jpg
Middlesex 91117 viewsObv: LONG LIVE THE KING, bust of George III facing left.

Rev: A large cipher I M & Co, 1795

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Whitfield’s 911
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_911b.jpg
Middlesex 911b17 viewsObv: LONG LIVE THE KING, bust of George III facing left.

Rev: A large cipher I M & Co, 1795

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, Whitfield’s 911b
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_969.jpg
Middlesex 96918 viewsObv: PRINCE REGENT, but of the Prince of Wales, facing left.

Rev: HE HOLDS IT FOR THE KING, a crown, 1789 in exergue.

Edge: Milled

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, National Series 969
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_995a.jpg
Middlesex 995a14 viewsObv: LOUIS. XVI ET M. ANTOINETTE. ROI ET REINE DE FRANCE, conjoined busts of the King and Queen of France, facing right.

Rev: MUR'D. BY / THE FACTIOUS / LOUIS XVI. JAN. 21 / M: ANTOINETTE / OCT 16 / 1793

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, National Series 995a
SPQR Coins
irishtoken.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, Dublin, Copper Halfpenny 1799, Hibernia, rev CAMAC KYAN AND CAMAC (DH 42, 59, 91)22 viewsIRELAND. Dublin, Copper Halfpenny 1799, INCORPORATED BY ACT OF PARLIMENT 1799, Hibernia seated left / monogram, CAMAC KYAN AND CAMAC (DH 42, 59, 91)oneill6217
1769.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, George III 1761 - 1820. Copper Halfpenny, Dublin 176934 viewsKingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Dublin, George III 1761 - 1820. Copper Halfpenny 1769.
GEORGIUS III . REX . , king's bust right / HIBERNIA, crowned Harp dividing date below 17-69.
KM 137
oneill6217
ire1805.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, George III, copper half penny3 viewsKM # 147 Ireland32 viewsKM # 147 Ireland copper half penny3 viewsKM # 147 Ireland. George III, king of the United Kingdoms of Britain and Ireland. AE 1/2 penny. GEORGIVS III D.G. REX, diademed head of George III right / HIBERNIA 1805, Crowned Harp oneill6217
1781.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, George III, Copper Halfpenny, Dublin 178124 viewsKingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Dublin, George III 1761 - 1820. Copper Halfpenny 1781. GEORGIUS III . REX . , king's bust right / HIBERNIA, crowned Harp dividing date below 17-81.

KM 140
oneill6217
1822~0.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, George IV 1820 - 1830. Copper Halfpenny, Dublin 1822.47 viewsKingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Dublin, George IV 1820 - 1830. Copper Halfpenny 1822.
GEORGIVS IV D.G. REX , laureate head right / HIBERNIA, crowned Irish harp, date below.
KM 150
oneill6217
ire2.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Ireland, George IV, copper penny 182256 viewsKM # 151 Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland George IV copper penny 1822. GOERGIVS IV, diademed head of king George IV left / HIBERANIA 1822, crowned Irish harp.oneill6217
1853britt.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria 1837 - 1901, Copper 1/2 Penny, 1853.58 viewsGreat Britain. Victoria 1837 - 1901. Copper 1/2 Penny 1853. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, bust left, date below / BRITANNIA REG: FID: DEF, Britannia seated right.

KM 726
oneill6217
britin1896.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria 1837 - 1901, Copper Penny, 1896.167 viewsGreat Britain. Victoria 1837 - 1901. Copper Penny 1896. VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA: FID: DEF: IND: IMP 1896, bust left / ONE PENNY, Britannia seated right, date below.

KM 790
oneill6217
1_penny_Victoria_1863.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria, 1863, Bronze Penny22 views-1 Penny Victoria ROYAUME-UNI Britannia 1863 bgaut
niels.jpg
Niels39 viewsPenny of Niels, king of Denmark 1104-1134
Moneyer: Estman
Mint: Roskilde
Hbg. 9
O: N[ICO]LAVS REX
R: EST

Chipped (possibly as made or due to double striking?) but pleasantly toned example of Niels' scarce coinage. Double struck and somewhat difficult to read. Estman is one of his more common moneyers, and his name is found with various spellings. Coins of Niels are frequently chipped, or just struck on very irregular planchets. This is in contrast to the fairly well-made coinage of his father Svend Estridsen.

Ex- Bruun Rasmussen online auction 1407, lot 5009
Nap
Norfolk_54.jpg
Norfolk 5421 viewsObv: A female seated holding a scroll inscribed: BOULTER’S EXHIBITION of NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL CURIOSITIES, YARMOUTH in exergue.

Rev: UNDIQUAQUE COLLIGITUR, three figures representing Asia, Africa and America presenting various curiosities to Britannia who is recording them in a book, 1796 in exergue.

Edge: PUBLISHED BY JOS. DANL. & JNO. BOULTER

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Norfolk, Yarmouth 54
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together.JPEG
Norwich Halfpenny 179253 viewsNorwich Halfpenny 1792 -
Obverse - The Armorial bearings of the City of Norwich. (A castle triple-towered, in base a lion passant gardant.)
Legend: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH. PRO BONO PUBLICO

Reverse - Arms: (Gules, on a bend between six crosses crosslets fitchée argent, an escutcheon or, charged with a demi-lion [a lion on the token], rampant pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure flory, counter-flory gules.) [The tressure is not so shown, and the tincture would be impossible to engrave at this minute scale] of the Howard Family — the Duke of Norfolk's. Behind the shield are two truncheons or Marshal's staves, in saltire or, enamelled at each end sable. [This tincture is omitted on the token.]
Legend: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY. 1792

Edge: PAYABLE AT N. BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER &C NORWICH .X.
aarmale
Oxfordshire_1.jpg
Oxfordshire 120 viewsObv: WM. RUSHER HATTER BOOKSELR. & STATIONER • BANBURY, a three-quarter bust to right

Rev: DEUS • EST • NOBIS • SOL • ET • SCUTUM, the sun.

Edge: PAYABLE AT BANBURY OXFORD OR READING.

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Oxfordshire, Banbury 1
SPQR Coins
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PLANTAGENET. Edward I. 1272-1307. AR Penny. 1302-1303.6 viewsCanterbury mint. (19mm, 1.40 g, 9h). New Coinage type, class 10ab3, +EDWARD R ANGL DNS hYB, crowned facing bust, star on breast; crown with tall thin ornaments; interlocked W and broken S in legend / Voided long cross; three pellets in quarters. SCBI 39 (North), 533; North 1037/1; SCBC 1408. Ruslan K
EnglandND1Penny2.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Commonwealth, (1649-60) 1 Penny.26 viewsEngland N.D. (1649-60) 1 Penny.

Commonwealth of England.
BCNumismatics
3~3.PNG
Queen Victoria5 viewsQUEEN Victoria (1837-1901) Half Penny 1893

Obverse:VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1893 - By the Grace of God Victoria: YOUNG HEAD

Reverse:BRITANNIAR : REG: FID : DEF : - Queen of all Britain and Defender of the Faith
discwizard
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Queen Victoria6 viewsQueen Victoria (1837 to 1901) 1 penny Date-1862

Obverse:VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP: Young HEAD

Reverse:BRITANNIAR

Grade:Fair Size:30mm
discwizard
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Richard II, York mint, class 26 viewsmauseus
Tiberius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tiberius AR Denarius "Tribute Penny"38 viewsLugdunum mint. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair. RSC 16b. RIC 28.1 commentsMike Deigan
Tiberius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tiberius, Denarius131 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D.
"Tribute Penny"
Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM
RIC 30v
3 commentsBarry
bpJ1G1Tiberius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tiberius, Denarius, A.D.14-3767 viewsObv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head, right.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM
Seated female (Livia?) right, holding sceptre and branch.
Denarius 3.1 gm 18.5 mm RIC 26
ex-Berk
Comment: Commonly associated with the Tribute Penny from the New Testament.
Massanutten
Vespasian_ric_77~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian RIC 70262 viewsVespasian, denarius
RIC II 702, RSC 364.
Rome mint, 74 AD.
Obv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev. PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right, branch in left hand, scepter in right.

Although the seated figure is male, this reverse is strongly reminscent of the 'Tribute Penny' type of Tiberius.
2 commentsMarsman
st-peter-1b.jpg
S.1006 St. Peter61 viewsViking penny in the name of St. Peter of York ca. 910-920
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: probably York
S.1006 (var.)
N.551 (var.)
O: ZCIIIT R, tree and key symbols
R: +B.RACEC

This a rare variant of the "swordless" St. Peter coinage, with a blundered version of "Sancti Petri" in one line, instead of the usual two lines.

Viking coinage in York began at around the start of the 10th century with a coinage in the names of Cnut and Siefred, a probably short-lived coinage but one which survives in great numbers due to the Cuerdale hoard. Subsequently, an anonymous coinage in the name of St. Peter follows, of which this coin is probably a late type. After the St. Peter coinage there was an inscribed coinage in the names of Ragnald and Sihtric Caech, Hiberno-Norse kings from Ireland who conquered Northumbria. A subsequent anonymous second coinage in 920s in the name of St. Peter features a sword (probably the Sword of Carlus, a 9th century Irish Viking hero), and Thor's hammer. The Vikings wrangled with the kings of Wessex throughout the 10th century until king Eadred of England brought Northumbria into the English fold. Viking coinage continued, mostly in the name of the kings of York, until the mid 10th century, culminating with Eric Bloodaxe.

All Viking coinage from York is rare, but the Cnut, Siefred, and St. Peter coinages are the most common, due to their survival in several large hoards.

The one-line St. Peter coins make up a rare subset of the earlier swordless type. There are only a handful known, and they all feature symbols, including the tree, the key (St. Peter's key to heaven), a candelabra, a star or propeller, and a large cross.

This particular coin is a die match to a coin in the British Museum, BMC 1141, which was found in Geashill, Ireland.

Ex- Hanson Historica Auction, PAS NMS-BDD828, EMC 2013.0245
2 commentsNap
aethelwulf.jpg
S.1044 Aethelwulf (Osmund)61 viewsPenny of Æthelwulf, king of Wessex, 839-858
Moneyer: Osmund
Mint: Canterbury
S. 1044
O: +EDELVVLF REX
R: +OSMVND MONETA. SAX ONIO RVM in center.

This particular type was believed to be struck in Canterbury, as other coins by this moneyer have the insignia, "Dorib" which is either Dorovernum (Canterbury) or Dorobrevis (Rochester). The Saxoniorum monogram was also used on coins from the late period of Aethelwulf's father Ecgberht's reign, and this issue is thus presumed to be from early in Æthelwulf's reign.

This coin is slightly chipped, as are many of this type, coins from later in Æthelwulf's reign seem to be better preserved.

Ex- DNW 2-3 Dec 2013 (lot 2031), Glendining auction 10-11 Dec 1980 (lot 252)
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aethelberht-aethelweald-1.jpg
S.1053 Æthelberht (Æthelweald)33 viewsPenny of Æthelberht, king of Wessex, 860-865
Moneyer: Æthelweald
Mint: Probably Canterbury
S. 1053
O: +ÆÐELBEARHT REX
R: +EÐELVE ALD MO N E T A

Ex- Studio Coins, Sothebys, L.R. Stack
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S.1055 Æthelred I (Ælfhere)47 viewsPenny of Æthelred I, king of Wessex, 865-871
Moneyer: Ælfhere
Mint: Probably Canterbury
S. 1055
O: +AEÐELRED REX
R: MON ELBERE ETA

Penny of Æthelred, the 4th son of King Æthelwulf. There was much fighting between Wessex and Viking armies during his fairly short reign. Æthelred was nominally in charge of the army of Wessex for the battle of Ashdown, one of the few English victories against the Viking army at this time. Historically, the victory is remembered for the leadership of Ælfred (later to be known as 'the Great') who was apparently the military commander on the field.

During the time of Æthelred, the currency of Wessex and Mercia were unified, and coins of the same "lunette" type are produced for Æthelred, his brother and successor Ælfred, and Burgred of Mercia.

Ex- Keith Chapman
1 commentsNap
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S.1087 Eadward the Elder (Dudig?)38 viewsPenny of Eadward "the Elder", king of Wessex, 899-924
Moneyer: Dudig?
Mint: Unknown
Mercia-South East dies
S. 1087
O: +EɅDVVEɅREX
R: DVD +++ oI Mo

This penny may be a contemporary imitation of Eadward's official issue, from the Danelaw, or it may be just the misengraving of a barely literate moneyer. A moneyer named Dudig is known to strike coins for Eadward as well as his father Alfred

Ex- Heritage Auctions, CNG
2 commentsNap
aethelstan-godfred-1b.jpg
S.1089 Æthelstan (Godfred)32 viewsPenny of Æthelstan, king of Wessex, 924-939
Moneyer: Godfred
Mint: Unknown
North East mint
S. 1089
O: +ÆÐELZTAN REX
R: GODF +++ RED Mo

Æthelstan, with the sobriquet "the Glorious" consolidated power in the former heptarchy, and can probably be considered the first king of England.

Ex- Silbury Coins, J.Radford
1 commentsNap
eadred-1a2.jpg
S.1115 Eadred (Wilbeorht)42 viewsPenny of Eadred, king of England 946-955
Moneyer: Wilbeorht
Mint: unknown (possibly Norwich)
S. 1115
O: crowned bust, +EADRED RENE
R: AAILEBERT MONETA

A portrait penny of King Eadred. Eadred's reign was marked by conflict with the Vikings in Northumbria, and their adventurous leader Eric Bloodaxe. By the end of Eadred's reign however, Northumbria was brought into the English fold.

This particular coin is likely from Norwich, as the portrait is in the East Anglian style, and there is another coin from the same moneyer (EMC 1998.0096) with a mint signature "N" probably from Norwich.

Ex- eBay, EMC 2016.0297
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eadwig-eanwulf-1.jpg
S.1122 Eadwig (Eanwulf)42 viewsPenny of Eadwig, king of England 955-959
Moneyer: Eanwulf
Mint: unknown (possibly Lincoln)
S. 1122
HT1, NE IV
O: +EADVVI REX
R: EAEN oLF M

Coins of Eadwig are somewhat scarce due to his short reign. For whatever reason, portrait coins are almost non-existant; a single unique example is known. There are a few mint signed coins of Eadwig but the majority are just presumed to be from certain regions. This one is called "NE IV" type, a subtype of the HT1 (horizontal trefoil) type, from a Northeast mint, which is probably Lincoln.

Ex- StacksBowers
1 commentsNap
edward-martyr-1a.jpg
S.1142 Eadward the Martyr (Æthelstan)8 viewsPenny of Eadward "the Martyr", king of England 975-978
Moneyer: Æthelstan
Mint: Canterbury
S. 1142
O: EADPEA REX ANGLOR
R: ÆÐESTAN M-O CÆNT

The unfortunate Eadward, with the sobriquet "the Martyr", obviously wasn't destined for long life. Just three years into his reign, the hapless Eadward was killed, probably by his step mother Ælfthryth, mother of his half-brother Æthelred (II).

This particular coin appears to have been from an altered die of Eadgar, with the last three letters of the presumably still serviceable die altered.

Ex- Davissons, Spink
1 commentsNap
aethelred_ii.jpg
S.1148 Aethelred II29 viewsPenny of Aethelred II, king of England 968-1016
Moneyer: Leofnoth
Mint: Lewes
S. 1148
O: EÐELRED REX ANGLOR
R: LEOFNOÐ M-O LÆPE

Ex-Spink
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cnut.jpg
S.1159 Cnut33 viewsPenny of Cnut, king of England 1016-1035, Denmark 1018-1035, and Norway 1028-1035
Moneyer: Brunman
Mint: London
S. 1159
O: +CNVT REX A
R: +BRVNMAN ON LV

Ex- Harlan J. Berk
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S.1165 Harold I (Skuli)31 viewsPenny of Harold I, king of England 1035-1040
Moneyer: Skuli
Mint: York
S. 1165
O: +HAR.O.LD RECX
R: +SCVLA O.M EOFER.

Harold, nicknamed "harefoot" presumably because he was a fast runner, became king in England after the death of his father Cnut, and in opposition to his half-brother Harthacnut, who had a competing claim. Harthacnut was busy in Denmark and could not press his claim for several years.

Not much is known about Harold, who did not live very long and died at age 24, before the war with his half-brother began, and his death probably spared England from yet another civil war.

Despite his short reign, his coins are fairly prolific, and frequently come high grade, as they have been found in some decent number in hoards.

Ex- S. Elden
2 commentsNap
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S.1169 Harthacnut34 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of England 1040-1042 and Denmark 1035-1042
Moneyer: Leofwine
Mint: Thetford
Arm-and-scepter type
S. 1169
O: +CNVT RECX A
R: +LEFPINE ON ÐEOTVO

The arm-and-scepter type in the name of "Cnut" was produced during the reign of Harthacnut

Ex- Mark Rasmussen, Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 43), Archbishop John Sharp
2 commentsNap
harthacnut~0.jpg
S.1170 Harthacnut40 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of England 1040-1042 and Denmark 1035-1042
Moneyer: Tooci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170
Hauberg 28 (var.)
O: NARÐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
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edward-the-confessor-1.jpg
S.1173 Edward the Confessor26 viewsPenny of Edward the Confessor, king of England 1042-1066
Moneyer: Edwine
Mint: London
S. 1173
O: +EDPERD REX A
R: +EDPINE ON LVND
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edward-the-confessor-2.jpg
S.1176 Edward the Confessor29 viewsPenny of Edward the Confessor, king of England 1042-1066
Moneyer: Leofric
Mint: Thetford
S. 1176
O: +EDP[EA]RD RE
R: +LEOFRIC ON [ÐE]ODE

Ex- York Coins, Elmore Jones, Baldwins
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henry-i-1.jpg
S.1271 Henry I33 viewsPenny of Henry I, king of England 1100-1135
Moneyer: Godwine
Mint: Thetford
S. 1271
B.M.C. 10
O: +hENRICVS REX AN
R: GODPINE ON TETF

Ex- Heritage
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stephen-1.jpg
S.1278 Stephen36 viewsPenny of Stephen, king of England 1135-1154
Mint: Lincoln
Moneyer: Sigverd
S.1278 (var.)
N.874
BMC i
O: +~TIEF[NE]
R: [+~IG]VE[R]T [O]N: L[IN]

Penny of Stephen of Blois, king of England during the period known as "The Anarchy". This was a time of civil war, during which Stephen and Matilda of Anjou, daughter of the late Henry I, feuded for the throne. The country was thrown into chaos, and local barons or warlords took power when central authority disintegrated. The coinage reflects this disorganization, and there are pennies of Stephen, Matilda, and several of the prominent barons, along with "local issues" struck from crude dies with unusual legends. Most coins of this period are poorly struck, with incomplete legends, and this one is no exception.

This type, called the "Watford" type in honor of a large 19th century hoard found in Watford, features the king facing right, with a crown and scepter. The reverse depicts a cross moline with an inward facing fleur-de-lis at the junction of the ends. This is the most common type of Stephen's coinage

This particular coin is of a sub-variety without the inner circle around the king's portrait.

The legend is nearly impossible to make out, but comparison with a finer coin with preserved legends (from the same dies) has enabled me to figure out the legend.

Ex- Halls Hammered Coins, London Coins Auction 150 (lot 1790)
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matilda-bricmer-1.jpg
S.1326 Matilda25 viewsPenny of Matilda, queen of England (disputed) 1139-1148
Mint: Cardiff
Moneyer: Bricmer
S.1326
N.936
O: [MATI]LLIS IMP
R: [+BRIC]MER:CAIE[RDI]

This coin, cracked and somewhat crudely repaired by the Cardiff Museum, is from the famous Coed-y-Wenallt hoard found in 1980. This hoard tripled the number of coins of Matilda known up to that time. THe best of the hoard went to museums. Some of the coins were sold by Spink in 1982, many ended up in institutional collections. A good number of them were cracked and repaired by the museum.

Matilda was ultimately unsuccessful in her invasion and war against Stephen, but her son would become king Henry II and one of the most successful English monarchs.

Ex- DNW 3 Jul 2019 (lot 431), M Lessen, P Withers, Seaby Coins, Spink Auction 20 (lot 26), Coed-y-Wenallt hoard
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henry-ii-1.jpg
S.1339 Henry II (Nicole)4 viewsPenny of Henry II, king of England 1154-1189
Moneyer: Nicole
Mint: Ipswich
S. 1339
O: +hENRI:RE
R: +NICOLE ON GIPE

Cross and crosslets type penny, also known as 'Tealby' for a large hoard of them that was found in Tealby, Lincolnshire, in the early 19th century. These first issues of Henry II are often of wretched quality, and the legends can be very difficult to read.

Ex- eBay
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doublestruck.jpg
S.1352 John29 viewsPenny of John, king of England 1199-1216
Moneyer: Rauf (?)
Mint: London
S. 1352 (?)
Class 5c (?)

Unusual flip-over double struck short cross penny. Looking at both sides, one can make out the design of both obverse and reverse on both sides of this coin. Double struck hammered coins are quite common, but flip over double strikes are fairly rare, and a coin with as much detail on both sides as can be seen here is an unusual thing.

I believe it is a class 5c penny of John, and it looks like the moneyer is Rauf or Raul, but I cannot be entirely sure.

Ex- eBay
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edward-i-1.jpg
S.1393 Edward I12 viewsPenny of Edward I, king of England 1272-1307
Mint: London
Class 3g
O:+EDW R ANGL DNS HYB
R: CIVITAS LONDON

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
edward-ii-1.jpg
S.1455 Edward II10 viewsPenny of Edward II, king of England 1307-1327
Mint: London
Class 11a
O:+EDWA R ANGL DNS HYB
R: CIVITAS LONDON

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
david-i-erebald.jpg
S.5001 David I (Erebald)18 viewsPenny of David I of Scotland (1124-1153)
Mint: Probably Carlisle
Moneyer: Erebald
Imitation of Henry I BMC XV
S. 5001
O: +DA[VI]D [ ]
R: [+]EREBA[LD: O]N C[A]RD[:]

Believed to be the first coin made in Scotland. It imitates Henry I's last type but in the name of David. Made by the moneyer Erebald, who coined for Henry, David, and Stephen. Presumably produced after David's invasion of England following the usurpation of Stephen of Blois. This coin really demonstrates the Anarchy of the time. A masterpiece it is not! Poorly made, with only a few survivors known, most of which are in wretched shape. As far as I can tell, all known examples are from the same die pair. There are probably about 10 known, including damaged examples.

Ex- M.Gallon
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david-ii-1.jpg
S.5088 David II23 viewsPenny of David II of Scotland (1329-1371)
Mint: Probably Edinburgh
First coinage, second issue
S. 5088
O: +DAVID DEI GRACIA
R: REX SCOTTORVM

David II was the last Scottish king of the house of Robert the Bruce.

Ex-CNG
1 commentsNap
robert-iii-groat-1.jpg
S.5164 Robert III18 viewsPenny of Robert III of Scotland (1390-1406)
Mint: Edinburgh
Heavy coinage
S. 5164
O: +ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM
R: +DNSxP TECTOR MSxIxLIB ATORMS
VILL AxED INBV RGHx

Ex- B&G Coins, DNW, Seaby
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john-halfpenny-2a.jpg
S.6203 John3 viewsPenny or halfpenny of John, lord of Ireland, or of John de Courcy, lord of Ulster
S.6203
Mint: unknown (probably Dublin)
Moneyer: Raul Blunt
O: +IOA[NNES], bust right
R: [+RA]VL BLVNT

This coin is generally considered the first Anglo-Irish coin produced in Ireland. It dates from the end of the 12th century, though it is not quite clear who issued it. The name on the obverse is just "John". The figure is not crowned. It could be King John (not yet a king) who was declared Lord of Ireland in 1177 by his father Henry II. Or the John could be John de Courcy who was in control of Ulster at the same time. This coin dates from around 1179. Both Lord John and John de Courcy would both issue coinage.

The "profile right" coinage is exceedingly rare. Besides this coin, there are some 12-15 other specimens. Three moneyers are known- Raul Blunt, Elis of Dublin, and Roger Tan. Given the reference to Dublin by the moneyer Elis, the coins are thought to be produced there and thus attributed to Lord John, future King John. However, Derek Allen has argued in the past that the coins all depict moneyers with last names and that does not clearly indicate where the coins were made. John de Courcy minted at Carrickfergus and Downpatrick and the lettering of these coins is similar to de Courcy's coinage. So the jury remains out on which John.

Ex- Essex Coins
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john-halfpenny-1.jpg
S.6205 John27 viewsHalfpenny of John, Lord of Ireland (1190-1199)
Mint: Dublin
First coinage, second issue
S.6205

Ex- K.Brosz
1 commentsNap
john-penny-1.jpg
S.6228 John18 viewsPenny of John, King of England and Ireland (1199-1216)
Moneyer: Roberd
Mint: Dublin
Third coinage
S.6228
O: IOHA NNES RE X
R: ROBE RDON DIVE

Ex- eBay
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henry-iii-1.jpg
S.6235 Henry III5 viewsPenny of Henry III, King of England and Ireland (1216-1272)
Moneyer: David
Mint: Dublin
S.6235
O: hENRI CVSR EX III
R: DAV ION DIV ENI

Ex- eBay, P.Lindeman, V.England
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edward-i-penny-1.jpg
S.6247 Edward I19 viewsPenny of Edward I, king of England and Ireland (1272-1307)
Mint: Dublin
Second coinage
S. 6247
O: .EDW.R. ANGL.D NSHYB
R: CIVI TAS DVBL INIE

Ex- B&G Coins
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S.905 Offa (Duda)24 viewsPenny of Offa, king of Mercia 757-796
Moneyer: Duda
Mint: Probably London
S. 905
O: + OFFA + REX +
R: + D V D

Ex- CNG
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S.908 Offa (Æthelnoth)59 viewsPenny of Offa, king of Mercia 757-796
Moneyer: Æthelnoth
Mint: Probably Canterbury
S. 908
O: M +OFFA REX
R: + EÞELÞ NO

King Offa was responsible for the first pennies produced in England, which were modeled on the continental European deniers. He created a very varied series of coins, some of which have portrait and others like this without one.

This heavy coinage of Offa is generally believed to have been produced at Canterbury. Æthelnoth was one of Offa's more prolific moneyers.

Ex- Studio Coins, Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 24), Archbishop John Sharp
2 commentsNap
coenwulf-seberht-1.jpg
S.914 Coenwulf (Seberht)24 viewsPenny of Coenwulf, king of Mercia 796-821
Moneyer: Seberht
Mint: Probably Canterbury
S. 914
O: +COENVVLF R'EX M
R: +SE BE RHT

Ex- Mike Vosper
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coenwulf-wodel-1.jpg
S.920 Coenwulf (Wodel)33 viewsPenny of Coenwulf, king of Mercia 796-821
Moneyer: Wodel
Mint: East Anglia, possibly Ipswich
S. 920
Naismith 13.3d (this coin)
O: +COENVVLF REX m
R: +PO+d+E+LT

Ex- AMR Coins
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S.927 Ceolwulf I (Werbald)13 viewsPenny of Ceolwulf I, king of Mercia 821-823
Moneyer: Werbald
Mint: East Anglia, possible Ipswich
S. 927
N. 388
O: +CEOVVLF REX m
R: PER BALD mONE

Ceolwulf I, brother of Coenwulf, succeeded to the throne of Mercia, Kent, and East Anglia after his brother's death. He did produce coins in London, Canterbury, and East Anglia. Despite multiple mints, but due to the brevity of his reign, coins of Ceolwulf are very rare.

This moneyer, Werbald, also coined for Ceolwulf's successors Beornwulf and Ludica

Ex- BSJ Auction 38 (lot 1017)
2 commentsNap
wiglaf-1a.jpg
S.934 Wiglaf (Redmund)48 viewsPenny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia (second reign) 830-839
Moneyer: Redmund
Mint: Probably London
S. 934
N 401.2
O: +VVIGLAF REX M
R: N +REDMV D

Penny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia. Wiglaf was king from 827-839. His reign was interrupted from 829-830 by the conquest of Mercia by Ecgberht of Wessex, who took London in 829. The occupation was short lived however, and Wiglaf regained his throne the next year.

Despite a relatively long rule (compared to other 9th century Mercian kings), coins of Wiglaf are excessively rare. There are two major types, one with a portrait of the king by the moneyer Aethelhun, and a nonportrait type by the moneyers Burgherd and Redmund. Redmund also struck coins for King Ecgberht when he occupied Mercia. The portrait coins are typically assigned to Wiglaf's first reign while the nonportrait type is given to the second reign, but this is a guess at best. There are 8 coins (of all types) documented in the Early Medieval Corpus, but one is a forgery. Another is a fragment. Only one is the portrait variety. There are two other portrait coins in the British Museum and two non-portrait coins that have yet to be added to the corpus, giving a total known extant specimens of 11.

This particular coin is chipped, but otherwise readable and is of different dies than any other known specimen, and is the only non-portrait coin without reverse lunettes, and also does not have any pellets.

Ex- Downies, Glendinings 1992, Bonser 1123, EMC 2001.0960
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burgred.jpg
S.938 Burgred41 viewsPenny of Burgred, king of Mercia, 852-874.
Moneyer: Beagita
S. 938
O: BVRGRED REX+
R: MON BEAGITA ETA

Ex- Harlan J. Berk
Nap
burgred-guthere-1.jpg
S.938 Burgred (Guthere)26 viewsPenny of Burgred, king of Mercia, 852-874.
Moneyer: Guthere
S. 938
O: BVRGRED REX
R: MON/GVDHERE/ETA

Ex- Studio Coins
Nap
eadwald-lul-1.jpg
S.947 Eadwald (Lul)40 viewsPenny of Eadwald, king of East Anglia, ca. 798
Moneyer: Lul
Mint: Unknown
S. 947
O: REX/+EADVA/LD
R: +L V L

Nothing is known about Eadwald, who was king in East Anglia for a short time after the death of Offa of Mercia. Mercia had dominated East Anglia, but a dysnastic struggle after Offa's death seems to have allowed an independent East Anglia to re-emerge. It would not last, and within a few years it was again a Mercian protectorate.

We don't know who Eadwald was or when exactly he lived. He did produce coins, and these very rare pieces give insight into an otherwise forgotten period.

Ex- Lockdales, J Cross, Spink, EMC 2011.0178
1 commentsNap
aethelstan-ea-1.jpg
S.951 Æthelstan (Æthelhelm)21 viewsPenny of Æthelstan I, king of East Anglia, ca. 827-845
Moneyer: Æthelhelm
Mint: Unknown (probably Ipswich)
S. 951
O: AEDELS+AN REX
R: +AEÐELHM MO

Much like other early East Anglian kings, Æthelstan is essentially unknown from the historical record, but left a numismatic record. His coins are scarce, but prolific enough that he must have been king for a reasonable length of time. During his reign the Mercian dominance over East Anglia was weak enough that the East Anglian rulers could coin in their own name. This would last until the East Anglian takeover by the Vikings in 869.

Ex- CNG, Spink, A Williams, M Vosper
Nap
eadmund-beaghelm-1a.jpg
S.954 Eadmund16 viewsPenny of Eadmund, king of East Anglia, 855-870.
Moneyer: Beaghelm
S. 954
O: +EADMVND REX
R: +BEΓHELM MO

Eadmund (or Edmund), later to be sainted and forever known as St. Edmund (of the Bury St. Edmund's fame) was the last independent king of East Anglia. He managed to keep order in his kingdom when the Viking "Great Heathen Army" landed an invasion force in 865, and made some sort of peace with them, providing a brief respite. The Vikings went north and attacked Northumbria, took York, set up a puppet government there, and then came south again. This time, the East Anglians resisted, but were crushed by the Viking army. Eadmund died, either in battle, or shortly after.

Ex- Triskeles Auction 309 (lot 438)
Nap
alfred-londonia-1a.jpg
S.964 Imitation of Alfred38 viewsViking penny imitating Alfred, king of Wessex 871-899
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: unknown (probably East Anglia)
S. 964

Viking imitation of the well-known 'Londonia' type struck for King Alfred. Alfred was the only king of England to carry the moniker 'the great', due to his success in saving his kingdom and people from destruction at the hands of the Vikings.

This type copies the official penny of Alfred featuring the monogram of the city of London, which copies earlier monograms seen on Roman, Gothic, and Frankish coins. The original is believed to have been struck to commemorate the retaking of London from the Danes, ca. 886. This imitation presumably dates from a few years later.

Alfred struck a peace treaty with Guthrum, warlord of the Danes, probably after retaking London. This established a boundary for Danish territory and brought some peace to England for a period. Presumably trade between the two peoples began, and the Danes started minting coins imitating the contemporary issues from Wessex.

This particular coin is almost certainly a Viking imitation due to the crude style and low weight (1.2g). It was double struck about 10 degrees off, and as such the imagery is a little muddled, but still quite readable.

Ex- Downies
Nap
SCOT ALEX III .jpg
SCOTLAND - ALEXANDER III65 viewsSILVER PENNY OF ALEXANDER III SCOTLAND (Reigned 1249-1286) ALEXANDER DEI GRA/SCOTORVM + REX
26 POINTS - PERTH. Seaby 5050-5058.
dpaul7
Scotland_Alexander_III.jpg
SCOTLAND - Alexander III28 viewsSCOTLAND - Alexander III (1249-1286) AR Penny, 1280-1286 AD. Obv.: + ΛLЄXΛNDЄR DЄI GRΛ - Crowned head left, scepter to left. Rev.: RЄX SCO TOR VM + Long cross; 4 stars of 7 points each. Reference: BURNS 56a. Ex-Ardatirion Collection.dpaul7
Somersetshire_103.jpg
Somersetshire 10322 viewsObv: Two men talking, man on right says, “I WANT TO BUY SOME CHEAP BARGAINS.” The man on left replies, “THEN GO TO NIBLOCK’S IN BRIDGE STREET.”

Rev: BRISTOL TOKEN 1795, view of a bridge with a man in a row boat beneath.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Somersetshire, Niblock's 103
SPQR Coins
South_Africa1.jpg
South Africa69 viewsKm25 - 1 penny - 1941 (Union of South Africa)
Km35.1 - 3 pence - 1950 (Union of South Africa)
Km56 - 1/2 Cent - 1962
Km98 - 1 cent - 1979
Km82 - 1 cent - 1989
Km132 - 1 cent - 1994
Km66.2 - 2 cents - 1965
Km83 - 2 Cents - 1983
Km133 - 2 Cents - 1994
Daniel Friedman
Saint_Helen_and_Ascension.jpg
St. Helena and Ascension 25 viewsKm13a - 1 Penny - 1997-2003Daniel F
Stephen_penny.jpg
Stephen AR penny19 viewsStephen (c.1136-1145AD)
(19.9 mm 1.15 g)
Obv: + STIEFNE RE :, bust right, crowned and diademed, holding scepter in right hand
Rev: cross moline with fleur in each quadrant.
Some clear detail with a patchy tone, some edge damage.
Spink 1278, BMC I North 873 - Cross Moline Type
Purchased from Hall’s Hammered Coins October 5 2017
orfew
Suffolk_4.jpg
Suffolk 412 viewsObv: CHARLES MARQUIS CORNWALLIS, military bust facing left.

Rev: HIS FAME RESOUNDS FROM EAST TO WEST, Figure of Fame holding a laurel wreath and blowing a horn, standing between implements of war.

Edge: VALUE ONE PENNY AT P. DECKS POST OFFICE BURY 1794

Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Suffolk, Bury 4
SPQR Coins
Sussex_6.jpg
Sussex 615 viewsObv: BRIGHTON, an officer standing with a distant view of an army camp in the background.

Rev: HALF PENNY, a fanciful depiction of the siege of the Bastille on July 14, 1789.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Sussex, Brighton 6
SPQR Coins
Tiberius_Tribute_penny.jpg
Tiberius95 viewsTiberius, denarius.
RIC 30, RSC 13a.
struck in Lugdunum, 36-37 AD.
3.7 gr.
Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure (Livia?) seated right on chair with ornamented legs holding sceptre and branch, feet rest on footstool.
This type is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17).

It took me some time to find a tribute penny this nice.
2 commentsMarsman
fouree_tribute_penny.jpg
Tiberius20 viewsFourée Denarius, Unknown mint, imitating Lyon, AD 14-37
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Laureate bust right.
Rev.: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia or Pax seated right.
Reference: RIC I Tiberius 28 (p. 95)
Notes: A fourée tribute penny.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
4320288.jpg
Tiberius 5 viewsTiberius. AD 14-37. AV Aureus (18mm, 7.46 g, 3h). “Tribute Penny” type. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Group 4, AD 18-35. Laureate head right / Livia (as Pax) seated right on chair, holding scepter in right hand and olive branch in left; plain chair legs, double line below. RIC I 29; Calicó 305b; BMCRE 46-47. Fair.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group EAuction 180 (23 January 2008), lot 139.
arash p
RS012-Roman-AR_denarius,_Tiberius_(ca_14-37_AD)-026000.JPG
TIBERIUS (14-37 AD), AR denarius, "Tribute Penny"51 viewsObverse- TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right.
Reverse- PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long scepter and olive branch.
RIC 30, 18 mm, 3.77 g.
NGC Ch F (Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5), cert. #4095350-002.
Ex-Michael Swoveland (aka "Aethelred") through private deal on Collectors Universe, January 2011. Purchased raw.
Comments: For Tiberius, one simply HAS to have the "Tribute Penny" of Biblical mention (Mark 12:15), right? Everybody knows these were circulating during the life, ministry, and crucifixion of Christ, so they're eternally popular and historically important. The Tribute penny from my original collection in 2007 came from Michael Swoveland, and by coincidence, when it came time to find another, I bought this one from him as well. It is of similar grade with my first one, though I like the toning on this one a bit better. Both were around the same price.
2 commentslordmarcovan
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-fSFCvAgOfjk34Dn-Tiberius_fourree_denarius.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze/Silver Fourree Denarius4 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right
PONTIF MAXIM - Livia, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre, seated right; plain legs to chair with double line below.
Mint: Lugdunum (Lyon) mint (18-35AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.80g / 19mm / 360
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1 30 (c), Group 4 (official)
BMCRE I 48 (official)
RSC II 16a (official)
SRCV I 1763 (official)
Giard Lyon, Group 4, 150
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellusstabilit Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible

The Tiberius Denarius - 'The Tribute Penny'
Since Tiberius was Caesar during Christ's time on earth, the denarius of Tiberius is most often identified as "The Tribute Penny."

The Tiberius PONTIF MAXIM type denarius, struck from c. 15 to 37 A.D. at the Lugdunum mint (Lyon, France today), is described as follows:

Obverse legend: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS: Tiberius Caesar, divi Augustus Filius, Augustus - Tiberius Caesars, son of the Divine Augustus, Emperor.
Obverse type: laureate head of Tiberius right.

Reverse legend: PONTIF MAXIM: Pontifex Maximus - The High Priest (Chief Pontiff).
Reverse type: Female enthroned right, long scepter (or inverted spear) vertical behind in right, branch in right.

In Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, Jean Baptist Giard identifies the seated female as Justitia (Justice). She is more commonly identified as Pax or Livia (Tiberius' mother). Jean Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time. To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years.

Group 4, c. 18 - 35 A.D.
Obverse: Tiberius is depicted as an older man. One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
Reverse: No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax usually holds scepter (or rarely a reversed spear), her feet rest on a low footstool.
Aureus: Giard Lyon, Group 4, 149; RIC I 29 (R); BMCRE I 46; Calico 305b (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760 - Rare
Denarius: Giard Lyon, Group 4, 150; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 48; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763 - Common (approximately half of all Tiberius denarii are this type)
Gary W2
TiberiusDenGroup2.jpg
Tiberius / Pax Group 255 viewsTiberius Group 2 Denarius, c. 15 - 18 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Triple line under throne, two above the exergue line (sometimes represented by a single base), Pax usually holds a reversed spear (as is the case in this example) instead of a scepter, the legs of the throne are ornately decorated, no footstool.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time. To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
2 commentsNemonater
351.jpeg
Tiberius AD 14-373 viewsTiberius Tribute Penny, AR Denarius, 3.54gm.Ancient Aussie
tribute.jpg
Tiberius AR Denarius20 viewsOBV: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
laureate head right
REV: PONTIF MAXIM
Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; chair legs ornamented, triple line below
Date: 14~37 A.D. Lugdunum Mint
RIC I 28, Lyon 146, RSC 16b
18.0mm, 3.72g, 10h
miffy
Tiberius_Caesar_AR_Denarius.jpg
Tiberius Caesar AR Denarius - "Tribute Penny"20 viewsRoman Empire, Tiberius Caesar AR Denarius, Rome Mint
weight = 3.79g
NGC AU* - Strike 5/5 - Surface 4/5 - Fine Style [4164456-001]
1 commentsKevin P
Tiberius_denarius_Indian.jpg
Tiberius denarius81 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Tiberius right

PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on char ornamented, feet on footstool

Minted in India
Sear 1763, RIC 26

ex-Forum
Part of a hoard of nearly 200 Tiberius and Augustus denarii found in India produced and used for local trade. Some were struck, some cast. This specimen was cast

SOLD!
Titus Pullo
Tiberius_Denarius_Livia_Seated.jpg
Tiberius Denarius Livia Seated38 viewsObv.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right

Rev.
PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right, holding reversed spear & branch

1 commentsancientdave
Tiberius_3_opt.jpg
TIBERIUS Denarius, RIC 29, Tribute Penny65 viewsOBV: TICAESARDIVIAVGFAVGVSTVS - Laureate head right
REV: PONTIFMAXIM - Livia seated right, holding spear and branch; ornamented chair legs
3.7g, 17mm

Minted at Lugdunum, 18-35 AD
Legatus
Tiberius4_OBV_(2).jpg
TIBERIUS Fouree Denarius, RIC 30, Tribute Penny80 viewsOBV: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
REV: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r on throne w/ ornate legs, single line, holding long scepter & olive branch
19mm, 2.6g

Minted at Lugdunum, 18-35 AD
Coin is most noticeable as being a Foureé where the reverse plating is worn through and you can see the copper core
Legatus
TiberiusLivia.jpg
Tiberius Group 699 viewsGroup 6, c. 36 - 37 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; The ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath fall more stiffly and usually do not fall over his neck. Tiberius' facial features have become caricatures.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax usually holds scepter (or rarely a reversed spear), her feet rest on a low footstool.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
2 commentsNemonater
TibG1.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 187 viewsGroup 1, c. 15 - 18 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Legs of the throne are plain, the throne is on a raised base represented by a second line above the exergual line, no footstool.

This coin has become relatively famous, and expensive, due to the fact that Tiberius was Emperor during the entire time of Jesus ministry. Jesus’ only recorded reference to Caesar is when Pharisees, along with party followers of Herod Antipas, try to trap Jesus. Matthew 22:15-22 contains one record of the exchange.
“Teacher,” these men say, “we know you are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and you do not care for anybody, for you do not look upon men’s outward appearance. Tell us, therefore, What do you think? Is it lawful to pay head tax to Caesar or not?”
Jesus is not fooled by the flattery. He realizes that if he says, ‘Don’t pay the tax,’ he will be guilty of sedition against Rome. If he says, ‘Yes, you should pay this tax,’ the Jews, who despise their subjugation to Rome, will hate him. So he answers: “Why do you put me to the test, hypocrites? Show me the head tax coin.”
When they bring him a denarius, he asks, “Whose image and inscription is this?”
“Caesar’s,” they reply.
“Pay back, therefore, Caesar’s things to Caesar, but God’s things to God.”

It was the governments—represented by “Caesar”— that minted these coins and helped establish their value. So in Jesus view, they had the right to ask that it be paid back in the form of taxes. At the same time, he showed that “God’s things”—our life and worship—cannot rightfully be claimed by any human institution.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
2 commentsNemonater
TiberiusGroup2.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 292 viewsGroup 2, c. 15 - 18 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Single base under throne (sometimes represented by a triple line, two above the exergue line), Pax usually holds a reversed spear (as is the case in this example) instead of a scepter, the legs of the throne are ornately decorated, no footstool.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
1 commentsNemonater
TiberiusGroup4.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 482 viewsGroup 4, c. 18 - 35 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax usually holds scepter (or rarely a reversed spear), her feet rest on a low footstool. - 269, Lot: 331

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
1 commentsNemonater
TiberiusLivia~0.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 4135 viewsTiberius denarius Group 4, c. 18 - 35 A.D. Lugdunum mint, 17.5mm., 3.79g.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax usually holds scepter (or rarely a reversed spear), her feet rest on a low footstool.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
4 commentsNemonater
TiberiusGroup5or6.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 567 viewsGroup 5 c. 36 - 37 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; The ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath fall in small undulations and do not fall over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax always holds scepter, her feet rest on a low footstool.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
Nemonater
NN_tiberius_lot_047_auction_25.jpg
Tiberius RIC 000477 viewsTiberius, 14-37 Denarius Lugdunum circa 15-16, AR (18.55 mm., 3.85 g).
Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI - AVG F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r.
Rev: TR POT XVII IMP VII Tiberius holding branch and eagle-tipped scepter in triumphal quadriga r.
RIC 4. C 48.
Ex: Naville Numismatics Auction #25 Lot #407 September 25, 2016




Tiberius was the third of "The Twelve Caesars" as described in the Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius. He is well known as the emperor who would groom the next emperor, Gaius (more commonly known as Caligula).The denarii of Tiberius are sometimes referred to as boring by some collectors. One reason is that there were only a few types of denarii issued. By far the most common is the one that many refer to as "The Tribute Penny" of the bible.It must be said however that there are minor variations in the design of the reverse on the Tribute Penny and there are collectors who try to get as many variations as possible. The denarius below is much less common.

The reverse is very similar to a reverse on a coin of Augustus. This coin features Augustus on the obverse and Tiberius on the reverse in a quadriga. These denarii of Tiberius do appear from time to time, but when they do there is quite a bit of competition for them as they represent an alternative denarius to the Tribute Penny.
4 commentsorfew
tiberius_tribute_penny_small.jpeg
Tiberius RIC 002678 viewsTiberius ‘Tribute Penny’. AD16-37. Silver denarius.
17mm. 3.48g.
RCV 1763 RIC 26
bold head, clear Livia.
Found Quidenham hoard, Norfolk, 2014. Recorded as Coin #22,
NMS-480CEE under the portable antiquities scheme.
Purchased from Chris Rudd Numismatics July 23, 2018.


4 commentsorfew
tiberius_27.jpg
Tiberius RIC I, 29338 viewsTiberius 14 - 37
AV - Aureus, 7.64g, 19mm
Lugdunum 36/7
obv. TI CAESAR DIVI - AVG F AVGVSTVS
Livia(?) as Ceres/Pax sitting r. on throne with decorated feet,
holding olive-branch in l. hand and sceptre in r.,
2 lines below throne
Ref.: Giard Lyon, Group 3, 147 (Curtis Clay); RIC I, 29; C.15; BMCR 46; SRCV 1760; Calico 305a (S.3)
Rare, good F

The so-called TRIBUTE PENNY in gold!
3 commentsJochen
tiberius_30~0.jpg
Tiberius RIC I, 3036 viewsTiberius AD 14 - 37
AR - Denar, 3.64g, 17mm
Lugdunum, undated
obv. TI CAESAR DIVI - AVG F AVGVSTVS (counterclockwise)
bare head r.
rev. PONTIF - MAXIM (couterclockwise)
Livia(?) as Ceres/Pax seated r. on throne with ornamented legs, r. foot on
footstool, holding olive-branch in left and sceptre in right hand, line under
throne
Ref.: Giard Lyon, Group 4, 150; RIC I, 30; C.16; BMCR 49; SRCV 1763
about VF(?), small flan, toned, portrait!

For the problem with the 'TRIBUTE PENNY' see the article 'No tribute penny!' on Forum's Resources!
Jochen
tiberius_01.jpg
Tiberius Subaerat Denarius16 viewsObv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM - Livia seated right, holding reversed spear and branch, legs of chair ornate.
Date: 36 - 37 AD
Mint: Lugdunum
Ref: RIC I 38, RSC II 16b
Note: Rare variant with reversed spear instead of sceptre.
oa
Tiberius_tribute.jpg
Tiberius tribute Penny244 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Tiberius right

PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on char ornamented, feet on footstool

Lugdunum after 16 AD

3.64g

Sear 1763, RIC 26

Ex-Calgary coin
5 commentsJay GT4
Tiberiustribute.jpg
Tiberius Tribute Penny166 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Tiberius right

PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on char ornamented, feet on footstool

Lugdunum after 16 AD

3.64g

Sear 1763, RIC 26

Ex-Calgary coin
3 commentsJay GT4
tiberius.jpg
Tiberius Tribute Penny16 viewsarash p
Tiberius~0.jpg
Tiberius tribute penny77 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Tiberius right

PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on char ornamented, feet on footstool

Lugdunum after 16 AD

3.49g

Sear 1763, RIC 26

Ex-Ebay amarso66

Sold!
5 commentsJay GT4
Tiberius2.jpg
Tiberius tribute penny43 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Tiberius right

PONTIF MAXIM
Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on char ornamented, feet on footstool

Lugdunum after 16 AD

3.14g

Sear 1763, RIC 26

Ex-Numismatica Prados

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2019
1 commentsJay GT4
Tiberius_RIC_26.JPG
Tiberius, 14 - 37 AD143 viewsObv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head of Tiberius facing right.

Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia represented as Pax seated right, in chair with plain legs, holding an olive branch and a scepter.

Note: The coin most often associated with the New Testament story of the tribute penny (Matthew 22:15-21).

Appears to have been overstruck on an earlier denarius.

Silver Denarius, Lugdunum Mint, c. 15 - 18 AD (Giard Lyon Group 1)

3.9 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC I 26, RSC 16, S1763, VM 8
SPQR Coins
Tiberius_14-37AD.jpg
Tiberius, 14-37 AD5 viewsSilver Denarius Contemporary Imitation of the “Tribute Penny”.
Laureate Head / Livia, as Pax, Seated Holding Sceptre and Olive-Branch.
Crude Style
RIC 30, (3.70 g, 18.0 mm)
1 commentsVacolony
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Tiberius, RIC I-30 Lugdunum34 viewsAR Denarius (Tribute Penny)
Lugdunum mint, 16-37 A.D.
18mm, 3.66g
RIC I-30, RSCv.2-16a, RCVv.1-1763

Obverse:
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
PONTIF MAXIM
Female figure seated right, right holding long vertical sceptre, left branch, on chair with ornamented legs, above single line.
2 commentsrubadub
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Tiberius. AD 14-37. AR Denarius “Tribute Penny”. 18 mm / 3,57 gr.11 viewsTiberius. AD 14-37. AR Denarius. “Tribute Penny” type. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint.
Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right; long, parallel ribbons. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch, feet on footstool; ornate chair legs, single line below.
RIC I 30; Lyon 154; RSC 16a.
Antonivs Protti
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Titus as Caesar RIC 43173 viewsÆ Sestertius, 25.13g
Rome mint, 72 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS II; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in exergue; Titus stg. r., with branch and sceptre, in quadriga r.
RIC 431 (R). BMC 636. BNC 625.
Acquired from Wallinmynt, February 2019.

In 71 AD Vespasian and Titus held a double triumph celebrating their victory in the recently concluded Judaean War. The spectacular triumph was held a few days after Titus' arrival from the East in June and could be viewed as his effective homecoming party. Mary Beard has shrewdly observed that the triumph served as 'the Flavian coronation, the official launch party and press night of the Flavian dynasty.' It was the first time after Vespasian's rise to the purple that the whole family could be seen together by the Roman populace. Vespasian and Titus were identically dressed riding in matching quadrigas while Domitian trotted alongside on a splendid mount. The procession included massive towering floats depicting various 'battles' (one wonders how the makeshift naval battle on the Sea of Galilee was rendered?) that were so enormous many onlookers feared they would topple over. Booty from the destroyed Temple (the famous Menorah for one) along with other Eastern flavoured treasures were on display. Much of these treasures were likely manufactured in Rome for the event - a lavish sham in other words. The war ravaged region really didn't have much to offer in the way of razzmatazz show pieces, even the Temple's coffers were likely depleted by war's end. Despite all this, it cannot be underestimated how important this manufactured spectacle was for the young dynasty. The legitimacy and prestige the triumph provided to the family was worth every propaganda penny the regime spent on it, allowing Vespasian to announce to the world that Titus was his chosen heir. By showcasing his eldest son on an equal footing in the procession, it left little doubt who would succeed after his death. Coins were struck in all metals to commemorate the event. Here is a rare sestertius struck for Titus Caesar in 72 showing him in triumphal dress riding in a triumphal quadriga, the type is more commonly seen in silver from Antioch. The same reverse was identically struck for Vespasian, clear numismatic evidence of Vespasian's intentions for his son. The piece itself serves as a superb memento of the 'Greatest Show on Earth' triumph put on by the Flavian regime in the late First century.

The fine style portrait on the obverse is quite impressive, unmarred by three punch marks from antiquity.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC 55664 viewsAR Denarius, 2.57g
Rome Mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PONTIF TRI POT; Titus std. r. on curule chair, with sceptre and branch
RIC 556 (C). BMC 116. RSC 169. BNC -.
Acquired from CGB, May 2016.

A reverse type which copies the famous 'Tribute Penny' reverse of Tiberius, but instead of a female figure we see Titus seated. The type was correspondingly struck for Vespasian which resulted in many rare mules. This denarius actually has the correct legends for Titus Caesar. Unusually for Rome it has a twelve o'clock die axis.

A nice early portrait struck on a large flan.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC 70553 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Rome Mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PONTIF TR P COS III; Titus std. r. on curule chair, with sceptre and branch
RIC 705 (R). BMC 150. RSC 161. BNC 123.
Acquired from Roma Numismatics, January 2009.

This reverse echos the Tribute Penny reverse of Tiberius. A fairly difficult coin to locate, rated rare by the RIC.

Not in the best of conditions, but I like the portrait and it is well-centered.
Vespasian70
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union copper company7 viewsEnglish-one penny Token Dated 1812

Obverse: For Public Accommodation Bradford Workhouse one penny token 1812

Reverse:
union copper company birmingham: 2 hands shaking
discwizard
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UNITED KINGDOM--KING GEORGE III12 views1760 - 1820
Struck 1807
Half-Penny
laney
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Vespasian RIC II 054638 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Rome Mint. 73 A.D. ( 2.92g, 18.8m, 12h). Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM (anit-clockwise), Vespasian seated right on curule chair, with sceptre and branch. RIC II 546, BMC 98, RSC 387. Ex. CNG.

This type is very common, but new in 73 A.D. Mid-way through 73 A.D, the legend direction switched on Flavian denarii, and this was one of the first issued with the right to left outward direction. Carradice and Buttrey note this type closely copies Tiberius’ seated figure type, the so called “Tribute Penny.” This issue also has the unusual 12 o’clock die axis.
2 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC-546191 viewsAR Denarius, 3.50g
Rome mint, 73 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM; Vespasian, togate, seated r., feet on stool, holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and branch in l.
RIC 546 (C3). BMC 98. RSC 387. BNC 86.
Acquired from Pars Coins, March 2004.

A reverse that echoes the 'Tibute penny' of Tiberius. Vespasian as 'peace bringer'.

One of my favorite reverse types, here in excellent condition. The detail on the toga is magnificent.
2 commentsVespasian70
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Vespasian RIC-702127 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Rome Mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS V; Vespasian, togate, seated r. on curule chair, feet on stool, holding vertical sceptre in r. hand and branch extended in l.
RIC 702 (C). BMC 136. RSC 364. BNC 110.
Acquired from Barry P. Murphy, March 2004.

A coin that represents the Emperor as peace-bringer.

This reverse type brings to mind Tiberius' famous "tribute penny". The figure here is male, not female however.
Vespasian70
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Vespasian(us)251 viewsVespasian, denarius
RIC II 702, RSC 364.
Rome mint, 74 AD.
Obv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev. PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right, branch in left hand, scepter in right.

Although the seated figure is male, this reverse is strongly reminscent of the 'Tribute Penny' type of Tiberius.

I like the details on the reverse (look at the chair and scepter!)
7 commentsmars1112
Warwickshire_20.jpg
Warwickshire 2019 viewsObv: NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET, a lion sleeping in a cave, 1796 in an oval, in exergue.

Rev: A cipher JK within a wreath of flowers in which is entwined a ribbon inscribed: PROMISSORY PENNY TOKEN.

Edge: I PROMISE TO PAY ON DEMAND THE BEARER ONE PENNY

Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Warwickshire, Birmingham (Kempson) 20
SPQR Coins
Warwickshire_235.jpg
Warwickshire 23516 viewsObv: PRO BONO PUBLICO, Lady Godiva on horseback, 1792 in exergue.

Rev: COVENTRY HALFPENNY, an elephant and castle (central design from the arms of the city).

Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Warwickshire, Coventry 235
SPQR Coins
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Warwickshire 33614 viewsObv: IOHN WILKINSON IRON MASTER, bust of John Wilkinson facing right.

Rev: A barge sailing left, 1788 in exergue.

Edge: WILLEY SNEDSHILL BERSHAM BRADLEY

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Warwickshire, Wilkinson's 336
SPQR Coins
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