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coin627.jpg
16 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios III Eukairos, 97-87 BC.
Radiate, diademed and bearded head of Demetrios III, r / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ
/ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm,
date below, Damaskos mint, HGC 9, 1309. Coin #627
cars100
Byzantine_follis.JPG
221 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
anixk.jpg
Antiochus IX Kyzikenos13 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria. Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (Kyzikenos) Æ18. Uncertain mint, probably in Phoenicia. Struck 112-101 BCE.
Obverse Winged bust of Eros right
Reverse: BASILEOS ANTIOCOU FILOPATOROS Nike advancing left, holding wreath; no controls or date visible. SC 2388; HGC 9, 1254; cf. DCA 300. 5.5g, 20.2mm,
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 12 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Alexander_III_The_Great,_AR_teradrachm_Amphipolis_Mint~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Amphipolis Mint under Antipater84 viewsHead of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.
AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; janiform head vase in left field. Graffiti in upper left field - Aramaic kaph (k) and sadhe (s).

Price 6; Troxell, Studies, Issue A3; SNG Cop 660; Muller 853.
Struck at Amphipolis in the period 332-329 BC.

(29 mm, 17.15 g, 2h)

This is one of the first emissions of Alexander’s coinage struck in his homeland, albeit about three years after he departed for Asia Minor. Recent scholarship places the start of Alexander’s distinctive coinage in 333/2 BC at Tarsos, in eastern Asia Minor, shortly after which the design was transferred to Macedonia where Alexander’s coinage was struck under the authority of his regent in Greece, Antipater. Die studies indicate that this coin was from the fourth tetradrachm emission of a mint in Macedonia, most probably Amphipolis. It was most probably struck in the period 332-329 BC. The Aramaic graffiti on the reverse, plus the obverse reverse rim test cut are pointers to the likelihood that this coin travelled beyond its location of issue in Macedonia, into the eastern Mediterranean where Aramaic was the main spoken language.
3 commentsn.igma
greek6.jpg
Kings of Syria,Seleukos II. AE 16 (4.6gm)16 viewsNewell,wsm 1661 / 246-226 BC
obv: bust of Athena helmeted
rev: nude Apollo std. l. holding arrows and bow
(glossy black and green patina)
hill132
phraatesIV.jpg
Phraates IV (38 -2 BC) AR Tetradrachm 286 SE /26 BC46 viewsObv: Phraates diademed and cuirassed bust left with long pointed beard - no royal wart on forehead.
Rev: The king enthroned r. being presented with a palm branch by Tyche, standing l. before him holding cornucopiae with pellet above arm. Seleucid date 286 (C Pi Sigma) above palm. Greek inscription in 7 lines BASILEOS/BASILEON; on r. ARSAKOY/EUERGETOY' below [DIKAOY]; on l. EPIPHANOUS/PHILELLANOS; month off flan below
Wt 14.1 gm, 26.3 mm, Sellwood type 55

The coin could be that of Tiridates I who also ruled for a few months in 26 BC. The features of the king on this coin are much closer to that of Phraates than of much rarer Tiridates I according to a reclassification of Sellwood types by deCallatay and this is the most believable. The lower lines of the inscription would also settle the issue but are lost on this coin.
Early coins of the Parthian empire showed strong Greek empahasis on classical Greek forms and humanism which is gradually lost as the empire matured and finally decayed. The coins become schematic and emphasize suface ornament rather than sculptural quality. One senses from the portrait of Phraates that brutality was a prerequisite for Parthian kings who routinely bumped off fathers and brothers in their rise to power. Like the Spartans, they had a powerful empire in their time but its contribution to civilization was limited in the long term.
1 commentsdaverino
00008x00~2.jpg
14 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00007x00~2.jpg
15 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
charles2-denier-bourges-emp.JPG
D.198 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 3, Bourges)26 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875-877)
Denier (Bourges, class 2, 876-877)

Silver, 1.47 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS IMP ΛVG; cross pattée
R/ +BITVRICES CIVIT; carolingian monogram

In 875, after the death of his nephew, the Emperor Louis II, Charles received the imperial crown.
The related coinage clearly shows the imperial title in a roman way, IMP AVG. This coinage may be undistinguishable from the one of Charles the Fat (885-887), when he assumed West Francia kingship (before being chased by Eudes, count of Paris and next king of the Franks).
Droger
louis9-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois55 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
Droger
philippe6-gros-couronne-1ere.JPG
Dy.262 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 1st emission7 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 1st emission (01/01/1337)

Silver (851 ‰), 2.51 g, diameter 25 mm, die axis 5h
O: inner circle: (ringlet)PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois under a crown, with 3 bullets inside; outer circle: a circlet of 11 fleur-de-lis

Philip VI is the first non direct capetian king. He was the cousin of the 3 previous kings.
The Gros tournois hadn't changed since its creation by Saint Louis. During Philip VI's reign, 3 new types of Gros were struck, with lighter weight and less silver. These monetary difficulties may be related to the premisses of the One Hundred Years' war and French military defeats.

The 3 bullets in the chatel (without any star below) are characteristic of the 1st emission.
Droger
louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)27 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
cnut-pointed-helmet.JPG
S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)13 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
AmyntasIII.jpg
*Kings of Macedon. Amyntas III. 389-369 B.C. AE 14 mm38 viewsObv: Head of Herakles r., wearing lion-skin.
Rev: Eagle devouring serpent r.
SNG C 557.
ancientone
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001 Julius Caesar AR Lifetime Denarius135 viewsJulius Caesar. AR Denarius, 44 BC.
(19.00 mm 3.68 g)
Obv:. Laureate head right; before, CAESAR IMP; behind, star of eight rays.
Rev: P. SEPVLLIVS MACER. Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre (resting on star?).
Cr. 480/5b RSC 41 BMC 4165 Syd 1071Sear (2000) 1412
A very elegant portrait. Perfectly struck on broad flan. Areas of flatness and scratch on obverse, otherwise about VF.
Ex: Artemide Asti E-Auction 43 E, June 9, 2018.

This coin features a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar as dictator. It took me a while to find one that I liked. When these come up for auction there is much competition for them. It is not that they are particularly rare, one can find numerous examples for sale at any given time, it is the fact that these are sought after by many collectors. A lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar is a major purchase (at least for me), and would be the centerpiece of many ancient coin collections.

This particular coin features a portrait of Julius Caesar on the obverse with the legend “Caesar Imp”, meaning Julius Caesar Imperator. At this time “Imperator” did not exactly mean emperor it was more like victorious general. On the reverse we see Venus standing and the name of the moneyer who issued the coin. Venus is important as Julius Caesar claimed he was a descendant of Venus. The moneyer’s name is P. Sepullius Macer. On some other lifetime denarii the obverse legend is “Dict Perpetuo” or dictator for life. For some Romans this was too much to stand for. The Romans had a troubled history with their kings and did not want to return to those times. Some believe that this coin so troubled high ranking Romans that it led to the assassination of Ceasar.

One fascinating aspect of these lifetime denarii is that they were minted before the assassination. This coin in particular was issued near the end of February which means it was minted mere weeks before the death of Julius Caesar on March 15. One of the ideas that attracted me to ancient coins in the first place concerned holding a piece of important history in one’s hand. It can be argued that the life and death of Caesar were very important to history. Holding one of these coins takes us back to an important and fascinating historical period.

As to the coin itself, it is struck on a large flan, the portrait is well centered, the obverse legend is very easy to read, and the reverse is quite pleasing as well with good details preserved. The obverse portrait has a deep scratch across the head. However, given the other qualities of the coin this was easy to overlook.
7 commentsorfew
Aes_Rude.jpg
001.2 Aes Rude85 viewsRoman Republic. c. 5th-3rd C. BC. Found turn of the century excavations around Mt. Ingino, Gubbio, Umbria.
(19.37 grams. 21x20x7 mm). Thurlow and Vecchi, plate #2, discussed page 15. Ex Warren Esty.

Aes rude means rough bronze, and prior to the use of actual coins, these bronze bars were traded by weight on the Italian peninsula. The “rude” bars were eventually given markings (Aes Signa).
2 commentsLucas H
2160368.jpg
001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony48 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
002_Rhoemetalkes-I_(11BC-12AD)_AE-16_ROIMHTALKOY_KAISAROS-SEBASTOY_RPC-I-1705_Moushmov-5795_Jurukova-(1976)-168_SHH-4362_Q-001_19-20mm_4,28g-s~0.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1705, SHH-4362, AE-16, Sceptre, Fasces and Capricorn right, Scarce!69 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1705, SHH-4362, AE-16, Sceptre, Fasces and Capricorn right, Scarce!
avers: -ΡOIMH/TAΛ/KOY, anticlockwise around, Sella curulis right, male head right above, monogram (RA) on the sella.
reverse:- ΣEBAΣ/T/OY, anticlockwise around, Sceptre, Fasces and Capricorn right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 3,39g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, date: 11 B.C-12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1705, SHH-4362, Moushmov-5795, Jurukova-(1976)-168, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Rhoemetalkes-II_AE-20_________-___________-Bare-hd-of-Tiberius-r_______P__-________-Diademed-hd-of-Rhoemetalkes-II-r__RPC_I_-1715,_11-12-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-22,5mm_6,86g-s~0.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1715, AE-22, #185 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1715, AE-22, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΡOIMHTAΛKOY, Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes-I. right.
revers: KAIΣAΡOΣ-ΣEBAΣTOY, Bare head of Augustus right, in front, capricorn.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 6,86g, axes: 6h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, date: 11 B.C-12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1715,
Q-001
quadrans
002_Rhoemetalkes-I_AE-17_BASILEWS-ROIMHTALKOY_KAISAROS-SEBASTOY_SNGCop-1192_BMC-7-9_Moushmov-5782_Jurukova-200_11-BC-12-AD_Q-003_7h_16,7-17,6mm_3,67g-s~0.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-17, #3126 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-17, #3
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΡOIMHTAΛKOY, Bare head of Augustus right.
revers: KAIΣAΡOΣ-ΣEBAΣTOY, Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes-II right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,7-17,6mm, weight: 3,67g, axes: 7h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, date: 11 B.C-12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, Moushmov-5782, Jurukova-200,
Q-003
quadrans
Rhoemetalkes-II_AE-20_________-___________-Augustus-r_______P__-________-Rhoemetalkes-r__RPC-I-1718,_19-37-AD_Q-001_h_20mm_4,28g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-20, #162 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-20, #1
avers:- BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΡOIMHTAΛKOY, Bare head of Augustus right.
revers:- KAIΣAΡOΣ-ΣEBAΣTOY, Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 4,28g, axes: h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, , date: 11 B.C--12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, Moushmov-5782, Jurukova-200,,
Q-001
quadrans
Rhoemetalkes_AE-20_________-___________-Augustus-r_______P__-________-Rhoemetalkes-r__RPC-I-1718,_19-37-AD_Q-002_h_20mm_4,28g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-20, #273 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, AE-20, #2
avers:- BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΡOIMHTAΛKOY, Bare head of Augustus right.
revers:- KAIΣAΡOΣ-ΣEBAΣTOY, Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 4,70g, axes: h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, date: 11 B.C--12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1718, SNGCop-1192, BMC-7-9, Moushmov-5782, Jurukova-200,,
Q-002
quadrans
Brutus-Syd-907.jpg
013. M. Junius Brutus.57 viewsDenarius, 54 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: BRVTVS / Bust of L. Junius Brutus.
Reverse: AHALA / Bust of C. Servilius Ahala.
4.09 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #907; RSC #Junia 30; Sear #398.

The moneyer of this coin is the same Brutus who killed Julius Caesar. However, this coin was minted about a decade earlier. It portrays two ancestors of Brutus:

1. L. Junius Brutus lead the Romans to expel their king L. Tarquinius Superbus. He was one of the founding fathers of the Roman Republic, and was elected one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

2. C. Cervilius Ahala. In 439 BC, during a food shortage in Rome, Spurius Maelius, the richest patrician, bought as much food as he could and sold it cheaply to the people. The Romans, always fearful of kings, thought he wanted to be king. So an emergency was declared and L. Cincinnatus was proclaimed Dictator. Maelius was ordered to appear before Cincinnatus, but refused. So Ahala, as Magister Equitam, killed him in the Forum. Ahala was tried for this act, but escaped condemnation by voluntary exile.
4 commentsCallimachus
Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno.jpg
05-02 - Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno (226 - 223 A.C.)51 viewsSeleuco III Sóter Cerauno (? - 223 adC). Rey de la dinastía seleúcida, hijo mayor de Seleuco II Calinico, a quien sucedió. Su apelativo Cerauno significa “el Rayo”. Su reinado fue breve (apenas tres años, desde el 225 adC). Decidió llevar a cabo el plan que su padre no pudo realizar en vida: enfrentar al rey Atalo I de Pérgamo, aliado de Antioco Hierax, hermano de Seleuco Calinico y tio suyo, el cual había muerto hace poco, pero que había ayudado a Atalo, quien había aprovechado la situación para expandir sus fronteras y conquistar toda el Asia Menor.
En el transcurso de esta campaña realizada en la región del Tauro, Seleuco III murió asesinado víctima de la traición de uno de sus oficiales llamado Nicanor, en complicidad con el galo Apaturios (223 adC).
Fue sucedido por su hermano Antíoco III Megas, contando con el apoyo de Aqueo, pariente del difunto rey quien había tenido gran influencia durante su reinado. Aqueo rechazó la corona que le ofrecieron las tropas y prefirió gobernar como regente del imperio. Nombró a Molón gobernador de las provincias superiores y él se reservó el Asia Menor; combatió con éxito contra Atalo I y lo confinó en Pérgamo, de modo que suyo fue el mérito de ganar la guerra que había empezado Seleuco III. (Wikipedia)
AE 12 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: Busto de Artemisa viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY" - Apolo sentado a izquierda en ónfalo (Piedra semicilíndrica centro del culto de Apolo en Delfos, fetiche de basalto y altar de la madre tierra de la religión micénica) con flecha en mano derecha levantada y apoyando la izquierda en un arco. "CE / Λ" en campo izquierdo y "AP" (Monograma) en exergo.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #8 Pag.22 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6929 Pag.646 - SNG Spaer #518 - Newell E.T. (Western Seleucid Mints) #1036
mdelvalle
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
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1. Seleukos I Nikator 10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ (19mm, 8.99 g, 1h). Apamea on the Orontes mint. Struck circa 300-281 BC. Elephant walking right / Horse’s head left; anchor below. SC 35; HGC 9, 79.ecoli
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1. Seleukos I Nikator 15 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ Seleukeia II mint. Horned horse head right / Anchor; monogram to right. SC 145.

Seleukos fled from Antigonus the one-eyed in Babylonia on horseback. He credited this animal with saving his life. He then deified the animal on his coinage and in other cult shrines.

He eventually made it to Egypt where Ptolemy sheltered him for a while until he could regroup and begin to definitively establish what would become the Seleucid empire.
ecoli
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1. Seleukos I Nikator 8 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ. Winged head of Medusa right / Bull butting right; SC 6.1; HGC 9, 107a.ecoli
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1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)61 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IS / XC // bAS / ILE // bAS / ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
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114 AD: Trajan's comprehensive political settlement in the East245 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (25.16g, 34mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 116.
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO PM TRP COS VI PP laureate draped bust, rricht
REGNA ADSIGNATA / S C [in ex.] Trajan seated left on platform, prefect and soldier standing; three kings standing before
RIC 666 [R]; Cohen 325; BMC 1043; Foss (Roman Historic Coins) 104/67

Trajan assigns kingdoms to client princes in the East in AD 114. The three kings are presumably of Armenia, Mesopotamia and Parthia
4 commentsCharles S
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12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
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12. Demetrios II Nikator13 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios II Nikator. Second reign, 129-125 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Struck 129-128 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm; Ξ to inner left. SC 2170.1a; HGC 9, 1133.ecoli
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13. Antiochos VII Euergetes10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Dated SE 179 (134/3 BC). Winged bust of Eros right / Isis headdress; monogram above grain ear to outer left, ΘOP (date) below. SC 2067.14; HGC 9, 1087. VF, earthen green patina.ecoli
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14. Alexander II Zabinas15 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander II Zabinas. 128-122 BC. Serrate AE Perhaps Apamea on the Orontes mint. Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / Winged Tyche standing left, holding tiller and cornucopia; to outer left, monogram above cornucopia. SC 2242.3; HGC 9, 1166.ecoli
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1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
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1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
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1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)27 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
Antose88.jpg
143 AD: The king of Armenia is appointed by Antoninus Pius187 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (23.57g, 31mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
REX ARMENIIS DATVS [around] S C [in ex.] Antoninus Pius, togate, standing facing, head turned left, placing a tiara on the head of the Armenian king, standing left, wearing short tunica and cloak, his right hand raised and holding a roll in his left.
RIC 619 [R]; BMC 1272; Cohen 686; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 126:42
ex The New York Sale XX jan 2009; ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 147 lot 2159, March 2006
In A.D. 143, Antoninus Pius appointed kings for the Armenians and the Quadi and dedicated separate issues for both events.
3 commentsCharles S
Alexander II, Zabinas.jpg
15-02 - Alejandro II, Zabinas (128 - 123 A.C.)28 viewsUsurpador sostenido por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII
AE 17 x 18 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY” – Joven Dionisio (Baco) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo cántaro en mano derecha y thyrsus (Vara enramada cubierta de hojas de hiedra que suele llevar como cetro Baco) en izquierda. Fecha Seléucida en campo izquierdo.

Acuñación: 129 - 125 A.C.
Ceca: Antioquía

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #16 Pag.82 Plate 22 #6 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7125 Pag.667 – SNG Spaer #2375
mdelvalle
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_-unofficial_mint,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_25,5mm,_2,47g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01134 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: Illegible legend instead of "REX BELA REX STS", Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 2,7g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, unknown sigla in exergue right site, lying retrograde "S".
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-002_9h_27,0mm_3,04ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01113 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-003_10h_26,5mm_3,50ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #0199 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_a1_7-8,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_9h,_26mm,_2,79g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01119 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,79g, axis:9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.07./008.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-0x1_axis-10h_27,0mm_3,22g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01150 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.23./024.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-005_4h_26,0mm_2,56g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01152 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a10.01./183.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_d1c1_2-334,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_0h,_26,5mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01130 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./d1c1.01./334.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_k3_1-258,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5mm,_2,33g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01131 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 2,33g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./k3.01./258.,
Q-001
quadrans
17523700_10155131204972232_2121778819263256059_n.jpg
17. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes13 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos). 121/0-97/6 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Dated SE 193 (120/19 BC). Radiate head right / Eagle standing left, with scepter over shoulder; date in exergue. SC 2300.2; HGC 9, 1212; DCA 279.ecoli
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11931930 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.40 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
ChambersSomersetHouseMedal~0.JPG
1857. Sir William Chambers and Somerset House. Taylor 52a.77 viewsObv. Bust of William chambers to right. CHAMBERS 1725-1796 Signed B WYON AFTER WESTMACOTT
Rev. Elevation of Somerset House to the Strand, featuring nine bayed entrance block. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781 SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS RA ARCHITECT. Signed B WYON. Edge inscription: ART UNION OF LONDON 1857.
AE55. Taylor 52a.

Issued as one of the Art Union series. The medal gives an incorrect date of birth to chambers, 725 as opposed to 1723. The portrait is based on a bust displayed at the Royal Academy in 1797 by Sir Richard Westmacott, this is now in Sir John Soanes museum.
Built under an act of 1775, as a great new administrative centre to house official and academic bodies. Designed by Sir William Chambers, the Surveyor- General, and completed in the nineteenth century by Sir Robert Smirke (eastern extension to Kings College) and Sir James Pennethorne (western extension to Waterloo Bridge). Chambers decided on a central courtyard, approached through a block of narrow frontage, which was to house the learned societies, including the Royal Academy and Society of Antiquaries. It is the Strand façade of this entrance block which is shown on the medal, it was complete by 1781 and incorporated sculpture by fellow Academicians Bacon, Carlini and Wilton.
LordBest
966_P_Hadrian_RPC1885.jpg
1885 AEOLIS, Elaea. Hadrian, Basket with Poppies25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1885; Sear 1161v; BMC 42 (pag. 129); SNGvA 1611; SNG Munchen 424, SNG Cop -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΕΛΑΙΤΩΝ
Basket containing ears of corn & poppy-heads.

3.20 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
FORVM, from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren

laea was the ancient port of Pergamum, located near the modern town of Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey. The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travelers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite photos.
1 commentsokidoki
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
100francs.jpg
1950: Hundred francs of Leopold III (fr)21 viewsKing Leopold III. Silver 100 Francs. 1950.

Belgian coat of arms with legend 100 FR - BELGIQUE / Busts of all Kings of the Belgians (left to right: Leopold III, Albert I, Leopold II, Leopold I) with crown and star.
Belisarius
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
2 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula29 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus20 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
17626446_10155131191377232_4142438683204210630_n.jpg
2. Antiochos I Soter23 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Laureate head of Zeus right / Thunderbolt; club and monogram above, jawbone below; SC 343; HGC 9, 149.1 commentsecoli
IMG_8174.JPG
2. Antiochos I Soter 12 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. Æ . Antioch mint. Anchor on boss of Macedonian shield / Elephant standing right; monogram and [club] above, jawbone in exergue. SC 341; HGC 9, 195.1 commentsecoli
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Apolo.jpg
23-02 - Anti­oco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)36 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 18 mm 5.0 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Apolo desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo hoja de palma en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre un trípode.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM.141 (ANS) - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #1 Pag.102 Plate 27 #1 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7200 Pag.675 - Lindgren III #1124 (referencia cruzada con Houghton #870)
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Zeus.jpg
23-04 - Antioco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)37 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 20 mm 8.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Zeus Nicéforo (Nike-phoros portador de victoria, victorioso) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, desnudo de la cintura para arriba, sosteniendo Nike en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre cetro.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer #2884 - 2888 - Newell LSM. #137 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #6 Pag.102 Plate 27 #4 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7198var. Pag.675 - Houghton #866 - SC #2478
mdelvalle
24e-Constantine-Her-092.jpg
24e. Constantine: Heraclea.17 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
25-Viking-Edmund.jpg
25. Danelaw: Vikings of East Anglia: St Edmund Memorial Coinage.22 viewsPenny, ca 890-905.
Obverse: +SC EADMVN RI / Large A with small crosses on each side.
Reverse: +DAEMOND MOTI / Large cross.
Moneyer: Daemond.
1.29 gm., 18 mm.
North #483; Seaby #960.

There are over 60 moneyers with Germanic or Norse names found on the St Edmund coins in the Cuerdale Hoard (c. 905). This number suggests there were quite a few mints producing this coinage. Several of the moneyers are also found on coinage of Edward the Elder and Athelstan from other parts of the country. This suggests that this issue, although in the name of the martyred East Anglian king, extended beyond East Anglia, and perhaps continued until East Anglia was regained by the English in 917-18. For more information, see A New History of the Royal Mint by Christopher E. Challis (Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Callimachus
26-Viking-Cnut.jpg
26. Danelaw: Vikings of York.19 viewsPenny, ca 897-903, York mint.
Obverse: CRTENXV (CNVT REX) / Patriarchal cross.
Reverse: +CVNNETTI / small cross.
1.28 gm., 20 mm.
North #501; Seaby #993.

The inscriptions on this coin are somewhat of a mystery. Over the last 150 years there have been many theories as to their meaning. At various times Cvnetesford (Knutsford, Cheshire), Cvnetio, (the Latin name of Marlborough,Wiltshire), and Counde, Shropshire (Cuneet in the Domesaday Book) have been proposed as the city where the CVNNETTI coinage was minted. Still others saw a French origin for the CVNNETTI coinage: similar coins are inscribed with two known locations in France -- QVENTOVICI (no longer exists) and EBRAICE (Evreux, Normandy).

Today it is fairly certain the CVNNETTI coinage was minted in York. The inscriptions on this coin are thought to be Latinized versions of Knutr and Hunedeus, two Viking war leaders who operated in northern England in the late ninth century.

The name Cnut is arranged on the arms of the cross in the manner Christians cross themselves during prayer. This shows that "King Cnut," whoever he was, thought of himself as a Christian. He is not to be confused with the Cnut who was King of England from 1016-1035.
Callimachus
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28. Aethelstan.35 viewsPenny, 927-939, York mint.
Obverse: +EÐELSTAN REX TO BRIT / small cross; C privy mark at left of cross.
Reverse: +REGNALD MO EFORǷIC / small cross.
Moneyer: Regnald.
1.48 gm., 22.5 mm.
North #672; Seaby #1093.

Aethelstan was the first British king to be styled "King of All Britain" on his coins (Rex Totius Britanniae). Regnald was also a moneyer for the Vikings when they were in control of York.

Provenance: the Schembrai Collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
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3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus47 viewsGold stater, BMCRR II p. 474, 48; RPC I 1701A (Thracian Kings); BMC Thrace p. 208, 1 (same); SNG Cop 123 (Scythian Dynasts), military mint, weight 8.39g, 44 - 42 B.C.; obverse Roman consul L. Junius Brutus (traditional founder of the Republic) in center, accompanied by two lictors, KOΣΩN in ex, BR (Brutus) monogram left; reverse eagle standing left on scepter, wings open, raising wreath in right talon; ex CNG Store

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

2 commentsSosius
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3. Antiochos II Theos11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ Sardis mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Lyre; monogram in right field; anchor beneath. SC 529.ecoli
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3. Antiochos II Theos9 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ Sardes mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Tripod; monograms to left and right; below, anchor to left. SC 525.1; HGC 9, 253aecoli
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316. Aurelian21 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
ecoli
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4) Juba II and Cleopatra Selene28 viewsKINGS of MAURETANIA
Juba II, with Cleopatra Selene. 25 BC-24 AD.
AR Denarius (18mm, 2.95g)
Caesarea mint. Struck circa 20 BC-AD 24.

Diademed head right / Star in crescent. MAA 97; SNG Copenhagen 567. VF, weak strike.

For almost fifty years Juba II maintained order in North Africa as one of Rome's most loyal client kings. In AD 11, he had been given Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a wife by a grateful Augustus, and their son, Ptolemy, succeeded him in AD 24.

Ex CNG
RM0005
2 commentsSosius
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405a. Helena105 viewsFlavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta, and Helena of Constantinople, (c.248 - c.329) was the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross.

Many legends surround her. She was allegedly the daughter of an innkeeper. Her son Constantine renamed the city of Drepanum on the Gulf of Nicomedia as 'Helenopolis' in her honor, which led to later interpretions that Drepanum was her birthplace.

Constantius Chlorus divorced her (c.292) to marry the step-daughter of Maximian, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Helena's son, Constantine, became emperor of the Roman Empire, and following his elevation she became a presence at the imperial court, and received the title Augusta.

She is considered by the Orthodox and Catholic churches as a saint, famed for her piety. Eusebius records the details of her pilgrimage to Palestine and other eastern provinces. She is traditionally credited (but not by Eusebius) with the finding of relics of the True Cross (q.v.), and finding the remains of the Three Wise Men, which currently reside in the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Her feast day as a saint of the Orthodox Christian Church is celebrated with her son on May 21, the Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles. Her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church falls on August 18.

At least 25 sacred wells currently exist in Britain that were dedicated to her. She is also the patron saint of Colchester.

Helena Follis. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.
1 commentsecoli
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42 BC L. Mussidius Longus127 viewsCONCORDIA
Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right star below chin

L. MVSSIDIVS LONGVS
Shrine of Venus Cloacina consisting of circular platform, inscribed CLOACIN, surmounted by two statues of the goddess

Rome
42 BC

3.42g
Sear 494, RRC 494/42

ex-Canadian Coin

In Roman mythology, Cloacina (Latin, cloaca: "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima the main sewer drain in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima is traditionally said to have beeen started by one of Rome's Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Priscus. Despite her Etruscan origins, she later became identified with Venus.

Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to Cloacina as the spirit of the "Great Drain". As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. The Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for the physical health of Roman citizens. Additionally, Romans worshipped Cloacina as the goddess of purity. Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, located in front of the Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. The depiction on the reverse of this coin is that shrine.

The image of Concordia could be interpreted to convey the thought of Unity between the triumvirs to defeat Brutus and Cassius. Venus Cloacina on the reverse conveys the thought of purification for the treacherous murder of the dictator Julius Caesar by men who claimed to be his friends.
4 commentsJay GT4
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501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

ecoli
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6. Antiochos III ‘the Great’30 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 223-187 BC. Æ 25mm Uncertain military mint associated with Ecbatana. Struck 210 BC. Diademed head right / Elephant advancing right; anchor to left, monogram between legs. SC 1275. ecoli
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7. Seleukos IV Philopator10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos IV Philopator. 187-175 BC. Æ Serrated Ake-Ptolemais mint (?). Laureate head of Apollo right; AB monogram behind / Apollo standing left leaning on tripod, holding arrow in right hand; monogram before. SNG Spaer 852.ecoli
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703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia100 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Antioch on the Kallirhoe (Edessa) mint. Struck circa 168-164 BC. Radiate and diademed head of Antiochos IV right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter; monogram to outer left. SC 1499; HGC 9, 672.ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck 175-circa 173/2 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind / Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow; aphlaston to left, monogram in exergue. SC 1478.2ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck 175-circa 173/2 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind / Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow; aphlaston to left, monogram in exergue. SC 1478.2 var. HGC 9, 725.ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes12 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck circa 173/2-168 BC. Diademed and radiate head right; monogram behind / Veiled goddess standing facing, holding scepter. SC 1479; HGC 9, 726.ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes14 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ . “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.1 commentsecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes, Antioch, Seleukid31 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ 19mm (4.51 g, 10h). Antioch mint. Struck circa 173/2-169 BC. Diademed and radiate head right / Zeus standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt. SC 1408; SNG Spaer 992-5.ecoli
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976-1025 A.D. - follis (Anonymous class A2)22 viewsThis coin has Christ on the obverse and the reverse contains the inscription +IhSUS, XRISTUS, bASILEU, bASILE. This would mean Jesus Christ, King of Kings. Thanks for all the I.D. help I received.cwonsidler
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A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 25-30mm11 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD..
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
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A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 27-30mm 8 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD.
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
DSCN4999.jpg
A3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD . AE 26-28mm9 viewsA3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD .
Basil II & Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
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Abdera, Ptolemy III/ griffin; countermark48 viewsAbdera , 281 - 200 BC Æ22. 5.2g. Svoronos 929, Lindgren 740, SNG Cop 380, RPC II -, BMC Thrace -, AMNG II -, Abdera mint; obverse head of Ptolemy III right, circular countermark of a club; reverse ΑΒΔΗ−ΠΙΤΩΝ, griffin recumbent to left, star and pellet before. SNG Copenhagen speculates the kings depicted on this series are Ptolemy III, IV, or V.Podiceps
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Achaemenid Kings of Persia, Artaxerxes I - Darius III AR Siglos 34 views17mm 5.63g 450-330 BC.
O: Great King kneeling r. with Bow and Dagger. Three bankers marks.
R: Oblong punch.
SG4683, Head CoLP 27. Darkly toned. Nice heavy weight. _3690
Antonivs Protti
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Achaemenid Kings of Persia, Artaxerxes I - Darius III AR Siglos 450-330 BC. 103 views16mm 4.40g
O: Great King kneeling r. with bow and spear, pellet behind.
R: Oblong punch with raised pattern within.
SG4682v(no pellet obv.).
There has been supposition that the raised areas on the reverse are actually a map of the Satrapal territories in Asia Minor. _6450
Antonivs Protti
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Achaemenid Kings of Persia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, Silver Siglos c. 375 - 340 B.C.11 viewsAchaemenid Kings of Persia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, Silver Siglos c. 375 - 340 B.C. Sardis. 5.48 grams. Persian king running right with dagger and bow / Incuse punch. Carradice Type IV, VF.mjabrial
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Achaemenid Kings of Persia, Darius I AR Siglos 15mm 5.10g 510-486 BC. 83 viewsO: Great King kneeling r. with Bow and Spear.
R: Oblong punch.
SG - , Head CoLP 25. _3501 sold
Antonivs Protti
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Achaemenid Kings of Persia, Darius I Silver Siglos 521-486 B.C.13 viewsAchaemenid Kings of Persia, Darius I Silver Siglos 521-486 B.C. Sardis. 5.11 grams. First archer series. Persian king in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow / Incuse punch. Carradice Type II Plate XI, 12., VF.mjabrial
AE_1__2_unit_(1__2_kakini_of_10-ratti)_of_Ganapati_Naga,_ca_340_AD,_Nagas_of_Narwar,_Ancient_India.jpg
AE 1/2 unit (1/2 kakini of 10-ratti) of Ganapati Naga, ca.340 AD, Nagas of Narwar, Ancient India112 viewsHumped bull standing left / Maharaja Sri Ganendra in a circle in Brahmi. Struck very weakly. 5-ratti - 9mm, 0.9grams. Mitchiner 4739-4753.
The Naga (snake or serpent) worshippers in Narwar were indiginous Indian people of whom little is known. They produced many small bronze coins bearing the names of their Kings.


Antonio Protti
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AE Anonymous follis of Christ, cCass B, Romanus III or Michael IV.41 viewsEMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC

Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)

SBCV 1823.
Will Hooton
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AE drachm of Apurva Chandra Deva (ca.1340-1351 (?) AD), Kangra Kingdom86 views0600
Stylized horseman right / Stylized bull, inscriptions above ("Sri Apurva Chandra"). Scarce. Much nicer than these usually are. 14mm, 3.6 grams. "The Catalogue of Katoch rulers of Kangra"#148.
Kangra is a district is in the western part of Himachal Pradesh, in the low foothills of the Himalayas. It was the place of an ancient Hindu Kangra Kingdom. The kings of Kangra are almost unknown in history, their existence was shadowy and the dating of their reigns is tentative.Their coins are fairly scarce, not well-studied and difficult to find
Antonio Protti
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AE drachm of Rupa Chandra II (second half of the 14th century), Kangra Kingdom 88 views1295 Stylized horseman right, Sri above (not visible) / Stylized bull, inscriptions above ("Sri Rupa"), only partially visible, as always. Scarce. Much nicer than these usually are. 14mm, 3.6 grams. "The Catalogue of Katoch rulers of Kangra"#335 or similar.

Rupa Chandra II is known to have been a contemporary of the Sultan of Delhi Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388 AD). The exact dates of the reign of Rupa Chandra II are not known.
Kangra is a district is in the western part of Himachal Pradesh, in the low foothills of the Himalayas. It was the place of an ancient Hindu Kangra Kingdom. The kings of Kangra are almost unknown in history, their existence was shadowy and the dating of their reigns is tentative.Their coins are fairly scarce, not well-studied and difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
IMG_0040.JPG
Alexander I Balas 4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Serrate Æ, Uncertain mint, probably in northern Syria. Diademed head right / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; Seleukid anchor below. SC 1818; HGC 9, 909. Rare.
ecoli
IMG_9995.JPG
Alexander I Balas 7 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Æ (19mm, 6.23 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Head of Alexander I right, wearing lion skin headdress / Apollo standing left, holding arrow and grounded bow SC 1795.2; HGC 9, 901.
ecoli
00-balas.jpg
Alexander I Balas - Hoover 90018 viewsAlexander I Balas. AE22 Serrate,
Seleukid kings, Syria. 152-145 BC. Antioch mint.
Diademed head of Alexander right /
BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Athena standing left,
holding Nike in right hand,
left hand resting on shield set on ground; two monograms before.
xokleng
Alexander_II_Zebina_SC_2242.png
Alexander II Zebina SC 224212 viewsAlexander II Zebinas, BC 128 - 122, AE18 Serrate, Seleukid kings, Syria, 6.72g, 20mm, Apameia ad Axios mint (?), Hoover 1166, SC 2242
OBV: Head of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy.
REV: BASILEWS ALEXANDROY, Tyche, winged, standing left, wearing
kalathos, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
SRukke
artet1.JPG
Alexander III542 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
AADPb_small.png
Alexander III 'the Great' Æ1812 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III 'the Great' (336-323).

Macedonian mint. 336-323 BC.

18mm., 5.6g.

Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin.

AΛEΞANΔPOY. Club and quiver. YE monogram in exergue

References: Price 2552

AADP
RL
AAESb_small.png
Alexander III 'the Great' Æ1915 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III 'the Great' (336-323).

Macedonian mint. 336-323 BC.

19mm., 3.99g.

Macedonian shield with head of Herakles ornamenting boss facing three-quarters right in centre, five double crescent-like ornaments around

B - A (BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY) flanking. Macedonian officer's helmet facing with ear flaps and crest from side to side; grain-ear

References: SNG Alpha Bank 849 (?); Price 2806 (?)

AAES
RL
Lysimachos_Sardis_Price_2605~1.jpg
Alexander III (?) , Macedonian shield, helmet, Sardes mint.28 viewsMacedonian Kings, AE14, 3.6 g, Sardes mint.

Obv.: Macedonian shield with caduceus.
Rev.: B-A across upper fields, Macedonian helmet, caduceus
to left, FIL at lower left, rose at lower right.

Price 2605 var. Unlisted fieldmarks and positions.
Price (different numbers) lists the rose as being
in the right field, and a monogram below.
Steff V
aradostetra.jpg
Alexander III - Philip III74 viewsKings of Macedon. Alexander III - Philip III
AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 17.13g)
Circa 324/3-320 BC
Arados mint. Struck under Menes or Laomedon.

O: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin

R: AΛEΞANΔPOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram below throne

Price 3309; Duyrat group IV, series 1.
Salaethus
alexander_miletos.jpg
Alexander III AR Drachm 118 viewsKings of Macedon Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC

Head of Herakles in lion skin facing right

AΛEΞANΔPOY in right field, Zeus enthroned facing left holding eagle and sceptre; double-head (bipennis) axe beneath throne, circled ΠPYA monogram in left field.

Price 2148; Thompson DM 260; Newell 49.

3.97g

Struck under Demetrios Poliorketes ca. 300-294 BC at Ionia, Miletos Mint.

Some encrustations remain around Zeus

Sold Forum Auction May 2019
2 commentsJay GT4
AlexanderB.jpg
Alexander III Price 300043 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.16 g, 3 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right; below throne, B.
- Price 3000.
2 commentsNemonater
AlexanderA.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299354 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.25 g, 4 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O:Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right; below throne, A.
- Price 2993.
1 commentsNemonater
Alexander.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299968 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.13 g, 12 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right.
- Price 2999. A rare early and unusual issue from Tarsos, "Officina B", bearing no symbol.

By comparing these early Tarsos tetradrachms to the staters of Mazaios (Pictured below) it is easy to see the identical forms of the throne, scepter, footstool and other details. The drapery is rendered in a similar manner, the Aramaic inscription of the one and the Greek inscription of the other share the same curve following the dotted border. This evidence indicates the two series of coins were the common product of a single mint.

2 commentsNemonater
Alexander_the_Great_AR_Drachm_-_Miletos_Mint.jpg
Alexander III “The Great” AR Drachm, Miletos mint.46 viewsKings of Macedon, 18mm 4.15g Posthumous issue 310-301 BC.
O: Head Herakles r. in lionskin.
R: Zeus enthroned l., one foot back, holding eagle and sceptre, ALEXANDROU (partial, at edge of flan) to r, Miletos monogram in l. field, XE monogram beneath throne.
SG6730-31v(letters, monogram),Price 2151v(second monogram). _6830
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
9899LG.jpg
Alexander III, macedonian shield/helmet, Sardis52 viewsMacedonian Kings, Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 BC. AE 15mm (3.41 gm). Sardis mint. Cf. Price 2614 (unlisted monogram)

Obv.: Macedonian shield with kerykeion.
Rev.: Macedonian helmet; in between, B-A, below, monogram; to the right, rose; to the left kerykeion.
2 commentsSteff V
Alexander_Price_6.jpg
Alexander Lifetime AR Tetradrachm9 viewsKings of Macedon, Alexander III ‘the Great' (336-323 BC). AR Tetradrachm
(26mm, 17.00g, 9h). Amphipolis, c. 332-326 BC.
Obv: Head of Herakles r., wearing lion skin.
Rev: Zeus Aëtophoros seated l.; janiform head in l. field.
Price 6; Troxell, Studies, Issue A3. Some roughness, VF
Saint Paul Antiques Auction 2 Lot 10, March 18, 2017.
orfew
Alexander_Akko_Price_3283.JPG
Alexander the Great43 viewsMacedon, Kings
Alexander the Great
Date: 315/4 BC (Year 32)
Size: AR Tetradrachm 17.12g
Mint: Akko-Ptolemais
Obverse: Heracles r.
Reverse: Zeus w/eagle
Reference: Price 3283
2 commentsJohn K
IMG_4617.PNG
Alexander the Great35 viewsCNG description:

KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25.5mm, 17.19 g, 11h). Babylon mint. Struck under Stamenes or Archon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, horizontal ear above M; monogram below throne. Price 3611 corr. (symbol). Good VF, lightly toned, slight die shift on obverse, reverse a little off center. Ex CNG.
4 commentsMolinari
Alexander_the_Great_Bronze.JPG
Alexander the Great AE 336 to 323 BC34 viewsKings of Macedon Alexander the Great 336 to 323 BC
Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion Skin
Reverse: ALEXANDROU between bow in case & quiver & club Sold :o(

Antonivs Protti
Alexander_the_Great_AR_Drachm__Kolophon_Mint_.jpg
Alexander the Great AR Drachm - Kolophon Mint103 viewsKings of Macedon, Alexander III “The Great” AR Drachm 18mm 4.20g Posthumous issue 310-301 BC.
O: Head Herakles r. in lionskin.
R: Zeus enthroned l., one foot back, holding eagle and sceptre, ALEXANDROU to r, B over TI in l. field, G beneath throne.
SG - , Price 1808. _6930 _sold
Antonivs Protti
20181212_4340018.jpg
Alexander the great lifetime issue14 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm (21mm, 17.22 g, 12h). Tarsos mint, “officina B”. Struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; B below throne. Price 3000; Newell, Tarsos, Series I, Second Group, 4 (unlisted obv. die). VF, lightly toned, compact flan, slightly off center on obverse.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group XXXIII (15 March 1995), lot 148 (part of).
Ex CNG auction 434 lot 18
arash p
Alexander_tet.jpg
Alexander The great, Mesembria, tetradrachm80 viewsKings of Macedon. Alexander III. "the Great" (336-323 BC). AR Tetradrachm (29 mm, 16.74 g). Civic issue, Mesembria mint, c. 250-187 BC.
Obv. Head of Herakles wearing lion's skin right.
Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, rev: Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter; to left, corinthian helmet above monogram.
Price p. 182, 992 var. (slightly different monogram).
ex Auctiones eAuction #10, Lot 12
2 commentsareich
Alexander Zabinas - SG 7128.JPG
Alexander Zabinas - SG 712838 viewsSeleukid Kingdom
AE21, 128-123 BC
Obverse: Head right, clad in lion skin headdress.
Reverse:BASILEWS ALEXANDPOY, Nike advancing left with wreath and palm. Monogram left.
21mm, 9.0 gm.
Sear Greek 7128; BMC, Seleucid Kings of Syria, pg 83 and plate XXII, #10
Jerome Holderman
2470140.jpg
Alyattes hemihekte45 viewsKINGS of LYDIA. Alyattes. Circa 610-560 BC. EL Hemihekte – 1/12 Stater (7mm, 1.07 g). Sardes mint. Head of roaring lion right, chevron-style mane; sun on forehead / Incuse square punch. Weidauer group XV, 79-85.

Provenance: CNG el 247
Caffaro
amyntas_trihemiobol.jpg
Amyntas III; Trihemiobol; Herakles/ Eagle9 viewsKings of Macedonia. Amyntas III, 389 – 369 B.C. Trihemiobol, Silver. 1,4 g. 9 mm. Obv. Head of Heracles in lionskin to the right. Rev. Eagle, left. SNG ANS 8, 95, SG 1510. Podiceps
w1565.jpg
Anchor183 viewsCilicia, Kings, Tarkondimotos I, 39-31 B.C. AE-21 mm, 7.61 grs. AV: Head of the King with diadem to right, dotted border, oval CM. RV: BASILEWS / TARKONDIMO / TOY either side of enthroned Zeus to left, holding Nike and Scepter. CM: Anchor. Collection: Mueller.Automan
w0382.jpg
Anchor163 viewsCilicia, Kings, Tarkondimotos I, 39-31 B.C.AE-21 mm, 4.78 grs. AV: Head of the King with diadem to right, dotted border, oval CM. RV: BASILEWS / TARKONDIMO / TOY either side of enthroned Zeus to left, holding Nike and Scepter. CM: Anchor. Collection: Mueller.Automan
w1844.jpg
Anchor and Calf's head223 viewsPersia, Achaimen. Kings, 475-420 B.C. AR-Siglos 13/17 mm, 5.41 gr. AV: The Great King kneeling right, shooting with bow. Round CM(1): Anchor; CM(2): Calf's head to right. RV: Oblong, incuse Punch. Collection: Mueller.Automan
s-l1600_(61).jpg
ANCIENT - Panchala Dynasty - DHRUVAMITRA - 4.66gm - 65-50 BCE - HALF KARSHAPANA15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
Ancient_Greek_Kings_of_Macedonia__Philip_II_.jpg
Ancient Greek / Kings of Macedonia / Philip II.46 views1/5th Tetradrachm / 323-315 BC.
Obverse : Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia .

Reverse : Youth on horseback prancing right.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
s-l1600_(8).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 8 viewsWeight : 4.03 gm.
Diameter : 17 mm
_7.50
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(14).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 9 viewsWeight : 4.18 gm.
Diameter : 16 mm
_8.50
Antonivs Protti
Tikal~0.jpg
Ancient Maya, Tikal, Guatemala123 viewsMayadigger - Tikal was the home to 45,000 + citizens from 200-800 AD. This truly maginificent site is located deep in the Peten rainforest. The pyramid seen here is approx. 140 feet tall, whose temple is topped with a "cox-comb" roof decoration. In the right foreground is seen the Great Plaza with a number of stone stelae commemorating the city's kings. In the right background is the acropolis, where the elites not only lived, but were also buried with great pomp.2 commentsMayadigger
U3141F1OAZMMBUO.JPG
Anonymous AE Follis12 viewsAttributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings."
Mint: Constantinople

SB 1813 Class A2. AE 32, 14.12g
Belisarius
lg_anonA.jpg
Anonymous Class A2, time of Basil II34 viewsAnonymous Class A2, time of Basil II and Constanti
AE Follis
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented in each limb of cross with squares, pallium and colobium, Gospels in both hands with five pellets in center, to left IC, to right XC
+ IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornamentation (square) above legend (Type 47)
Mint: (976 - 1025 AD)
References: Sear 1813
Class A2 Ornament type 47
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
lg_classB_03.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael30 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
lg_classB_02.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael32 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 11.71g / 28.5mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
lg_classB_01.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael23 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 7.83g / 27mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_03.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B19 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
kingofkings.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael59 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_02.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael19 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_01.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael18 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm / -
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
Weird Byzantine Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Anonymous Follis, c1025AD20 viewsThe obverse is a bust of Christ, haloed, the reverse is 4 lines of letters, approximating (cross)ihsys/xristys/basiley/basile or Jesus/Christ/King/Of Kings. Thanks for the attribution help irish.

cwonsidler
anon_A_3.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A27 viewsAE FOLLIS 31.5 mm 10.65 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
(no longer in collection)
laney
anon_a_2b.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A20 viewsAE FOLLIS 35 mm max. 11.69 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_A_1.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A29 viewsAE FOLLIS 24X27 mm 6.56 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
2_class_a_a_8L.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A20 viewsAE FOLLIS 28 mm max. 9.68 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
class_A_anon.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A12 viewsAE FOLLIS 30.5mm max. 11.2 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_b.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS B19 viewsAE FOLLIS 26 mm 6.72 g
O: Facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, holding gospels with both hands
R: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) above limbs, bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings) below limbs
(struck under Romanus III or Michael IV, 12 Nov 1028 - 10 Dec 1041 A.D.)
laney
IMG_9991.JPG
Antigonos I monophthalmos7 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Antigonos I Monophthalmos. As king, 306/5-301 BC. Æ Unit (16mm, 4.56 g, 12h). Salamis mint. Struck under Demetrius I Poliorketes. Macedonian shield, boss decorated with facing gorgoneion / Macedonian helmet; kerykeion and monogram to lower left and right. Price 3159 (c. 323-315 BC); Zapiti & Michaelidou 7–8..ecoli
Antigonus_I_Monophthalmus.jpg
Antigonus I Monophthalmus30 viewsAntigonus I Monophthalmus, Silver drachm, Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum mint, 17.9mm, 4.120g, Price 1979, Müller Alexander 555, SNG Cop,
OBV: Herakles' head right, clad in lion-skin head-dress;
REV: AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, eagle raised high in extended right,
long scepter vertical behind in left, A within wreath over B left, IAY monogram under throne;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

RARE

Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") (382 B.C. - 301 B.C.) was a nobleman, general, and governor under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C.,
he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself King in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus,
answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. Antigonus found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C.
Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C. - Wikipedia
1 commentsRomanorvm
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Antioches I Soter22 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA, Antiochos I Soter, Tarsos mint, 281-261 BC, Æ 22mm, 7.17 g, SC 332c, SNG Spaer 228 var. (monogram), Houghton 452
OBV: Helmeted head of Athena right
REV: Caps of the Dioskouroi; monogram in exergue
Romanorvm
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Antiochos I Soter 4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS OF SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter (281-261 BC). Ae. Smyrna.
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY.
Elephant head left. Controls: Two monograms.
SC 312.
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Antiochos II Theos 2 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ (17mm, 4.09 g, 12h). Sardes mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Tripod; anchor below; H to left, ∆I monogram to right. SC 522.9 var. (∆ to right); HSC 9, 253a.
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Antiochos II Theos9 viewsSELEUKID KINGS OF SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos, 261-246 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29 mm, 16.71 g, 12 h), Ephesos (?). Diademed head of Antiochos II to right. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Apollo, nude, seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand and leaning with left on bow; to left, monogram of ΠA. HGC 239. SC 543.3.Rob D
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Antiochos III the Great4 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 222-187 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Laureate head right of Antiochos III as Apollo / Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding bow and testing arrow; SC 1048.1e; SNG Spaer 561
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Antiochos III the Great 5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III the "Great". 223-187 BC. Æ 22mm. Seleukeia on the Tigris mint. Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly left / Apollo standing left, holding arrow and bow; monograms in outer fields. SC 1177; SNG Spaer 743; ESM 183 corr. (Antiochos II).ecoli
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes 6 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ (22mm, 8.20 g, 1h). Tyre mint. Dated either SE 144 or 145 (169/8 or 168/7 BC). Diademed head right; star above, [...]MP (date) behind / Stern of galley left, with railing, oar, and aphlaston. SC 1463; HGC 9, 667; DCA 94. Near VF, black desert patina.ecoli
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes7 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ . Byblos mint. Diademed and radiate head right / Six-winged Kroson-El standing left, holding was-scepter. SC 1444; HGC 9, 663.ecoli
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes 3 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. AE Antioch mint. Quasi-municipal coinage, circa 169-164 BC. Diademed and radiate head right / ANTIOCEWN TWN PR-OS DAFNHI, Zeus standing facing, head left, holding wreathed ecoli
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes7 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Laureate head of Zeus-Serapis right, wearing tainia with Osiris cap at tip / Eagle standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1413; HGC 9, 643.ecoli
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes.5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ. Sidon mint. Struck circa 168-164 BC. Diademed and radiate head right / Europa on bull left. SC 1456; SNG Spaer -; Rouvier 1206.ecoli
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Antiochos IX Eusebes 9 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (Kyzikenos). 114/3-95 BC. Æ 19mm (6.11 g, 1h). Antioch mint. Dated SE 200 (113/2 BC). Diademed head right / Vertical winged thunderbolt; to outer left, barred N above aphlaston; Σ (date) to inner left. SC 2364.2b; SNG Spaer 2688-96 var. (lower control-mark). ecoli
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Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator 8 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (Kyzikenos). 114/3-95 BC. Æ . Antioch mint. Dated SE 199 (114/3 BC). Diademed head right / Winged thunderbolt; to outer left, monogram above palm; Θ(retrograde P)P (date) to inner left. SC 2364.1g; HGC 9, 1248.
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Antiochos VI Dionysos 5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VI Dionysos. 144-142 BC. Serrate Æ Antioch on the Orontes mint. Radiate and diademed head right / Elephant advancing left, holding torch in trunk; to right, Star. SC 2006; HGC 9, 1043.ecoli
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Antiochos VI Dionysos 3 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VI Dionysos. 144-142 BC. Serrate Æ Antioch on the Orontes mint. Radiate and diademed head right / Elephant advancing left, holding torch in trunk; SC 2006; HGC 9, 1043. ecoli
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Antiochos VI Dionysos 5 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VI Dionysos. 144-142 BC. Serrate Æ Antioch on the Orontes mint. Radiate and diademed head right / Elephant advancing left, holding torch in trunk; SC 2006; HGC 9, 1043.
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Antiochos VI Dionysos 7 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VI. 144-141 BC. AE Antioch mint. Diademed and radiate head right / Kantharos; monogram in exergue. SNG Spaer 1798 var. Babelon 1023ecoli
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Antiochos VII5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII. 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.52 gm). Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Athena standing half-left, holding Nike, shield, and spear; monogram and A to left, F right; all within wreath. SNG Spaer 1865; Newell, SMA 292.Ajax
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Antiochos VII Euergetes4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ (18mm, 5.21 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Dated SE 179 (134/3 BC). Winged bust of Eros right / Isis headdress; monogram and grain ear to outer left, ΘΟΡ (date) in exergue. SC 2067.14; HGC 9, 1087; DCA 207. ecoli
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Antiochos VIII tetradrachm88 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos). 121/0-97/6 BC
29mm, 16.38 g, 12h, Sidon mint. Dated SE 197 (116/5 BC)
obv: diademed head right
rev: Zeus Ouranios standing left; to outer left, ΣIΔΩ/IEP/A and two monograms; IP(retrodrade)P (date) in exergue; all within wreath
SC 2330.2; HGC 9, 1197g

Ex Kricheldorf XXVI (19 February 1973), lot 132, ex CNG
1 commentsareich
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Antiochos VIII tetradrachm53 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos). 121/0-97/6 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29mm, 15.86 g, 12h). Ake-Ptolemais mint. Struck circa 121/0-113 BC. Diademed head right / Zeus Ouranios standing left; monogram to outer left; all within wreath. SC 2336.2a; HGC 9, 1197h2 commentsareich
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Antiochos XII 87-84 BC21 viewsAntiochus XII 87–86/5 BC, Damascus mint Ae 22mm, Weight 7.1g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ – Tyche standing left with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897

Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem. He succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucid realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings.

Antiochus initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs. A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus.

Antiochus' titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.
ddwau
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Antiochus IV Epiphanes. AE16. Queen Laodice145 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochus IV Epiphanes serrated AE16. 175 - 164 B.C. Seleucia-in-Pieria mint. Veiled bust of Laodice IV r. Border of dots / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU, North African Elephant (Extinct) head left, prow of galley right. Houghton 113

The North African elephant was a possible subspecies of the African bush elephant, or possibly a separate elephant species, that existed in North Africa until becoming extinct in Ancient Roman times.
1 commentsancientone
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Antiochus IV, Ake-Ptolemaïs mint, 175-c.17237 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. BC 175-163.
Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck 175-circa 173/2 BC
Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind
Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow; aphlaston to left, M in exergue
BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY
SC 1478.1n; SNG Spaer 112
Ardatirion
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 619, Sestertius of AD 143-144 (Armenian king)46 viewsÆ sestertius (23.57g, 31mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: REX ARMENIIS DATVS [around] S C [in ex.] Antoninus Pius, togate, standing facing, head turned left, placing a tiara on the head of the Armenian king, standing left, wearing short tunica and cloak, his right hand raised and holding a roll in his left.
RIC 619 [R]; BMC 1272; Cohen 686; Strack 851; Banti 322 (22 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 126:42; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4209.
ex The New York Sale XX jan 2009; ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 147 lot 2159, March 2006

In A.D. 143, Antoninus Pius appointed kings for the Armenians and the Quadi and dedicated a separate issue for both events.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 620, Sestertius of AD 143-144 (king of the Quadi)32 viewsÆ sestertius (22.4g, 31mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: REX QVADIS DATVS [around] S C [in ex.] Antoninus Pius, togate, standing left, placing a diadem in the hand of the king of the Quadi, standing right.
RIC 620 [R2]; BMC 1275; Cohen 688; Strack 852; Banti 323 (2 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 126:42; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4210
ex Cayón Numismática Live Auct.15.

In A.D. 143, Antoninus Pius appointed kings for the Armenians and the Quadi and dedicated separate issues for both events.
Charles S
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Apollo (head of), Lyre and Tripod220 viewsBythinia, Kings Prousias I., 228-185 BC. AE-27 mm, 10.14 grs. AV: Laur. head of Apollo to left. Round CM: Head of Apollo; oval CM: Lyre: rectangular CM: Tripod. RV: BASILEWS / PROUSIOU either side of Nike, left hand on a shield, the right crowning the Kings name. Collection: Mueller.Automan
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Apollo (head of), Lyre and Tripod210 viewsBythinia, Kings, Prousias I., 228-185 BC. AE-27 mm, 9.82 grs. AV: Laur. head of Apollo to left. Round CM: Head of Apollo; oval CM: Lyre: rectangular CM: Tripod. RV: BASILEWS / PROUSIOU either side of Nike, left hand on a shield, the right crowning the Kings name. Collection: Mueller.Automan
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AR Drachma of the Shahi, ca 900 AD52 views"Bull and Horseman" silver drachm of the Shahi dynasty and Kings of Kabul. OBV; Seated Humped bull with the Sanskrit legend "Sri Semanta Deva" meaning "military commander" above, a trident on the bull's rump.
REV: Horseman with lance.

The Shahi were a Buddhist/Hindu dynasty that ruled from Kabul in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. The Bull (a Hindu symbol) and Horseman drachmas were an enduring type minted in good silver that was mined in the Panjshir Valley of Afghanistan. The Shahi were gradually pushed eastward to Kashmir by Islam until they disappeared as a political group in the 12th century.
2 commentsdaverino
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Arabia Felix, Himyarite Kings, Tha’ Ran Ya’ NB6 viewsAr Unit (Quinarius), 14mm, 1.5g, 5h; Raidan mint, 2nd Century AD.
Obv.: Head right, within circular torque, monogram behind.
Rev.: Head right, scepter before, kings name and mint in South Arabian Script around.
Reference: Munro-Hay 3.25, 16-260-65
John Anthony
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Arabia Petraea, Petra. Aretas IV Ae156 viewsKings of the Nabataeans
Obv: Aretas IV stands between palm branch and monogram.
Rev: His wife Shaqilat standing left, raising hand; wreath to left.
9 B.C.-A.D. 40
Meshorer 97, SNG Cop. -
ancientone
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Aretas_IV_and_Shugailat,_Meshorer_114,_AE_16,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_12,2x15,5mm,_3,18g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #163 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of King Aretas IV. conjoined with his Queen Shugailat right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Aretas and Shugailat in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2-15,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. date: 9 B.C.-40 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 114,
Q-001
quadrans
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Rabbell_II_and_Gamilat,_Meshorer_163,_AE_18,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_13x16mm,_2,84g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #159 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of king Rabbell II. conjoined with his queen Gamilath right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Rabbell and Gamilath in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. date: 70-106 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 163,
Q-001
quadrans
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Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth99 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
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Ardeshir III (628-30 AD)31 viewsDrachm, Nihavand mint.
Year 2 (629 AD)
Gobl 226

A coin of one of the ephemeral kings during the Moslem conquest of Persia. He was just seven when he came to the throne.
Manzikert
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Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Fouree silver plated drachm4 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Ancient Counterfeit. Fouree silver plated drachm, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 99 - 111, BMC Arabia 11 - 12, and SGICV 5695 - 6 (official, Petra mint, 20 - 40 A.D.), F, illegal mint, 3.364g, 13.8mm, 45o, after 20 A.D.; obverse Aramaic, 'Aretas, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people', laureate and draped bust of Aretas right; reverse Aramaic, 'Shuqailat, queen of the Nabataeans, year ?' (date off flan), jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right. Aretas IV was the greatest of the Nabataean kings, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Little is known of him because Nabataeans did not keep records. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Ex FORVMPodiceps
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ARGOLIS, Argos33 viewsA Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argois, removed 45 stadia (8 km; 5 miles) from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The temple was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple was the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert (Homo necans, p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes ("shimmering" or "quick"), and only secondarily associated with mythological Argus (or the toponym).

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.

During Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district; the Argolid which the Romans knew as Argeia. The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.[dubious – discuss]

Because of its refusal to fight or send supplies in the Graeco-Persian Wars, Argos was shunned by most other city-states.[citation needed] Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.

The Mythological kings of Argos are (in order): Inachus, Phoroneus, Argus, Triopas, Agenor, Iasus, Crotopus, Pelasgus (aka Gelanor), Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Proetus, Acrisius, Perseus, Megapénthês, Argeus, and Anaxagoras. An alternative version (supplied by Tatiānus[2]) of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argōs includes Apis, Argios, Kriasos, and Phorbas between Argus and Triopas, explaining the apparent unrelation of Triopas to Argus.

After the original 17 kings of Argos, there were three kings ruling Argos at the same time (see Anaxagoras), one descended from Bias, one from Melampus, and one from Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, commanded the disastrous Seven Against Thebes. Adrastus bequethed the kingdom to his son, Aegialeus, who was subsequently killed in the war of the Epigoni. Diomedes, grandson of Adrastus through his son-in-law Tydeus and daughter Deipyle, replaced Aegialeus and was King of Argos during the Trojan war. This house lasted longer than those of Anaxagoras and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, soon after the exile of Diomedes.

Argos played a role in the Peloponnesian war and beyond.

ARGOLIS, Argos. Circa 90-50 BC. AR Triobol (2.16 g, 1h). Trypis, magistrate. Forepart of wolf at bay right / Large A; T-PY/ΠI-C in two lines around, piloi of the Dioskouroi below crossbar; all within incuse square. BCD Peloponnesos 1169. VF, darkly toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous BCD sales).

Ex-CNG eAuction 82, Lot: 559 110/150

ecoli
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Ariarathes X30 viewsKINGS of CAPPADOCIA, AR Drachm, 16mm, 4.05g, Simonetta 2
Ariarathes X, Eusebes Philadelphos, 42 - 36 BC, Sear 7305.
OBV: Diademed head right
REV: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, Athena Nikephores standing left, holding Nike and resting hand on shield set on ground, trophy to inner left.
" BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ "
 translated as
" OF KING ARIARATHES PIOUS PHILADELPHOS "
Thanks to Forvm members for help attributing this coin.

Ariarathes X was executed by Antony in 36 BC.
Romanorvm
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ARMENIAN KINGDOM--TIGRANES II (THE GREAT)39 viewsKings of Armenia
95 - 58 BC
AE 13 mm, 2.25 g
O: Draped bust of Tigranes, right, wearing tiara
R: BASILEWS-BASILEWN/TIGRANO[Y] Grain ear
ref. Bedoukian 107
laney
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Arsinoë II Philadelphos - 1st daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter310 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, 253 - 252 BC, Struck under Ptolemy II.
AV Octodrachm (Mnaïeion) - 27mm, 27.69 g, 12h

O - Arsinoë II head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped scepter in background, Θ to left
R - APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopia bound with fillet.

Svoronos 460; Troxell, Arsinoe, Transitional to Group 3, p. 43 and pl. 6, 2-3 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 134.

Arsinoe II married Lysimachus at the age of 15. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos. As he became more powerful, she conspired against him leading to the killing of her sons, Lysimachus and Philip. After their deaths, she fled to Alexandria, Egypt to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus; whom she later married. As a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" ("Sibling-loving (plural)") by the presumably scandalized Greeks.

Arsinoe II Philadelphos, died 270-268 BC.
4 commentsrobertpe
4330147.jpg
Artabanos II8 viewsKINGS of PARTHIA. Artabanos II. 126-122 BC. AR Drachm (19.5mm, 3.77 g, 12h). Ekbatana mint. Diademed bust left / Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on omphalos, holding bow. Sellwood 20.1 (Artabanos I); Sunrise 278; Shore 59 (Artabanos I). Near VF, porous.

ex CNG Auc 433 lot 147
arash p
artabanos.jpg
Artabanos III.8 viewsKINGS of PARTHIA. Artabanos III.
Circa AD 10-38. AR Drachm
. Ekbatana mint.
Diademed bust left, wearing long square beard, earring, and spiral torque; all within pelleted border /
Arsakes I seated right on throne, holding bow; monogram below bow.


xokleng
Kilikia_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Satraps and Kings of Kilikia41 viewsKilikia
Uncertain Persian King
AR Obol, 400-350 BC
Obv.: Head of female facing slightly left
Rev: King with bow and quiver, stabbing griffin on hind legs with knife
AR, 0.63g, 10,3mm
Ref.: Göktürk 38
Same dies as CNG 70, Lot 362
2 commentsshanxi
G_328_Kroisos.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Kings of Lydia, Kroisos, 1/12 Stater15 viewsLydia, Kings of Lydia, Kroisos
circa 560-546 BC
Obv.: On the left, forepart of lion with open mouth to right confronting, on the right, forepart of bull to left.
Rev.: Incuse square
Ag, 7x8mm,0.87g
Ref.: Berk 26–7. Traité I 413. SNG Kayhan 1020-1. SNG Aulock 8213.
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_37.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, Ivy leaf14 viewsMysia, Pergamon
KINGS of PERGAMON. Philetairos
AE11, 282-263 BC
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: ΦIΛE/TAIΡOΥ, Ivy leaf
AE, 11mm, 1.5g
Ref.: SNG France 1676-7 and 1679-81
shanxi
Pergamon_04.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Attalos I 24 viewsKings of Pergamon
Attalos I, 241-197 BC
AR Tetradrachm
Obv.: Laureate head of Philetairos right.
Rev.: ΦIΛETAIPOY, Athena seated left, holding spear, left elbow on shield, wreath held in right hand; in right field, bow; in left, bunch of grapes, between monogram A
Ag, 16.96g, 27.6mm
Ref.: Westermark, Ph. 62, Gruppe IV:B, Winterthur 2617
shanxi
Pergamon_08.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Philetairos, Apollo, Tripod17 viewsKings of Pergamon
ca. 200-130 BC
AE 11
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: ΦΙΛΕ / TAIPOY, Tripod
AE, 1.33g, 11.6x10.8mm
Ref.: SNG France 1688-90, SNG Cop 354, BMC 120.33, SNG von Aulock 7456
shanxi
ASP.jpg
Asper60 viewsByzantine silver, Trebizond Empire, John II, 1280-1297 AD, AR Asper

Obverse: St. Eugenius stanidng holding long cross

Reverse: John standing holding labarum and akakia

Diameter approx 23.5 mm,


EMPIRE of TREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (2.75 g, 7h). Imitative issue. St. Eugenius, nimbate, standing facing, holding long cross with cross bar on shaft / John standing facing, holding lily-headed sceptre and globus cruciger. Cf. Retowski 16 (same obverse die); cf. SB 2609. Good VF, typical weak strike. ($200)

Retowski's aspers of his group B, section 1 have several anomalous features that set them apart from the normal series. On this one example, the cross held by St. Eugenius has a lower cross bar, not seen on any other example. Most of the Group B, 1 specimens have the saint's name ending in IOV, rather than the IOC or IO seen on standard varieties. On the reverse the emperor's cloak is shown as a single cross-hatched panel lacking the normal decorated chlamys end tied around his waist. In addition, on this unique example the emperor holds a lily-headed sceptre, rather than one with a labarum as on every other type. The lily sceptre does not appear elsewhere in the Trebizond series, but does occasionally show as an attribute in the Bulgarian royal series. See a bronze of Mitso Asen (1256-1263), Radishev p. 93. This coin, and others in group B, 1 are probably imitative issues copying Trebizond types, and may have been struck anywhere along the north shore of the Black Sea, where the Tartar Khanates ruled, occasionally holding the Bulgarian kings as their vassals.

http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=107443&AucID=121&Lot=1136
1 comments Alexios
68411q00.jpg
Athens, Mithradatic War Issue, 87-86 B.C.26 views"In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into Greece and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. Sulla landed in Epirus and marched through Boeotia into Attica. Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to honor themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars."

Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 307, BMC Attica p. 81, 554; Kroll 97; Svoronos Athens pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, thick flan, 9.775g, 19.7mm, 45o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, star between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right field;
jimmynmu
Augustus_and_Rhoemetalces_I.JPG
Augustus and Rhoemetalces I26 viewsKings of Thrace
Augustus and Rhoemetalces I, Circa 11 BC-AD 12, 21mm, 5.3g, RPC I 1715; SNG Copenhagen -.
OBV: Laureate head of Augustus right, capricorn before
REV: Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes right

EX: CNG Auction Electronic Auction 226 (27.01.2010) Lot 350

EX: J.P. Rhigetti Collection #10539
Romanorvm
B_059_Anonim_Follis,_SB_1812var,_(Basil_II__and_Constantine_VIII__cc989_AD),_A2,_F41,_SB-1812var_,_Q-001,_6h,_25-26,5mm,11,31g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1102 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +EMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, ust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: cc989 A.D., ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F41type,
Q-001
quadrans
B_059_Anonim-Follis,_SB_1813,_AE-Follis,_Class_A2,_(Constantine_VIII__(976-1025_A_D_)),SB-1818-p-350_Q-001,_0h,_28mm,_10_30g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1126 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
B_059_Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001,_6h,_24,5-26,5mm,_9,04g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 112 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
10220v.jpg
Bactria, Graeco-Baktrian Kings, Demetrios, Æ29, ca. 200-185 BC.89 viewsBactria, Graeco-Baktrian Kings, Demetrios,
Æ29, Hemi-obol / Triple Unit / Trichalkon (28-29 mm / 12.41 g), ca. 200-185 BC.,
Obv.: Head of elephant slightly right with raised trunk, wearing bell.
Rev.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY, either side of large caduceus (with serpent heads at the upper ends), monogram ΔPI... in field to left.
SNG ANS 209-11 ; Bopearachchi Série 5C ; MIG 108a ; cf. Sear GC 7533 .

my ancient coin database
3 commentsArminius
Menander_Athena_1a.jpg
Baktria, Graeco Baktrian Kings. Menander * ca. 155-130 BC. AR Drachm84 views
Silver Drachm, Menander, Graeco-Baktria

Obv: Diademed heroic bust, with aegis and spear raised in combative-posture, left-facing.
Rev: Athena Alkidemos left, hurling thunderbolt in right hand, holding hoplon shield raised in left hand; monogram in right field, Legend above.

Mint: Taxila (?)
Struck: 155-130 BC.

Size: 18 mm. (&nd slightly oblong on horizontal-plane)
Weight: 2.44 grams
Die axis: 355 degs.

Interesting aged-appearance; some luster, some wear, light corrosion & ample deposits (particularly on the reverse).

Bopearachchi Série 7B, 37-40
MIG 224c.
Bop 037
Tiathena
10415v.jpg
Baktria, Graeco-Baktrian Kings, Euthydemos I., Æ Double Unit, 235-200 BC.66 viewsBaktria, Graeco-Baktrian Kings, Euthydemos I.,
Æ Double Unit (21-23 mm / 7.02 g), 235-200 BC.,
Obv.: Bare head of Hercules right.
Rev.: [B]AΣIΛEΩS above, EYΘYΔHMOY below, horse prancing right.
Sear GC 7523 ; Mitchiner, Indogreek 87 ; Bopearachchi Série 17A ; SNG ANS 146ff ; BMC India 8, 6 .

my ancient coin database
Arminius
Baktria,_Kings,_Menander_I_Soter_(ca__165-155–130_BC)_AR_Drachm,_Menander_r_,_Athena_l_,_AY_monogram_l_,_Bop_13B,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17,0mm,_2,26g-s.jpg
Baktria, Kings, Menander I Soter (cc. 165/155–130 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Bop 13B, AY/-//--, Athena Alkidemos standing left, #130 viewsBaktria, Kings, Menander I Soter (cc. 165/155–130 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Bop 13B, AY/-//--, Athena Alkidemos standing left, #1
avers: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ, diademed, draped bust of Menander right.
reverse: Karosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa, Athena Alkidemos, viewed from behind, standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in raised right hand & holding shield on extended left arm, AY monogram in left field.
exergue: AY/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,0mm, weight: 2,26g, axes: 0h,
mint: Baktria, Kings, Menander I Soter, date: cc. 165/155–130 B.C.,
ref: Bop 13B,
Q-001
quadrans
Eukratides_Silver_coin.jpg
BAKTRIAN KINGS, Eukratides I. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Obol. 14 viewsBAKTRIAN KINGS, Eukratides I. Circa 170-145 BC. AR Obol (0.64 gm; 10 mm). Diademed, helmeted and draped bust right / Piloi of the Dioskouri, each surmounted by star and accompanied by palm; monogram below. Bopearachchi Serie 9C; SNG ANS 496. Well struck on a good metal. Antonivs Protti
Christ_follis_1_k.jpg
Basil II and Constantine VIII, AD 976 - 102512 viewsÆ anonymous follis, class A2, 32mm, 12.6g, 6h; Constantinople mint
Obv.: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, Gospels in both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rev.: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornamentation above and below
Reference: SBCV 1813
John Anthony
Bosporos_Kings_Sauromates_I_(93-123AD)_AE-27_BACI_E_C_CAYPOMATOY_MH_in_wreath_Pantikapaion_BMC__MacDonald_398_Q-001_0h_27mm_6,91g-s.jpg
Bosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., (90-123 A.D.), MacDonald 398, AE-27, MH in wreath,109 viewsBosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., (90-123 A.D.), MacDonald 398, AE-27, MH in wreath,
avers:- BACIΛεΩC CAYPOMATOY, Lauraeate head of King Sauromates I right, bust draped.
revers:- MH, In laurel wreath
exerg: -/-//--, diameter:27mm, weight:6,91g, axes:0h,
mint: Bosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., Pantikapaion date: 90-123 A.D.,
ref: MacDonald 398, BMC ,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bosporos_Kings_Sauromates_I_(117-123AD)_AE-24_BACI_E_C_CAYPOMATOY_MH_in_wreath_BMC_25_MacDonald_408-4_Q-001_11h_23mm_8,09g-s.jpg
Bosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., (90-123 A.D.), MacDonald 408-4, AE-24, MH in wreath,97 viewsBosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., (90-123 A.D.), MacDonald 408-4, AE-24, MH in wreath,
avers:- BACIΛεΩC CAYPOMATOY, Curule chair surmounted by wreath, shield and spear to left, staff surmounted by human head to right.
revers:- MH, In laurel wreath
exerg: -/-//--, diameter:23mm, weight:8,09g, axes:11h,
mint: Bosporos, Kings, Sauromates-I., date: 90-123 A.D.,
ref: MacDonald 408-4, BMC 25,
Q-001
quadrans
w2019.jpg
Bow216 viewsSyria, Seleucid Kings, Seleucos II., 246-226 B.C. AE-17 mm, 3.98 grs. AV: Head of Herakles in a lionskin to right. Round CM: Bow. RV: BASILEWS / SELEUKOY either side of Apollo sitting on Omphalos to left, holding bow and arrow. Collection: Mueller.Automan
BULGARIAN.jpg
BULGARIA - IVAN ALEXANDER118 viewsBEAUTIFUL Medieval AR Grosh Jesus and Two Kings -- Bulgarian Kingdom -- Nice toned with high relief Silver grosh of Ivan Alexander (1331 - 1371 A.D.) 22 mm, 1.73 g. Obv.: Christ enthroned facing, hands raised in benediction. Monograms in Cyrillic on both sides. Rev.: Ivan Alexander (left) and Michael Asen (right) both sides of banner. Monograms in Cyrillic on both sides. dpaul7
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous Follis of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.131 viewsBronze anonymous follis, Anonymous follis of Christ, class A3; SBCV 1818; Grierson ornaments 24a, gVF, well centered, excellent portrait detail but nose a bit flat, attractive toned bare metal, a few scratches, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 9.833g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 180o, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; obverse + EMMANOVHL, facing nimbate bust of Christ, two pellets in each arm of the cross, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornaments above and below legend;

The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

FORVM Ancient Coins.

*A spectacular artistic portrait of Christ.
The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
BYZANTINE_Anonymous_Romanus_III_JESUS_KING_OF_KINGS_(2).jpg
BYZANTINE Anonymous Romanus III JESUS KING OF KINGS43 viewsAnonymous
Item description: Byzantine Empire 1028-1041 AD Emperor Romanus III, Overse: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands , Reverse: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE "King of Kings"
Size: 31 mm Weight: 4.9 g Around 980 Years Old
_2300
Antonivs Protti
BYZANTINE_Anonymous_Romanus_III_JESUS_KING_OF_KINGS.jpg
BYZANTINE Anonymous Romanus III JESUS KING OF KINGS25 viewsAnonymous
Item description: Byzantine Empire 1028-1041 AD Emperor Romanus III, Overse: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands , Reverse: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE "King of Kings"
29 mm. 11.6 g
_2750
Antonivs Protti
romanus.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous, time of Romanus III or Michael IV, AD 1028 - 104116 viewsAE Class B Follis, 31 x 28mm, 10.1g, 6h; Constantinople mint.
Obv.: EMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, IC - XC (Jesus Christ) flanking across field.
Rev.: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS (Jesus Christ) / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Reference: SBCV 1823.
Notes: sold to JB, 10/15/15.
John Anthony
IMG_20180527_103151.jpg
Byzantine Empire15 viewsAE1 969 - 976 CE

Obverse: Christ facing with book of Gospels, + EMMANOVHA IX-XC.

Reverse: +IhSvS
XRISTvS
bASILEv
bASILE
(Jesus Christ king of kings)
Pericles J2
anonimus_follis.png
Byzantine Follis Romanus III or Michael IV, 12 November 1028 - 10 December 1041 A.D. Class B8 viewsBronze anonymous follis, class B; SBCV 1823, VF,Constantinople mint, obverse EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings). 86177

Class B are often over-struck on class A2.
Britanikus
Anonim-Follis_AE-28_SB-1818_Q-001_10_30g.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), 386 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001_6h_24,5-26,5mm_9,04g-s.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 171 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII_-_Christ-.jpg
Byzantine, Christ, Anonymous Folles. temp. Basil II & Constantine VIII, circa 976-1025. 448 viewsÆ Follis (28mm, 12.04 g, 6h). Class A2. Constantinople mint. Nimbate half-length bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels / [+] IhSЧ[S]/[X]PISTЧS/[Ь]ASILЄЧ/ЬASILЄ in four lines ( Jesus Christ King of Kings ); rectangular ornament below. DOC A2.47; SB 1813. VF, dark green patina with earthen highlights/deposits, a few cleaning scratches. EX ; The Prue Morgan Fitts Collection.

EX The Sam Mansourati Collection.

*A fine masterpiece of one of the very early portraits of Christ according to Saint Veronica 's Veil.
**The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

Given as a Christmas Present to Dear friend , brother and great dentist , Dr. Manuel M. Cunanan .
Sam
1312_346_Censorinus.JPG
C. Marcius Censorinus - AR denarius5 viewsRome
88 BC
jugate heads of bearded Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius right
Desultor right riding two horses, wearing conical cap, holding whip
XXXIII
C·CENSO
Crawford 346/1b, SRCV I 256, Sydenham 713b, RSC I Marcia 18
ex Savoca

Marcia family claimed their descent from legendary kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius.
Desultor commemorates ludi Apollinares which were held for the first time in 212 BC as memento of Marcius' prophecy of Roman victory over Hannibal in the battle of Cannae 216 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Uncertain_U-088_C1-134_H-125_RRR_Q-001_0h_10mm_0,13ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03., Anonymous II. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-125, CNH I.-134, U-088, Very Rare!!! #01110 viewsCÁC II. 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03., Anonymous II. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-125, CNH I.-134, U-088, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Horizontal line crossed by three vertical ones and two crescents, N between two dots above and below, a border of dots.
reverse: The Patriarchal cross between two crescents containing dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,13g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-125, CNH I.-134, Unger-088,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 19.13.1.1./a2.01./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-001_2h_10,0mm_0_16ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01107 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a1.02./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-002_6h_10,0mm_0_20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01107 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a2.05./08.,
Q-002
quadrans
Uncertain-I_U-089_C1-168_H-188_RRR_Q-003_10h_9,0-10,0mm_0_19g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01111 viewsCÁC II. 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09., Anonymous III. (Uncertain I., Between Géza II. and Andreas II., Kings of Hungary, (1141-1235 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-188, CNH I.-168, U-089, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: Cross amongst four stars, four crosses between two dots on two crescents around, a border of dots.
reverse: Cross with crescents and double crescents at the ends, four dots around, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,0-10,0 mm, weight: 0,19g, axis:10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-188, CNH I.-168, Unger-089,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 20.25.1.1./a2.06./09.,
Q-001
quadrans
Vlasto_638.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, Circa 315-302 BC. AR Nomos57 views21mm, 8.04 g, 11h
Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
2 commentsLeo
Caligula_sestertius.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 12 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AD LOCVT - Gaius Caligula stg. l. on daïs, extending r. hand in gesture of address (ad locutio), a sella castrensis (camp stool) to r., before him stand five soldiers r., all helmeted, holding shields, and parazonia, four aquilae behind them, in ex. COH,
Exergue: COH


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.69g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 32
Sear'88 #612
Cohen 1
MIR 3, 6-4
BMCRE 33
Provenances:
Baldwin's of St. James's
Acquisition/Sale: Baldwin's of St. James's Internet 8/9-20-17 #31

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From CNG:
Before a battle or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops to inspire morale. This sestertius was issued on the occasion of a donative for the Praetorian Guard and was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type.

The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions or “cohorts” each of 500 – 1000 men. On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own[7]. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts.” Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”) which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage.

Highly unusual on this type is the lack of the letters S C, which designate a coin issued by decree of the Senate (Senatus Consulto). From Republican times, the formula had been used on both silver and bronze coinage, but under the Empire, the emperor took responsibility for the precious metal coinage and left only the base metal coins to be issued by the Senate and accordingly marked S C. Imperial bronze coinage without the formula is generally thought to have been issued under special circumstances and under an authority other than the Senate. The ADLOCVT(io) COH(ortium) sestertii are thought to have been a special distribution issue for the Praetorian Guard personally funded out of the emperor's own purse.
The lack of S C suggests that this interesting issue was undertaken and paid for by the emperor. Cassius Dio (59.2) writes “... in company with the senate, he inspected the Pretorians at drill and distributed to them the money that had been bequeathed them, amounting to a thousand sesterces apiece.”

From Jeff Starck, Coin World:
Many Roman coins bear the giant letters SC, shorthand for “senatus consulto” or “senatus consultum.” The fact that they are missing from this coin suggests that the coin was not issued with the approval of the Roman senate. This was an obvious statement of authority by the fairly new leader Caligula.

“There is no reason to believe its exclusion was accidental,” according to the catalog. “The inescapable message to the senate was that the emperor’s newfound authority was assured by his relationship with the [prateorean] guard.”

Tiberius died in 37 A.D., perhaps with the aid of Sertorius Macro, who had authority as a prefect in the prateorean guard; Macro then offered his support to Caligula, who received full authority from the state.

Tiberius’ will allocated 1,000 sestertii for each guard, an amount that Caligula doubled upon realizing that his power rested largely in the support of the guard.

These payments were handed out during a ceremony that is presumably pictured on the coin’s reverse, where Caligula is shown standing before the seat of the army chief, delivering a speech to five soldiers. The inscription ADLOCVT COH describes the image, the abbreviation identifying the adlocutio (speech from the emperor to his army).

The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of a throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as a friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
lg_caligula_thrace.jpg
Caligula (Augustus), Thracian Kings29 viewsCaligula (Augustus)
Reign of Rhoemetalkes III, Thracian Kingdom
AE 6.94g / 22.75mm / -
ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΑΡΙ or ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΣΑΡ - Bust left
Ρ-Σ; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ - Nike r. with wreath and malm on globe
Mint: (38 - 46 AD)
Ref: RPC 1725; Gorny & Moshc 126, 13-14 Oct 2003 Lot 1659
Further references:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=59717&AucID=63&Lot=1659
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=94344&AucID=101&Lot=1637
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/44602782922868295254468/025000_0004.pdf
Scotvs Capitis
Cappadocia.JPG
Cappadocia13 viewsThe Cappadocians, supported by Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, elected a native lord, Ariobarzanes, to succeed (93 BC); but in the same year Armenian troops under Tigranes the Great (Tigran) entered Cappadocia, dethroned king Ariobarzanes and crowned Gordios as the new client-king of Cappadocia, thus creating a buffer zone against the encroaching Romans. It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence until AD 17, when the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus' death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire.ancientone
comp.jpg
Cappadocia, Ariarathes VII ca 110-99 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Antiochos VII (138-129 BC)200 viewsDiademed head of Antiochos VII right, fillet border / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Athena standing half-left in crested helmet on short ground line, confronting Nike held in right hand and with left arm balancing a spear while holding a grounded shield decorated with a Gorgoneion head, primary controls ΔI (in ligature) over A in outer left field, secondary controls O-Λ in inner fields, laurel crown around.
Lorber and Houghton, NC 2006, ser. 1, iss. 3 (A1/P1 - coin 12 - this coin); HGC 9 1069; SC 2148; SMA 298; SNG Spaer 1873 (same obverse die).
Uncertain Cappadocian mint, probably Ariaratheia or Eusebeia-Tyana.
From the same obverse die as the first issue to bear a reverse legend in the name of Ariarthes VII with the same O-Λ mint controls (second coin in image).
(28 mm, 16.63 gm, 12h)
ex- Commerce (‘Antiochus VII Posthumous’ Hoard) 2005

This coin is from an extensive imitative series struck by the Cappadocian Kings during the internecine wars for power that plagued the region in the early first century BC. The exact reason as to why coinage imitating that of the deceased Seleukid Syrian ruler Antiochos VII was struck is unknown. However, the utilization of the coinage to pay Syrian mercenaries in familiar coin appears most likely. This coin is most significant in that the obverse die from which it was struck was used to strike a unique coin of similar iconography and with identical mint controls, bearing the name Ariarathes VII in the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ APIAPAΘOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOΣ (image below). This die linkage (only recognized in 2002) confirmed that many of the Antiochos VII issues previously attributed to Syria were posthumous issues made by the Cappadocian Kings commencing with Ariathes VI and continuing through the reigns of Ariarathes VII – IX and Ariobazanes I.

Ariarathes VII who was responsible for the striking of this coin was a hapless pawn in the power struggle for control of Cappadocia between Mithradates VI of Pontus and Nikomedes III of Bithynia. Ariarathes VII was the product of the marriage of Mithradates older sister Laodike to Ariarathes VI. When the latter began to exhibit a degree of independence, Mithradates had him murdered, then appointed Laodike as regent for her young son Ariarathes VII. When Laodike married Nikomedes III of Bithynia, Mithradates expelled her and the Bithynian army from Cappadocia and placed his young nephew Ariarathes VII directly on the throne of Cappadocia. Later, when Ariarathes VII rejected Mithradates offer of his confidant Gordius as an advisor, Mithradates moved with his army to depose Ariarathes VII. The armies of Mithradates and Ariarathes met prepared for battle. At this point Mithradates called for an unarmed discussion meeting with his nephew Ariarathes in the middle ground of the battlefield. In front of the two assembled armies, Mithradates drew a concealed blade and slit his nephew’s throat, thus avoiding battle and clearing the way for a new puppet, his stepson, to be appointed as King Ariarathes VIII.
2 commentsLloyd T
coin118.JPG
Cappadocia, Caesarea; Gordian III24 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea, Gordian III 238-244 Æ26

The city has been continuously inhabited since perhaps c. 3000 BCE[citation needed] with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kultepe (Ash Mountain) which is associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town. The city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia (163–130 BCE). Under the new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus[5] or perhaps by Tiberius,[6] the city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 BCE.
Walls of the Seljuk era Sahabiye Medresesi, built in 1267 by the Seljuk vizier Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali.

Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. The city gradually recovered, and became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea.

Obv: Laureate bust of Gordian, right.
Rev: Agalma of Mount Argaeus set on altar. Year 243 AD
ecoli
Cappadocia,_Kings,_Ariarathes_IX,_AR_dr__99-85_BC__Diad_head_of_Ariarathes_IV_right__BASLIEWS_ARIARAQOU_EUSEBOUS,AN_IG(year-13)87-BC_BMC-6_Q-001_h_18mm_4,0g-s.jpg
Cappadocia, Kings, 011 Ariarathes IX. (99-85 B.C.), AR-Drachm, BMC-6, BAΣΛIEΩΣ APIAPAΘOY EYΣEBOYΣ, Athena Nicephorus standing left, #1137 viewsCappadocia, Kings, 011 Ariarathes IX. (99-85 B.C.), AR-Drachm, BMC-6, BAΣΛIEΩΣ APIAPAΘOY EYΣEBOYΣ, Athena Nicephorus standing left, #1
avers: Diademed head of Ariarathes IV right.
revers: BAΣΛIEΩΣ APIAPAΘOY EYΣEBOYΣ, Athena Nicephorus standing left, AN monogram in left field, holding Nike in right hand, shield and spear in left. date IΓ (regnal year 13 = 87 B.C.) in exergue.
exerg: -/-//IΓ, diameter:18mm, weight: 4,0g, axes: h,
mint: Cappadocia, Kings, Ariarathes-IX, date: IΓ (year-13), 87B.C., ref: BMC-6, SNG Copenhagen 900–903, Simonetta 9a, Hoover 845.
Q-001
quadrans
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Cappadocia, Kings, 014 Ariobarzanes III. Eusebes Philoromaios (52-42 B.C.), AR-Drachm, SNG Cop. 162, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ...,Athena Nicephorus standing left, #168 viewsCappadocia, Kings, 014 Ariobarzanes III. Eusebes Philoromaios (52-42 B.C.), AR-Drachm, SNG Cop. 162, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΟΒΑΡΖΑΝΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΟΡΩΜΑΙΟΥ, Athena Nicephorus standing left, #1
avers: Diademed, bearded head of king right.
reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΟΒΑΡΖΑΝΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΟΡΩΜΑΙΟΥ, Athena Nikephoros standing left, star in a crescent to inner left, monogram to inner right, Θ (date, year=9) in exergue.
exergue: -/-//Θ, diameter:15,5-16,5mm, weight: 3,58g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Kings, Ariobarzanes III Eusebes Philoromaios, date: Θ (year-9), 44 B.C., ref: Simonetta 1b, SNG Copenhagen 162, SNG von Aulock 6327.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
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Caracalla AE provincial, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (Nikyup, Bulgaria) (211 - 212 AD)9 viewsΑΥ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ – [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped bust right / Y ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN – NIKOΠOΛIT + ΠΡOC I in exergue, Nemesis-Aequitas standing left, holding scales in extended right hand and measuring rod (whip? sceptre?) in the crook of left arm, wheel at foot left.

Ӕ, 26 mm, 9.22 g, die axis 8h (turned coin)

I do not have access to any of the relevant provincial catalogs and cannot check any entries, but based on other similar coin descriptions on this site some numbers that may be close to this type are: AMNG I/1 1576-77, 1877-78; Varbanov (engl.) 3134, 3148, 3248; Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (HrHJ) No. 8.18.35.4-5, 8.18.35.8

AY[TOKPATΩΡ] K[AICAP] = Imperator Caesar, Μ[ΑΡΚΟC] ΑΥ[ΡΗΛΙΟC] ANTΩNINOC = Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka "Caracalla". NIKOΠOΛIT[ΩN] PROC I[CTPΩN] ("πρός"="toward", but also "near to", like Latin "ad"; Istros = the lower Danube). ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN = Flavius Ulpianus, who was Roman governor of Lower Moesia (Moesia Inferior) starting from 210 to about 213. Before 211 Septimius Severus was still in charge; Caracalla visited the city in 211-212, was displeased with it and closed the mint (it was reopened only after his death), so the likely minting years are 211-212. All governors of Lower Moesia had titles on coins of either ΗΓ[ΕΜΟΝΑΣ] (governor of equestrian rank) or ΥΠ[ΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ] of the province (ΤΗΣ ΕΠΑΡΧΕΙΑΣ) (consular legate of senatorial rank). Y before the name of Flavius Ulpianus indicates the latter.

Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. It symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, the long stick she carries is most probably a measuring rod, but may also be a whip (symbol of punishment) or a sceptre (symbol of imperial power). The wheel may be the Wheel of Fortune (Rota Fortunae), but may also just symbolize equality.

CARACALLA, *4 April 188 Lugdunum (Lyon, France) † 8 April 217 (aged 29) road between Edessa and Carrhae ‡ 26 Dec 211 – 8 Apr 217 (not counting joint rule with his father and brother)

His birth name was Lucius Septimius Bassianus, then he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of 7 as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He got the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. He was also referred to as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. The firstborn of the famous imperial couple Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he was groomed to be emperor together with his brother Geta. They both were given titles of Caesars and even full Augusti before their father's death. But it was not going to happen, since the brothers hated each other. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, he immediately grew to hate them both. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, probably fabricating the evidence of the plot himself. Then he banished his wife together with his own baby daughter first to Sicily and then to the largest of the Aeolian islands, Lipari. As soon as his father died, Caracalla ordered to strangle them both.

Septimius Severus died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (present day York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of Roman Britannia. Caracalla and Geta jointly ended the campaign by concluding a peace that returned the border to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. During the journey back to Rome they continuously argued and finally decided to divide the empire, Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta -- the east. They were persuaded not to do this, but their hostility was only increasing. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name. In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ.

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. He went north to the German frontier to deal with restless Germanic tribes through wars and diplomacy. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Then it became evident that he was preoccupied with Alexander the Great. He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style and started planning an invasion of "Persia", the Parthian Empire. He even arranged 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite this foration being obsolete for centuries. Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that he persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. So in 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east into Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia and pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa (Şanlıurfa, south-east Turkey) and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae (Harran, southern Turkey), where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign. In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.

Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability, the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire, and external invasions from the Germanic people. Surprisingly for such a brute, Caracalla was also notable for some statesmanship, perhaps due to some help of his mother, who stayed in Rome and performed many administrative duties in her son's absence. The most famous is the Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana), aka the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, and building a temple to Serapis, Graeco-Egyptian god of healing, whom he thought to be his divine patron, on the Quirinal Hill. The numismatists will always remember him because of the introduction of a new Roman coin denomination, currently designated "antoninianus" after him. The reduced silver purity of the new coins caused people to hoard the old denarii and thanks to this now we can enjoy lots of well-preserved early Roman silver coins.

Caracalla was one of the cruellest and most tyrannical Roman emperors. That was why in the 18th century Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists trying to draw the parallels between him and King Louis XVI. But there were also other narratives surrounding his name: in the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of "Bassianus" as the king of Britain, who won the kingship by fighting his brother over it.
Yurii P
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Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557121 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Durotriges.JPG
Celtic Britain, Durotriges (Circa 58 BC-45 AD)12 viewsStater, Abstract (Cranborne Chase) type

5.26g

Obverse: Devolved head of Apollo right

Reverse: Disjointed horse left; pellets above, [pellet below], pellet in lozenge above tail, [zigzag and pellet pattern between two parallel exergue lines].

Van Arsdell 1235-1; BMC 2525-54.

The Durotriges ("dwellers by the water" or, perhaps, "water-rat kings") were well known for their continental trade and hill forts. They were the only tribe who did not add inscriptions to their coins, perhaps indicative of decentralized rule among multiple hill-fort based tribes using a common currency, and the only tribe to strike a stater in silver.

The history of the Durotriges can be divided into two broad phases, an early phase, roughly 100-60 B.C. and a late phase from 60 B.C. until the Roman conquest. The early phase was a time of rapid development brought about by overseas trade, while the late phase was a time of retraction, isolation and economic impoverishment. The economic decline is dramatically portrayed by the progressive debasement of their coinage, particularly when you compare the magnificent white-gold Craborne Chase staters of ca. 50-40 B.C. with the crude cast bronze Hengistbury coins of ca. A.D. 10-43.

The Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia.
2 commentsNathan P
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Celts, Danube Region, Imitative61 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitative of Alexander or Philip III, c. 150 B.C. - c. 50 A.D.,
Silver scyphate drachm, Dessewffy, No. 534, Group XXVIII (or similar)
Fair, 3.314g, 19.1mm, obverse head of Herakles right, wearing lion's head headdress; reverse Zeus enthroned left, holding a scepter in left and eagle in outstretched right; struck with extremely worn dies. ex Forvm
Randygeki(h2)
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Chulalongkorn Coat of Arms14 viewsChulalongkorn (Rama V--Chakri Dynasty) Coat of Arms

Origin/Meaning:
The arms of the Kingdom of Siam were created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn the Great, Rama V, when the Kingdom was exposed to Western traditions, ideas, and also European threat of colonialism. King Chulalongkorn, who visited Europe twice, modernized Siam and adopted many of the European traditions to his court, including the use of heraldry.

On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two (again) mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha.

The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords).

The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao.
The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness".

When the present seal (the Garuda) was made the State symbol, King Chulalongkorn's great arms were no longer used as a State symbol, however, it still adorns the hats of Thai police officers to this day.
Literature : Information provided by Apirat Sugondhabhirom
________________________________________
Sitemap © Ralf Hartemink 1996, -
Cleisthenes
Cilicia.JPG
Cilicia11 viewsCilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey in 67 BC following a Battle of Korakesion (modern Alanya), and Tarsus was made the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC first conquered by Marcus Antonius Orator in his campaign against pirates, with Sulla acting as its first governor, foiling an invasion of Mithridates, and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 BC, into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia. It was reorganized by Julius Caesar, 47 BC, and about 27 BC became part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarcondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, AD 72. It had been deemed important enough to be governed by a proconsul.

ancientone
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Cilicia, Tarsos, Syennesis III, ca. 425-400 BC, AR Stater 17 viewsSyennesis on horseback right, wearing Persian headdress and cloak.
Nude hoplite kneeling left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, holding spear and shield.

SNG Paris-226, SNG Levante-61.

(20 mm, 8.3 g, 1h).
Harlan J. Berk 181, November 2012, 393.

The depiction of the hoplite in a defensive posture on the reverse of this coin is most evocative of its time, notwithstanding the miserable corroded state of the coin itself, which is a type of some rarity. The initial reaction to the typology of this coin might be one of surprise at the apparently incongruous pairing of the image of a Persian dynast on horseback on the obverse with that of a Greek hoplite on the reverse. The explanation is to be found in the written historical record. The coin dates to the period of Xenophon's anabasis. Xenophon refers to the role of Syennesis (III) and his wife Epyaxa in the revolt of Cyrus the Younger, in whose employ as a mercenary Xenophon found himself. In view of the historical record left by Xenophon, the pairing of the motifs of a Persian dynast, or tributary king, on one side of this coin with a Greek hoplite on the other now seems particularly poignant, rather than incongruous. During the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the Persian dynasts routinely employed Greek hoplite mercenaries in their armies, so that the reverse typology may simply be a reflection of this reality on coinage destined perhaps for mercenary pay.

All the hereditary kings of Cilicia were termed Syennesis, a royal title more than an actual name. As described in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Syennesis (III) under the influence of his wife and queen, Epyaxa, supported the unsuccessful revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC. As much as anything this action appears to have been motivated by the desire to prevent Cryrus’ army pillaging and looting during its passage through Cilicia. Syennesis’ support included a body of troops commanded by one of his sons. However, he sent another son, accompanied by a report on Cyrus plans and army to Artaxerxes, so that whatever the outcome he might be aligned with the winning side. Syennesis' actions, however, did little to save Cilicia's autonomy. After 400 BC it became an ordinary satrapy of the Persian Empire, rather than an independent tributary or vassal state, and the role of the hereditary king of Cilicia ceased, replaced by a satrap who was appointed by the Persian king, most frequently a relative of the latter.
n.igma
ConstanCommRIC63_ConstantinopleMint.jpg
City of Constantinople Commemorative, 330 - 333 A.D.79 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 63, VF, Constantinople, 2.524g, 18.5mm, 0o, 330 - 333 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis' helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder; Reverse: Victory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right, resting left on grounded shield, CONSZ in exergue; nice style. Ex FORVM.

Constantinople Commemoratives minted by the actual city of Constantinople mint are much scarcer than those minted by other Eastern mints.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedæmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
14106p00.jpg
City of Constantinopolis Commemorative, 330-346 A.D. (Cyzikus)48 viewsConstantinopolis City Commemorative, issued by CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS, of the period AD 330-346, commemorating the transfer of the Seat of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, AE3/4, aVF, Cyzikus. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle, holding inverted spear, laureate helmet, bust L.; Reverse: No legend; Victory stg. L., right foot on prow, holding scepter and leaning on shield; star?pellet?SMK pellet? in exergue.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedæmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
sb1813classA234mm1246g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
34mm, 12.46g
wileyc
sb1813classA233mm1566gjpg.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE14 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
33mm, 15.66g
wileyc
sb1813classA230mm1456g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
30mm, 14.56g
wileyc
sb1813classA228mm1480g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE22 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
28mm, 14.80g
wileyc
ab1813classA228mm1207g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE19 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1823 Class A2
28mm, 12.07g
wileyc
sb1813classA2.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE12 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
30mm, 14.48g
wileyc
sb1813classA224mm1509g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE19 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
34mm, mm, 15.09g
g
wileyc
sb1818_40b_32mm_13_96g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
32mm, 13.96g
wileyc
sb1813_orn_47_28mm8_81g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE12 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Ornamentation #47
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
28mm, 8.81g
Clipped
wileyc
sb1813_40b_30mm_14_59gjpg.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE22 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
orn-40b
30mm, 14.59g
wileyc
sb1813_29mm_1342g_.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE13 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
29mm, 13.42gg
wileyc
sb1818classA334mm914g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
34mm, 9.14g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA327mm1043g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
27mm, 10.43g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA330mm1013g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)7 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.13g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA330mm1097g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)10 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.97g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA36mm961g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)23 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
36mm, 9.61gg

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA328mm1126gjpg.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)26 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 11.26g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA329mm1017g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 10.17g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA330mm776g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 7.76g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA329mm1035g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 10.35g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA3f3230mm965g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
ornament cross, cross, cross, Ornamentation style F32
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.65gg


Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA3f4530mm1042g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)11 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
ornament type 45 forum
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.42g
Ornamentation style F45

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA#f14b28mm1079g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)6 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 10.79g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classAf4130mm930g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)9 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.30g
Ornamentation style F41

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA328mm894g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 8.94gg

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818_29mm8_41g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 8.41g
Ornamentation style unclear

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818_30mm984g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)14 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.84gg
Ornamentation style unclear
wileyc
sb1813_24a_28mm10_09g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 10.09g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
ART_Dukat_weight_Hungarian.JPG
Coin Weight for Hungarian Ducat (=aranyforint = gulden)224 viewsAE 13 mm x 14 mm x 1.5 mm; original weight 3.5 gr.

Withers, P. and B.R., "Lions, Ships & Angels: The Galata Guide to Identifying Coin-Weights Found in Britain" (1995 & 2nd ed. revised 2011), p. 29 (per the dealer's flip).

Obv: Crowned St. Lászlo (= Ladislaus) standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, flanked by H-D (= Hungaricus Ducatus), all in a beaded circle.

Rev: Blank.

The Hungarian aranyforint was struck in great quantities and circulated widely throughout Europe, so that they are found as far afield as England and Scotland. As many currencies circulated throughout Europe, coin weights were sold in boxed sets containing weights for a wide variety of coins that a merchant may encounter, together with a scale.

The obverse devise on this weight is similar to the medieval depiction of St. Lászlo which continuously appeared on the aranyforint from the reign of Lajos I (1342-1382) through the reign of Lajos II (1516-1526), and after the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohács, on the ayanyforints of János Szapolyai (1526-1540), but not on those of his Habsburg rival, Ferdinand I (1526-1564), or on those of the subsequent Habsburg kings of Hungary (the depiction of St. Lászlo on the Habsburg coins, and even on some of the later Jagiellon issues, was in a Renaissance style). The devise on the weight differs from that on the aranyforint primarily in that (a) St. Lászlo is holding a long cross rather than a halberd; and (b) St. Lászlo is not nimbate (although he is not consistently nimbate on the later Jagiellon issues and is not nimbate on the issues of János Szapolyai). The style of this weight suggests that it was manufactured pre- Mohács, and according to Withers, it was made in Germany during the 1400’s to 1500’s (Note: I am reliant upon the dealer’s flip for this information, as I have not been able to obtain Withers). However, a number of similarly styled coin weights issued by Antwerp masters who were active in the mid to late 1500’s (i.e., Bernaert Foncq (active 1550-1578), his son, Hans Foncq (active 1577-1603) and Rogier Verpoorten (active ca. 1580 and later)) indicates that the medieval St. Lászlo continued to appear on coin weights even after that style had become obsolete on the actual coins. presenting the possibility that this weight may have been manufactured post-Mohács.
1 commentsStkp
Commagene,_Kings,_Antiochos_IV__Epiphanes__A_D__38-72__BA_I_E___ME__ANTIOXO__E_I_KOMMA-_HNON_Q-001_0h_27,5-28mm_12,8ga-s.jpg
Commagene, Kings, Antiochos IV. Epiphanes, (38-72 A.D.), BMC 17-19., AE-28, KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion, R!147 viewsCommagene, Kings, Antiochos IV. Epiphanes, (38-72 A.D.), BMC 17-19., AE-28, KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion, R!
avers: - BAΣIΛEΩΣ ME ANTIOXOΣ EΠI, Diademed and draped bust right, anchor countermark on the neck.
revers: - KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion within wreath.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:27,5-28mm, weight:12,8g, axis:0h,
mint: Commagene, Kings, date:38-72A.D., ref: RPC 3854, BMC 6-7, SNG Cop 1, Sear Greek Imperial Coins 5507,
Q-001
quadrans
CSA_T8_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-08 1861 $50 (Front)15 viewsCuhaj, George S. Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Bust of George Washington center. Tellus seated at lower left.
Rev: Blank

Total issue was 123,564. Prior to producing this note, Hoyer & Ludwig used these same vignettes in a similar arrangement on a $ 1.50 note of May 1, 1861 printed for the Southern Manufacturers Bank in Richmond. Subsequently, the vignettes were again used, but in a transposed arrangement on State of Florida notes issued during the fall of 1861. This note is occasionally found stamped in green with a “C” inside an oval as illustrated. Its exact use is unknown. While several explanations have been advanced, none answer the question of “Why this issue only?” A small capital “P” in green also appears stamped on some of these notes, as well as Nos. 8 and 10. Varieties of this marking and others such as CST and GIC exist, which raises the question of whether they are contemporary markings by Confederate officials. In any case, the most commonly seen are notes stamped with a “C,” which increases the value approximately 15% to 20%, while those with “P” are worth an additional 25% or more. There are nine varieties of this note not including markings described above. These result from differences in plate letters (B, Bb, C), plain, thin or bond papers, and “For” written or printed. There is also a difference in the location of the oval frame of Washington’s portrait over the “5” — some 5s are more completely covered. This makes additional minor varieties.
SpongeBob
CSA_T41_Back.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-41 1862 $100 (Back)5 viewsCuhaj, George S. (2012-11-30). Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Slaves hoeing cotton. John C. Calhoun at left, Columbia at right. The central design is copied from the $ 50 note of 1861 (No. 1). The scrolls in the upper corners come in two different styles, vertical and horizontal. Black with “Hundred” in orange/ red.
Rev: Blank

Various written dates August 1862 to January 8, 1863. Plain and watermarked paper (CSA block, CSA script, J Whatman 1862, Hodgkinson & Co. Wookey Hole Mill). The J Whatman 1862 and Hodgkinson & Co. watermarks are scarcer. The scroll varieties are of approximately the same value.

Over 70 plate letter (W to Z), scroll, date and paper varieties. If frame line varieties are included, the number increases considerably. An example of the CSA block watermark shows through the back of the $ 100 note pictured below.

All of the $ 100 interest-bearing notes generally bear interest paid markings on the back, usually straight line type with or without a rectangular border. Prices are listed for this type. Markings of certain cities that are infrequently seen are worth somewhat more. Notes bearing postmarks on the back are worth double or more (Charleston, S.C. is the most common) while other circular depository markings raise value of notes up to 25%. Notes bearing Army or Navy markings on back are worth triple. Some notes bear no markings on reverse, but they command little over the listed prices. Notes with printed bogus backs, which are described in Part II of this catalog, are worth about double in nice condition. Thian gives a total of 670,400 notes of this type, a figure that appears to be greater than it should be for this type since it is somewhat scarcer than the train types, although all are common.
SpongeBob
CSA_T41_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-41 1862 $100 (Front)25 viewsCuhaj, George S. (2012-11-30). Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Slaves hoeing cotton. John C. Calhoun at left, Columbia at right. The central design is copied from the $ 50 note of 1861 (No. 1). The scrolls in the upper corners come in two different styles, vertical and horizontal. Black with “Hundred” in orange/ red.
Rev: Blank

Various written dates August 1862 to January 8, 1863. Plain and watermarked paper (CSA block, CSA script, J Whatman 1862, Hodgkinson & Co. Wookey Hole Mill). The J Whatman 1862 and Hodgkinson & Co. watermarks are scarcer. The scroll varieties are of approximately the same value.

Over 70 plate letter (W to Z), scroll, date and paper varieties. If frame line varieties are included, the number increases considerably. An example of the CSA block watermark shows through the back of the $ 100 note pictured below.

All of the $ 100 interest-bearing notes generally bear interest paid markings on the back, usually straight line type with or without a rectangular border. Prices are listed for this type. Markings of certain cities that are infrequently seen are worth somewhat more. Notes bearing postmarks on the back are worth double or more (Charleston, S.C. is the most common) while other circular depository markings raise value of notes up to 25%. Notes bearing Army or Navy markings on back are worth triple. Some notes bear no markings on reverse, but they command little over the listed prices. Notes with printed bogus backs, which are described in Part II of this catalog, are worth about double in nice condition. Thian gives a total of 670,400 notes of this type, a figure that appears to be greater than it should be for this type since it is somewhat scarcer than the train types, although all are common.
SpongeBob
CSA_T8_Back.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-8 1861 $50 (Back)6 viewsCuhaj, George S. Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Bust of George Washington center. Tellus seated at lower left.
Rev: Blank

Total issue was 123,564. Prior to producing this note, Hoyer & Ludwig used these same vignettes in a similar arrangement on a $ 1.50 note of May 1, 1861 printed for the Southern Manufacturers Bank in Richmond. Subsequently, the vignettes were again used, but in a transposed arrangement on State of Florida notes issued during the fall of 1861. This note is occasionally found stamped in green with a “C” inside an oval as illustrated. Its exact use is unknown. While several explanations have been advanced, none answer the question of “Why this issue only?” A small capital “P” in green also appears stamped on some of these notes, as well as Nos. 8 and 10. Varieties of this marking and others such as CST and GIC exist, which raises the question of whether they are contemporary markings by Confederate officials. In any case, the most commonly seen are notes stamped with a “C,” which increases the value approximately 15% to 20%, while those with “P” are worth an additional 25% or more. There are nine varieties of this note not including markings described above. These result from differences in plate letters (B, Bb, C), plain, thin or bond papers, and “For” written or printed. There is also a difference in the location of the oval frame of Washington’s portrait over the “5” — some 5s are more completely covered. This makes additional minor varieties.
SpongeBob
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
123.jpg
Countermark on Greek coin161 viewsI think that the coin is Kings of Bithynia Prusias I Cholos. 230-182 BC. Head of Apollo left, Nike Athena standing left. Countermarks looks like a Lyre and head of Apollo?
Joe Holderman
Arif Isik
31834q00.jpg
Crusaders, Latin Kings of Constantinople, 12 April 1204 - 25 July 1261 A.D.34 viewsBillon aspron trachy nomisma, Hendy Constantinople type A (small module), Constantinople mint . SBCV 2044
O : MR - QU, the Virgin facing, nimbate, holds nimbate head of Christ on breast
R : emperor standing facing, labarum in right, akakia in left
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
IMG_9987.JPG
Demetrios I Poliorketes8 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Demetrios I Poliorketes. 306-283 BC. Æ . Pella mint. Macedonian shield with monogram of Demetrios in central boss / Macedonian helmet. Newell 132; SNG Alpha Bank 969. ecoli
Demetrios_Poliorketes.jpg
Demetrios I Poliorketes (306-283 BC)15 viewsKings of Macedon. Demetrios I Poliorketes (306-283 BC). Ae Half Unit (11mm, 1.37g, 6h). Tarsos, c. 298-295. Obv: Male head r., wearing Corinthian helmet. Rev: Prow r.; aphlaston to l., BA above, monogram beneath (SNG Cop. 1192) ddwau
IMG_9263.JPG
Demetrios I Soter10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios I Soter. 162-150 BC. Serrate Æ Antioch mint. Laureate head of Apollo right, with bow and quiver over shoulder / Tripod. SC 1644; HGC 9, 821.ecoli
IMG_9986.JPG
Demetrios I Soter 2 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios I Soter. 162-150 BC. Serrate Æ. Antioch mint. Head of horse left / Head of elephant right. SC 1646; HGC 9, 833.
ecoli
IMG_9985.JPG
Demetrios I Soter 5 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios I Soter. 162-150 BC. Serrate Æ. Antioch mint. Head of horse left / Head of elephant right. SC 1646; HGC 9, 833.
ecoli
IMG_0004.JPG
Demetrios I Soter 5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios I Soter. 162-150 BC. Serrate Æ (20mm, 8.66 g, 6h). Antioch mint. Bust of Artemis right, wearing stephane, bow and quiver over shoulder / Bow and quiver. SC 1645; HGC 9, 826. VFecoli
IMG_9262.JPG
DemetriOs II Nikator 8 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios II Nikator. First reign, 146-138 BC. Æ. Uncertain mint 96 in Phoenicia or Koile Syria. Diademed head right / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; ΔI•I• below throne?. SC 1940; HGC 9, 994. Rare.ecoli
IMG_0002.JPG
Demetrios II Nikator 4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios II Nikator. Second reign, 129-125 BC. Æ (17mm, 5.33 g, 12h). Antioch mint. Struck 129-128 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm; Ξ to inner left. SC 2170.1a; HGC 9, 1133. ecoli
IMG_9256.JPG
Demetrios II Nikator. 6 viewsMmSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA.,Demetrios II Nikator. First reign 146/5-139 BC. Nisibis mint. Diademed head right with slight beard / Agathos Daimon and Agathe Tyche clasping hands; to inner left, H above E; Y between. SNG Spaer 1751; Houghton & Moore, "Five Seleucid Notes," ANSMN 33 (1988), 13; Houghton 1018ecoli
di.jpg
Demetrios III Eukairos21 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios III Eukairos. 97/6-88/7 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 15.87 g, 12h). Damaskos mint. Dated SE 224 (89/8 BC). Diademed head right, pellet on nose / Cult statue of Atargatis standing facing, flowers in hands, grain ears on shoulders; N above monogram to outer left, AIε (date) and monogram in exergue; all within wreath. SC 2451.11; HHV 98 (A23/P91); HGC 9, 1305; DCA 304. 1 commentsecoli
Graeco-Baktrian_Kings,_Demetrious_I_Aniketos,_Silver_Tetradrachm,_16_93g_35_mm.jpg
Demetrious Tetradrachm14 viewsmitresh
D3.jpg
Domitian RIC 0381 viewsAR Denarius, 3.13g
Rome mint, 81 AD
RIC 3 (R). BMC 2. RSC 554a.
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, triangular frame decorated with corn ears
Acquired from Museum Surplus, July 2013.

Here we have a rather worn denarius of Domitian which may at first glance appear unremarkable, however, to me it is anything but that. Minted within the first few days of Domitian's reign, the reverse type is a carry-over from Titus' 'pulvinar' series. The mint had yet to develop unique or new reverse types for Domitian. Here we see a triangular frame above a chair, which is its only appearance in Domitian's 'pulvinar' series making this a rather rare coin. The early dating of the type can be confirmed by the spartan-like reverse titles that show Domitian simply as Tribunica Potestat for the first time and Consul for the seventh. Domitian was notorious for his adherence to the correct form of his titles, as clearly evident here. He would not advertise any titles that had yet to be bestowed. The absence of PM or P P is glaringly apparent.

A nice little coin that provides a neat glimpse into the workings of a mint and the mind of a new emperor.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D573.jpg
Domitian RIC-57383 viewsAR Denarius, 3.32g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 573 (R2). BMC - . RSC - .
Obv: IMP•CAES DOMIT AVG GERMAN P M TR P VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP•XIIII COS•XIIII CENS•P•P•P; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield (M1)
Acquired from eBay, January 2018.

Very rare with 'GERMAN'. So rare in fact, Ian Carradice needed confirmation denarii existed with this spelling when he wrote Coinage and Finances In the Reign of Domitian in 1983. Since the publication of that work several examples have surfaced. The issue this denarius is from also features extremely rare aegis portraits. I think what we have here are the markings of a special issue, perhaps struck in conjunction with the Secular Games which were held the same year the special denarii were struck. The series also features many coins engraved in fine 'Flavian baroque' style, as clearly seen on this example.

Well centred and fine style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
Dora_pan.jpg
Dora, Phoenicia, 1st Century A.D.64 viewsBronze AE 22, (Rosenberger 19), Weight 10.015g, Max. diameter 21.3mm, Dora mint, 68 - 69 AD; Obv. bearded head of Doros right; Rev. ΔWPEITWN, Astarte, wearing turreted crown, holding standard and cornucopia, AΛP in left field; rare city. Dark brown and desert patina.
EX. Forvm Ancient Coins

Background info, courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Dora, on the coast eight miles north of Caesarea, was a Canaanite city. It fell to the Philistines early in the 12th century B.C. Solomon appointed the son of Abinadab as overseer of Dor (I Kings 4:11). In the Persian period Dor was a Sidonian colony. In Hellenistic times it was a Ptolemaic seaport and royal fortress, once besieged by Antiochus VII, (1 Macc. 15. 11-14). Under the Romans, Dora was a free city. See also Josh 11:2, 17:11; and Judg 1:27.
1 commentsSteve E
EB0092b_scaled.JPG
EB0092 Antiochos I / Apollo2 viewsKings of Syria, Antiochos II AR Tetradrachm. Seleukeia on the Tigris, 261-246.
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochos I.
Reverse: Apollo seated left, on omphalos, holding bow and arrow.
References: SC587.3, HGC 9, BMC 18.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 16.592g.
EB
EB0093b_scaled.JPG
EB0093 Antiochos III / Apollo3 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria. Antiochos III The Great AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, 222-210 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head right.
Reverse: Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow; Monograms in outer left field.
References: SC 1041.2; BMC 5.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 16.983g.
EB
EB0255b_scaled.JPG
EB0255 Domitian / Nike2 viewsJUDAEA, Herodian Kings, Agrippa II, DOMITIAN, AE 18, 81-96 AD.
Obverse: DOMITIANOC KAICAPE, laureate head of Domitian right.
Reverse: ETO IQ BA A GRIPP, Nike inscribing shield right.
References: SG 5590; Hendin 600.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 6.085g.
EB
EB0296b_scaled.JPG
EB0296 Herakles / Lion3 viewsKings of Galatia, Amyntas, AE 24mm, 36-25 BC.
Obverse: Head of bearded Herakles right, club behind.
Reverse: Lion prowling right.
References: Weber 7764 var; SNG Cop 96; BMC 9.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 11.677g.
EB
Ebana.jpg
Ebana65 viewsChristian kings of Aksum, Ebana

Obverse: Head and shoulders bust right, crowned with a tiara, in beaded circle. Greek legend: EB ANA.
Reverse: Central lozenge inlaid with gold, with four crosses attached to the extremities, forming a cross-crosslet with the letter of the legend interspersed between them. Greek legend: +BC+LC+IL+EY.
Date : circa CE 450
Reference : Cf. Munro-Hay (BMC) Type 74; Munro-Hay (1984) Ebana AR 1
Grade : F
Weight : 0.9 g
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 19/07/03
Comment: AR Unit,
1 commentsBolayi
Gordien III Edesse.jpg
Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) - Gordian III and Abgar X21 viewsThis coin is very worn, sorry.
[AVTOK. K. M. ANT. ΓOP]ΔIANOC [CEB.] , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right.
[AVTOK. ΓOPΔIANOC ABΓAPOC BACIΛEVC] , Gordian III seated right on chair set on platform facing Abgar X standing left and holding small nike.
Bronze, 31 mm.

Abgar X was king of Osrhoene and a close ally of the Romans when Gordian III led a military expedition against the Sassanid Persians in AD 242. With such a coin, minted in Edessa, the city of Abgar, we see the hierarchy of powers, who is enthroned, and who is standing in front of him waiting for orders. In fact, this coin reflects the feudal system in the Middle East at the time, and is closely paralleled by Parthian reliefs showing the King of Kings enthroned and a vassal king standing in front of him.

Bought in Amman (Jordan) just behind the Roman theatre.
Ginolerhino
Edward_I.png
Edward I AR Penny 27 viewsEngland, Plantagenet Kings
ND AR Penny Edward I
1272-1307 London
(19.1 mm 1.4 g)
Class III g, late “S”.
North 1022
Purchased from H. J. Berk May 15, 2017
1 commentsorfew
c30.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria42 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy II Philadelphos. 285-246 BC. Æ Alexandreia mint. Struck circa 260 BC. Deified head of Alexander the Great right, wearing elephant skin headdress / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt.ecoli
IMG_3095.JPG
Egypt, New Kingdom, 16th - 11th Century BC, Faience Scarab13 viewsEgypt, New Kingdom, 16th - 11th Century BC
Blue faience scarab measuring 27mm. Intact with a nice blue color, simple incised details, blank base.

ex. DeVries Collection. Carl DeVries (born 1921, died 2010), research associate and professor for the Oriental Institute, was a renowned collector of antiquities. Dr. DeVries attended Wheaton College in Illinois, earning his B.A. in 1942, M.A. in 1944 and B.D. in 1947. Because he lost an eye as a teenager he could not serve in the military during World War II. Wheaton recruited him as a 22-year-old to be head coach for track and football. Known as "The Kid Coach”, he served on the coaching staff from 1942 to 1952. He served as an instructor in Biblical archaeology at Wheaton from 1945 until 1952 before leaving to pursue his Ph.D. in archaeology from the University of Chicago, which he attained in 1960. As a member of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago he excavated in Egypt from 1950 to 1972 and served on many culturally important undertakings such as the Nubian Expedition and Aswan Dam Recovery Project. Many items in his collection were purchased in Luxor from Sayed Molattam, a noted antiquities dealer based in Luxor, where Devrie’s work with the Oriental Institute was based.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Elymais_07.jpg
Elymais, Van´t Haaff 10.4-2-4Ad, Uncertain King, irregular dashes23 viewsKingdom of Elymais
Uncertain early Arsacid king
Æ Drachm
Obv.: Bust of Kings left, pellet inside crescent above anchor with one crossbar right
Rev.: irregular dashes
AE, 3.89g, 15.2mm
Ref.: Van't Haaff Type 10.4 Subtype 2-4Ad
shanxi
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)24 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-4A; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.86 g., 16.19 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern frome forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_crude~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)22 viewsvan't Haaff 10.3.2-1 var. (pellet); de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 16.02 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of crude style facing left, with beard and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; cross-like form in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; pellet [?] to right of anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degraded legend around, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.msg697503;topicseen#msg697503 message 2/22/18)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-3_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)12 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-3; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.87 g., 16.68 mm. max., ?°

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, highly degenerated style.
Stkp
Graeco-Baktrian_Kings,_Eukratides_I,_Silver_Tetradrachm,_34_mm,_16_89g.jpg
Eukratides Tetradrachm13 viewsmitresh
FH-G-034_(0s).jpg
FH-G-03411 viewsSyria, Seleukid Kingdom; Antiochus (?); AR Drachm

- Draped bust right.

- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ANTIOXOY
- BASILEWS / ANTIOXOY
- Apollo Delphios seated left on omphalos, holding arrow & resting on bow.

3.40gm / 15.52mm / Axis: 315

Notes: Dec 8, 15 - The reverse legend of this crude little silver points to any one of the Antiochos', kings of the Seleukid Kingdom. Yet, to date, I can not find an example of such coin with a similar Obv. Bust (which I am assuming to be bust of Apollo or Artemis).
Jonathan P
w0359.jpg
Flower (clover leaf?) or three dots (?)169 viewsPersia, Achaimen. Kings, 475-420 B.C. AR-Siglos 13/18 mm, 5.72 gr. AV: The Great King kneeling right, shooting with bow. Round CM: Flower (clover leaf?) or three dots (?). RV: Oblong, incuse Punch. Collection: Mueller.Automan
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Gaius Julius Caesar203 viewsFebruary-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.90 g, 5h). Rome mint. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate and veiled head right / Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter; shield at base of scepter. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. From the Jörg Müller Collection.

Alföldi arranges Crawford 480 series coins in (44 BC) month order as follows:

RRC 480/1, Buca - January
RRC 480/2, DICT QVART - early February
RRC 480/3/4/5, CAESAR IMP - late February
RRC 480/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14, DICT PERPETVO - early to mid March
RRC 480/17/18, CAESAR IMPER - late March
RRC 480/19/20, PARENS PATRIAE - April
RRC 480/15/16, MARIDIANVS - April
RRC 480/21/22, CLEMENTIAE CAESARIS and Mark Antony - April

"Iconography, historical meaning:

The rev. can be understand easily: The Iulians ascribed their gens back to Aeneas who was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Anchises.Venus was the tutelary goddess of the gens Iulia and hence of Caesar. 46 BC Caesar has consecrated together with his new built forum also the temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of his gens. On this denarius with Victory, spear and shield it is rather Venus Victrix.

The portrait on obv. is imposing by its realistic depiction. It was for the first time that a living ruler was pictured on a Roman coin. This too raised suspicion that Caesar - even if he wasn't acclaimed king - would behave as such.

Caesar's portrait attracts attention by the wreath he is wearing. It protrudes notable wide beyond his forehead. Furthermore it is padded and very ragged. This characteristic received too little attention until now. There is every indication that it is not a usual wreath but a corona graminea, a Grass or Blockade crown. This crown was dedicated by the army to that commander who has freed them from an encirclement and saved them from certain death. The crown was composed from flowers and tuft of grass which was plucked at the location of their liberation. This crown was regarded as the highest of all crowns! Pliny (nat. 22, 6) has known only of 8 persons with this honour:
1. Lucius Siccius Dentatus, tribunus plebis 454 BC
2. Publius Decius Mus, 343 BC, 1st Samnite War, dedicated even by 2 armies!
3. Marcus Calpurnius Flamma, 258 BC, at Carmina on Sicily
4. Quintus Fabius Maximus, after the departure of the Carthaginians from Italy, 203 BC
(dedicated by the Senate and the people of Rome, possibly posthumous)
5. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
6. Gnaeus Petreius Atinas, centurio during the war against the Cimbri
7. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, during the Allied War at Nola 89 BC
8. Quintus Sertorius, 97 BC aa military tribune in Spain under Titu Ddius.
To Caesar and Augustus the crown was dedicated by the Senate!

The veil Caesar is wearing as Pontifex Maximus for lifetime.

DICTATOR PERPETVVS

During Republican times a dictator was designated when the state was in an emergency situation. His position was always temporally limited, yes, sometimes designated only for a single task. In the beginning Caesar too was dictator limited to 1 year and had to be designated again for the next year. Already 46 BC Caesar has been nominated dictator for 10 years but the title had to be renewed each year. So we know of coins with DICT, DICT ITER (= again, for the second time), IC TER (for the third time) and DICT QVART.

Since the proclamation as king has failed the title dictator disappeared from the denarii and were replaced by IMP. But soon behind Caesar's head appeares a star, a crescent, or Victory's spear stands on a star. These celestial signs - and that was understod by all - stand for divinity and should raise Caesar high above all Romans. Incompatible with the idea of a republican constituted Rome.

The point of culmination in this series is the legend DICT PERPETVO of this coin. Now the title of dictator was no more temporally limited but was valid like his office as Pontifex Maximus for all his life and it no more was necessary to confirm the title each year. That actually was a spectacular violation of the Roman constitution! The fact that he appeared at the Lupercalia on February 15. 44 BC in the ancient robe of kings strengthened the suspicion that he was looking for the kingship. In fact he has publicly
refused the royal crown that was offered to him by Marcus Antonius, but his authority to exert power was equal a king even without bearing the title of king. That was the most hateful title of the Roman Republic.

Now he has passed a line that his republican enimies couldn't tolerate any more if they still wanted to be taken seriously. So this coin actually led to his murder by the conspirators. So "The coin that kills Caesar" is by no means an exaggeration.

The planned Parthian War:

Caesar has planned a war against the Parthians. In March 44 BC he wanted to start for a campaign to the east. His assassination inhibited this intention. In science disputed are the goals which Caesar has had in mind with his war. They are reaching from a boundary adjustment, as Mommsen suggested, to world domination like Alexander the Great, as Plutarch is writing: According to him Caesar after the submission of the Parthians would go across Hyrcania at the Caspian Sea, then round the Black Sea via the Caucasus, invade the land of the Scyths, attack Germania and would finally return to Italy through the land of the Celts. In this way he would have conquered the world known to the Ancients and his limits were only the shores of the surrounding Okeanos.

Probably Sueton who was sitting directly at the sources was more realistic. And we know of the campaigns of Marcus Antonius and Augustus who surely have known Caesar's plans and have used them for their own purposes. It's clear that Caesar doesn't want to repeat the errors of Crassus who perished at Carrhae, and has tried to avoid he Parthian cavalry units. Therefore a route through Lesser Armenia is most probable. And there was hope that the Mesopotamian cities would raise against the Parthians. Caesar had gathered an army of 16(!) legions, a huge power that alone by its mere bigness would ensure the victory. Caesar was no gambler, rather a cautious and prudential commander.The famous "veni, vidi, vici" doesn't exist longer. What he actually had in mind we don't know. It's speculative. But there is every indication that it was a reorganisation of the east. And that rather by establishing client-kingdoms than creating new Roman provinces.

Probably the conspirators were afraid of Caesar's Parthian War, because a victory, which was possible or even probable, would have strengthen Caesar's position and has made him practically invulnerable." - Jochen
4 commentsNemonater
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_3.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan44 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_2.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan41 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_1.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan33 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_No_5.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan38 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.dpaul7
Bennett-179.jpg
Georgia: Giorgi IV Lasha (1208-1223) AE unit (Kap-66; Bennett-179)14 viewsObv: Design of six knots surrounding two-line central Mtavruli legend: ႢႨႻႤ / ႧႫႰႱႠ (Giorgi son of Tamar). Outside of knot design, circular Mtavruli legend: † ႱႾႤႪႨႧႠ ႶႧႠ ႨႵႬ ႽႤႣႠ ႥႺႾႪႱ ႠႫႱ ႵႩႱ ჃႪ († In the name of God, this coin was struck in the year 430 of the koronikon)

Rev: Central four-line Arabic inscription:

ملك الملوك (The King of kings,)
جلال الدنيا و الدين (Glory of the world and faith,)
كيوركى بن تامار (Giorgi, son of Tamar,)
حسام المسيح (sword of the Messiah)

Marginal Persian legend: بنام خداى پاك اين سيمرا زده اند بتاريح چهار صی وسی سال (In the name of God most pure, this coin was struck in the year 430)


The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 430 + 780 = March 22, 1210 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Lang-13.jpg
Georgia: Queen Rusudan (1223-1245) AE fals (Lang-13; Langlois-30)33 viewsObv: In center; Asomtavruli ႰႱႬ (RSN), standing for RuSudaNi, surmounted by the queen’s monogram being a part of the ornamental device. Surrounded by a linear border. Asomtavruli characters ႵႩႬჃႫႦ (K’KNUMZ, standing for the date formula K’oroniKoN UMZ, i.e. 447, which corresponds to 1227, the frozen date) are placed into the right, bottom and left compartments between the ornamental device and the linear border
Rev: name and titles of Rusudan in Arabic in four lines across field surrounded by a beaded or a linear border;

الملكة الملوك والملكات; Queen of Kings and Queens
جلال الدنيا والدين; Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
روسدان بنت تامار ظهير المسح; Rusudan, daughter of Tamar, Champion of the Messiah
عزالله انصاره; May God increase [her] victories

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Mxi5d8CSB6t4e6HEWT9csDW27yGAm3.jpg
Gotarzes II47 views(14.16 gm; 28 mm). Minted at Seleucia on the Tigris in month Apellaios, year 358 SE (AD. 46). Diademed bust left / Gotarzes seated right, receiving wreath from Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia; (year) above. Sellwood 65.8var.; Shore 361; Sunrise 416.

Upon the death of their father Artabanos III, Vardanes I (the principal heir) and Gotarzes II contested for the kingship. Vardanes was eventually successful, but was murdered shortly thereafter. Like his father, Gotarzes’ subsequent rule was primarily consumed with internal strife. Also like his father, his primary rivals were supported by Rome as well as some of the Iranian nobility. He was ultimately successful, but his rule accomplished little, as the constant strife continued the overall slow decline of the Parthian kingdom.
2 commentsThatParthianGuy
Gotarzes_II.jpg
Gotarzes II Tetradrachm83 viewsBust left, long pointed beard, no ear visible, O behind head

ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ
King enthroned right, receiving diadem from Tyche holding cornucopia, date above diadem

Seleukeia on the Tigris mint
Dated Seleukid Era 361 (49/50 AD)

Sellwood 65.25-27; Shore 362.

ex-Calgary Coin

"King of Kings Arsaces, bringer of plenty, the just, friend of the Greeks"

SOLD February 2015
2 commentsJay GT4
10383b.jpg
Greece, 100 Drachmai 1992, KM # 159.74 viewsGreece,
100 Drachmes, brass (29 mm / 10.00 g), 1992,
Obv.: EΛΛHNIKH ΔHMOKPATIA / 1992 - BEPΓINA / 100 / ΔPAXMEΣ , the Vergina sun or star of Vergina.
Rev.: MEΓAΣ AΛEΞANΔPOΣ / BAΣIΛEYΣ MAKEΔONΩN , diademed head of Alexander The Great with horn of Ammon right.
KM # 159.

The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. It was found in archaeological excavations in Vergina, in northern Greece, where it was discovered on a golden larnax found in 1977 in the tombs of the kings of the ancient kingdom of Macedon.
The significance of the Vergina Sun is unclear. Archaeologists do not agree whether the sun was a symbol of Macedon, an emblem of Philip's Argead dynasty, a religious symbol, or simply a decorative design.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vergina_Star

my ancient coin database
Arminius
alejandro2.jpg
GREEK61 viewsKings of Macedon. Alexander III "the Great".
AR Drachm. Sardes c.322-319 AD. Struck under Philip III. 4,35 grs. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus seated left holding eagle in right hand,scepter in left, bee above T I before. AΛΕΞANΔPOY behind.
Price 2626. ADM I .Series XIV 283-288.
Ex.Barry P.Murphy.
3 commentsbenito
IMG_0821.JPG
GREEK Lesbos Mytilene Lysimachos Tetradrachm43 viewsGREEK Thracian kings, Lysimachos (323-281) Tetradrachm (17,09g), Mytilene, ca. 294-290 Obverse Head of the deified Alexander III. With Diadem and Ammonshorn right. Reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena Nikephoros with lance on throne with shield left, in the inner l. Field monogram and lyra, in the section Δ. Thompson - (cf. 133), Müller - (cf. 403). Minimal double strike.
H.D. Rauch auction 97 lot 98, 2015.
2 commentsDiogenes
IMG_0831.JPG
GREEK Lydia Electrum Hemihekte13 viewsKINGS OF LYDIA. Time of Alyattes-Kroisos (Circa 610-546 BC). EL Hemihekte. Sardes.
Obv: Head of roaring lion right; star on forehead.
Rev: Incuse square punch.
Weidauer 90; Rosen 654; SNG Kayhan 1015. Some bankers' marks on the edge.
Weight: 1.20 g. Diameter: 7 mm.
Gitbud & Naumann Auction 38 lot 286 2015.
Diogenes
Graeco-Baktrian_Kings,_Demetrious_I_Aniketos,_Silver_Tetradrachm,_16_93g_35_mm~0.jpg
GREEK, Baktrian Kingdom, Demetrious I Aniketos - Tetradrachm195 viewsObv: Within a circular dotted border, Diademed and draped bust of Demetrios right, wearing elephant skin head dress.

Rev: Herakles standing facing, crowning himself, holding club and lion skin; PK monogram to inner left; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY (of King Demetrios) written in Greek on either side.

Bopearachchi Series 1C; SNG ANS 187; Mitchiner 103d; Qunduz 28-33; Sear 7526.


At 35mm and weighing nearly 17g, this specimen is one of the best extant examples with a huge flan size complete with dotted border.
4 commentsmitresh
Graeco-Baktrian_Kings,_Eukratides_I,_Silver_Tetradrachm,_34_mm,_16_89g~0.jpg
GREEK, Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides Megas - Tetradrachm166 viewsObv: Within a circular bead-and-reel border, Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull's horn and ear.

Rev: Dioskouroi on rearing horses right, holding palm fronds and spears; monogram in lower right field, Greek semi-circular legend on top "BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY" and at bottom "EYKPATIΔOY" meaning '(of) Great King Eucratides'.

Bopearachchi 6W, SNG ANS 469-471

The helmeted Eucratides tetradrachm is one of the most popular and sought-after coins of the Bactrian series. Certainly it boasts one of the best Hellenistic portrait of all times. Eukratides also minted the largest known Gold Coin of Antiquity, a massive 20 Stater coin weighing 169.2g with a huge flan size of 58mm. Perhaps it was a commemorative victory medal to celebrate Eucratides's conquest of "India," presumably some land south of the Hindu Kush, perhaps Gandhara.
4 commentsmitresh
FotorCreated~97.jpg
Greek, Cleopatra I, Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy 6th circa 180-176 BC Ae 2897 viewsHead of Cleopatra 1st as Isis. Rev eagle standing on thunderbolt left.
EX NFA
Grant H
Ptolemy_XII.jpg
GREEK, EGYPT, PTOLEMAIC, Ptolemy XII, 80-58 BC.48 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy XII, 80-58 BC.
AR Tetradrachm (14.28 gm; 24 mm).
Alexandria mint, year 8[74/3 BC].
Obv: Diademed head of Ptolemy right
Rev: Eagle on thunderbolt left. LH (Date) on left field; PA monogram on right.
Ref: BMC 6.118,13; S. 7945.
Nicely struck on a good metal. Choice Good VF. Very Pleasing Example.
1 commentsJorge C
azes_f.JPG
Greek, Indo-Scythian Kings, Azes II, Tetradrachm64 viewsIndo-Scythian Kings. Azes II. Ca. 35 B.C.-A.D. 5. AR Tetradrachm.

Obv: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Emperor on horse right.
Rev: Athena standing right with spear and shield.
1 commentsanthivs
Vlasto_634-47~0.jpg
GREEK, ITALY, CALABRIA, Taras, AR Nomos98 viewsCirca 315-302 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 8.04 g, 11h).

Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
1 commentsLeo
KINGS_of_THRACE__Lysimachos_(306-281_BC)__UNIQUE.jpg
Greek, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great 163 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Apparently unpublished; Thompson -, Müller -, SNG -, Armenak Hoard -, Black Sea Hoard - , et al. -, gVF, nice style, a few bump, small test cut in edge, Lysimachia(?) mint, weight 17.024g, maximum diameter 30.0mm, die axis 90o, c. 297 - 281 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left on prow-like throne, Nike crowning king's name in right, rests left arm on round shield behind, ΠA monogram over AP monogram left, lion head left in exergue; possibly unique;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins ' Shop.

We were unable to find another example with this combination of control symbols. Thompson lists the lion head and AP monogram control symbols for Lysimachia, but not together. The ΠA monogram is not listed for not for Lysimachia but is listed for other mints.

*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
greek61~0.jpg
GREEK, Kings of Syria, Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos)101 views(108-97 BC). Antioch mint.
Obv.: Diademed head right.
Rev.: Zeus seated, holding Nike and sceptre; PEA left, monogram below throne.
Houghton 346; SNG Spaer 2554.
1 commentsMinos
image19.jpg
GREEK, Lydia, Stater 20 viewsKings of Lydia
Double siglos / Stater
22x17mm
10.83gr
seaotter
Kings of Lydia.jpg
GREEK, Lydia, Time of Alyattes II, late 7th century BC, Electrum Third Stater152 viewsKINGS of LYDIA. Time of Alyattes II. Late 7th century BC. EL Third Stater - Trite (12mm, 4.76 g).
Obv:Head of roaring lion right, sun with four rays on forehead
Rev: Double incuse punch.
Weidauer 64; BMC Lydia p. 2, 2; Rosen 653. VF.
goldcoin
KINGS_of_THRACE__Lysimachos.jpg
Greek, Lysimachos, Unrecorded with the dolphin310 viewsKINGS of THRACE. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Drachm (18mm, 4.14 g, 5h). Kolophon mint. Struck 299/8-297/6 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, dolphin above forepart of lion left; torch below throne. Thompson -; Müller -; Price -. Good VF, lightly toned, minor marks, small flaw on edge. Unrecorded with the dolphin.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. ( CNG e- 296 , Lot 25)
9 commentsSam
Macedon_Large_AE.jpg
GREEK, Macedon, AE 2144 viewsKings of Macedon. Autonomous issue, time of Philip V - Perseus (c. 187-168 BC). AE21
Obv. Reed-wreathed head of river-god Strymon right.
Rev. MAKEΔONΩN, Trident.
Optimus
Kingdom_of_Macedonia__Alexander_III,_336_–_323_and_posthumous_issues_Tetradrachm,_Amphipolis_circa_318-317,_AR_8h_25,5-26,5mm,_17_26_g-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III (the Great), 323 - 317 B.C., Price 0111, AR-Tetradrachm, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on throne left, laurel branch in left field,354 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Alexander III, The Great, (323 - 317 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm, Price 111, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on throne left, laurel branch in left field,
avers:- No legends, Young Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck.
revers:- BAΣILEΩΣ-AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on throne left, right leg drawn back, holding eagle and scepter, laurel branch in left field.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: 25,5-26,5mm, weight: 17,26g, axes: 8 h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Alexander III, The Great, ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Antipater, circa 322-320 B.C.,
date: posthumous, c. 322 - c. 320 B.C., ref: Price 111,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Greek-xx022_Alexandros-III_Q-001_axis-10h_15mm_3,99g-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III (the Great), 323 - 317 B.C., Price 2247b, AR-Drachm, Zeus seated on throne left, griffin left, Rare! 274 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Alexander III, The Great, Ionia, Theos, West Asia Minor, (323 - 319 B.C.), Ar-Drachm, Price 2247b, Zeus seated on throne left, griffin left, Rare!
avers:- Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck,
revers:- AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, Zeus seated on throne left, right leg drawn back, holding eagle and scepter, griffin left;,
exerg: , diameter: 15mm, weight: 3,99g, axes: 10 h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Alexander III, The Great, Ionia, Theos, West Asia Minor, date: posthumous, c. 323 - c. 319 B.C., ref: Price 2247b,
Q-001
quadrans
9899LG~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AE15, Macedonian shield/helmet, Sardis100 viewsMacedonian Kings, Alexander III, The Great, 336-323 BC. AE 15mm (3.41 g). Sardis mint. Cf. Price 2614 (unlisted monogram)

Obv.: Macedonian shield with kerykeion.
Rev.: Macedonian helmet; in between, B-A, below, monogram; to the right, rose; to the left kerykeion
Steff V
alex_drachm.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AR Drachm, Babylon, c.324 - 323 B.C., Price 360463 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Drachm (16mm, 4.02 g, 8h). Babylon mint. Struck under Stamenes or Archon, circa 324/3 BC.
Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; M in left field, monogram below throne.
Price 3604.
chance v
price_3605.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AR Hemidrachm, Babylon, Price 360543 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III 'the Great' (336-323 BC). Hemidrachm. Babylon.
Obv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin.
Rev: AΛΕΞΑΔΡΟΥ.
Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre. Controls: monograms in left field and below throne.
Price 3605.Very fine 1.88 g.13 mm.
chance v
price_3620.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 362060 viewsKings of Macedon. Alexander III (336-323 BC). AR Tetradrachm (25 mm, 16.92 g), Babylon, 324/3 BC.
Obv. Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus seated left on high-backed throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and, in his right, eagle standing right with wings closed; below throne, monogram above M; in left field, bee.
Price 3620.
chance v
price_3623.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 3623 28 viewsThe Seleucid Kings, Alexander III, 336 – 323 Babylon Tetradrachm circa 325-323, AR 21mm., 17.05g.
Head of Herakles r., wearing lion skin. Rev. Zeus Aëtophoros seated l.; in left field, sickle(?) ; below throne, monogram and in exergue, M.
Price 3623.
chance v
price_3652.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 365265 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 26mm, 17.15 g 12), Babylon, c. 325-323.
Obv: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and, in his right, eagle standing right with closed wings; to left, kylix above M; below throne, monogram.
Price 3652
1 commentschance v
14006_2.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, Tetradrachm, Tarsos, Price 300051 viewsThis is supposed to be the first Alexander style issue. Kings of Macedon. Alexander III "the Great" 336-323 BC. Babylon 25mm., 17,35g.
Obv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress
Rev: Zeus Aëtophoros seated left holding sceptre; B below throne, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right.
Price 3000; Newell, Tarsos 4.
chance v
1040;).jpg
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Kassander - Antigonos II Gonatas41 viewsKINGS of MACEDON. temp. Kassander – Antigonos II Gonatas. Circa 310-275 BC. AR Drachm (18mm, 4.26 g, 12h). In the name and types of Alexander III. Uncertain mint in Macedon or Greece. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; aplustre in left field. Price 862A.
3 commentsIlya_VK
1_(2)~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Lysimachos (305-281 BC), AR Drachm, Thrace186 viewsKINGS of THRACE, Macedonian. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Drachm (19mm, 4.34 g, 1h). Ephesos mint. Struck 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; tripod to inner left, Greek Z in exergue. Thompson 170 var. (monogram); Müller –; CNG 75, lot 114 corr. = Gorny & Mosch 152, lot 1287 (same obv. die); Numismatica Genevensis SA VII, lot 165 = Gorny & Mosch 155, lot 59. Superb EF, toned.

This issue parallels Thompson 170, which has the tripod to the inner left and a monogram on the throne or in exergue. For a drachm of the present variety, with the Greek Z on the throne, see CNG E-199, lot 98 (struck from the same die as the present coin).
1 commentsLeo
Alexander_The_Great__KINGS_of_THRACE,_Macedonian__Lysimachos__305-281_BC__AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Lysimachos [unlisted rev. die]462 viewsKINGS of THRACE, Macedonian. Lysimachos. 305-281 BC. AR Tetradrachm (28mm, 16.83 g, 1h). Alexandreia Troas mint. Struck circa 297/6-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, transverse spear in background BAΣIΛEΩΣ , ΛYΣIMAXOY ; monogram to inner left, ligate ΘE on throne. Meadows, Earliest 22 (A13/R– [unlisted rev. die]); Thompson 161; Müller –; SNG Berry 438 (same obv. die). Good VF, toned, some porosity, a few minor marks under tone. Rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
12 commentsSam
FotorCreated~21.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Lysimachos, AR Tetradrachm circa 305-281 BC 29mm 17.15g 9h59 viewsPella mint struck 286/5-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right with horn of Ammon. Rev Athena Nikephoros seated left,left arm resting on shield with lions head in center,spear in background with point facing down,to inner left monogram in circle above arm,monogram below.Nike crowning Kings name with wreath left.
ex CNG esale 366 lot 407,ex Bowers & Ruddy 6-9-80 lot 99,ex A.Hess Nachf {157} 18 March 1918,ex Joseph Hamburger {7} 17 June 1908 lot 414, ex Hirsch {14} 1905 lot 270.
Grant H
worselysimachos.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Lysimachos, AR Tetradrachm, 297-281B.C.30 viewsKings of Thrace, Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Lampsakos, circa 297-281 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander the Great right, wearing horn of Ammon / Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting left elbow on shield, spear resting to her right; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΞΟΥ crowned by Nike to left, monogram in inner left field, crescent in exergue. Thompson 49; SNG Copenhagen 1097. 16.65g, 30mm, 1h.chance v
Greece,_Kings_of_Thrace,_Lysimachos,_305-281_BC,_Silver_Drachm,_19mm,_4_05g,_Lampsakos_mint.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Lysimachos, Drachm, Thrace78 viewsGreece, Kings of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305-281 BC, Silver Drachm, 19mm, 4.05g, Lampsakos mint1 commentsmitresh
Philipp-V_Kings_of_Macedon_Q-001_axis-h_17mm_4,31g-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian kingdom, Perseus, (187-168 B.C.), AE-17, Uncertain Macedonian mint, 299 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Perseus, (179-168 B.C.) AE-17, Uncertain Macedonian mint,
avers:- Macedonian shield with spiral on boss.,
revers:- BAE/ Harpa / Monogram * X,
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 4,31g, axes: -h,
mint: Macedon, Uncertain Macedonian mint, date: 179-168 B.C., ref: SNG COP. 1281. (???),
Q-001
quadrans
KINGS_of_MACEDON__Perseus___Greek-AE-20_KINGS_of_MACEDON__Perseus__179-168_BC__SNG_Copenhagen_1275_179-168_BC__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_5,38g-s.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Perseus, (187-168 B.C.), SNG Cop 1275var., AE-19.215 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Perseus, (179-168 B.C.), AE-19, SNG Cop 1275 var, Eagle, #1
avers:- Head of hero Perseus right, wearing petasos surmounted by griffin's head; harpę over shoulder.
revers:- B-A above eagle standing facing on thunderbolt, head right, Π-E across fields, star in exergue.
exerg: Π/E//*, diameter: 19mm, weight: 5,38g, axes: 11h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, "Perseus/eagle", date: 179-168 B.C., ref: SNG Copenhagen 1275 var.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
gx8-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian kingdom, Perseus, (187-168 B.C.), SNG Cop 1276var., AE-19.175 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Perseus, (179-168 B.C.), AE-19, SNG Cop 1276 var
avers:- Head of hero Perseus right, wearing petasos surmounted by griffin's head; harpa to right.
revers:- B-A above eagle standing facing on thunderbolt, head right, Π-E across fields,.
exerg: Π/E//*, diameter: 19mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, "Perseus/eagle", date: 179-168 B.C., ref: SNG Copenhagen 1276 var.,
Q-001
quadrans
Greek_Q-051_axis-5h_21,5mm_7,97g-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian kingdom, Perseus, (187-168 B.C.), SNG Cop 1307, AE-21, Uncertain Macedonian mint. 195 viewsPerseus, Macedonia, Kings, (187-168 B.C.), SNG Cop 1307, AE-21, Uncertain Macedonian mint.
avers:- Laureate head of Zeus right,
revers:- MAKEΔONΩN above and beneath winged thunderbolt,
exerg: -/-//--, diameter:21,5 mm, weight: 7,97g, axes:5 h,
mint: Uncertain Macedonian mint, date: 187-168 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 1307, Touratsoglou, Macedonia 14;
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
11.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III - Lysimachos. Circa 323-280 BC. AR Drachm13 viewsKings of Macedon - Philip III – Lysimachos. Circa 323-280 BC. AR Drachm (16mm, 4.25 g). In the name and types of Alexander III. Uncertain mint in western Asia Minor. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; downward facing shell in left field. Price 2752.gapalp
gx10-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V (221-179 B.C.), SNG Cop 1250, AE-21, Pella mint, Two goats kneeling right,209 viewsPhilip V., Macedonia, Kings, (221-179 B.C.), SNG Cop 1250, AE-21, Pella mint, Two goats kneeling right,
avers:- Head of young Herakles right, clad in lion's skin.
revers:-Two goats kneeling right side by side, BA above, Φ below.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21 mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philippos V., Pella mint, date: 221-179 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 1250,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
PHILIPPOS_V__Greek-AE-20_221-179-BC__Q-001_axis-8h_18mm_6,40g-s.jpg
Greek, Macedonian kingdom, Philip V, (221-179 B.C.), SNG Munich 1167 , AE-21, Horseman right,184 viewsMacedonia, Kings, Philippos V, (221-179 B.C.), AE-21, SNG Munich 1167, Horseman right,
avers: Head of Herakles right,
revers: B - A at top left and right, horseman right, raising right arm in greeting, on horse prancing right, Φ-I at below left and right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 6,40g, axes: 8h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philippos V., date: 221-179 B.C., ref: AMNG 7; SNG Munich 1167.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
pyrrhos2.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Pyrrhos484 viewsKings of Macedon Pyrrhos 278-276BC. AE Litra (23mm). Syracuse mint.
Head of Phthia left., veiled with acanthus; Rev. winged thunderbolt &
legend 'of King Pyrrhou'. Rare, finest style. EF+
4 commentsalexB
Greece,_Mysia,_Pergamum,_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm,_12_57g,_28mm,_166-67_BC,_issued_76_BC.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm78 viewsGreece, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm, 12.57g, 28mm, 166-67 BC, issued 76 BC

Obv: Cista Mystica containing serpent escaping, all within an ivy wreath.

Rev: Bow case between 2 serpents. Pergamon monogram at left. Snake entwined Asklepian staff at right. "AP" above.

Near the West coast of present day Turkey, Pergamon, in the province of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thrace and north western Asia. After the battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents. Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria. At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria. But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.

Pergamon first issued this coin under Eumenes II, who likely required a new currency after the treaty with Apameia in 188 BC expanded his economic and political territory. The new coinage is the first time a king’s portrait and name are omitted from Hellenistic currency. The cistophori (basket bearers) were the chief currency in Asia Minor for about 300 years. Originally introduced by king Eumenes II of Pergamon around 166 BCE, the obverse of these coins shows a cista mystica, i.e., a woven basket containing the sacred objects of a mystery cult. In the case of the cistophori, the basket contains snakes associated with the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine and ecstasy. In the Dionysian mysteries a serpent, representing the god, was carried in a box called a cista on a bed of vine leaves. This may be the Cista mentioned by Clement of Alexandria which was exhibited as containing the phallus of Dionysus. The depiction on this famous type is what gives the coin its name - the Cistophorus. It was one of the most widely minted coin types in the ancient world. It seems that the Asian Greek states in what is now Turkey minted this coin in unison from around 150 BC. Some scholars believe this was undertaken for the common good, so traders could be confident in a coin of uniform weight and value, representing the collective wealth of Asian Greekdom.

The ivy wreath and the thyrsos staff on the reverse are also references to this god whom the Attalid kings of Pergamon claimed as their ancestor. The bow case (gorytos) on the reverse points to Herakles, the father of Telephos, the legendary founder and first king of Pergamon. Taken together, the obverse and reverse scenes appear to capture allegorical acts one and two of the Dionysian Cista fertility mythology in progress.

When the last Attalid king, Attalos III, died in 133 BCE, he left his entire kingdom to the Roman people. At the same time, his last will declared Pergamon and the other important cities of his realm "free cities", which meant that they did not have to pay tribute to Rome. Not surprisingly, Pergamon and the other cities continued to mint cistophori in grateful tribute to their former ruler. The city of Pergamum continued issue of cistophoric tetradrachm for eight decades after the city was willed to Rome in 133 BC.

1 cistophor equaled 3 Attic drachms, the currency of Athens, which had become the world's key currency during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Later, 1 cistophor was equivalent to 3 Roman denarii. Because they were so easy to convert into the key currencies, 16 Anatolian towns soon minted cistophors, forming a kind of monetary union. When Pergamum became Roman about 133 BC, the Romans continued to mint cistophors.

Under the Attalids, Pergamon was not only the capital of an empire that soon stretched over most of Asia Minor, but also the seat of the second most famous library of the ancient world with more than 200,000 book rolls. When the kings of Egypt, the Ptolemies, whose capital, Alexandria, boasted the only comparable library, cut off Pergamene access to papyrus, the most important writing material, the Pergamenes invented pergamentum, i.e., parchment or vellum made from animal skins.

Today, the city is called Bergama and belongs to Turkey.
mitresh
greek36.jpg
GREEK, Paeonia, Lykkeios AR Tetradrachm148 viewsKings of Paeonia, Lykkeios (359-335 BC)
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev.: Herakles strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver to lower right.
AMNG III/2, 8; Paeonian Hoard 63; SNG ANS 1019 (all from same obv. die).
2 commentsMinos
KINGS_of_PERGAMON__Attalos_I_to_Eumenes_II__241-159_BC.jpg
Greek, Philetairos, Kings of Pergamon, Attalos I to Eumenes II.458 viewsKINGS of PERGAMON. Attalos I to Eumenes II. 241-159 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29mm, 16.70 g, 12h). Struck circa 225/15-189/8. Laureate head of Philetairos right / Athena seated left, with spear at side, supporting shield with right hand and resting left elbow on small statuette on sphinx; ivy leaf above knee, bow to outer right, A on throne. Westermark Group III, dies V.XXIX/R?; SNG France 1609 (same obv. die). XF, porous. CNG auction.

Photo and Description , courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Sam Mansourati Collection / EX CNG
7 commentsSam
newer_ptolemy.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter, AR Tetradrachm, c.300-285 B.C.53 viewsPtolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy I Soter AR Tetradrachm. Alexandreia, circa 300-285 BC.
Diademed head right, wearing aegis around neck, small Δ behind ear / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, P above monogram.
Svoronos 265; SNG Copenhagen 73;
14.31g, 26mm, 1h.
1 commentschance v
ptolemy.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy I, AR Tetradrachm, 305-282 B.C.58 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT. Ptolemy I Soter. 305-282 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 14.21 g, 12h). Alexandria mint. Struck circa 300-285 BC.
Diademed head right, wearing aegis; small Δ behind ear / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; to left, P above monogram.
Svoronos 256; Noeske 29.
chance v
FotorCreated~96.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy XII, Ptolemy 12th Neos Dionysos {Auletes} restored 55-51 BC78 viewsAlexandreia mint dated RY 28 {54-3} Diademed head of Ptolemy right wearing aegis. Rev eagle standing left on thunderbolt LKH date and headdress of Isis in left field.
Nicknamed Auletes the flute player .
Grant H
ptolemy2~0.jpg
Greek, Ptolemy II Philadelphus AR Tetradrachm119 viewsObverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I Soter
Reverse: Eagle with folded wings standing on thunderbolts. PTOLEMAIOY SOTHROS; Regnal Year 31 (255/54 BC) of Ptolemy II (285-246 BC) Monograms and control marks of the Gaza mint in the fields

Many of the portraits of Ptolemy Soter (the Savior) are little more than caricatures on the tetradrachms that are commonly for sale. Perhaps after engraving the same features for centuries the man behind the image became lost. I think this coin portrait has great quality and I imagine it looks a lot like the original Ptolemy I although cut about thirty years after his death. Ptolemy I may have been regarded as the George Washington of his day and the the notion of "father of his country" is exemplified in this portrait.
It is ironic that his patron, Alexander, overthrew the Persian God-Kings and was a major factor in preserving the role of the individual in Western values. Ptolemy's dynasty generally followed the Egyptian model with family members succeeding family members for over two centuries rather than the highly competitive and dynamic model that shaped Western politics and history.

Gaza mint; Svoronos 828; wt 13.7 gm
daverino
antiochos_iv.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos IV, AR Tetradrachm, 168-164 B.C.46 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria, Antiochos IV Epiphanes AR Tetradrachm. Antioch, 168-164 BC.
Obv: Diademed head right.
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΘEOY EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKEΦOPOY, Zeus Nikephoros seated left.
SC 1397a; Le Rider, Antioche 194-195; HGC 9, 619. 16.62g, 30mm, 1h.
chance v
Newer_Price_3704.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos i Nikator, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 370442 viewsThe Seleucid Kings, Seleucus I Nicator, 312- 281 BC Babylon Tetradrachm circa 317-311, AR 26.5mm., 17.10g.
Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin.
Reverse: Zeus Aëtophoros seated l.; in l. field, monogram in wreath and below throne, H.
SC 82.6. Price 3704.
Naville 24 lot 169
chance v
Price_3746.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 374644 viewsThe Seleucid Kings, Seleucus I Nicator, 312- 281 BC Babylon Tetradrachm circa 311-300, AR 26.5mm., 17.08g.
Obv: Head of Herakles r., wearing lion skin.
Rev. Zeus Aëtophoros seated l.; in l. field, monogram within wreath, below throne MI.
SC 82.5a. Price 3746.
Naville 24 lot 172
chance v
seleucos.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, AR Tetradrachm, Seleucia on Tigris, 312-281 BC50 viewsThe Seleucid Kings, Seleucus I Nicator, 312- 281 Seleucia on the Tigris Tetradrachm circa 300, AR 28mm., 16.86g.
Obv:Head of Heracles r. wearing lion's skin headdress.
Rev. Zeus seated l. on throne holding sceptre and Nike who reaches r. to crown him.
Seleucid Coins 119.1. ESM 13.
Naville auc 16 lot 60
chance v
price_3759.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I, AR Tetradrachm, Babylon, Price 375981 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria, Seleukos I Nikator AR Tetradrachm. In the name and types of Alexander. Babylon, circa 311-305 BC.
Obv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Rev: Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, holding sceptre; MI above lion's head left in left field, monogram in wreath below throne, BAΣIΛEΩΣ below, AΛEΞANΔPOY to right.
SC 82.3c; Price 3759; Müller 743. 17.09g, 26mm, 11h.
Roma auc XII lot 383
2 commentschance v
antiochusI.jpg
GREEK, Seleukids Antiochus I20 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 17.27 g, 6h). Ekbatana mint. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios seated left; monograms to inner left; at feet, forepart of horse grazing left. SC 409.2c; HGC 9, 128h.arash p
Syria,_Seleucid_Kings__Antiochos_VII_Euergetes.jpg
GREEK, Syria, Antiochos VII Euergetes, AR Tetradrachm26 viewsTetradrachm 16,45g 30mm. Cappadocian mint 138-129BC.
SMA 298 Spaer 1872.
Karsten K
antiochos_VIIIa-tile.jpg
GREEK, Syria, Seleukid Kings. Antiochos VIII. First Reign.21 viewsSyria, Seleukid Kings. Antiochos VIII. First Reign. 121-113 BC. AR Tetradrachm
Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Zeus Oranios standing left, holding star and
sceptre; IE/A to left, N to right.
Karsten K
KINGS_of_THRACE_Lysimachos.jpg
GREEK, THRACE, Lysimachos Drachm (305-281 BC )143 viewsAR Drachm (17mm, 4.18 g, 8h). Ephesos mint. Struck circa 294-287 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon / Athena Nikephoros seated left, left arm resting on shield, spear behind; lyre to inner left, A on throne. Thompson 174; Müller 355. XF. Drachms of this type are Rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection
4 commentsSam
panti1.png
GREEK, Thrace, Tauric Chersonesos, Pantikapaion, 2nd - 1st Century B.C19 viewsBronze AE 14, SNG Stancomb 579, SNG Cop 55, BMC Thrace p. 9, 41, VF, weight 2.6 g, maximum diameter 13 mm, die axis 90o, Pantikapaion mint, obverse head of Pan right; reverse ΠΑΝΤ, pilei (caps) of the Dioscuri, each with a star above

Panticapaeum (Kerch, Ukraine) was an important city and port in Tauric Chersonesos on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 5th century B.C. it became the capital of the Thracian kings of Bosporus. The last of the kings of Bosporus left it to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. He commited suicide at Panticapaeum in 63 B.C. after his defeat to Rome. In that same year, the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake.
superflex
panti2.jpg
GREEK, Thrace, Tauric Chersonesos,, c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C15 viewsBronze AE 14, aVF, weight 2.4 g, maximum diameter 13 mm, Pantikapaion mint.

Panticapaeum (Kerch, Ukraine) was an important city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonesos) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 5th - 4th centuries B.C., the city was the residence of the Thracian kings of Bosporus. The last of these kings, left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. He commited suicide at Panticapaeum in 63 B.C. after his defeat to Rome. In that same year, the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake.
superflex
D6.jpg
Gros tournois of Philip IV, King of France35 viewsObverse:
+PHILIPPVS REX in the inner circle. BENEDICTV:SIT:NOMEN:DNI:NRI:DEI:REXPI, outer circle, cross in the center

Reverse:
TRONVS CIVIS, tournois in the center

Diameter: 25mm

Notes:
Philip IV le Bel ("The Fair") ruled France from 1268 until 1314 AD. In league with the current Pope, Philip oversaw the arrest, torture, and execution of hundreds of Knights Templar.
He challenged Pope Bonifice VIII and suppressed the wealthy and powerful Knights Templar with the support of 'his' captive pope, Clement V. As he was being burned, Jacques de Molay, KT, cursed both Clement and Philip. Clement died within a month and Philip within the year. Horne's characterization: he "prove(d) one of France's most unpleasant and disastrous kings, leaving in his wake catastrophe for the country and misery in Paris. Under him a new depth of savagery manifested itself in the life of Paris, a dark retreat from the enlightenment of Sugur and Philippe Auguste."
Xerxes King of Kings
harthacnut.jpg
Harthacnut48 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of Denmark 1035-1042 and England 1040-1042
Moneyer: Toci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170, Hbg 28 (var.)
Hauberg 28
O: NARÐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
w2016.jpg
Head to right189 viewsMacedonia, Kings. Philip II or Alexander III., 356 - 323 B.C. AR-Drachm. 17 mm, 3.73 grs. AV: Head of Herakles with lionskin. CM: Head to right. RV: Enthroned Zeus to left with scepter and holding eagle. Collection: Mueller.1 commentsAutoman
AntipasHalfUnit.jpg
Herod Antipas Half Unit83 viewsHERODIANS. Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE). Tiberias Mint, Æ half denomination, 19.4mm, 5.3 g.
O: TIBE PIAC in two lines within wreath.
R: HPΩΔOY TETPAPXOY (Herod Tetrarch), vertical palm branch, L to left, ΛZ to right, (RY 37 = 33/34 CE)
Hendin-1212 in GBC 5; ex. Hendin; ex. Teddy Kollek Collection; Menorah Coin Project ANT 15, Die 02/R12; Sear certificate.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was brought up in Rome with his brother Archelaus.

In Herod’s will, Antipas had been named to receive the kingship, but Herod changed his will, naming Archelaus instead. Antipas contested the will before Augustus Caesar, who upheld Archelaus’ claim but divided the kingdom, giving Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea. “Tetrarch,” meaning ‘ruler over one fourth’ of a province, was a term applied to a minor district ruler or territorial prince.

Antipas married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But on one of his trips to Rome, Antipas visited his half brother Herod Philip, the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II (not Philip the tetrarch). While visiting, he became infatuated with Philip’s wife Herodias, who was quite the ambitious woman. He took her back to Galilee and married her, divorcing Aretas’ daughter and sending her back home. This insulting action brought war. Aretas invaded and Antipas suffered major losses before receiving orders from Rome for Aretas to stop.

According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.

It was Herod Antipas’ adulterous relationship with Herodias that brought reproof from John the Baptizer. John was correct in reproving Antipas, because Antipas was nominally a Jew and professedly under the Law. This would lead to John's murder being schemed during a celebration of Antipas' birthday.

On the last day of Jesus’ earthly life, when he was brought before Pontius Pilate and Pilate heard that Jesus was a Galilean, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas who happened to be in Jerusalem. Herod, disappointed in Jesus, discredited him and made fun of him, then sent him back to Pilate, who was the superior authority as far as Rome was concerned. Pilate and Herod had been enemies, possibly because of certain accusations that Herod had leveled against Pilate. But this move on Pilate’s part pleased Herod and they became friends.
Nemonater
Hiempsal.jpg
Hiempsal II - Horse galloping87 viewsObverse: Veiled head of Demeter r., wreathed with corn
Reverse: Free running horse r., Punic H below, palm tree behind
Date : c. 106-60 BC
Reference : Mazzard-81, Muller-48
Weight : 6.87g
Acquired: 29/04/04

Comments : AE 20, Hiempsal II. was the son of Gauda, the half-brother of Jugurtha. In 88 B.C., after the triumph of Sulla, when the younger Marius fled from Rome to Africa, Hiempsal received him with apparent friendliness, his real intention being to detain him as a prisoner. Marius discovered this intention in time and made good his escape with the assistance of the kings daughter. In 81 Hiempsal was driven from his throne by the Numidians themselves, or by Hiarbas, ruler of part of the kingdom, supported by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian party in Africa. Soon afterwards Pompey was sent to Africa by Sulla to reinstate Hiempsal, wh
1 commentsBolayi
CrusadeHughIII.jpg
Hugh III12 viewsKing of Jerusalem (1268 - 1284 CE)
King of Cyprus (1267 - 1284 CE)

Obverse: hVGVG REI DE
Cross pattee.

Reverse: IRL M: ED ChIPR
Lion rampant, left.

*It is supposed that Thomas Aquinas' work On Kingship was written for Hugh III.
Pericles J2
HUNG_STEPHEN_II_DENAR_3_CROSSES.jpg
HUNGARY - Stephen II41 viewsHUNGARY - Stephen II (1116-1131) AR Denar. Obv.: Between 3 crosses: Backwards S - S over wedges; above 2 hald-moondsd and each side TE - TE. Rev.: Around - markings; cross with 4 wedges in angles. Reference: Huszar #47 - Unger #37.dpaul7
Huszár-72.jpg
Hungary: Belá III (1172-1196) Follis (Huszár-72, Unger-114)39 viewsObv: SANCTA—MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.
Rev: REX BELA on left, REX STS on right; Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.
SpongeBob
HUN_Bela_III_Huszar_72.JPG
Huszár 72; Toth-Kiss 16.5 var. sigla 0.1/1; Unger 114; Réthy I 98-100; Frynas H.15.24; Adamovszky A223 ff.112 viewsHungary. Béla III (1172-1196)

AE denomination unknown (average: 2.88 g., 22.5-27.5 mm.), 3.10 g., 26.41 mm. max., 270°

Obv (concave): REX BELA (on left, running counterclockwise)-REX STS (on right, running clockwise), Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.

Rev (convex): SANCTA-MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.

Struck in Esztergom. Struck 1172-1182 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative).

Note: “The financially unsuccessful attempt at minting copper coins was carried out exactly as its prototype, the Byzantine coppers. On these copper coins the stiff representation of the two royal figures recalls Byzantine icons, and the symmetry prevailing in the design creates a favorable impression. This direct adoption of the Byzantine model, as well as the whole attempt at coining copper money, may be ascribed to the fact that King Béla III spent a long period of time at the Byzantine court” (Huszár 1963, at 9-10).

Huszár rarity 1, Toth-Kiss rarity 20, Unger rarity 8, Frynas rarity C. Unrecorded variety with unusual ELA in BELA and retrograde first S in STS, as confirmed by József Géza Kiss via personal email communication on December 14, 2018.
Stkp
gK887yBNJ5yf2pbGN9coaH4TJcP6TK.jpg
In the name of ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Silver drachm.6 viewsKINGS OF MECEDON AR DRACHM. time of PHILIP III
4.2 GR & 17,21 MM
KINGS of MACEDON. Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. In the name of Alexander III. Kolophon mint. Struck under Menander or Kleitos, circa 322-319 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, fish upwards; spear-head in right field. Price 1762.
Antonivs Protti
DSC02034.JPG
INDIA - Panchala Kingdom - HALF Karshapana - INDIRAMITRA - RARE COIN - 4.25gm10 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01547.JPG
INDIA - Panchala Kingdom - HALF Karshapana - INDIRAMITRA - RARE COIN - 4.95gm11 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01899.JPG
INDIA - Panchala Kingdom - Quarter Karshapana - INDIRAMITRA - RARE COIN - 2.78gm10 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal, within an archway
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 2.78 gm.
Diameter 13 mm.
Die axis 12 o'clock
Reference MAC 4541, Shrimali Type B
Comments
The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

The quarter karshapanas seem to be scarcer than the halves.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.

See legend below: I ndra mi tra sa
Antonivs Protti
Chandragupta_II,_Gold_Dinar,_7_75g,_Archer_type.jpg
India, Gupta Empire, Chandragupta II, Gold Dinar, Archer Type77 viewsGupta Empire, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Gold Dinar, 7.75g, Archer type

The above coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is a celebration of the exquisite and sublime skills of the artist who designed the die for this coin which demonstrates why the Gupta Age is called the golden period of Indian history. This time period saw all round development in science, astronomy, poetry, sculptor, metallurgy etc and coinage was no different with original coins bearing Indian motifs introduced by the Guptas.

The above coin is more of a tribute to the skills and artistry of the die engraver than the image that the coin itself bears. In the above coin, the die cutter has managed to achieve the following objectives simultaneously:

1. The features of the King is portrayed as extremely youthful. 'Chir-Yauvana' or Eternal Youth is an elixir that mankind, and more so the Ruler, has sought since time immemorial. This coin shows how the die cutter wishes the King to be remembered amongst his subjects and for posterity as a handsome youthful King.

2. The body of the King is lithe, supple, muscular and well proportioned. This complements and brings out the relative youthfulness of the King. I can almost visualize the thoughts running in the die engravers mind as he thinks of the message to be conveyed by this coin 'Hail the King, Glory be to Him, our benevolent King, our Protector, the Strong and Valiant Chandragupta'.

3. The King exudes an aura of energy, vigour and vitality even as he stands in the 'dvibhanga' pose (head and torso inclined to the right with lower limbs in opposite direction, a common feature applied in Indian sculptor and classical dance, especially Odissi). The King appears calm, composed and serene. This is a delicate balance that has admirably been achieved by the die cutter. You can actually sense the King trying to communicate with you and about to step out of the coin to hold your hand and draw you back into time.

4. The King holding a Bow in his left arm while drawing an Arrow from his right hand only accentuates the powerful image of the King as a young, energetic warrior who is well disposed and endowed with the bodily strength to overcome his enemies and detractors. Symbolically, the bow and arrow represent the female and male energy as also love and death-wish, respectively. It is well acknowledged that a person has manifestations of both the feminine and masculine aspects that reveal themselves interchangeably. The soft features of the King together with his slender frame accentuates the feminine aspect while the weapons of war amplifies his masculinity. The die engraver has blended these two concepts perfectly.

5. The swaying 'mudra' or pose of the standing King is a feature of Gupta coins to reflect the King as divine and higher than a mere mortal as a man's body is imperfect being straight, rigid and stiff. The graceful sway is achieved by giving a curve or twist at the neck (head) and waist (out thrust hips), the Dvibhanga pose, or the neck, waist and knee, the Tribhanga pose. This is done to reflect that the King's body is aligned alike to the statues of the Gods and Goddesses at the temple with which the common man can more closely associate the King's divinity. The die cutter has achieved this admirably.

6. Similarly, the image of the Goddess on the Reverse is slim and sensual without being erotic. The Goddess holds a flower by a short stalk in her upraised left arm, a 'pasa' or noose in her right hand and sits in the yogic 'Padmasana' posture atop a Lotus. It must be remembered that these symbols on the coin are a depiction of the iconographic manifestation of the ancient Hindu philosophy. The Lotus flower blooms amidst the muck and filth of muddy swamps and marshes and symbolizes man's ability to rise, similar to the Lotus flower, from the dark depths of ignorance and gain happiness with the beauty and radiance of spiritual knowledge. The open flowers of the Lotus that blossoms and spreads out signifies the Sun, an essential life nourishing source as well as the light that destroys ignorance and illuminates wisdom. The 'pasa' (noose or lasso) signifies an attachment to worldly matters as well as the capability of the God to capture evil and (blind) ignorance.

Its a pity we do not have any details of the die engravers name in the historical records but given the finesse and fine style achieved in executing the portrayal of the King on the coin, I am certain he must have been a person held in high esteem for his die engraving skills. Perhaps he may even have been the same person who was also the chief architect of the fabulous temples built during the reign of Gupta Kings.

All in all, this is a great masterpiece of the Gupta miniature art on a Gold Coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. It is my all time favourite coin simply because of the beautiful rendition of the Kings feature, body, posture and message it seeks to convey.
2 commentsmitresh
azes_k~0.jpg
INDIA, Indo-Scythian Kings. Azes I.9 viewsAR Drachm, 2.1g, 15mm, 3h. Ca 57-30 BC.
Obv.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY; Emperor on horseback right, holding whip and raising right hand, bow on his back. Karosthi letter in right field.
Rev.: MAHARAJASA RAJARAJASA MAHATASA AYASA; Zeus standing left, holding long scepter and Nike, monograms in right and left fields.
Reference: Senior type 105, 17-23-35
John Anthony
azes_k.jpg
INDIA, Indo-Scythian Kings. Azes I. Ca 57-30 BC16 viewsAR Drachm, 2.3g, 15mm, 11h.
Obv.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY; Emperor on horseback right, holding whip and raising right hand, bow on his back. Karosthi letter in right field.
Rev.: MAHARAJASA RAJARAJASA MAHATASA AYASA; Zeus standing left, holding long scepter and Nike, monograms in right and left fields.
Notes: Aleg
1 commentsJohn Anthony
azes_2_k.jpg
INDIA, Indo-Scythian Kings. Azes I. Ca 57-30 BC 5 viewsAR Drachm, 2.0g, 15mm, 9h.
Obv.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY; Emperor on horseback right, holding whip and raising right hand, bow on his back. Karosthi letter in right field.
Rev.: MAHARAJASA RAJARAJASA MAHATASA AYASA; Zeus standing left, holding long scepter and Nike, monograms in right and left fields.
John Anthony
Kushan_Empire,_Huviska,_152-192_AD,_Gold_Dinar,_8_02g.jpg
INDIA, Kushan-Huviska-MIIPO59 viewsIndia, Kushan Empire, Huviska, ca 152-192 AD, Gold Dinar, 8.02g, MIIPO (Mithra) or Sun God type

Obv: King's bust left emerging from clouds, nimbate, holding sceptre and mace, wearing ornamental conical pointed cap, circular Bactrian legend around: þao nano þao oohþki Koþano (King of Kings, Huvishka the Kushan).

Rev: Mithra standing facing left, radiate, left hand at hip holding sword and granting blessing, Legend at right: MIIPO, Kanishka tamgha at left below right arm.

Very Rare and Unpublished: see Göbl 281 for obverse, Göbl 137.1 for reverse.

Exceptionally fine style, perfectly centred on a large flan, mint state with lustre. Note the King’s fine facial features, clothes and ornaments.
mitresh
Kushan,_Kanishka_I,_Gold_Dinar,_7_96g_20mm,_MIIPO_(Mithra).jpg
INDIA, Kushan-Kanishka-MIIPO62 viewsKushan, Kanishka I, Gold Dinar, 7.96g, 20mm, MIIPO (Mithra) or Sun God type

Obv: Kanishka standing, wearing a flat cap, clad in heavy Kushan coat and long boots, sword at waist, flames emanating from shoulders, holding standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar with right hand holding what looks like a shortened elephant goad. Kushan-language legend in Greek script (with the addition of the Kushan Ϸ "sh" letter): ϷΑΟ ΝΑΝΟ ϷΑΟ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ ΚΟϷΑΝΟ ("Shao nano shao Kanishki Koshano"):"King of Kings, Kanishka the Kushan". The legend starts circular from the left at 7 'o' clock (near the kings right feet), breaks at 12 'o' clock and continues at 1 'o' clock ending at the kings left feet at 5 'o' clock.

Rev: Deity MIIPO ie Mithra, radiate and nimbate, holding club in left hand with right hand extended, and wearing a thin transparent gown, kushan tamgha to the left, all within a circular dotted border. Mithra (or Mithras) is the Zoroastrian divinity (yazata) of covenant and oath. In addition to being the divinity of contracts, Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing protector of Truth, and the guardian of cattle, the harvest and of The Waters. Also associated with Sun God.
1 commentsmitresh
bnagas.jpg
INDIA, Naga kings 600 - 700 A.D. cash.14 viewsIndia. Naga kings 600 - 700 A.D. cash.
Humped bull left / inscription or design.
oneill6217
jujih.jpg
INDIA, Naga kings. Copper cash c. 4th Century A.D. Bull / design.8 viewsoneill6217
India_Punchmark_Silver.JPG
India: Mauryan Dynasty Punchmark Silver, c.320-270 BC20 viewsKings: Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 BC) and Bindusara (298-273 BC)

Obverse: Symbols of a sun, a six armed figure, a bull with a royal standard above its back, a three arched hill with a crescent on top and a square fish tank with four fish in it.

Reverse: Banker's marks

3.4 grams, 14.4 x 13.0 mm

G&H No.533 , Series VIa, type VI II D 22

Reference: Ancient Indian Silver Punchmarked Coins of the Maghada-Maurya Karshapana Series by Gupta and Hardaker (1985).

Special thanks to Forvm Members Manzikert and PeterD for their generous help with identifying this piece.
SPQR Matt
coin393.JPG
Indo-Greek Kings of Bactria, Menander23 viewsIndo-Greek Kings of Bactria, Menander, 160-145 BC, Square AE16 (2.76gm), Pushkalavati. Rare.

O: BASILEWS SWTEROS MENANDROU. Head of Pallas r., wearing plumed helmet. R: Karosthi legend. Maharajasa tratarasa Menadrasa. Nike adv. r., holding wreath and palm; Pushkalavati monogram below. Cf. MA 1821-1823 (but dichalkon). VF, glossy dark green patina. G22

ecoli
Azes_I.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azes I (58-12 BCE)14 viewsMetal/Size: AR 24 mm; Weight: 9.6 grams; Denomination: Tetradrachm; Mint: Uncertain Mint in Western Gandhara Region; Date: 58-15 BCE; Obverse: King on horseback riding right, wearing cataphractus and holding whip or according to Hoover an elephant goad - 'BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MAΓAΛOΥ AZOΥ' (King of Kings Azes the Great). Reverse: Diademed Zeus standing right holding scepter and making benediction gesture, monogram left, Kharosthi letter "SI"- 'Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayasa' (in Kharosthi). References: Hoover #638; ISCH 2 #99T; Mitchiner, vol. 6, p. 54, type.museumguy
Azes_1.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azes I (58-12 BCE)9 viewsMetal/Size: AR 15 mm; Weight: 2.37 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Uncertain Mint in Western Gandhara Region; Date: 58-15 BCE; Obverse: King on horseback riding right, wearing cataphractus and holding whip or according to Hoover an elephant goad - 'BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MAΓAΛOΥ AZOΥ' (King of Kings Azes the Great). Reverse: Zeus Nikephoros standing left, holding Nike and scepter - Kharoshthi letter dhram right. References: Senior #105var.museumguy
Azes.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azes I (58-12 BCE)11 viewsMetal/Size: AR 15 mm; Weight: 2.19 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Uncertain Mint in Western Gandhara Region; Date: 58-12 BCE; Obverse: King on horseback riding right, wearing cataphractus and holding whip or according to Hoover an elephant goad - 'BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MAΓAΛOΥ AZOΥ' (King of Kings Azes the Great) - Kharoshthi letter to right. Reverse: Zeus Nikephoros standing left, holding Nike and scepter - Kharoshthi symbols to left and right. References: Senior #105var.museumguy
Indo-Scythian.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azes I (58-12 BCE)9 viewsMetal/Size: AR 23 mm; Weight: 9.6 grams; Denomination: Tetradrachm; Mint: Uncertain Mint in Western Gandhara Region; Date: Probably struck under Vijayamitra c. 12 BC to AD 15; Obverse: King on horseback riding right, wearing cataphractus and holding elephant goad - 'BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MAΓAΛOΥ AZOΥ' (King of Kings Azes the Great). Reverse: Kharoshthi letters surround (Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatmas Ayasa (of Great King, King of Kings Azes the Great) - Pallas Athena standing right holding spear and shield and making benediction gesture. Nandipada and Kharoshthi letter to left. Monogram to right. Legends generally corrupt. References: Hoover P. 253, #716; ISCH 2. 175.10-405T; Senior #98v; MIG #847d.museumguy
Azilises.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azilises I (57-35 BCE)9 viewsMetal/Size: AE 23.14 x 23.01 mm; Weight: 9.1 grams; Denomination: Unknown; Mint: Uncertain Mint in the Paropamisadai or Gandhara Region; Date: 57-35 BCE; Obverse: Armored Scythian king on horseback right with lowered spear. Kharoshthi letter to right - "King of Kings Azilises the Great". Reverse: Herakles seated left on rock; monograms to left. "Great King, King of Kings, Azilises the Great" in Kharoshthi script. References: Hoover #593?, p. 220; ISCH 2 #59.1, 59.2 and 59.5.museumguy
Azilises~0.jpg
Indo-Scythian - Azilises I (57-35 BCE)5 viewsMetal/Size: AR 17 mm; Weight: 1.9 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Uncertain Mint in the Paropamisadai or Western Gandhara Region; Date: 57-35 BCE; Obverse: Armored Scythian king on horseback right with lowered spear. Kharoshthi letter to right - "King of Kings Azilises the Great". Reverse: In Kharoshthi (Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayalishasa) - "of Great King, King of Kings Azilises the Great" - Goddess standing left holding lotus and filleted palm branch - monogram to left - Kharoshthi letter to left and/or right. References: Hoover #568, p. 215; ISCH 2 #59.1, 59.2 and 59.5 2, 52T and 56T.museumguy
Indo-Scythian_Kings__Azes_I_,_(57-35_BC_)_AR_Tetradracm,_Mitchiner_VI,__,_Q-001,_3h,_23-25mm,_9,67g-s.jpg
Indo-Scythian Kings, Azes I, (57-35 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm, Mitchiner VI, ???, Athena holding spear and shield, #149 viewsIndo-Scythian Kings, Azes I, (57-35 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm, Mitchiner VI, ???, Athena holding spear and shield, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY (Greek legend "of the Great King of Kings Azes"), Azes I. in military dress, on a horse, holding whip and spear.
reverse: Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, monogram at left and right, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa / ayasa.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23,0-25,0mm, weight: 9,67g, axes: 3h,
mint: Azes I, date: 57-35 B.C., ref: Mitchiner VI, ???,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Indo-Scythian_Kings__Azes_II_,_(35_BC-5_AD_)_AR_Tetradracm,Taxila_Sirsukh,_Mitchiner_VI,_S__573,_867a_,_Q-001,_5h,_22mm,_9,77g-s.jpg
Indo-Scythian Kings, Azes II, (35 B.C.-5 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, Mitchiner VI, S. 573, Typ 867a., Athena holding spear and shield, #1135 viewsIndo-Scythian Kings, Azes II, (35 B.C.-5 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, Mitchiner VI, S. 573, Typ 867a., Athena holding spear and shield, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZOY (Greek legend "of the Great King of Kings Azes"), Azes II. in military dress, on a horse, holding whip and spear.
reverse: Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, monogram at left and right, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa / ayasa.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 9,773g, axes: 5h,
mint: Azes II, Taxila, Sirsukh, date: 35B.C.-5A.D., ref: Mitchiner VI, S. 5739, Typ 867a., HGC12 #716, MIG ???, Sen ???,
Probably struck under Vijayamitra c. 12 B.C.-A.D. 15.
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Indo-Scythian_Kings__Azilizes,_(57-35_BC_)_AR_Drachm,_Hazara,_King,_Athena,_Mitchiner_VI,_S__519,_Typ_806a__Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17mm,_2,33g-s.jpg
Indo-Scythian Kings, Azilises, (57-35 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Mitchiner VI, S. 519, Typ 806a., Athena holding spear and shield, #1130 viewsIndo-Scythian Kings, Azilises, (57-35 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Mitchiner VI, S. 519, Typ 806a., Athena holding spear and shield, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / AZIΛICOY (Greek legend "of the Great King of Kings Azilises"), Azilises in military dress, on a horse, with a couched spear.
reverse: Athena holding spear and shield, monogram at left and right, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa / ayilishasa.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,0mm, weight: 2,33g, axes: 0h,
mint: Azilizes, Hazara, date: 57-35 B.C., ref: Mitchiner VI, S. 519, Typ 806a., HGC12 #578., MIG ???, Sen ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Indo-Scythian_Kings__Vonones,_associated_with_Spalahores__Circa_100-90_BC__AR_Tetradr,_Bannu_mint,MIG_681b,_Q-001,_0h,_24,5mm,_9,67g-s.jpg
Indo-Scythian Kings, Vonones, associated with Spalahores, (cc. 100-90 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm, MIG 681b, Zeus standing facing with thunderbolt, #1160 viewsIndo-Scythian Kings, Vonones, associated with Spalahores, (cc. 100-90 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm, MIG 681b, Zeus standing facing with thunderbolt, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY / ONΩNOY (Greek legend), King on horseback riding right, in cataphractus and carrying a whip and lowered spear.
revers: Zeus standing facing, holding sceptre and thunderbolt, monogram at right, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajabhrata dhramikasa / spalahorasa.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5mm, weight: 9,7g, axes: 0h,
mint: Vonones, Bannu mint, date: cc. 100-90 B.C., ref: MIG 681b, Sen 65.3T,
Q-001
"This coin names Vonones on the obverse and Spalahores on the reverse. It is highly unusual in that the Greek and Kharoshthi legends are not translations of one another. While the Greek legend proclaims King Vonones the Great, King of Kings, the Kharoshthi on the reverse says: "of Spalahores, the king's brother, the just.""
1 commentsquadrans
azes_k~1.jpg
Indo-Scythian Kings. Azes I, c. 57-12 BC.12 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 23mm, 9.8g, 3h.
Obv.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOΥ / AZOΥ; King on horseback right, holding spear; Karosthi letter ba in right field.
Rev.: MAHARAJASA RAJARAJASA MAHATASA AYASA, in Karosthi; Zeus Nikephoros standing left; monogram in left field, monogram and Karosthi letter ba in right field.
Reference: cf. Senior type 105ff. / 17-103-76
John Anthony
Indo-Scythian_Azes_ca__58-20_BC_AR_Drachm_MA_2412.JPG
INDO-SCYTHIANS - Azes I19 viewsINDO-SCYTHIANS - Azes I (c. 60-20 B.C.) AR Drachm. Obv: Azes I in military dress, on a horse, with couched spear. Greek legend: BASILEOS BASILEON MEGALOU AZOU "of the Great King of Kings Azes". Rev.: Zeus or Pallas standing left.dpaul7
IndoSkythians_AzesI_MIG856-857.jpg
Indo-Skythians, Azes.8 viewsIndo-Skythians, Azes. 58-12 BC. Three AR Drachma (gm: a. 2.33 b. 2.28 c. 2.23). Armored king on horseback r. holding elephant goad. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩN ΜEΓAΛOY AZOY. Karosthi letter to r. a.ʅ b.ƿ c.ψ. / Zeus Nikephorus stdg l. w/ Nike on arm, holding sceptre. Karosthi legend Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayasa (of Great King, King of Kings Azes the Great). ↑󰁤-Hʒ, ↘M-ʒ, ←M-ƒ. VF. HGC 655 C; MIG 856, 857a, 857.Christian T
IndoSkythians_AzesI_MIG846d.jpg
Indo-Skythians, Azes.7 viewsIndo-Skythians, Azes. 58-12 BC. AR Tetradrachm (9.37 gm). Armored king on horseback r. holding elephant goad. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩN ΜEΓAΛOY AZOY. / Athena stdg r. holding spear & shield, making gesture of benediction. Karosti legend Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayasa (of Great King, King of Kings Azes the Great). VF. ISCH 2, 98T; HGC 637 C; MIG 846d.Christian T
IndoSkythians_Maues_MIG699.jpg
Indo-Skythians, Maues.7 viewsIndo-Skythians, Maues. 125-85 BC AR Tetradrachm (9.43 gm). Zeus-Mithras stdg l. w/ scepter, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩN ΜEΓAΛOY MAYOY / Winged Nike standing r, holding filleted palm branch and wreath. Monogram r. Karosti legend Rajadirajasa mahatasa Moasa (of Great King of Kings Maues). VF. ISCH2, 1T; MIG 699; HGC 524 C; cf CNG 54 #1039.Christian T
IndoSkythians_AzesI_MIG749e.jpg
Indo-Skythians. Azes7 viewsIndo-Skythians, Azes. 58-12 BC. AR Tetradrachm (9.6 gm). Armored king on horseback r. holding elephant goad. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩN ΜEΓAΛOY AZOY / Radiate Zeus-Mithra stdg holding thunderbolt and scepter. Karosti legend Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayasa (of Great King, King of Kings Azes the Great). aEF. Pegasi 125 #160. Mitchener ACW 2226, MIG 749e; HGC 626 R2.Christian T
3340093.jpg
IONIA, Phokaia.38 viewsThe ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.

According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.

Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Emporiae and Rhoda in Spain, and especially Massalia (Marseille) in France.

Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560–545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[8] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict.

Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.

In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC. However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter.

After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. The Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC.

In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete.

During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip.

It was later under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship; Zaccaria and his descendants amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there, especially the rich alum mines. It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemidrachm (9mm, 1.54 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock 2116; SNG Kayhan 512-6. VF, dark toning.
ecoli
ag_1.JPG
Ionia, uncertain49 viewsPeríod of the Artemisión found.
Late 7th century BC.
Electrum 1/24 Stater - 0.49g
Obv.: Convex globular surface.
Rev.: Rectangular incuse punch.

Other than the literary tradition ascribing the origin of coinage to the kings of Lydia, there is little evidence for a more exact chronology of early Greek coinage. The tradition, buttressed by limited archaeological studies, does confirm Asia Minor as the place of origin, most likely Lydia or Ionia, and a date somewhere around 650 BC. The alloy used, a mixture of gold and silver known to the Greeks as elektron was based on the natural ore found in nugget form in many river-beds in the region. The earliest coins were of a globular shape and without design in imitation of this natural form; later, simple striated and punched patterns of squares, rectangles and swastikas were included.
Ricardo Veltri
020_17_2.jpg
Iran, Naqsh-e-Rostam, Fars Province32 viewsOn a steep rock face just a few miles north of Persepolis lies the necropolis of the Achaemenid kings consisting of the tombs of Dareios I and three of his successors (the fourth tomb is around the corner). Some time after this picture was taken, the sandy hill in front of the rock was removed so that one could see the Sasanian rock reliefs between and below the tombs from a distance.
Schatz
Ireland_James_II_Gunmoney_Half_Crown_June_1690_img.jpg
Ireland, James II, Gunmoney Coinage, Halfcrown, June 1690 2 viewsObv:- JACOBVS•II•DEI GRATIA, Laureate head left
Rev:- MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX, Crown over scepters dividing JR, value XXX above, 1690 above, June below

Cogadh an Dá Rí or The War of the Two Kings (1689-91)

Part of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.
maridvnvm
Shah_Jahan,_Nazrana_Gold_Mohur,_10_88g,_22mm,_Akbarabad_mint,_AH_1052,_RY_15.jpg
ISLAMIC, India, Mughals, Shah Jahan, Nazrana Mohur63 viewsMughal Empire, Shihab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan( AH 1037-1068 / AD 1628-1658), Gold Mohur, 24 mm, 10.88g, Akbarabad mint, AH 1052 (AD 1642), RY 15, Quatrefoil type

Reference: Lane-Poole 547; KM 258.1

Obverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Kalima. Margins: bi-sudq Abu Bakr / wa 'adl 'Umar / bi-azram 'Uthman / wa 'ilm 'Ali (name and attributes of the Four Caliphs - Ali, Usman, Omar and Abu Bakr)

Reverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Badshah Ghazi Shah Jahan 1052 / 15. Margins: Shihab ud-din / Muhammad Sahib / Qiran Sani / Zarb Akbarabad. (The title 'Badshah or Padshah' is a Persian title meaning Great King (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while 'Ghazi' means an Islamic warrior. 'Sahib Qiran Sani' means the splendid or guiding light, as 'Qiran' in Urdu means light and 'Sani' means brilliant or bright. 'Sahib' means lord, master or owner. 'Zarb' means mint.

Shah Jahan ascended the throne following the death of his father, Jahangir in AH 1037 (1627 AD). He maintained the fine numismatic tradition of his father but did not introduce any innovation. Shah Jahan concentrated more on the grandeur, design and architecture of monuments and fine buildings, Taj Mahal being the most well known.

Akbarabad was a name given to the city, and Mughal capital, of Agra by Shah Jahan in honour of his grandfather Akbar. This changeover of name happened in RY2/3 of Shah Jahan's reign.

The featured coin depicts fine calligraphy within a perfectly centred Quatrefoil (Obv/Rev) and alongside the margins. The complete die impression with legends is fully visible on the broad flan. A well struck specimen befitting its status as a Nazrana or presentation coin from the builder of one of the present wonders of the world.
1 commentsmitresh
Alfonso 8 gold~0.jpg
Islamic, Spain, Alfonso VIII of Castille & Leon80 viewsAlfonso VIII of Castille and Leon led a coalition of Christian Kings and foreign crusaders to defeat the Muslim Alhomads at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in 1212.

This coin is unusual in that it combines Arabic writing and the Cross.
1 commentsgoldcoin
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model.jpg
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model58 viewsA circus designates a circle or course for chariot racing. Aside from the Circus Maximus, the largest and oldest, there were three other circuses in Rome: the Circus Flaminius (221 BC), which actually was not a circus at all but a public square; the Circus Gaii et Neronis (circa AD 40), where many of the Christian martyrdoms occurred and on which St. Peter's basilica was built (the obelisk brought to Rome by Caligula to adorn its spina still stands in the square); and the Circus Maxentius (AD 309), built as part of his villa on the Via Appia and the best preserved.

In this view, the starting gates are in the foreground, with the royal box dominating the viewing standing on the left" or "and the royal box dominating the viewing stands on the left. The palace overlooks the Circus from the Palatine Hill.

The Circus Maximus was another public entertainment center, and was just a single, specific facility in Rome. The Maximus was used mostly for chariot racing. It could seat 250,000 people! There were other circuses in ancient Rome.

This oval basin, nearly 600 meters long, is almost entirely filled in with dirt. It was once a race track. It was made in the time of the Etruscan kings (presumably Tarquinio Prisco). Augustus adorned the brick structure with an imperial stage, which was rebuilt by Trajan, enlarged by Caracalla and restored by Constantine. During the reign of Constantine, the Circus could hold more than 200,000 spectators. Today only the outline remains (the area it occupied is now a public garden).


The most popular events were the chariot races held in the Circus Maximus, an arena that held up to 300,000 spectators. Competing teams with brightly decorated horses attracted fierce loyalty, and up to a dozen four-horse chariots crowded together through the dangerous turns, lap after lap. Successful charioteers became so wealthy that even emperors envied their riches.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 134 viewsCircus Maximus
The Circus Maximus is an ancient arena and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.

Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills the location was first utilised for public games and entertainment by the Etruscan kings of Rome. Certainly, the first games of the Ludi Romani (Roman Games) were staged on the location by Tarquinius Priscus, the first Etruscan ruler of Rome. Somewhat later, the Circus was the site of public games and festivals influenced by the Greeks in the 2nd century BC. Meeting the demands of the Roman citizenry for mass public entertainment on a lavish scale, Julius Caesar expanded the Circus around 50 BC, after which the track measured approximately 600 metres in length, 225 metres in breadth and could accommodate an estimated 150,000 seated spectators (many more, perhaps an equal number again, could view the games by standing, crowding and lining the adjoining hills). Later, Titus Flavius built the Arch of Titus above the closed end, on the Forum Romanum, while the emperor Domitian connected his new palace on the Palatine to the Circus in order that he could more easily view the races. The emperor Trajan later added another 5000 seats and expanded the emperor's seating in order to increase his public visibility during the games.

The most important event at the Circus was chariot racing. The track could hold 12 chariots, and the two sides of the track were separated by a raised median termed the spina. Statues of various gods were set up on the spina, and Augustus erected an Egyptian obelisk on it as well. At either end of the spina was a turning post, the meta, around which chariots made dangerous turns at speed. One end of the track extended further back than the other, to allow the chariots to line up to begin the race. Here there were starting gates, or carceres, which staggered the chariots so that each travelled the same distance to the first turn.

Very little now remains of the Circus, except for the now grass-covered racing track and the spina. Some of the starting gates remain, but most of the seating has disappeared, the materials no doubt employed for building other structures in medieval Rome. This obelisk was removed in the 16th century by Pope Sixtus V and placed in the Piazza del Popolo. Excavation of the site began in the 19th century, followed by a partial restoration, but there are yet to be any truly comprehensive excavations conducted within its grounds.

The Circus Maximus retained the honour of being the first and largest circus in Rome, but it was not the only example: other Roman circuses included the Circus Flaminius (in which the Ludi Plebeii were held) and the Circus of Maxentius.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 viewsPantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely intact and which has been in continuous use throughout its history.

History
The original Pantheon was built in 27 BC under the Roman Republic, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building. The inscription reads M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this."

In fact, Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80, and the Pantheon was completely rebuilt in about AD 125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed, with the text of the original inscription (referring to Agrippa) added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome.

Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who travelled widely in the east and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a sort of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names.

In AD 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints (Santa Maria ad Martyres), which title it retains.

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. The only loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored several times.

During the reign of Pope Urban VIII, the Pope ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Chamber for various other works. (It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating the baldachin above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[1]) This led to the Latin proverb, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini" ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [family name of Urban VIII] did").

Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi and two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Vittorio Emanuele's Queen, Margharita.

Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon. This has aroused protests from time to time from republicans, but the Catholic authorities allow the practice to continue, although the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage [2] is in charge of the security and maintenance. The Pantheon is still a church and Masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly for weddings.

Structure
The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (8 in the first rank and 16 in total) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), open to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same (43 metres), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could house a sphere 43 metres in diameter). The dome is the largest surviving from antiquity, and was the largest dome in western Europe until Brunelleschi's dome of the Duomo of Florence was completed in 1436.

It may well be noted that the proportions of the building are in discord with respect to the classical ideal. Most evident is the rather large pediment, which appears far too "heavy" for the columns supporting it. The reason for this was the expectation that the building would be much taller than it actually is, which would effect larger columns. However, by the time the pediment was built, it was realised that the proposed height was unrealistic, and so the builders had to settle with a building somewhat out of proportion.

The composition of the Roman concrete used in the dome remains a mystery. An unreinforced dome in these proportions made of modern concrete would hardly stand the load of its own weight, since concrete has very low tensile strength, yet the Pantheon has stood for centuries. It is known from Roman sources that their concrete is made up of a pasty hydrate lime; pozzolanic ash from a nearby volcano; and fist-sized pieces of rock. In this, it is very similar to modern concrete. The high tensile strength appears to come from the way the concrete was applied in very small amounts and then was tamped down to remove excess water at all stages. This appears to have prevented the air bubbles that normally form in concrete as the material dries, thus increasing its strength enormously.

As the best preserved example of monumental Roman architecture, the Pantheon was enormously influential on European and American architects from the Renaissance to the 19th century. Numerous city halls, universities and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure. Examples of notable buildings influenced by the Pantheon include Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia, Low Library at Columbia University, New York, and the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

John Schou
JCT_Jewish_Sanitarium_for_Incurables.JPG
Jewish Sanitarium for Incurables (Brooklyn, New York)132 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., dated 1926.

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR THE INCURABLES HOME around toothed rim, YOU HELPED BUILD IT, above building, JEWISH/SANITARIUM FOR/INCURABLES/1926 below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and LUCK FOR A BUCK around toothed rim, One and Dollar to sides of crippled man.

Ref: None known.

Note: The Sanitarium was founded in 1925 as a chronic care facility for the Jewish community at Rutland Road and East 49th Street, Brooklyn, New York. In 1954 it changed its name to The Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital (which is where the gene for Tay-Sachs disease was discovered). By the 1960s, in addition to providing long-time care, it provided acute, outpatient, emergency, ambulatory and home care services. It became Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center in 1968.
Stkp
Juba.JPG
Juba I84 viewsObverse: Diademed, draped bust of King Juba right, with pointed beard and hair in formal curls, scepter at shoulder, REX IVBA before
Reverse: Octastyle temple, Neo-Punic legend on either side (Yubai hammamleket).
Mint : North Africa-Numidia
Date : BC 60-46
Reference : Sear GCV, Vol II, 6607
Grade : VF
Denom: Denarius
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 07/07/04

Comments: The temple shown on the reverse is possibly a mix of Greek and Punic architecture with the flat roof with pediment a Punic style.

One of the last kings of Numidia (c. 60–46 BC), Juba supported the Pompeian side in the Roman civil war between Pompey and Julius Caesar. The kingdom fell in 46 BC at the Battle of Thapsus and was formed into a new province, Africa Nova. Caesar had Juba’s young son, Juba II, taken to Rome to be brought up in his household.
1 commentsBolayi
JubaII.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene89 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed and draped bust right, club over shoulder

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Headdress of Isis, with stalks of grain, crescent above

Caesarea mint, 25 B.C. - 24 A.D

12.62g

Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos 209, Mazard 351 (RRR), SNG Cop 605, De Luynes 4013

Very Rare! Excellent for the type!

From a very old collection


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
JubaCleo.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene daughter of Antony62 viewsJuba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene

REX IVBA REGIS IVBA E F R A VI
Head of Juba II left.

BACIΛICCA KΛE - OΠATPA
Cleopatra Selene left

dated year 6 = 20-19 BC.

3.12g

Rare

Ex-D. Loates Fine Arts; Ex-William McDonald Collection; Ex-Geoffrey Bell 2012 Fall Auction lot 273

SNG Cop. 546 ; Mazard 357 ; Sear 6000 ; Müller III, 108, 87

Wildwinds example


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's