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Search results - "Great,"
AsseSestoPompeo.jpg
62 viewsAs - 43/36 BC. - Mint in Spain or Sicily
SEXTVS POMPEIVS - Gens Pompeia
Obv.: MGN above laureate janiform head with features of Pompey the Great
Rev.:Prow of galley right. PIVS above, IMP below.
Gs. 16,3 mm. 29,24
Crawf. 479/1, Sear RCV 1394, Grueber II (Spain) 95

Maxentius
coin150.jpg
36 viewsAntioch RIC VIII 37 Constantine the Great AE3.
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right /
No legend, emperor veiled to right in quadriga, the
hand of God reaches down to him, star in top centre.
Mintmark: SMANH. Coin #150
cars100
coin165.jpg
37 viewsCyzicus RIC 93.1 Constantine the Great. AD 331,
333-334. CONSTAN-TINOPLI, Helmeted & laureate
Constantinopolis bust left / Victory standing left on prow
of a galley, holding transverse across her body
spear & shield. Coin #165
cars100
Constantine_the_Great.JPG
21 viewsConstantine the Great, AD 315-316, AE Follis, Siscia Mint Jon the Lecturer
Constantine_Commemorative_1.JPG
36 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative, AD 330-335, Nicomedia Mint
Jon the Lecturer
Constantine_Commemorative_2.JPG
30 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative, AD 337-340, Antioch MintJon the Lecturer
alexander_the_great.jpg
105 viewsAR drachm (4.26 gm), Lampsacus, ca. 310/9 - 309/8 BC.
Obverse: Head of young Heracles right in lion skin headdress.
Reverse: Zeus entroned left, holding eagle and sceptor, race torch under throne.
Ex:Freeman and Sear Mail Bid Sale 13, lot 696
6 commentspaul1888
britannicus01.jpg
41 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Mughal_KM93_18.jpg
16 viewsObv: الله اکبر جل جلاله; (Allahu Akbar Jalle Jalalahu; God is Greatest; His Glory is Great)
Rev:
SpongeBob
Great_Seal_of_the_Commonwealth.JPG
4 views*Alex
conricx.jpg
Constantine I "The Great" 306-337 CE 24 viewsConstantine I, AE 3, 16 mm, 2.2 g. RIC VII 350
Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette- diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, dot on banners.
Mintmark R wreath P. Rome mint
NORMAN K
altar1s.jpg
Constantine the Great, RIC VII 73 Siscia, 319 CE31 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate helmet & cuirassed.
Reverse:VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous victory to the eternal
Prince] two Victories standing, facing one another, together holding shield
inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)]on altar.
gamma SIS dot in ex. RIC VII Siscia 73, 18.9 mm 2.6 g. rare
NORMAN K
vbnw.jpg
Divus Constantine I Posthumous commemorative 27 viewsConstantine I AE 4 “Chariot to God” Constantine “The Great” 306-337 CE.
Obverse: DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right.
Reverse: no legend, Constantine in quadriga right, the hand of God, upper center, grasps the chariot.
SMKA in ex. Cyzicus mint RIC VIII 19
13.4 mm, 1.0 g
NORMAN K
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 – 12 BCE26 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
Section2_Page_17_Image_0001.jpg
*Late Roman Mints47 viewsFrom:
ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez

ERIC I and ERIC II are great resources for coin identification and the history behind the coins. Author Ras Suarez is a heck of a nice guy and very accessible to collectors. He has made all of ERIC I freely available at:
http://www.dirtyoldbooks.com/eric.html
Sosius
Maxentius_RIC_Rome_258.jpg
7 Maxentius28 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate bust of Maxentius right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in temple, RET in ex.

RIC 258 Rome. aVF, very strong portrait in great style.
2 commentsSosius
constantinesis.jpg
CONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200b Siscia, Emperor 307-337 CE23 viewsCONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200(b)
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureated head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTA, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding paters and cornucopia. No field marks
in exergue: SIS, 18.4 mm., 1.6 g.
NORMAN K
_Edward_IV_Berk_small.png
Edward IV AR Groat26 viewsGreat Britain, House Of York, ND, Groat,
Edward IV, First Reign, 1461-70.
Light coinage. London mint. 25.2mm, 2.9g.
No marks by neck. S-2002. Nice grumpy portrait. Dark toning.
Purchased from Harlan J Berk 201st Bid or Buy sale July 14, 2017
2 commentsorfew
GB-HalfSov-1901-029500.jpg
Great Britain: gold half-sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1901, from the Terner Collection26 viewslordmarcovan
alexanderIIIobol2.jpg
Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.17 viewsKingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.
Struck c. 336-323 BC, Head of Hecrules right, wearing
lion skin, knotted at base of neck. / Zeus, nude to waist, seated
left on ornate throne, holding eagle and scepter within dotted circle.
CANTANATRIX
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Alexander_III_The_Great,_AR_teradrachm_Amphipolis_Mint~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Amphipolis Mint under Antipater83 viewsHead of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.
AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; janiform head vase in left field. Graffiti in upper left field - Aramaic kaph (k) and sadhe (s).

Price 6; Troxell, Studies, Issue A3; SNG Cop 660; Muller 853.
Struck at Amphipolis in the period 332-329 BC.

(29 mm, 17.15 g, 2h)

This is one of the first emissions of Alexander’s coinage struck in his homeland, albeit about three years after he departed for Asia Minor. Recent scholarship places the start of Alexander’s distinctive coinage in 333/2 BC at Tarsos, in eastern Asia Minor, shortly after which the design was transferred to Macedonia where Alexander’s coinage was struck under the authority of his regent in Greece, Antipater. Die studies indicate that this coin was from the fourth tetradrachm emission of a mint in Macedonia, most probably Amphipolis. It was most probably struck in the period 332-329 BC. The Aramaic graffiti on the reverse, plus the obverse reverse rim test cut are pointers to the likelihood that this coin travelled beyond its location of issue in Macedonia, into the eastern Mediterranean where Aramaic was the main spoken language.
3 commentsn.igma
Lysimachos_Alexander_the_Great_Portrait_Coin~0.JPG
Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin116 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
ao.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III The Great Tetradrachm, c. 325-320 BC173 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 17.190g

Obv: Bust of Alexander as Herakles r., wearing lion-skin headdress.

Rx: Zeus seated l. on throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in exergue, AΛEΧANΔΡOY in r. field; wreath in l. field, ΔΙ beneath throne

References: Price-2949

Mint: Side

ex Harlan J. Berk
7 commentsDino
philip359.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, Father of Alexander the Great 359-336 BCE27 viewsBronze AE Unit, SNG ANS 934, nice VF, Macedonian mint, 6.328g,
17.4mm, 0°, c. 359 - 336 B.C.E.
Obverse: head Apollo right wearing taenia.
Reverse: ΦIΛIΠΠOΥ, young male rider
atop horse prancing to right, LO monogram below.
18.0 mm, 7.01 g.
Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom,
but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great.
He personally selected the design of his coins.
NORMAN K
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)9 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
003~1.jpg
Γ in rectangular punch271 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Ć 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVA)TEIP-HNΩN. Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. Ref: BMC -; cf. Sear 3072 (same obv. die). Axis: 165°. Weight: 7.92 g. CM: Γ in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 772, 774 or 777 (?). Note: The coin is light for 772, has greater greater diamater than 774 and is not as late as 777. Collection Automan.
Automan
00005x00~3.jpg
79 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Belleville, New Jersey. Tobias D. Seaman, butcher
CU Token. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Struck 1837.
T. D. SEAMAN BUTCHER./ * BELLEVILLE *. Bouquet.
* A FRIEND */ TO THE CONSTITUTION, Bull standing right; c/m: minute D above.
Rulau HT 204B; Low 155

Ex Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2713


Tobias Seaman was apparently not primarily engaged as a butcher, finding more success as a hotelier. He was the proprietor of Mansion House in Belleville and, later, of the Mechanic's Hotel in Newark circa 1845-1851, and the South Ward Hotel thereafter. For a brief time he was also the owner of a stage line to New York and, "a horseman of great noteriety."(W. Shaw, History of Essex and Hudson Counties, New Jersey. New York, 1884. p. 890-a)
Ardatirion
00091x00.jpg
84 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837.
CU Penny Token (34.5 mm, 14.27 g, 6 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835.
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-4A2; Breton 870

Canadian catalogs traditionally give this issue to an illicit mint in Montreal. Wayne Jacobs1 argues that these were struck in Belleville. While his methodology is somewhat questionable - most of his theory is based off a unreliable editorial in an 1893 edition of the Newark Sunday Call - his reasoning regarding this series is sound. He is able to clearly demonstrate that the halfpenny and penny tokens in question are a product of a single, cohesive establishment which could not have been located in Lower Canada. Finally, Jacobs' claim can be supported by documentary evidence from the Belleville mint's primary competitor, the Scoville Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. A letter from J.M.L. to W.H. Scoville, dated April 4 1839, states that, "a competitor was stamping Canada Nova Scotia and Southern coins at 35 cents a pound."

1. Jacobs, Wayne. 1996. “The Shadowy Issues of the Belleville Mint.” Canadian Numismatic Journal 41 1: 13–26.
1 commentsArdatirion
QXk0g1k.jpg
3 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A1; Corteau 277; Breton 871

The first obverse die for the series. This obverse would be extensively reused, eventually rusting, being polished and re-engraved, and develop the diagnostic die break before the nose.
Ardatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
20 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278; Breton 871

“Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin.” R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
0IEu73C.jpg
1 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 (over 1382) below
Charlton NS-3C; Corteau 281; Breton 871

This reverse die was initially engraved with the anachronistic date 1382, but was quickly caught and corrected, leaving only a handful of that extremely rare variety known today.
Ardatirion
NOwh23l.jpg
6 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3D1; Corteau 282; Breton 871
Ardatirion
00090x00.jpg
69 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token (28mm, 8.47 g, 6 h)
John Walker & Company's mint. Dated 1832
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of George IV right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-1D1; Breton 871
1 commentsArdatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10˘/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
charlemagne-denier-bourges~0.JPG
D.175 Charles the Great [Charlemagne] (denier, class 3, Bourges)16 viewsCharles the Great, king of the Franks (768-840) and Holy Roman emperor (800-814)
Denier (Bourges, class 3, 781-800)

Silver, 1.18 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ [+CA]RLVS REX FR; cross pattée with a crescent in each quarter
R/ [+B]ITVRICA[S]; carolingian monogram KRLS

For the 3rd type of his coinage, Charles the Great introduced the famous KRLS monogram. This one contains all the letters of Karolvs : the consonants are clearly written at the edges and bound by a lozenge. The vowels are at the center of the monogram: A (using the upper part of the lozenge, O as the whole lozenge and V as the down part of the lozenge).
This monogram still appeared two centuries later in the coinage of Hugh Capet, first capetian king.
Droger
louis1-denier-melle-lin.JPG
D.609 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)48 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.48 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ META / . / LLVM

Louis' deniers correspond to his father's (Charles the Great) ``novus denarius'', whose weight is supposed to be near 1.7 g with a certain variability.

This denier is typical of Class 2 of Louis' coinage (819-822).
A circular inscription of the name of the ruler surrounds a cross pattée on the observe. The quite surprising Hlvdovvicvs initially comes from the germanic name Chlodowig ("Clovis"). This one was first transcribed to latin as Chlodowicvs. The initial C then disappeared, which explains the H at the beginning. The w(=vv) finally became a standard v, which gave Lvdovicvs (Louis). The imperial title imp is also given.

The reverse consists of the mint name, in field. The mint name may be split in 2 or 3 lines.
Droger
louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
Droger
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
charles2-denier-rexfr-melle.JPG
D.606 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1d, Melle)48 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.35 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +METVLLO; carolingian monogram

The KRLS monogram was first introduced by Charles' great father, Charles the Great (Charlemagne). Charlemagne's son (Louis the Pious) never used a monogram, contrary to most carolingian rulers as Charles the Bald in particular.

This is the second most common carolingian coin.

Charlemagne minted exactly similar coins (Class 3). The question of the attribution to Charles the Great or the Bald has of course been widely discussed on grounds of style, weight, composition (work of Guillaume Sarah), position of the legend... These studies didn't lead to any clear conclusion although these deniers may often be attributed to Charlemagne. New hoards have to be found to resolve this issue.
By then, these coins have to be attributed to Charles the Bald by reason of the relative number of minted coins.
Droger
charles2-obole-melle.JPG
D.622 Charles II the Bald (obol, class 1d, Melle)30 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Obol (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 0.65 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ carolingian monogram
R/ +METVLLO; cross pattée


Certainly because of the lack of space, there isn't any legend with the ruler's name on the obverse but a carolingian KRLS monogram.
The attribution to Charles the Bald or Charles the Great is uncertain, like for the denier's case.
Droger
raoul-denier-chateau-landon-pos.JPG
D.308B Rudolph (denier, Château-Landon)17 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Château-Landon)

Silver, 1.16 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 4h

O/ +CRΛTIΛ D-I; odonic monogram of Rodolf (legend beginning at 9h)
R/ +CΛSTIS LIΛNDNI; cross pattée

The R on the top of the monogram and the F below are for Rodulfus. The 2 lozenges on the sides may come from Eudes' monogram (Oddo). Eudes was the brother of Rudolph's father-in-law... sort of family alliance against Carolingians (although Rudolph's aunt had been married to Charles the Bald...). The I and the X are more mysterious.

According to Dumas, this coinage may have been struck after Rudolph's dead, by Hugues the Great, his brother-in-law... family business still.
1 commentsDroger
raoul-orleans.JPG
D.abs Rudolph (denier, Orléans)48 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Orléans)

Silver, 1.14 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 11h

O/ +CRΛTI[Λ D-I R]EX; monogram (legend beginning at 9h)
R/ +ΛVRELIΛNIS CIVITΛ cross pattée

Same monogram as the previous coin minted in Château-Landon.
Same conclusions: according to Dumas, this coinage may have been struck after Rudolph's dead, by Hugh the Great.

As often in Orléans' coinage, the I after an L in Avrelianis is in the angle of the L.
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa24 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
107-1a-NAC61.jpg
"C" Denarius, Crawford 107/1a - My favorite Coin16 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Above, “C”; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruia(?)
Weight: 4.44 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1a
Provenance: NAC 61; 25-OCT-2011, Privately purchased by RBW from CNG in 1989


Comments: This is one of my favorite coins. It is not high grade, neither the obverse nor the reverse is well centered. The dioscuri are really just blobs, and this coin would be overlooked in any sale but the NAC 61 sale of RBW’s finest and rarest coins, perhaps the greatest Roman Republican auction of our generation. Nevertheless, the coin has a lovely tone and a style that is very characteristic of this issue which is quite rare.

Unique to this variety and the related staff issue, are the braided locks extending from the helmet to the hair binding. The stars are simple dots above the dioscuri, and ROMA is cut into the die with very large letters with a very fine line tool. There has been much speculation on the significance of the “C” insignia, but few with any real merit.
1 commentsSteve B5
commodus_odessos.jpg
(0179) COMMODUS--ODESSOS26 views179-192 AD
struck ca 182 - 184
Ć 25mm, 7.72 g
O: AVT K M AVP ANT KOMODOCLaureate head of Commodus, facing right (countermark near ear?)
R: ODHCC EITRN, Great God of Odessus standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, a lit altar at his feet.
Thrace, Odessos; Moushmov 1592
d.s.
laney
caracalla_od_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA27 views198-217 AD
AE 26 mm, 8.07 g
O: AVK MAV ANTW[] laureate draped bust right
R: ODHCC EITWN great god Odessos with patera and cornucopia, altar before
cf Moushmov 1610; Mionnet Supp. II, 909
Thrace, Odessos
laney
caracalla_odessos_b.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA33 views198 - 217 AD
AE 25 mm; 8.63 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVHPOC ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right;
R: OΔHCCEITΩN, Great god of Odessos standing left, wearing kalathos, holding patera over flaming altar and cornucopia
Odessos, Moesia Inferior; Varbanov I 4373 ff.
d.s.
laney
constantine_i_vot_1~0.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (THE GREAT)74 viewsCaesar 306-307 AD; Filius Augustorum 307-309 AD; Augustus 309-337 AD
AE 19 mm 3.25 g
OBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG
LAUR HEAD R
REV: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG AROUND LAUREL WREATH, VOT DOT DOT XX WITHIN, IN 4 LINES
TSAVI IN EXE
THESSALONICA
2 commentslaney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.154 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.67 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantine_I.jpg
*SOLD*31 viewsConstantine the Great AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 153, Nicomedia
Date: AD 328-329
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; head r. w/ pearl diadem
Reverse: RPVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
Size: 18.54 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
Noah
urbs_roma.jpg
*SOLD*34 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VI 561, Trier
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; above palm between two stars, TRP in exergue
Size: 18.6 mm
Weight: 2,03 grams
Noah
vespasian_clasped-hands-caduceus-poppies-wheat_00.JPG
000 - Vespasian AR Denarius - Clasped Hands97 viewsVespasian Silver Denarius - Clasped Hands
Rome Mint, AD 73
obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN - Laureled head right.

rev: FIDES PVBL - Clasped hands holding wheat ears, opium poppies and caduceus.
------------
A bit off-center, but a beautiful portrait of the Emperor, and great detail on the poppy heads.
------------
**
**More photos of this Vespasian Denarius below, in Alphabetical order...
4 commentsrexesq
vespasian_silver-denarius_clasped-hands-caduceus-poppies-wheat_obv_09_rev_08_95%.JPG
000 - Vespasian AR Denarius - Clasped Hands 30 viewsVespasian Silver Denarius - Clasped Hands
Rome Mint, AD 73
obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN - Laureled head right.

rev: FIDES PVBL - Clasped hands holding wheat ears, opium poppies and caduceus.
------------
A bit off-center, but a beautiful portrait of the Emperor, and great detail on the poppy heads.
------------
** These photos slightly bright and off-color due to lighting
**More photos of this Vespasian Denarius below, in Alphabetical order...
1 commentsrexesq
3350438.jpg
000b. Pompey the Great50 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
1 commentsecoli
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey72 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
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001. Constantine I Barbarian56 viewsConstantine AE3 Barbarian Constantine I the "Great"ecoli
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001. Constantine I Barbarian6 viewsConstantine AE3 Barbarian Constantine I the "Great"
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002 Augustus AR Denarius70 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
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002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)45 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
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002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS10 views002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS

Constantinopolis Commemmorative AE3/4. Time of Constantine the Great. CONSTANTINOPOLIS, laureate, helmeted & mantled bust left holding scepter / Victory standing left on foot of prow with scepter and leaning on sheild.
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002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.80 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
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002b. Livia47 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
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002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia42 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
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003. Pop Romanvs Constantinople13 viewsConstantine the Great, Commemorative issue, (0.84g) POP
ROMANVS Laureate and draped bust of Roman people left, cornucopia
on shoulder. / Star and CONSS in wreath. These tiny coins are
associated with the founding of the new capital at
Constantinople. F
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004 - Constantine I "the great" (307-337 AD), Follis - RIC 15340 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. laureated and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COMITI AVGG NN, Sol standing left, chlamys falling from left shoulder, holding up globe in right hand and whip in left hand.
Minted in Londinium - London - (* in right field, PLN in exe.), c mid 310 - late 312 AD.
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004 Gaius (Caligula) AR Denarius66 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
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005d. Agrippina II87 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

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1 commentsecoli
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007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)153 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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008. Otho 69 AD299 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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01 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #3 - Ram leaping left beneath Eagle, head reverted, Crescent Moon above ram27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD ) Silver Tetradrachm.
Struck at the Roman Mint at Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing, holding laurel wreath in beak, head facing left.
BELOW: Ram leaping left, head turned facing behind (right), with Crescent Moon above head of Ram, all between the legs of the Eagle.

Weight: 14.76 Grams

~~~~
::Great detail on the head and beak of the Eagle, as well as on the Emperor's portrait, very nice coin, good weight for the type too. ::
~~~

*ex Amphora Ancient Coins, with photo-authenticity COA signed by David Hendin, author of Guide to Biblical Coins.
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
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01 Augustus RIC 167a65 viewsAugustus 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 15 - 13 B.C. (3,71 gr) Obv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Bare head right. Rev: in ex. IMP X, Bull butting right.
RIC 167a, RSC 137, Sear 1610.

Ex: Poinsignon Numismatique

This coin has great beauty in its simplicity and it's also a great example of propaganda. Divi F (filius) means that Octavianus is not only Augustus but also the son of a god.
2 commentsPaddy
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01. Constantine II / 2 soldiers and standard.56 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine II.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: ASIS (crescent and dot)
1.70 gm., 15 mm.
RIC #95; LRBC #770; Sear #17432.

Several mints used the title MAX for all three sons of Constantine the Great for a short time after his death. It's use on coins of Constantius II and Constans was quickly dropped, and P F (Pius Felix) was used instead, reserving MAX for the senior emperor (Constantine II).
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010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
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011 - Constantine I (307-337 AD), AE 3 - RIC 34168 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO-TIS XX, surmounted by globe decorated with two diagonal lines, dot in upper and lower field and a horizontal row of dots. Three stars above
Minted in Trier (STR. in exe) 322 AD
4 commentspierre_p77
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011 Agrippa69 viewsAgrippa, Ć As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]


It's a bit glossy and hard to get a great shot
7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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0130 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 310-01 BC51 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; under throne, monogram; before, Φ.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 4.15 g
Mint: Colophon.
Price 1828
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569784336
1 commentsdafnis
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0132 - 1/2 AE Alexander III the Great 325-10 BC28 viewsObv/ Macedonian shield with thunderbolts inside.
Rev/ Macedonian helmet, (dolphin), AI monogram below; B A on each side of the field.

AE, 15.5 mm, 4.48 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price 415
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569816457
dafnis
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0139 - AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC48 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in middle, with goryte, bow and mallet at sides; bunch of grapes and circle on r.

AE, 19.1 mm, 6.33 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price -- - Drama 103
ex-CGB, auction 49, lot 155
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0146 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 295-75 BC48 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, MI in monogram; behind, (Α)ΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ(Υ).

Ag, 19.0 mm, 4.28 g
Mint: Miletus.
Price 2151
ex-CNG, auction e260, lot 234
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0161 - 1/2 AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC39 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, eagle on thunderbolt r., head turned; above, crescent.

AE, 17.1 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Amphipolis.
Price 91b
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jan 2012 - art. #230732403614
dafnis
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0176 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC28 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, Demeter with two torches; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; under throne, monogram with circle, line and triangle.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.32 g
Mint: Lampsacus.
Price 1356
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 12, lot 119
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0196 - Nummus Constantine I 313-4 AC33 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing l., extending r. arm and holding globe with l.h.; S F in field; PLN in ex.

AE, 21 mm, 3.93 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/10 [C3].
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 313, lot 365.
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0198 - Nummus Constantine I 312-3 AC33 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing l., extending r. arm and holding globe with l.h.; star in field; PLN in ex.

AE, 21 mm, 3.44 g.
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/282 [C].
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 284.
dafnis
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front41 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
0215_Pr2562.jpg
0215 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC12 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, club on field r.; under throne, monogram with circle, lines and dot.

Ag, 15.9 mm, 4.29 g
Mint: Sardes.
Price 2562
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 320, lot 75
dafnis
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Ć Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
augustus_RIC82a.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 19-18 BC53 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS (bare head left, banker's mark on face)
rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS (Mars standing left, head right, with aquila and standard)
ref: RIC I 82a, RSC 259 (4frcs), BMC 414.
mint: Colonia Patricia
3.41gms, 19mm
Rare

History: The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC, at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC). It was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory. He took an ovation entering Rome on horseback and being honoured with a triumphal arch in the year 20 BC. This coin struck in Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain).
1 commentsberserker
03-Alex-Babylon-P2619.jpg
03. Alexander the Great.123 viewsTetradrachm, ca 325 - 323 BC, "Babylon" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. M and a bee at left, monogram under throne.
17.12 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3619; M. #696.

Martin J. Price assigns this coin to the mint at "Babylon," but he says (p. 456 -57) it is possible that coins of "group two" may have been minted at Susa or Ecbatana.
3 commentsCallimachus
030_Lajos_I___-Nagy_Lajos-,_(Lodovicus_I__(the_great)_of_Anjou,_Angevin)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1342-1382_A_D_),_Chronica_Hungarorum-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.), Chronica Hungarorum44 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.), Chronica Hungarorumquadrans
Lodovicus-I__(1342-1382_AD),_H-542,_C2-94A,_U-429a,_P-79-1,_AR-Den_,_LODOICI_R_VnGARIE,__S_LADIS_LAVS_R_,,_1358-71_AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15mm,_0,43g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.a., P 79-01, #0158 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.a., P 79-01, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICI•R•VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in the circle of dots, a lily on each side and above, a border of dots.
reverse: •S•LADIS LAVS•R•, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, a border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- were struck by "?" (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 8h,
mint: Hungary, "?", (by Pohl), date: 1358-1371 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-542, CNH-2-094A, Unger-429.a., Pohl-79-01,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-429-o_C2-94A_H-542_LODOVICCI_-R_-VnGARIE_S_LADIS-LAVS_R_Q-001_5h_13,8-14mm_0,55g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.o., #01130 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.o., #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICI•R•VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily on each side and above, border of dots.
reverse: S•LADIS LAVS•R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on right side, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/IO(vertical)//-- were struck by Iohannes Mochel (by Pohl), diameter: 13,8-14,0mm, weight: 0,55g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica)(by Pohl), date: 1366 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-429-o., CNH-2-094A, Huszár-542, Pohl-79-10,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-429-q_C2-94A_H-542_LODOVICCI_-R_-VnGAR_S_LADIS-LAVS_R_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.q., #01111 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.q., #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICCI•R•VnGAR, (Double C in the legend, legend error!), Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily on each side and above, border of dots.
reverse: S•LADIS LAVS•R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/F/B//-- were struck by Franciscus Bernardi (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-429q, CNH-2-094A, Huszar-542, Pohl-79-04-a.,
Q-001
quadrans
Nagy-Lajos-(1342-1382AD)_AR-denar_U-419_C2-79_H-529_1346-49AD_L_Praying-kneeling-angel-left_m-REGIS-LODOVICI_Q-001_1h_12,5mm_0,45g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-419, #0177 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-419, #01
avers: "L "in the left field, Praying kneeling angel to left.
reverse: ✠ m RЄGIS LODOVICI, Crown the inner circle.
exergue, mint mark: L/-//--, were struck by Lorandus (by Pohl), diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Szeged (by Pohl), date: 1342 A.D. (by Pohl)1346-1349 A.D. (by Unger ), ref: Unger-419, CNH-2-079, Huszár-529, Pohl-66, (error! mixed the avers and reverse with Pohl-65!),
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0174 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-003_15mm_0,53g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0362 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #03
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-003
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14,5mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #0174 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot middle on the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var1., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var-2_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,41g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var2., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var3_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,56g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Polka dot pattern in headscarves and neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var3., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-b_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,52g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #0179 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot in the middle of the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (L-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: L/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432k, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-10,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,51g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0176 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_14mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0266 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_13,5mm_0,42g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c.var., #01116 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432-c.-var., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (P--), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: P/-//-- This mint mark was struck by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1375 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432-c-var., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08-var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-d_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #0175 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok (Schmöllnitz, now Smolnik Slovakia by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432d, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-09,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-fvar_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-Lily in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/Lily//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, nowadays Kosice by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432f, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0179 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_13mm_0,45g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0296 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-i_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. One-one dot beside of the neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: •/•//-- (in avers !), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432i, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-j_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,47g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (leaf-leaf below), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: leaf/leaf//--(below), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432j, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-11,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-k_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_4h_13mm_0,68g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432k, #01127 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432k, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Cross on the neck (mint/emission mark), Saracen's head left, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: +/-//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,68g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432k, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-12,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-433_C2-89B_H-548_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #0163 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross - with dots each corner - rising from crown at its base, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-433, CNH-2-089B, Huszár-548, Pohl-90,
Q-001
quadrans
030__Lajos_I__AR-Gross,_U-413d,_C2-68,_H-522,_1359-64_AD_Q-001_h,_28,0mm,_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01175 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICVS DЄI GRACIA RЄX hVnGARIЄ; king enthroned, facing, on the gothic throne in circle of dots, holding sceptre and orb, mint-mark below or by the throne; border of dots. The Saracen's head between the legs under.
reverse: ✠ DALMACIЄ : CROACIЄ : ЄTC; Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, amongst six arches, no mint-mark above the shield, emission-marks around the arches; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Saracen's head, were struck by Jacobus Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 28,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs/Syrmien (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-413-e, CNH-2-068, Huszár-522, Pohl-59-4-a.,
Q-001


Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I__(1342-1382_AD),_H-538,_C2-86,_U-436,_P-77,_AR-Obulus,_R-E-X,_Lily,_1346-57_AD,_Q-001,_10h,_11,5mm,_0,19g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #0162 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #01
avers: R Є X, Hungarian-Anjou shield, the border of dots.
reverse: Large lily, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,19g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1346-1367 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Huszár-538, CNH-2-086, Unger-436, Pohl-77,
Q-001

Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-c_C2-88_H-546_MONETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_C_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #0198 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437(?)(Not in this Mint mark !!!)., #01
avers: ✠ MONЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. "C" above the shield (New mintmark !!!).
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437(?)(Not in)., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-(?)(Not in),
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-a_var_C2-88_H-546_M_VnGARIE-LODOVICI_DEI-GRACIA-VGARIE_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01107 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var-2., #01
avers: ✠ m VnGARIЄ LODOVICI (Unknown Legend variation!!!), Patriarchal cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRACIA R VGARIЄ (AR-ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437a-var2., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-1var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-a_C2-88_H-546_MONETA-LODOHICI_DEI-GRATIA-RHGARE_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var., #01107 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437a-var., #01
avers: ✠ MONЄTA LODOH(?)ICI (Legend variation), Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRATIA R HGARЄ (Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437a-var., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-1,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-437-b_C2-88_H-546_MOnETA-LODOVICI_DEI-GRATIA-R-VGARIE_lily_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #0195 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-437b., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ DЄI GRATIA R VGARIЄ (AR ligate, Legend variation), Hungarian-Anjou shield, border of dots. Lily above the shield.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1372 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-437b., CNH-2-088, Huszár-546, Pohl-88-2,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-438_C2-90_H-549_REGIS-LODOVICI_Saracen-head-left_-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-438, #01109 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-438, #01
avers: ✠ RЄGIS LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross, border of dots.
reverse: No legends, Saracen's head left, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-438, CNH-2-090, Huszár-549, Pohl-91,
Q-001
quadrans
Buda_Denar-Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U--_C2-100_H-509_Pohl-108_Shield_mOnETA-BVDEnSIUm_1350AD_Q-001_7h_11,5mm_0,25g-s.jpg
030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!193 views030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!
avers: No Legend, Hungarian-Anju shield amongst three arches, lilies between the arches; border of dots, without mint-mark.
reverse: ✠ mOnЄTA BVDЄnSIVm (left to right), large "L", border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, City coin Buda, date: 1350 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger---, CNH-2-100, Huszár-509, Pohl-108,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U--_C2-106_H-561_Pohl-097_LODOVICI_RVnGARIE_mOnETA-RVSSIE_Kopicki-3063(R5)-370-82_AD-Q-001_0h_18,2-19,7mm_1,03g-s.jpg
030b Provincial Coin Russia with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Scherf, Pohl-097, #01 Very Rare!!!178 views030b Provincial Coin Russia with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Scherf, Pohl-097, #01 Very Rare!!!
avers: ✠ LODVICI ° RVnGARIЄ °, Large "L" amongst circles in quatrefoil, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mOnЄTA : RVSSIЄ : (SS are reverse), lion standing left in circle of dots; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 18,2-19,7mm, weight: 1,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Provincial Coin, Russia, date: 1370-1382 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger---, CNH-2-106, Huszár-561, Pohl-097, Kopicki-3063 (R5),
Q-001
quadrans
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA8 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
HerodTJC59d.jpg
037 - 004 BC - Herod the Great - TJC 59d - Prutah36 viewsKing: Herod the Great (r. 37-4 BC)
Date: (37-4 BC)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Prutah

Obverse: HΡΩΔ BAΣIΛ
King Herod
Anchor.

Reverse: no legend
Double cornucopiae with caduceus between horns, five pellets above.

Jerusalem mint
TJC 59d; Hendin 500
1.46g; 14.4mm; 180°
Pep
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921161 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
04-Alex-Stater-Abydus-P1524.jpg
04. "Abydus": Stater in the name of Alexander the Great.49 viewsStater, ca 323 - 317 BC, "Abydus" mint.
Obverse: Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a serpent.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Nike holding wreath and ship's mast; monogram and star at left, cornucopia at feet.
8.60 gm., 18 mm.
P. #1524; M. #381; S. #6704.
1 commentsCallimachus
aurelianant.JPG
045. Aurelian, 270-275AD. BI Antoninianus.43 viewsBI Antoninianus. Unattributed mint.
Obv.Radiate and cuirassed bust right IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Rev. Female figure presenting the emperor with wreath RESTITVT ORBIS

RIC 399, Cohen 192.

A bit dirty, significant silvering left. A great portrait and reverse..
LordBest
049_BC-_Q__SICINIVS_III__VIR__C__COPONIVS__PR__S__C__Crawford_444-1a__Sydenham_939__RSC_Sicinia_1_Q-001_5h_16,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow and bow,127 views049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow and bow,
avers: Q•SICINIVS III•VIR, diademed head of Apollo right, star below.
revers: C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Hercules' club surmounted by lion skin, scalp right, bow on right, arrow on left.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 444/1a, Sydenham 939, Sicinia 1,
Q-001
"An important type, one of the first of the "Imperatorial" series. Struck at a military mint in the East, 49 B.C., after the moneyer, owing his appointment to Pompey the Great, fled Caesar's advance upon Rome with the Praetor Coponius (commander of the fleet), and part of the Senate (thus the S C on the reverse, to lend legitimacy to the coinage). Coponius is likely the father or grandfather of the man by the same name who served as procurator in Judaea under Augustus, from A.D. 6 to A.D. 9."
quadrans
06-Alex-Amphipolis-P124.jpg
06. "Amphipolis": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 320 - 317 BC, "Amphipolis" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Branch of laurel at left, Π under throne.
17.33 gm., 25 mm.
P. #124; M. #560.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Most coins issued in Macedon during this time continued to be in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
06a-Constantine-Car-051c.jpg
06a. Constantine as Caesar: Carthage follis.52 viewsFollis, Nov. - Dec. 306, Carthage mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruit in both hands. H in left field.
Mint mark: Γ
9.49 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #51c; PBCC #575; Sear #15551.
1 commentsCallimachus
06c-Constantine-Ser-026.jpg
06c. Constantine as Caesar: Serdica follis.54 viewsFollis, July 306 - Spring 307, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAESAR / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, holding cornucopiae. A in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
8.28 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #848; Sear #15532.

RIC (vol VI, p. 489) says of this coin: " Rare for the Augusti, and very rare for the Caesars. This was evidently a small issue." This was the first issue to have Constantine on it, and due to political considerations, the last at Serdica. If you want a coin from each of the 19 mints that produced coins for Constantine, Serdica is the hardest to find.
2 commentsCallimachus
06d-Constantine-RIC-Lon-88b.jpg
06d. Constantine as Caesar: London follis.13 viewsFollis, summer 307, Londinium mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: PLN
7.05 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #88b; PBCC #11; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
06e-Constantine-Rom-164.jpg
06e. Constantine as Caesar: Rome follis.41 viewsFollis, Summer 307, Rome mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE / Roma seated in tetrastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre; knobs as acroteria, plain pediment.
Mint mark: RQ
5.64 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #164; PBCC #407; Sear #15512.
1 commentsCallimachus
07-Alex-Pella-P250.jpg
07. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.30 viewsTetradrachm, ca 315 - 310 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Boeotian shield at left, Σ. between the rungs of the throne.
17.24 gm., 26 mm.
P. #250; PROa #135.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Thereafter his son Kassander ruled until 297 BC, eventually taking the title of King in 305 BC. He was notorious for his cruelty, and in 311 BC he killed Alexander's widow and her young son. The silver coinage of Kassander's reign was all issued in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
07e-Constantine-Sis-200b.jpg
07e. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis.29 viewsFollis, 309 - 310, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae. Crescent in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: SIS
6.14 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #200b; PBCC #786; Sear #15581.

The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November 308. Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius (Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria). This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius.
Callimachus
08-Alex-Ecbatana-P3931.jpg
08. Ecbatana: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.39 viewsTetradrachm, ca 311 - 295 BC, Ecbatana mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Anchor, forepart of a grazing horse, and two monograms at left; ΣΩ under throne.
17.01 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3931; M. #1355; ESM #475.

This is a coin of the Seleucid Empire from the time of Seleukos I, Nikator. Seleukos used the anchor as his personal symbol. Some of Seleukos' coinage was in the name of Alexander, and some was in his own name
Callimachus
787Hadrian_RIC824.jpg
0824 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Roma standing42 viewsReference.
RIC 824; Strack 683

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P.
Bare head right.

Rev. ROMA / S - C.
Roma standing left, holding spear and palladium, with shield on his back.

11.83 gr
25 mm
6h

Note.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena
3 commentsokidoki
248Hadrian__RIC850f.JPG
0850 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Dacia35 viewsReference. Scarce
RIC 850;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from back.

Rev. in ex. DACIA S-C in field
Dacia seated left on rock, holding vexillum and curved sword (Falx); r. foot rests on globe?

11.52 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
At the time of the Dacian wars researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Spanish and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia had rich resources of iron and were prolific metal workers. It is clear that a large percentage of Dacians owned swords, greatly reducing Rome's military advantage.[7]
Marcus Cornelius Fronto described the large gaping wounds that a falx inflicted, and experiments have shown that a blow from a falx easily penetrated the Romans' lorica segmentata, incapacitating the majority of victims.
1 commentsokidoki
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.110 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar154 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
Alexander the Great Drachm.jpg
1. Alexander the Great, Silver Drachm123 views336-323 BC
Obv. Herakles head right
Rev. Zeus seated left
Zam
10-Alex-Miletus-P2150.jpg
10-Miletus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.54 viewsTetradrachm, ca 295 - 275 BC, Miletus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. MI monogram at left.
16.56 gm., 29 mm.
P. #2150; M. #1055.
Callimachus
100- Constantine -10.JPG
100- Constantine The Great -1050 viewsAE reduced follis, 317-320 Cyzicus mint.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate draped bust left withg globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and scepter. Wreath left, B right.
SMK in exergue.
18mm, 3.1gm
RIC 8, R1
jdholds
coin218.JPG
102. Trajan40 viewsTrajan

Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age."

Denarius. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera & torch. RSC 203.
1 commentsecoli
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Ć trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
1059-1067 Constantin IX S 1853.jpg
1059-1067 Constantin IX - follis from Constantinople53 views+EMMANOVHΛ , Christ standing facing, in field IC / XC
+ KωN T ΔK EVΔK AVΓO , Eudocia and Constantine IX standing facing holding labarum (Constantine IX and Eudocia are depicted like the icon of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena holding the True Cross).

Sear 1853
Ginolerhino
RI 107e img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus Gobl 366x49 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing front, head left, holding olive branch, and transverse sceptre
V in left field
Reference:– Gobl 366x

If anyone knows of any other information on this coin then it would be greatly appreciated.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
107- Constantine -17.JPG
107- Constantine The Great -17837 viewsAE4, 337-340 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, Veiled head right.
Rev: Constantine in quadriga galloping left, the hand of God reaching down from heaven to welcome him.
SMKE. in exergue.
16mm, 1.8gm
RIC VIII 19
jdholds
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 19926 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
1 commentsrexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_03.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 0317 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 04 - *Better Lighting*21 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_rev_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - rev 0424 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse. Photo slightly off color due to camera troubles.
2 commentsrexesq
11-Alex-Pella-P527.jpg
11. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 280 - 275 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Triton at left.
16.95 gm., 29 mm.
P. #527.

Following the overthrow of Demetrios Poliorketes by Lysimachos in 288 BC, there was a period of about a dozen years where no ruler was able to establish himself for any length of time in Macedonia. In 277 BC, Antigonos Gonatas achieved a victory over Gallic invaders in Thrace, and that enabled him to claim his father's throne. He ruled until 239 BC and the Macedonian kingdom prospered during his reign.
This coin was issued about the time Antigonos became king and established his own coinage. The decade 280 - 270 BC was a troubled one for the area due to the Gallic invasions (279 - 276 BC), and coins in the name of Alexander the Great from this decade are not common.
Callimachus
111-Constantine-19.JPG
111-Constantine The Great-19-S48 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, S right.
SMN in exergue.
19mm, 3.3gm.
RIC12
jdholds
112- Constantine-20.JPG
112- Constantine The Great -2042 viewsSilvered AE3, 317-320 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Wreath left A right.
SMK in exergue.
17mm, 3.1gm.
Mule, RIC 8 Obv, RIC 10-12 Rev.
jdholds
113- Constantine-21.JPG
113- Constantine The Great -21-S34 viewsAE Follis, 312-313 AD, Alexandria mint.
Obv: F VALER CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius holding the head of Serapis, N left A right, Palm at feet.
ALE in exergue.
20mm
RIC 161.
jdholds
114- Constantine-22.JPG
114- Constantine The Great -22-S46 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, Z right.
SMN in exergue.
21mm, 3.1gm.
RIC12
jdholds
115- Constantine-23.JPG
115- Constantine The Great -23-S37 viewsAE Follis, 313-317 AD , Heraclea mint.
Obv: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Eagle at feet with wreath in beak, G right.
SMHT in exergue.
24mm, 3.0gm.
RIC5
jdholds
12-Alex-Callatis-P946.jpg
12. Callatis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 225 BC, Callatis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. K at left, NAY under throne.
16.61 gm., 30 mm.
P. #943.

On the tag that came with this coin is the inscription "6 / Sept / 44 Bulgaria." The Soviet occupation of Bulgaria began on Sept. 9, 1944. It would be interesting to know the story behind that inscription as it applies to this coin...
Callimachus
13-Alex-Phaselis-P2853.jpg
13. Phaselis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.22 viewsTetradrachm, 206 / 05 BC, Phaselis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΙΓ and Φ at left.
16.59 gm., 30 mm.
P. #2853.

The letters ΙΓ are a date: year 13. The dated coinage of Phaselis runs from year 1 through year 33. The coinage of Phaselis came to an end in 186 BC when the Treaty of Apamea gave Rhodes control over Lycia. That makes year 13 correspond to 206 / 205 BC. See pages 346 - 49 of Price, vol. I.
Callimachus
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)86 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)54 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.47 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI 132hl img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 366 var - Heroic Bust type (Ticinum) (VIXXT)19 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis, seen from back. ("Square shield" in RIC)
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT)Reference:– RIC 366 var. Heroically nude bust type. (Unlisted with this bust type)
The bust on this one isn't great but clear enough all-round.
maridvnvm
RI 132dc img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 428 var - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, without weapons (Ticinum) (PXXT)48 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, without weapons.
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Ticinum (PXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 428 var Radiate, cuirassed bust left (Unlisted bust for this type)
Unfortunately there is a pit on the neck of the emperor otherwise this would be a great coin
maridvnvm
RI 132nf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 800 - Bust Type G (Siscia) (KAQ)37 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield.
Rev:– VICTORIAE AVG, Two Victories standing face to face, clasping hands before palm-tree
Minted in Siscia (KAQ) Emission 4, Officina 4. Late A.D. 277
Reference:– Alföldi type 88, n° 3. RIC 800 Bust type G (R)

Not great but a rare(ish) coin
maridvnvm
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius50 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 79.JPG
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 7941 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Lyons mint, 320 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
P(two captives)L in exergue.
Lyons mint, RIC 79.
18mm, 2.5 gm.
jdholds
antpius_RIC73.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD40 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: ITALIA (Italia, towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre)
ref: RIC III 73 (C), RSC463 (5frcs), BMC 214
mint: Rome
2.63gms, 18mm,
Scarce

Antoninus had been entrusted with the government of this province as proconsul. He was chosen by Hadrian from among the four men of consular rank under whose jurisdiction Italy was placed, to administer that particular part of Italy in which the greater part of his own holdings lay. The coin probably commemorate this.
berserker
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 48.JPG
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4833 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
(gamma) SIS in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 48.
20mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
14-Alex-Rhodes-P2521.jpg
14. Rhodes: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.16 viewsTetradrachm, ca 201 - 190 BC, Rhodes mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑΜΑΤΡΙΟΣ and rosebud at left, ΡΟ under throne.
16.89 gm., 32 mm.
P. #2521; M. #1162.

In 202 - 201 BC, Philip V of Macedon was threatening the cities of Asia Minor. Pergamum and Rhodes were political and military rivals, but they were allies against this common aggressor. Each city struck coins of the Alexander type so that the fleet and army assembled in this alliance could be paid in a common currency. By 190 BC old animosities reemerged and the joint coinage ended.
Callimachus
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 55.JPG
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5561 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, 319-320 AD
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left wearing high crested helmet and holding spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar.
BSIS in exergue. Siscia mint
19mm, 3.1 gm.
RIC 55
2 commentsjdholds
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great95 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)27 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)33 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Cnstntine2.jpg
1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantine2.jpg
1406c, Constantine II, 337-340 A.D.34 viewsConstantine II, 317-340. AE3, RIC VII, 74 ('theta' = r), page 581 2.22 grams, 333-335 AD, Constantinople mint, VF. Obverse : CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards. CONS (theta) (dot) in exergue. Rare.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)50 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)31 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.142 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 47.JPG
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4729 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint. 318 AD
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
BSIS* in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 47.
20mm, 2.8 gm.
jdholds
144-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190.JPG
144-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-227 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
18mm, 2.6 gm.
jdholds
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 158.JPG
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 15825 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, London mint, 319-320 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left, wearing high crested helmet and carrying spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PLN in exergue.
London mint, RIC 158.
18mm, 2.9 gm.
jdholds
148-C1 VLLP , Arelate, RIC 190-2.JPG
148-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-323 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
17mm, 3.7 gm.
jdholds
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-3.JPG
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-328 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
ST in exergue.
17mm , 3.5 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
15-Alex-Mesembria-P1013.jpg
15. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.31 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 175 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Corinthian helmet at left.
16.66 gm., 33 mm.
P. #1013.
1 commentsCallimachus
LarryW1802.jpg
150 Leo I the Great, AD 457-474105 viewsGold solidus, 21.7mm, 4.50g, Mint State
Struck c. AD 462 or 466 at Constantinople
D N LEO PE—RPET AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / VICTORI—A AVCCC Θ, Victory standing half left holding long jeweled cross; star to right, CON OB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC 605; DOC 528; MIRB 3b
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-4.JPG
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-422 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PT in exergue.
17mm , 3.0 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)94 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)50 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)66 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)76 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI 152g img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ostia 035 (double strike)50 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– AETERNITAS AVG N, Castor and Pollux
Minted in Ostia (MOSTP in exe. ) between Late A.D. 309 and October A.D. 312
References:– RIC VI Ostia 35 (C2)

Not great quality but a great example of a double strike on both sides.
maridvnvm
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)12 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 191.JPG
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 19126 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 191.
19mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
RI 157e img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - RIC Alexandria 02553 viewsObv:– D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate bust left, draped, holding orb and scepter and mappa
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter
Minted in Alexandria (Crescent in left field, B in right field, SMAL in exe.) in A.D. 317-320

Not in great condition but a scarce coin.
References:– RIC Alexandria 25 (R2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 221.JPG
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 22122 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Trier mint
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
STR in exergue.
17mm , 3.3 gm.
RIC 221 , Trier
jdholds
16-Alex-Aradus-P3396.jpg
16. Aradus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.64 viewsTetradrachm, 196 / 195 BC, Aradus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Palm tree at left, ΑΡ monogram under throne, ΔΞ in exergue.
17.00 gm., 30 mm.
P. #3396.

Dating this coin: ΔΞ = year 64 = 196 / 195 BC. The era dates to 259 BC when Aradus gained its autonomy. In this series there are 35 different dates between year 17 (243 / 242 BC) and year 94 (166 / 165 BC). There are several breaks in the series (after years 45 and 69 for example) which reflect different political situations in Phoenecia.
Callimachus
RI_160ge_img.jpg
160 - Constantime the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 045 13 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, 7 stone layers, star above
Minted in Alexandria (Wreath|B// SMAL).A.D. 327-328
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 45 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI_160gc_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great (as Caesar) - AE3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 32714 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left by lighted altar, modius on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (_|N// PLC). Spring A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lyons 211 (S). Bastien 399 (19)
maridvnvm
RI_160fg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE Folis - RIC VI Lugdunum 304 19 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:- MARTI CO-NSERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC). Sping A.D. 310-311
Reference:– Bastien XI 531 (34 examples of which 29 with this reverse legend break). RIC VI Lugdunum 304 (C)

24.30 mm. 3.98 gms. 45 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_160ga_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 34514 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (* // PCONST). A.D. 330 - 331
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 345 (C2)
maridvnvm
RI_160fx_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 3758 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (laurel wreath with dot in it's centre / Dot in centre field// PCONST). A.D. 333 - 334
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 375 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI_160fc_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 261 18 viewsObv:–CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–.GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum (*PLG). A.D. 333-334
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 249 (5). RIC VII Lugdunum 261 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI_160fy_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Rome 327 13 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Rome (// RFP). A.D. 330
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 327
maridvnvm
RI_160fz_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Rome 32717 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Rome (// RFP). A.D. 330
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 327
maridvnvm
RI_160ff_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Ticinum 08724 viewsObv:- IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right
Rev:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over Altar. Star on Altar
Minted in Ticinum, (//ST). A.D. 319
Reference:- RIC VII Ticinum 87 (Rated R4)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160fe_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Trier 526 19 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Trier (TRP•)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 526 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160fd_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Trier 53718 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Trier (TR•P)
Reference:–  RIC VII Trier 537
maridvnvm
RI_160gf_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).15 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– FL VALERIVS CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (crescent / K | G / P //ALE)
Reference:– RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).

26.94 mm, 6.05g, 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_160ex_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a
maridvnvm
RI_160fi_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a22 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a

2.84 gms. 23-26mm
maridvnvm
RI_160fh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 121a23 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London (T | F / PLN) A.D. Autumn A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 121a

4.46 gms. 22mm
maridvnvm
RI_160eq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 15331 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- COMITI AVGG N N, Sol standing left, holding globe in right hand and whip in left hand
Minted in London (_ | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VI London 153
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RI_160fm_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 16918 viewsFollis (AE3)
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMITI AVGG NN, Sol radiate standing left, holding globe and whip
Minted in London (_ | * //PLN) A.D. 310-312
Reference(s) – RIC VI London 169 (S citing Oxford)
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RI_160fv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI London 251 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CO-NSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in London (* | _ // PLN). Late A.D. 312- May A.D. 313
Reference:– RIC VI London 251 (Rated S with CON-S, noted rarely occurring with CO-NS. This seems to be supported by a spot check of other coins of this issue)
maridvnvm
RI_160el_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum -42 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum -. Bastien -.

4.76 gms. 0 degrees. 22.77 mm.

Not known with this obverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI_160ez_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 25528 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left before lighted altar in turreted crown, left shoulder & loins draped, holding patera & cornucopia.
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC)
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 255. Bastien XI 470 (122)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ek_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 31049 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLC).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI_160dw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 312 17 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, holding whip in left hand
Minted in Lugdunum (F | T / PLG). Spring A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 312 (Rated Scarce). Bastien XI 528 (28 examples)
3.32g. 24.26mm
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RI_160gd_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lyons 24246 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked, advancing right, holding transverse spear in right hand and shield
Minted in Lugdunum (N|_// PLC). Autumn A.D. 307 - 309/310
Reference:– RIC VI Lyons 242 (S). Bastien 462 (9 examples cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 86235 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 862

Weight 4.63g. 23.27mm.
maridvnvm
RI_160ed_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87031 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 870
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RI_160dq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 873 39 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873

Weight 4.32g. 23.73mm.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ee_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87321 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ef_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Trier 87318 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
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RI_160eo_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 08026 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Arles (T / * | F / SARL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 80 (Rated S)
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160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 15015 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing right, head left, holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Arles (C | S / PARL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 150 (Rated S)
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RI_160dv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 28626 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Arles (//PA crescent RL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 286
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160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Heraclea 08218 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in two lines within wreath
Minted in Heraclea (//SMHG dot)
Reference:- RIC VII Heraclea 082
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RI_160ep_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 14918 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in London (Crescent | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 149 (Rated R4)
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RI_160du_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 26723 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, bust right wearing trabea, holding eagle tipped sceptre in right hand
Rev:– BEAT TRANQLITAS, Altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above
Minted in London (//PLON). A.D. 323 - 324
Reference:– RIC VII London 267
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RI_160dr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII London 28025 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in London (* | _ / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 280

Weight 3.55g. 20.79mm.
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RI_160ec_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 0311 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped cuirassed bust right (see from rear)
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLG), A.D. 322-323
Reference:– Bastien XI 540. RIC VII Lugdunum 3 (Rated Scarce)
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RI_160dt_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 059 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC). A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– Bastien XI 543 (245 examples). RIC VII Lugdunum 5
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RI_160dn_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum 5312 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (A | S / PLG).
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 53

Weight 3.29g. 19.13mm.
maridvnvm
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160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum unlisted21 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped sceptre in tight hand
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above.
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R / PLC)
Reference– RIC VII Lugdunum -. Bastien XIII 111 (3 examples cited)
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RI_160fo_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Siscia 1520 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left
Minted in Siscis (_ | D / dot SIS dot). A.D. 315-316
Reference(s) – RIC VII Siscia 15
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RI_160fk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Thessalonica 15312 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
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RI_160fj_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 16723 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX crescent in three lines within wreath, dot in centre
Minted in Ticinum (//ST)
RIC VII Ticinum 167
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RI_160em_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 314 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Ticinum (// TT).
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 3 (Rated R2)
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RI_160ds_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10419 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTI COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 104

Weight 3.65g. 20.62mm.
maridvnvm
RI_160er_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10518 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160gk_img~0.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 10518 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105

Weight 3.19g. 19.95mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160do_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 105 var29 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right (spread coak)
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105 var (Spread chlamys rather than over shoulder as on 105)

Weight 3.45g. 20.36mm.
maridvnvm
RI_160eh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 12813 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 128 (Rated R4)
maridvnvm
RI_160fa_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13221 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe, chlamys spread over both shoulders.
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 132
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ei_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13211 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 132
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RI_160eg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13511 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / .ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 135
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RI_160ej_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 13511 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left hand and raising right, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 135
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RI_160fb_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Trier 16221 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe,.
Minted in Trier (F | T / .ATR)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 162 (R4).
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RI_160fs_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Alexandria 161 16 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VALER CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Palm | A // ALE). A.D. 312 - 313
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 161 (S)
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RI 160aa img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Cyzicus 077b48 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left
Minted in Cyzicus (MKVA), Mid A.D. 311.
Reference:– RIC VI 77b

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160ce img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI London 25125 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in London (* | _ / PLN). Late A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI London 251 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 160co img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum -22 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol walking left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum - (Unlisted reverse type variation). Bastien 529 (4 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_160dk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28753 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ew_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28721 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
maridvnvm
RI_160dk_revb.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Genius - FULL SIZE)48 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see Genius full size.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dk_obva.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Portrait - FULL SIZE)30 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see this portrait full size.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160db img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 29428 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– MARTI PATRI CONSERVATORI, Helmeted Mars, naked, standing right, right hand holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Mint – Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) Autumn A.D. 308 to Spring A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 294 (Scarce). Bastien XI 511 (20)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160cg img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 3099 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309
maridvnvm
RI 160cf img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 3099 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309. Bastien XI 525 (14 example cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160cb img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 309 12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 309. Bastien XI 525 (14 example cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160aj img~0.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31049 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVI-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160ax img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31018 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160by img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 31030 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310
maridvnvm
RI 160bd img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 310 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. F in left field, T in right field, PLC in exe. A.D. 309 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 310

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160y img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Siscia 225c41 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt, eagle at feet
Minted in Siscia. B over μ in right field, SIS in exe. earlier A.D. 312.
Reference:– RIC VI Siscia 225c (Scarce)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160ck img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Ticinum 124a42 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI Ticinum 124a (S)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160gj_imga.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Ticinum 124a35 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI Ticinum 124a (S)
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160ai img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 77656 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked but for chlamys, advancing right with transverse spear and shield.
Minted in Trier. S in left field, A in right field, PTR in exe. A.D. 307 – 308
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 776 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 160aw img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 77631 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI, Mars, naked but for chlamys, advancing right with transverse spear and shield.
Minted in Trier. S in left field, A in right field, PTR in exe. A.D. 307 – 308
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 776 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_160gn_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 85525 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:- MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR). A.D. 310 - 313
Reference(s) – RIC VI Trier 855 (S).

3.64g. 23.95 mm. 180 degrees.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bc img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 87331 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 873
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160fu_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 881 (Follis)27 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI. Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier (unmarked). A.D. 310 - 313
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 881
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bt img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 88439 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI, Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier
Reference– RIC VI Trier 884
maridvnvm
RI 160bt img~0.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 88431 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Helmeted bust of Mars facing right
Minted in Trier
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 884
maridvnvm
RI_160ft_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)17 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160fw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)15 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 160ae img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 02232 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left, draped mappa, orb and scepter
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter
Minted in Alexandria, crescent in left field, B in right field, SMAL in exe
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 22 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 160ah img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 03419 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–.PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALB in exe.)
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 34 22 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALA).
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160gp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Antioch 08111 viewsObv:- CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Rosette, diademed head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE AVGG Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, Dot in archway
Minted in Antioch. SMANTA in exe. A.D. 327-328
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 81 (R4)

Partially silvered
2.40g. 20mm.
maridvnvm
RI 160ab img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Arles 19439 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Arles, PARL in exe. A.D. 319
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 194 (R4) (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160ev_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Arles 364 54 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (Palm Branch //PCONST)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 364 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160eu_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Arles 37049 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Arles (Wreath //PCONST)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 370 (R2)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160k img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Cyzicus 04446 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks
Minted in Cyzicus. •SMKG• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 44
maridvnvm
RI 160j img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 06041 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath enclosing VOT XX
Minted in Heraclea. SMHA in exe.
Date Minted – A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 60
maridvnvm
RI 160o img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 060 (A)46 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX, star below, within wreath
Minted in Heraclea, SMHA in exe. A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 60
maridvnvm
RI 160g img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 08236 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath enclosing VOT XXX
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΔ• in exe. A.D. 326
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 82 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 160n img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 09067 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Diademed head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX within wreath
Minted in Heraclea. •SMHA in exe. A.D. 327-329
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 90 (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160v img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Heraclea 090 (B)44 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Diademed bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX, within wreath
Minted in Heraclea. •SMHB in exe. A.D. 327 - 329
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 90
maridvnvm
RI_160df_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London -23 viewsObv:- IMP CONSTANTINVS AG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left etc.
Minted in London (S|P/MLN)
Ref:- RIC VII London Unlisted. Note AG instead of AVG.
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI 160ad img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London 00648 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London. S in left field, F in right field; PLN in exe. A.D. 313 - 314
Reference:– RIC VII London 6 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI_160dg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII London 7028 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in London S | P / MSL
Reference:– RIC VII London 70 (R4)
Martin Griffiths
RI 160bp img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00210 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 312
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 2 (R1). Bastien XI 538 (6 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160bl img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0035 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 3 (S). Bastien XI 540 (155 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160au img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00412 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 4 (R1). Bastien XI 541 (54 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160bf img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0048 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INV-I-C-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum (S | F / PLC), A.D. 313-314
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 4 (R1). Bastien XI 541 (54 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160ay img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0057 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand, right hand high in salute
Minted in Lugdunum. S in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 313/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 5. Bastien XI 543 (245 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160ao img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 00730 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe in left hand, right hand high in salute
Minted in Lugdunum. S in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 313/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 7
maridvnvm
RI_160fq_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01019 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:- MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars helmeted, in military dress, cloak hanging over right shoulder, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (T | F / PLC). A.D. 315
Reference:– Bastien XI 570 (30 examples cited). RIC VII Lugdunum 10 (R2)

20.19mm. 3.41 gms. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI 160bx img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01514 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 15. Bastien XI 562
maridvnvm
RI 160cr img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0158 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 15. Bastien XI 562
maridvnvm
RI 160ca img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01626 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 16 (Rated R4). Bastien XI ???
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bw img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01723 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 17 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI 160as img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 01910 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from front)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 19 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 160av img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 02014 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Lugdunum. T in left field, F in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 20
maridvnvm
RI 160at img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 03215 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. TF in left field, * in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 32 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 160cm img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0337 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. TF in left field, * in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 33 (R3). Bastien XI 594 (16 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160bz img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 03422 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. TF in left field, * in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fn_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 03419 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. TF in left field, * in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 34
maridvnvm
RI 160be img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 0536 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Lugdunum. (A | S / PLC). (Bastien A.D. 315 to early A.D. 316)
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 53. Bastien XI 609 (86 examples cited) but this example has an unlisted reverse legend break, Listed for INVIC-TO (normal) and rarely for INVI-CTO and INVI-C-TO.
maridvnvm
RI 160bs img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 06512 viewsObv:– CONS-TANTINVS AVG, High crested helemeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Lugdunum (//two captives). A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII 65 (R1). Bastien XI 3 (23 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160br img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 113 63 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives seated either side of banner inscribed VOT XX
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R /PLG). A.D. 321
Reference:– Bastien XI 65. RIC VII Lugdunum 113 (R1)

A pleasing fully silvered example with some golden toning to the silvering.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160ap img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 12817 viewsObv:–CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 128
maridvnvm
RI 160bg img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 12810 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 128
maridvnvm
RI 160dc img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 12913 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 129. Bastien XIII 100 Legend break ii (1 example listed with unbroken obverse legend - Ashmolean, the more normal obverse legend break N-T has 8 examples cited in Bastien)
maridvnvm
RI 160ba img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 13010 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 322-323
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 130. Bastien XIII 80 ii (5 examples cited with this legend break)
maridvnvm
RI 160ar img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 15314 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 322-323
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 153
maridvnvm
RI 160az img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 155 7 viewsObv:–CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field, R in right field; PLG in exe. A.D. 322-323
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 155
maridvnvm
RI 160aq img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 199 9 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. A.D. 322
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 199 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 160bq img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 2008 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX; three stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe. A.D. 322
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 200 (R5). Bastien XIII 153 (2 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160al img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 20916 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field ; PLCU in exe. A.D. 323/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 209 (R4). Bastien XIII 167 (5 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_160an_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22220 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field ; •PLCU in exe. A.D. 323/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 222
maridvnvm
RI 160am img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22240 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right
Minted in Lugdunum. C in left field ; •PLCU in exe. A.D. 323/4
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 222
maridvnvm
RI 160bn img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22528 viewsObv:–CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).end A.D. 325 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 225 (Scarce), Bastien XIII 184
maridvnvm
RI 160bm img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 23617 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum. SLG in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 236 (R4). Bastien XIII 203 (3 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160ak img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 243 13 viewsReduced Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORI-A EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum. •PLC in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 243 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 160bi img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 24315 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, Rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORI-A EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum. •PLC in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 243 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_160gk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Rome 020 var31 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Rome (R | F / R * S). A.D. 314
Reference(s) – RIC VII Rome 20 var (Unlisted officina. Listed for P-R4, T-R5 and Q-R5 so not unexpected)

4.15 gms. 20.94 mm. 180 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160d img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Rome 28733 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate, surmounted by two turrets, 7 rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Rome. R(wreath)P in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 287
maridvnvm
RI 160l img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 05436 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Helmeted laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Siscia. ASIS in exe. A.D. 318-319
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 54 (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160a img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 20035 viewsObv:– CONSTA-NTIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. •BSIS• in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 200
maridvnvm
RI 160h img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 21440 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row dots in blocks, bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. ASIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 214
maridvnvm
RI_160es_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Siscia 23548 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Siscia (//•ASIS•)
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 235
maridvnvm
RI_160q_obv.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 0329 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VOT XX MVLT XXX, within wreath
Minted in Thessalonica. TS•Γ• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 31
maridvnvm
RI 160af img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 123 (Γ)43 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath with VOT / • / XX
Minted in Thessalonica, TSΓVI in exe
Reference:– RIC 123
maridvnvm
RI 160de img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 123 (Γ)19 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath with VOT / • / XX
Minted in Thessalonica, TSΓVI in exe
Reference:– RIC 123
maridvnvm
RI_160ac_img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 123 (A)22 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate Constantine I facing right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX in wreath
Minted in Thessalonica, TSAVI in exe. A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 123
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160p img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 123 (E)33 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX, within wreath
Minted in Thessalonica. TSΕVI in exe. A.D. 324
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 123 E (R2)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160m img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 15332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160w img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (Γ)36 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks, pellet in right field.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160r img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (A)34 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Camp-gate, two turrets, one star, with 7 rows of bricks, top row with dots
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSA in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160bj img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 423 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F INV AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on scepter, Victory on globe in right hand, eagle with wreath at feet to the left
Minted in Thessalonica (//•TS•A•), November A.D. 316 – March A.D. 317
Reference:– RIC Thessalonica 4 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 160x img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Ticinum 02140 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Ticinum. * in left field, S●T in exe. A.D. 314 - 315
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 21
maridvnvm
RI 160cl img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Ticinum 06814 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right
Minted in Ticinum (P | _ / TT).
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 68 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 160u img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Ticinum 14031 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX, within wreath
Minted in Ticinum. PT in exe. A.D. 320 –321
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 140
maridvnvm
RI 160c img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Ticinum 16755 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XX in a wreath, crescent with dot above
Minted in Ticinum. PTin exe. A.D. 322-325
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 167
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dm_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 08225 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CON-SERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (B | S / PTR). A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 82 (S)

Weight 3.62g. 21.48mm.
maridvnvm
RI_160dh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10035 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 316
Reference:– RIC VII – Trier 100 (R5)
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI 160cu img~0.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10120 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 316
Reference(s) – RIC VII – Trier 101
maridvnvm
RI_160dj_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10126 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / ATR) A.D. 316
Reference:– RIC VII – Trier 101
Martin Griffiths
RI 160t img~0.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10244 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe.
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, BTR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 102
maridvnvm
RI 160ch img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10214 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe.
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, BTR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 102

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160ct img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 104 21 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 316
Reference(s) – RIC VII – Trier 104
maridvnvm
RI 160cy img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 104 22 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 316
Reference(s) – RIC VII – Trier 104
maridvnvm
RI 160cs img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10522 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe.
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, BTR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105
maridvnvm
RI_160dl_img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10542 viewsAe3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T F / BTR) A.D.
RIC VII Trier 105
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160cj img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 11130 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars standing, right, holding spear and leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 111 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI 160bu img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 11437 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars standing, right, holding spear and leaning on shield
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, ATR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 114 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_160fp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 11414 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CONSERVATORI. Mars standing, right, holding spear and leaning on shield
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, ATR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 114 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 160cd img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 11837 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CON-SERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, looking left, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR). A.D. 315-316
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 118 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 160cv img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 12923 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing right, holding right hand high in salute and globe, chlamys draped over both shoulders.
Minted in Trier (T in left field, F in right field, BTR in exe).
RIC VII Trier 129 (R5)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160dd img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13115 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Trier (T | F / ●ATR) A.D. 317
Ref:– RIC VII – Trier 131 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI 160cp img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13113 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Trier (T | F / ●ATR) A.D. 317
Ref:– RIC VII – Trier 131 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI_160cw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13213 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right. (chlamys draped over both shoulders)
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 317
Ref:– RIC VII – Trier 132
maridvnvm
RI 160cx img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13426 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right. (chlamys draped over both shoulders)
Mint – Trier (T | F / BTR) A.D. 317
Ref:– RIC VII – Trier 134 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 160cq img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13515 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Minted in Trier (T | F / ●ATR) A.D. 317
Ref:– RIC VII – Trier 135

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160di_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 13528 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right.
Mint – Trier (T | F / dot ATR) A.D. 316
Reference:– RIC VII – Trier 135
Martin Griffiths
RI_160gm_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 16122 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe,.
Minted in Trier (F | T / BTR) A.D. 317 - 318
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 161 (R4).

4.66 g. 20.58 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160f img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 21672 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT | PR on altar inscribed with *.
Minted in Trier. STR in exe. A.D. 319
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 216 (R3) (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160e img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 30348 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above.
Minted in Trier. STR in exe. A.D. 323
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 303
From the Langcroft Hoard.
maridvnvm
RI 160s img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 36840 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed with VOT/IS/XX
Minted in Trier. •STR• in exe. A.D. 322-323
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 368
maridvnvm
RI 160bk img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 36816 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed with VOT/IS/XX
Minted in Trier. •STR• in exe. A.D. 322-323
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 368
maridvnvm
RI_160et_img.jpg
160 - Constantine The Great - RIC VII Trier 537 53 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Trier (TR•S)
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 537
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160bv img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier unlisted (Note to Trier 127)31 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (Seen from the front, Bust B4)
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / Dot ATR). A.D. 316
Reference:– RIC VII Trier - (RIC notes against Trier 127 that the Catalogue of the Gerin collection had a specimen with the Laur, dr & cuir bust right viewed from the front (bust B4) but not verified eslewhere.)
maridvnvm
RI_160gl_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII VII Trier 08026 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. MARTI CON-SERVATORI. Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (A | S / PTR). A.D. 315-316
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 80 (R2)

3.76g. 20.44 mm. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_160gg_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great -AE3 - RIC VII Rome 237 20 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath enclosing VOT XX
Minted in Rome (//RQ).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 237 (C3).
maridvnvm
RI_160gi_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great -AE3 - RIC VII Rome 33 18 viewsAE3
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI IN -VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right, chlamys across left shoulder
Minted in Rome (S | F //RP).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 33 (C3).

Large flan. Residual golden toned silvering in the fields.

3.49 gms. 21.79 mm generally but 23.55 mm at the sprue
maridvnvm
RI_160gh_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great -AE3 - RIC VII Trier 435 16 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right
Minted in Trier (//PTR crescent).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 435 (C3).
maridvnvm
RI_161aq_img~0.jpg
161 - Constantine the Great (posthumous) - AE4 - RIC VIII 1219 viewsObv:- DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right
Rev:- Emperor, veiled, in quadriga right, the hand of God reaches down to him
Minted in Alexandria (//SMALA) 337 - April 340 A.D.
Reference RIC VIII Alexandria 12
maridvnvm
RI_161as_img.jpg
161 - Constantine the Great (posthumous) - AE4 - RIC VIII 3236 viewsAE4
Obv: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right
Rev: VN | MR, Emperor veiled standing right
Minted in Alexandria (//SMALD) 337 - April 340 A.D
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 32
3 commentsmaridvnvm
maurel_RIC1179.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD43 viewsobv: M.ANTONINVS.AVG.GERM.SARM.TRP.XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP.VIII.COS.III.PP (trophy of base of wich are seated Marcomann (German) woman on right, and Markomann (German) with hands bound behind him on left), S-C in field, DE GERM in ex.
ref: RIC III 1179 (S), C.157 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
13.00gms, 25mm
Scarce

This dupondius celebrates Roman victory a series of wars on the empire’s northern frontier known as the Bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum. The reverse of this coin speaks of these campaigns with the inscription DE GERM(ANIS) encompassing a military trophy flanked by two captives. The bound men would have come from the barbarian nations that occupied lands across the Danube, for in recent years the Romans had won wars against the Marcomanns, the Quadi, the Jazyges and the Sarmatians.
Many other types celebrated Roman victories in this theatre, and they became the centrepiece of coin propaganda of the era. Considering these wars were not only a source of great financial strain, but they annually cost the lives of many young men, it was essential for Marcus Aurelius to demonstrate success in the form of attractive coin types showing bound barbarians and trophies.
berserker
1639_Receipt_of_Spain_37.jpg
1639 Receipt from Spain127 viewsDate: AD 1639, personal receipt, scarce
This is an old receipt dated AD 1639 for payment in the amount of 66 Ducados & ˝ of vellón. It is from Spain during the reign of Philip IV (AD 1621-1665).

During the 17th century the power of Spain declined sharply and parts of its great empire broke away. The Dutch won a great naval victory at the Battle of the Downs in AD 1639. Spain finally recognized Dutch independence in 1648. In 1640 Portugal rebelled against Spanish rule. Spain formally recognized Portuguese independence in 1668. Meanwhile in 1635 a war began between France and Spain. In 1643 a Spanish army tried to invade France but was utterly defeated. Then in 1655 England joined France against Spain. Eventually by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Spain was forced to cede territory to France. In the late 17th century Spanish power continued to decline. At the beginning of the century Spain was able to dominate Europe. By the end of the century it had ceased to be a great power.
2 commentsNoah
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*Alex
11905.jpg
1673 Maundy Threepence81 viewsGreat Britain 1673 Maundy 3d. Charles II.
VF/EF flan flaw @ 5 o' clock, nice moustache, even toning.
Inside Flip.
obv:
CAROLVS.II.DEI.GRATIA - Laureate bust right, draped, seen from the front.
rev:
.16 73.
MAG.BR.FRA.ET.HIB.REX

*Any scratches or marks are on the flip, not the coin.
rexesq
4264.jpg
1673 Maundy Threepence42 viewsGreat Britain 1673 Maundy 3d. Charles II.
VF/EF flan flaw @ 5 o' clock, nice moustache, even toning. Obv 04.
Inside Flip.
obv:
CAROLVS.II.DEI.GRATIA - Laureate bust right, draped, seen from the front.
rev:
.16 73.
MAG.BR.FRA.ET.HIB.REX

*Any scratches or marks are on the flip, not the coin.
rexesq
4262.jpg
1673 Maundy Threepence45 viewsGreat Britain 1673 Maundy 3d. Charles II.
VF/EF flan flaw @ 5 o' clock, nice moustache, even toning.
obv:
CAROLVS.II.DEI.GRATIA - Laureate bust right, draped, seen from the front.
rev:
.16 73.
MAG.BR.FRA.ET.HIB.REX

1 commentsrexesq
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*Alex
17-Alex-Temnos-P1686.jpg
17. Temnos: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.33 viewsTetradrachm, ca 188 - 170 BC, Temnos mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ&Upsilon / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Two monograms, vine branch, and vase at left.
16.25 gm., 33 mm.
P. #1686; M. #958.
Callimachus
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11931923 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A787.jpg
1701b, Saladin, 1169-1193150 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.93), al-Qahira, AH586, A-787.2, clear mint & date, double struck, some horn-silvering;VF-EF.

His name in Arabic is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"). He was born in 1137/8 A.D. in Tikrit, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved a significant success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. Unlike the notorious conquest by the Christians, who slaughtered the inhabitants of the “Holy City,” Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem was marked by civilized and courteous behaviour. Saladin was generous to his vanquished foes—by any measure. When he died in 1193, this man who is arguably Islam’s greatest hero was virtually penniless. After a lifetime of giving alms to the poor, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.
Cleisthenes
england_shilling_1720_obv_01.JPG
1720 Shilling49 viewsGreat Britain
George I 1720 Shilling.
Roses and Plumes reverse.

obv:
GEORGIVS.D.G.M.BR.FR.ET.HIB.REX.F.D. - Laureate bust right, draped, seen from the front.

rev:
1720
S.R.I.A.TH.ET.EL.BRVN.ET.L.DVX
rexesq
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 21 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.21 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]63 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
1797_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, North Wales and London.47 viewsObverse: NORTH WALES HALFPENNY. Script monogram of "RNG" in centre with 1793 above.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 18
RARE

Possibly engraved by Rambert Dumarest (Britannia) and Thomas Wyon (cypher). Manufactured by William Lutwyche and/or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.

This token, apparently a mule, was issued by, or is in imitation of, the Parys Mine Company from North Wales. In the 18th century the token manufacturers supplied orders for a great variety of tokens. These manufacturers often used the dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, i.e. tokens produced by using the dies of two different tokens, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to “benefit” the collectors of the day.

The undeciphered “RNG” cypher is very similar to the “PMC” cypher used for the Parys Mine Company's first tokens.
*Alex
VHC18-coin.JPG
18- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 FARTHING, KM788.2.27 viewsSize: 20 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 8,016,000.
Grade: NGC MS61 (Cert.# 4080257-007).
Comments: Purchased raw from Tom Carroll, 11/20/09.
lordmarcovan
18-Alex-Kyme-P1642.jpg
18. Kyme: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.44 viewsTetradrachm, ca 188 - 170 BC, Kyme mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. A one-handled jug in wreath at left, ΑΘΗΝΙΚΩΝ in exergue.
16.71 gm., 37 mm.
P. #1642; M. #950.

The photo does not do justice to the beauty of this coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
1800_penny_NGC-AU58.jpg
1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU5871 viewsGreat Britain 1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU58
*no dots between titles on obverse.
obv:
GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA
rev:
MAG.BRI.FR.ET.HIB.REX
.1800.
2 commentsrexesq
LouisXVIII1815.JPG
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.96 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.
AE50.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
LordBest
england_shilling_1817_george-3rd_obv_04.JPG
1817 Shilling125 viewsGreat Britain
George III 1817 Shilling

obverse:
GEORG:III D:G: BRITT:REX F:D:
1817
Laureate head right.
rev on garter: HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
rexesq
great-britain_one-and-one-half-pence_1839_flip_obv_02_rev_01.JPG
1839 One and One Half Pence47 viewsGreat Britain 1839 One and One Half Pence.
mintage: 760,320

Has prooflike devices... hard to show in the photo, which was taken through a coin flip.
2 commentsrexesq
england_1841_maundy-two-pence_renee-dr-martin_in-flip_obv_05_rev_02.JPG
1841 Two Pence - Maundy28 viewsGreat Britain 1841 Maundy Two Pence. Photos taken through coin flip.

mintage: 4,158

Somewhat prooflike obverse.
rexesq
NapoleonIII1855Exposition.JPG
1855. Napoleon III, Exposition Universalle A.179 viewsObv. Head of Napoleon III NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR
Rev. French Imperial crest encircled by wreath naming the exposition in full, itself surrounded by the coats of arms of all the French regions (I believe) EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIE BEAUX ARTS/ PARIS 1855. Chalon et Estienne engraved on open scroll in ex.

A medal struck in 1855 to commemorate the 'Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855', France's first world fair, following four years on from London's Great Exhibition.
LordBest
ChambersSomersetHouseMedal~0.JPG
1857. Sir William Chambers and Somerset House. Taylor 52a.77 viewsObv. Bust of William chambers to right. CHAMBERS 1725-1796 Signed B WYON AFTER WESTMACOTT
Rev. Elevation of Somerset House to the Strand, featuring nine bayed entrance block. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781 SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS RA ARCHITECT. Signed B WYON. Edge inscription: ART UNION OF LONDON 1857.
AE55. Taylor 52a.

Issued as one of the Art Union series. The medal gives an incorrect date of birth to chambers, 725 as opposed to 1723. The portrait is based on a bust displayed at the Royal Academy in 1797 by Sir Richard Westmacott, this is now in Sir John Soanes museum.
Built under an act of 1775, as a great new administrative centre to house official and academic bodies. Designed by Sir William Chambers, the Surveyor- General, and completed in the nineteenth century by Sir Robert Smirke (eastern extension to Kings College) and Sir James Pennethorne (western extension to Waterloo Bridge). Chambers decided on a central courtyard, approached through a block of narrow frontage, which was to house the learned societies, including the Royal Academy and Society of Antiquaries. It is the Strand façade of this entrance block which is shown on the medal, it was complete by 1781 and incorporated sculpture by fellow Academicians Bacon, Carlini and Wilton.
LordBest
england_1870_1d_maundy_dr-martin_inside-flip_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
1870 One Pence - Maundy25 viewsGreat Britain 1870 Maundy One Pence
mintage: 7,920
1 commentsrexesq
england_1870_1d_maundy_dr-martin_inside-flip_obv_05_lincoln-cent.JPG
1870 One Pence - Maundy w/ US Lincoln Cent for Comparison28 viewsGreat Britain 1870 Maundy One Pence w/ US Lincoln Cent for size comparison.

mintage: 7,920
rexesq
england_florin_1876_die-19_in-flip_obv_02.JPG
1876 Gothic Florin - #19 - Obverse30 viewsGreat Britain 1876 #19 Florin, inside coin flip.
mintage: 580,000

**all scratches, or little white things, are on the exterior of the flip, not on the coin itself.
rexesq
england_florin_1876_die-19_in-flip_rev_03.JPG
1876 Gothic Florin - #19 - Reverse30 viewsGreat Britain 1876 #19 Florin, inside coin flip.
mintage: 580,000

**all scratches, or little white things, are on the exterior of the flip, not on the coin itself.
rexesq
84far.jpg
1884 Farthing-Great Britain10 viewsNORMAN K
VHC19-coin.JPG
19- GREAT BRITAIN, 1/2 PENNY, KM789.17 viewsSize: 25.5 mm. Composition: Bronze. Mintage: 11,127,000.
Grade: PCGS MS64 RD.
Comments: A gift from Don Rupp, 04/2010.
lordmarcovan
19-Alex-Mesembria-P1055.jpg
19. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.23 viewsTetradrachm, ca 175 - 125 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑ and Corinthian helmet to left, monogram under throne.
16.57 gm., 30 mm.
P. #1055; M. #472.
Callimachus
s-1921c.jpg
1921c ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 15 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 15.63mm

Weight 4.0gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain. This is only the third example I have seen in twenty years, not in great condition but is a great rarity.
Simon
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius48 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
1955.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 11 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-3a.jpg
1955A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 47 views
OBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
kennedy-half-dollar_silver_1776-1976-S_BU_rev_06.JPG
1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar9 views~~~
~~
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1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar. Reverse, Beautiful toning, great coin.
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~~~
rexesq
kennedy-half-dollar_silver_1776-1976-S_BU_obv_05_rev_01.JPG
1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar24 views~~~
~~
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1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar. Reverse, Beautiful toning, great coin.
~
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~~~
rexesq
s-1986.jpg
1986C ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 31 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size

Weight

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

This is a new acquisition as par of an old collection, not great but some details not usually seen.
Simon
Manlia4.jpg
1aa Reign of SVLLA23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
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1aa Julius Caesar166 views60 BC (formation of the First Triumvirate)-44 BC (assassination)

Denarius
44 BC

Caesar's head, right, eight-pointed star behind. CAESAR IMP.
Venus standing left, holding victory and scepter. P SEPVLLIVS MACER.

RSC 41

Plutarch said of the first triumvirate: There is a law among the Romans, that whoever desires the honour of a triumph must stay without the city and expect his answer. And another, that those who stand for the consulship shall appear personally upon the place. Caesar was come home at the very time of choosing consuls, and being in a difficulty between these two opposite laws, sent to the senate to desire that, since he was obliged to be absent, he might sue for the consulship by his friends. Cato, being backed by the law, at first opposed his request; afterwards perceiving that Caesar had prevailed with a great part of the senate to comply with it, he made it his business to gain time, and went on wasting the whole day in speaking. Upon which Caesar thought fit to let the triumph fall, and pursued the consulship. Entering the town and coming forward immediately, he had recourse to a piece of state policy by which everybody was deceived but Cato. This was the reconciling of Crassus and Pompey, the two men who then were most powerful in Rome. There had been a quarrel between them, which he now succeeded in making up, and by this means strengthened himself by the united power of both, and so under the cover of an action which carried all the appearance of a piece of kindness and good-nature, caused what was in effect a revolution in the government. For it was not the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar, as most men imagine, which was the origin of the civil wars, but their union, their conspiring together at first to subvert the aristocracy, and so quarrelling afterwards between themselves.

Of Caesar's military leadership, Plutarch wrote: He was so much master of the good-will and hearty service of his soldiers that those who in other expeditions were but ordinary men displayed a courage past defeating or withstanding when they went upon any danger where Caesar's glory was concerned. . . . This love of honour and passion for distinction were inspired into them and cherished in them by Caesar himself, who, by his unsparing distribution of money and honours, showed them that he did not heap up wealth from the wars for his own luxury, or the gratifying his private pleasures, but that all he received was but a public fund laid by the reward and encouragement of valour, and that he looked upon all he gave to deserving soldiers as so much increase to his own riches. Added to this also, there was no danger to which he did not willingly expose himself, no labour from which he pleaded an exemption. His contempt of danger was not so much wondered at by his soldiers because they knew how much he coveted honour. But his enduring so much hardship, which he did to all appearance beyond his natural strength, very much astonished them. For he was a spare man, had a soft and white skin, was distempered in the head and subject to an epilepsy, which, it is said, first seized him at Corduba. But he did not make the weakness of his constitution a pretext for his ease, but rather used war as the best physic against his indispositions; whilst, by indefatigable journeys, coarse diet, frequent lodging in the field, and continual laborious exercise, he struggled with his diseases and fortified his body against all attacks. He slept generally in his chariots or litters, employing even his rest in pursuit of action. In the day he was thus carried to the forts, garrisons, and camps, one servant sitting with him, who used to write down what he dictated as he went, and a soldier attending behind him with his sword drawn.
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APlautiusDenJudea.jpg
1ab Conquest of Judea11 viewsA. Plautius, moneyer
c. 54 BC

Denarius

Turreted head of Cybele, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
Bacchius kneels right with camel at his side, extending olive branch, BACCHIVS in ex., IVDAEVS in right

Seaby, Plautia 13

The reverse appears to Pompey's conquest of Judaea in 63 BC.

Josephus recorded of Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem: And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them; and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to. . . . Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance. . . . But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was oil the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was a hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior situation; nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on sabbath days.
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PompeyDenNeptune.jpg
1ac1 Pompey the Great28 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus in 60 BC. Murdered in Egypt, 48 BC.

Denarius, minted by son Sextus Pompey

42-40 BC

Head of Pompey the Great right between jug and lituus
Neptune right foot on prow, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, with their parents on their shoulders

Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.

SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, Crawford 511/3a, BM Sicily 93

Plutarch said of Pompey: In Pompey, there were many [causes] that helped to make him the object of [the Roman people's] love; his temperance, his skill and exercise in war, his eloquence of speech, integrity of mind, and affability in conversation and address; insomuch that no man ever asked a favour with less offence, or conferred one with a better grace. When he gave, it was without assumption; when he received, it was with dignity and honour.
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1ae Marc Antony and Octavian43 viewsFormed the Second Triumvirate, 43-33 BC, , along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony killed himself in 30 BC.

Denarius
41 BC

Marc Antony portrait, right, M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM BARBAT QP
Octavian portrait, right, CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR RPC

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Plutarch described Antony thusly: Antony grew up a very beautiful youth, but by the worst of misfortunes, he fell into the acquaintance and friendship of Curio, a man abandoned to his pleasures, who, to make Antony's dependence upon him a matter of greater necessity, plunged him into a life of drinking and dissipation, and led him through a course of such extravagance that he ran, at that early age, into debt to the amount of two hundred and fifty talents. . . . He took most to what was called the Asiatic taste in speaking, which was then at its height, and was, in many ways, suitable to his ostentatious, vaunting temper, full of empty flourishes and unsteady efforts for glory. . . . He had also a very good and noble appearance; his beard was well grown, his forehead large, and his nose aquiline, giving him altogether a bold, masculine look that reminded people of the faces of Hercules in paintings and sculptures. It was, moreover, an ancient tradition, that the Antonys were descended from Hercules, by a son of his called Anton; and this opinion he thought to give credit to by the similarity of his person just mentioned, and also by the fashion of his dress. For, whenever he had to appear before large numbers, he wore his tunic girt low about the hips, a broadsword on his side, and over all a large coarse mantle. What might seem to some very insupportable, his vaunting, his raillery, his drinking in public, sitting down by the men as they were taking their food, and eating, as he stood, off the common soldiers' tables, made him the delight and pleasure of the army. In love affairs, also, he was very agreeable: he gained many friends by the assistance he gave them in theirs, and took other people's raillery upon his own with good-humour. And his generous ways, his open and lavish hand in gifts and favours to his friends and fellow-soldiers, did a great deal for him in his first advance to power, and after he had become great, long maintained his fortunes, when a thousand follies were hastening their overthrow.
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FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia43 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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1af Lepidus_212 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger th