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edward_III.jpg
45 viewsEdward III Groat; Pre-Treaty Period; 1356 to 1361

Edward III - Born: November 13, 1312 – Died: June 21, 1377; was Kind of England from February 1, 1327 to June 21, 1377. He was considered one of the most successful kinds of the middle ages and rebuilt the military into an international military power. His reign occurred directly after the reign of his father, Edward II, who was not considered a successful king.
1 commentspaul1888
EDWARD-III-KING-ENGLAND.JPG
0 views*Alex
RICHARD_II_OF_ENGLAND.JPG
0 views*Alex
Edward_VI_of_England.jpg
6 views*Alex
Gordian_Sear_2523.jpg
1 Gordian III31 viewsGordian III
AE of Nicea

O: M ANT GORDIANOC AVG, Radiate, draped bust r.

R: N-I-K-A-I, EWN in ex.; Two standards surmounted by capricorns between two standards

Rec. Gen 711

Rare. According to Dane Kurtz's list, copies include this coin, plus: "Geoff Hintze's collection, another sold on ebay in June 2006 by del550 (DRG Coins, England), another sold on ebay in Dec. 2008 by biggyg2"

Sosius
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ENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .32 viewsENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .
Mint and moneyer uncertain . 1.0 gr
Crowned and diademed bust of king right, holding sceptre in his right hand .
Cross moline, with a fleur each angle .
North 873; SCBC 1278
Vladislav D
Cnut_Lot_1402_LCG.jpg
ENGLAND. King Cnut AR penny31 viewsENGLAND. CANTERBURY, Royal mint, Cnut (1016-35), Silver Penny, 0.91g, 17.52 mm, Short Cross type moneyer Wulfwig.
Obv: Diademed bust left with lis sceptre, +CNVT - RECX:
Rev: Short voided cross, central annulet enclosing pellet, +PVLFPIGONCANT
Good Very Fine, slightly creased and pecked
North 790
London Coin Galleries, Auction 4 - Part 2 Lot 1402 June 1, 2017
1 commentsorfew
England-AR-penny-John-030000-temp-1.jpg
England: silver Short Cross penny of King John (1199-1216), struck in the name of Henry II, ca. 1205-120739 viewslordmarcovan
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Richard I: denier (Poitou)17 viewsRichard I (Richard the Lionheart): king of England (1189-1199) and count of Poitiers (1169-1196 and 1198-1199)
Denier (1169-1199, Poitou)

Billon, 1.01 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 11h
O/ +RICARDVS REX; cross pattée
R/ (ringlet)/PIC/TAVIE/NSIS

Pictaviensis means "from Poitou"
Droger
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S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)17 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
edouard-conf-penny-hammer-cross.JPG
S.1182 Edward the Confessor (hammer cross penny, York)5 viewsEdward the Confessor, king of England (1042-1066)
Hammer cross penny (moneyer: Thorr, mint: York, 1059-1062)

A/ +EΛDPΛRD-DRE; crowned, bearded bust right, scepter before
R/ +DORR ON EOFRPICE (barred D); hammer cross, annulet in one quarter

silver, 1.40 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h



Droger
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S.1257 William I the Conqueror (PAXS penny, London)15 viewsWilliam I the Conqueror, king of England (1066-1087)
PAXS penny (moneyer: Alfred, mint: London, 1083-1086?)

A/ +PILLELM RE; crowned bust facing, sceptre to right; clasp on shoulder
R/ +IELFRE ON LVNDN; cross with the letters PAXS in circles in the angles

silver, 1.40 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 6h

This type may have been struck by William II, son of William I.


2 commentsDroger
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S.2233 Henry VII Tudor (sovereign type penny, Durham)6 viewsHenry VII Tudor, king of England (1485-1509) and Bishop Richard Fox
Sovereign type penny (mint: Durham)

A/ [hENRIC] DI [GRA RE]X A[NG]; king seated on throne with one pilar, holding scepter and orb
R/ [CIVI-TA]S-DIR-hAm; royal shield on cross, mitre above, D and R on the sides

silver, 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 8h
Droger
allectus_b.jpg
(0293) ALLECTUS28 views293 - 296 AD
Billon quinarius 20.2 mm max.; 2.877 g
O: IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right;
R: VIRTVS AVG, Galley left, with mast, no waves below, QC in exergue;
Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint; Rogiet 1043, Burnett, Coinage 216, RIC V 130 var (steersman standing aft); ex Robert T. Golan (Warrenton, NC); scarce
(ex Forum)
laney
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05 Constantius II65 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England31 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis:1
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland19 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
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1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France42 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cśur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
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1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England21 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
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1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland7 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
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1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Long cross penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
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1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB +. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. In 1308 he married Isabella, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, to try and resolve tensions between the two countries.
Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston, who was arrogant with the power he had as Edward's favourite. In 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms and the newly empowered barons had Gaveston banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was obliged to sign a truce which brought an end to almost thirty years of warfare between the two countries.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reportedly gruesomely murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
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1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR (billon) Denier au Leopard, struck at Bordeaux, France3 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since Edward's son, heir and Richard's father, the Black Prince, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
*Alex
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1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England4 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
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1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England2 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
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1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France25 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Duplessy: 441

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
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1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
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1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
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1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
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1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
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1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey13 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
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1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England44 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
1553_-_1554_Mary_I_Tudor_AR_Groat.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England0 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.
*Alex
1594_Elizabeth_I_Sixpence.JPG
1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London0 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET•mintmark (Rose)• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
1639_Receipt_of_Spain_37.jpg
1639 Receipt from Spain129 viewsDate: AD 1639, personal receipt, scarce
This is an old receipt dated AD 1639 for payment in the amount of 66 Ducados & ˝ of vellón. It is from Spain during the reign of Philip IV (AD 1621-1665).

During the 17th century the power of Spain declined sharply and parts of its great empire broke away. The Dutch won a great naval victory at the Battle of the Downs in AD 1639. Spain finally recognized Dutch independence in 1648. In 1640 Portugal rebelled against Spanish rule. Spain formally recognized Portuguese independence in 1668. Meanwhile in 1635 a war began between France and Spain. In 1643 a Spanish army tried to invade France but was utterly defeated. Then in 1655 England joined France against Spain. Eventually by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Spain was forced to cede territory to France. In the late 17th century Spanish power continued to decline. At the beginning of the century Spain was able to dominate Europe. By the end of the century it had ceased to be a great power.
2 commentsNoah
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
england_shilling_1720_obv_01.JPG
1720 Shilling49 viewsGreat Britain
George I 1720 Shilling.
Roses and Plumes reverse.

obv:
GEORGIVS.D.G.M.BR.FR.ET.HIB.REX.F.D. - Laureate bust right, draped, seen from the front.

rev:
1720
S.R.I.A.TH.ET.EL.BRVN.ET.L.DVX
rexesq
1791_Hull_Halfpenny_Ship.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.31 viewsObverse: No legend. A ship sailing right, two laurel branches below.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY / 1791. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between two sprigs of oak with eight acorns on each branch.
Edge: PAYABLE IN HULL AND IN LONDON • X X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 7
Dalton & Hamer: 22

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
The dies for this token were engraved by John Gregory Hancock who was also probably responsible for manufacturing it.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. The College of Arms, the institution which regulates heraldry in England, confirmed the right of the Borough (now City) of Hull to use the crowns in the 1600s. Since then, virtually every public building in the City has been decorated with the coat of arms.
A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
*Alex
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.26 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
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1792 AE Farthing Token. Birmingham, Warwickshire.31 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD • F • R • S. Bare headed and draped bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: BIRMINGHAM PROMISSORY FARTHING •. HH cypher (for Henry Hickman) with the date, 1792, above.
Edge: "Plain".
Diameter: 23mm | Die Axis: 6
Dalton & Hamer : 481a

This token was issued by Henry Hickman, a wholesale and retail dealer in sheet, bar and rod iron with a business at 3, Edgbaston Street, Birmingham. Hickman is also recorded as a die-sinker and toolmaker in Wrightson’s triennial Birmingham directory, 1818. The token was probably manufactured by William Mainwaring who worked as a diesinker for William Lutwyche at the latter's works in Birmingham, but Hickman himself, given his profession, may have been involved in creating the dies. William Mainwaring died in 1794.

John Howard, in whose name this token was issued, was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777.
*Alex
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1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Norwich, Norfolk.21 viewsObverse: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH •. The arms of Norwich consisting of a three turreted gateway over a lion with raised paw; PRO BONO PUBLICO in smaller letters below.
Reverse: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY•. The Duke of Norfolk’s coat of arms; below shield, 1792.
Edge: PAYABLE AT N • BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER & C • NORWICH • X •.
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was issued by Nathaniel Bolingbroke, a haberdasher and silversmith with a business in the market place in Norwich, the manufacturer and diesinker are uncertain.

Norwich, a city in England, is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.86 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him Ł15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.23 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1795_Petersfield_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny Token. Petersfield, Hampshire.32 viewsObverse: PETERSFIELD. Mounted dragoon presenting sword, on horse trotting to left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 49
RARE

This halfpenny token is one of a series of mules manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Petersfield is a market town situated on the northern slopes of the South Downs, 17 miles north of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, England. The town is on the crossroads of well-used north–south and east–west routes and it grew in prosperity due to its position as a coach stop as well as it's local sheep farming, and cottage industries of leather and cloth.
The town was founded during the 12th century by William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and confirmed by charter in 1198 by John, Count of Mortain, the later King John.
*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.62 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him Ł15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1797_PERTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny Token. Perth, Scotland.23 viewsObverse: PRO REGE LEGE ET GREGE (For King, Law and Flock). Coat of Arms of the City of Perth consisting of double-headed eagle with shield, displaying lamb holding saltire flag.
Reverse: PERTH • HALFPENNY • • • •. A hank of yarn above a package of dressed flax; 17 - 97 across field.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT THE HOUSE OF PAT. K MAXWELL X X".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
SCARCE

This token was issued by Patrick Maxwell, a grocer and spirit dealer on the High Street in Perth. In later years this business became known as Maxwell & Son. The hank of yarn and bale of flax refers to the linen trade in the town which was its main industry at the time of this token’s issue.
This token was engraved and manufactured by Joseph Kendrick at his works in Birmingham, England.
*Alex
1800_penny_NGC-AU58.jpg
1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU5871 viewsGreat Britain 1800 Maundy Penny NGC AU58
*no dots between titles on obverse.
obv:
GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA
rev:
MAG.BRI.FR.ET.HIB.REX
.1800.
2 commentsrexesq
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 46 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.21 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
england_shilling_1817_george-3rd_obv_04.JPG
1817 Shilling126 viewsGreat Britain
George III 1817 Shilling

obverse:
GEORG:III D:G: BRITT:REX F:D:
1817
Laureate head right.
rev on garter: HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
rexesq
George_IV_Halfpenny_1826.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm | Weight 9.32gms
SPINK: 3824

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
1826_GEORGE_IV_Penny.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE PENNY3 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: . Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3823

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
George-4_farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING7 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3825

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquired a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George_IV_Half-Farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE HALF FARTHING2 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1828. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 18mm | Axis 12
SPINK: 3826

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

The half-farthing was first issued in 1828, a year later than the third farthing, for use exclusively in Ceylon. However, it is usually considered to be part of the British coin series as Ceylon used British currency at that time.
*Alex
William_IV_Halfpenny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3847

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
William_IV_penny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3845

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is sometimes marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck. This coin, however, is one of those that do not bear Wyon's initials.
*Alex
William_IV_Farthing_1835.JPG
1835 William IV AE FARTHING7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3848

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
1835_WILLIAM_IV_THIRD_FARTHING.JPG
1835 William IV AE THIRD FARTHING4 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3850

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
england_1841_maundy-two-pence_renee-dr-martin_in-flip_obv_05_rev_02.JPG
1841 Two Pence - Maundy28 viewsGreat Britain 1841 Maundy Two Pence. Photos taken through coin flip.

mintage: 4,158

Somewhat prooflike obverse.
rexesq
VICTORIA_AE_Third-Farthing.JPG
1844 VICTORIA COPPER THIRD FARTHING6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID : DEF : Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3952

This portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
Victoria_copper_farthing.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" FARTHING9 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3950

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small raised "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
1 comments*Alex
1853_VICTORIA__PENNY.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" PENNY6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3948

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
england_1870_1d_maundy_dr-martin_inside-flip_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
1870 One Pence - Maundy25 viewsGreat Britain 1870 Maundy One Pence
mintage: 7,920
1 commentsrexesq
england_1870_1d_maundy_dr-martin_inside-flip_obv_05_lincoln-cent.JPG
1870 One Pence - Maundy w/ US Lincoln Cent for Comparison28 viewsGreat Britain 1870 Maundy One Pence w/ US Lincoln Cent for size comparison.

mintage: 7,920
rexesq
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
england_florin_1876_die-19_in-flip_obv_02.JPG
1876 Gothic Florin - #19 - Obverse30 viewsGreat Britain 1876 #19 Florin, inside coin flip.
mintage: 580,000

**all scratches, or little white things, are on the exterior of the flip, not on the coin itself.
rexesq
england_florin_1876_die-19_in-flip_rev_03.JPG
1876 Gothic Florin - #19 - Reverse30 viewsGreat Britain 1876 #19 Florin, inside coin flip.
mintage: 580,000

**all scratches, or little white things, are on the exterior of the flip, not on the coin itself.
rexesq
england_sixpence_1887_jubilee_obv_07_rev_05.JPG
1887 Sixpence60 viewsQueen Victoria
Jubilee Sixpence - old reverse style.
rexesq
EdwardVIICoronationMedal.JPG
1902. Edward VII and Alexandra, Coronation Medal.81 viewsObv. Crowned and robed bust of Edward VII to right, resting on a wreath. EDWARD VII CROWNED 9 AUGUST 1902
Rev. Crowned, veiled and robed bust of Alexandra to right, resting on wreath, unfurled scroll to lower right. ALEXANDRA QUEEN CONSORT, 9 AUGUST 1902 on wreath.
AE55, in original case of issue.

My favourite King of England, known as the Peacemaker. Also fond of good food and women.
LordBest
rjb_2012_07_09.jpg
19834 viewsCaracalla
Denarius
Obv: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from front
Rev: PONTIF TRP III
Sol standing facing, head left, holding globe and spear
Rome mint
RIC - (cf 30)
Note from Curtis L Clay:
Denarii with bust seen from front in this era are very unusual.

With obv. legend ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS I had previously been aware of only a single bust-front denarius obv. die: with rev. SECVRIT ORBIS in coll. of Forvm member septimus, used as his avatar, and with rev. PONT TR P II, same Securitas seated rev. type, in Oxford (Evans), from the East of England hoard of 1898.

Your coin is a new bust variety to my knowledge, of 200 AD and thus, as was to be expected, from a different obv. die than those two other bust-front denarii of 199.
mauseus
26-Viking-Cnut.jpg
26. Danelaw: Vikings of York.19 viewsPenny, ca 897-903, York mint.
Obverse: CRTENXV (CNVT REX) / Patriarchal cross.
Reverse: +CVNNETTI / small cross.
1.28 gm., 20 mm.
North #501; Seaby #993.

The inscriptions on this coin are somewhat of a mystery. Over the last 150 years there have been many theories as to their meaning. At various times Cvnetesford (Knutsford, Cheshire), Cvnetio, (the Latin name of Marlborough,Wiltshire), and Counde, Shropshire (Cuneet in the Domesaday Book) have been proposed as the city where the CVNNETTI coinage was minted. Still others saw a French origin for the CVNNETTI coinage: similar coins are inscribed with two known locations in France -- QVENTOVICI (no longer exists) and EBRAICE (Evreux, Normandy).

Today it is fairly certain the CVNNETTI coinage was minted in York. The inscriptions on this coin are thought to be Latinized versions of Knutr and Hunedeus, two Viking war leaders who operated in northern England in the late ninth century.

The name Cnut is arranged on the arms of the cross in the manner Christians cross themselves during prayer. This shows that "King Cnut," whoever he was, thought of himself as a Christian. He is not to be confused with the Cnut who was King of England from 1016-1035.
Callimachus
27-Edward-Elder.jpg
27. Edward the Elder.25 viewsPenny, 899-924.
Obverse: +EADVVEARD REX / small cross.
Reverse: DEORV / + + + / VALD MO
Moneyer: Deorwald.
1.57 gm., 21 mm.
North #649; Seaby #1087.
Callimachus
28-Aethelstan.jpg
28. Aethelstan.38 viewsPenny, 927-939, York mint.
Obverse: +EĐELSTAN REX TO BRIT / small cross; C privy mark at left of cross.
Reverse: +REGNALD MO EFORǷIC / small cross.
Moneyer: Regnald.
1.48 gm., 22.5 mm.
North #672; Seaby #1093.

Aethelstan was the first British king to be styled "King of All Britain" on his coins (Rex Totius Britanniae). Regnald was also a moneyer for the Vikings when they were in control of York.

Provenance: the Schembrai Collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
29-Eadmund.jpg
29. Eadmund.17 viewsPenny, 939-946.
Obverse: +EADMVND REX / Small cross.
Reverse: HVNSI / + + + / GE MO
Moneyer: Hunsige.
1.22 gm., 22 mm.
North #689; Seaby #1105.

Perhaps of interest on this coin is the up-side-down A instead of a V in the king's name.
Callimachus
30-Eadred.jpg
30. Eadred.24 viewsPenny, 946-955.
Obverse: +E.AD.RED.REX A / Small cross.
Reverse: ĐEODM / +++ / AER M
Moneyer: Theodmaer.
1.44 gm., 22 mm.
North #706; Seaby #1113.

Provenance: Ex Richard Cyril Locket (1873-1950), Glendinings Part I, June 1955, lot 592 (part).
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31-Eadwig.jpg
31. Eadwig.11 viewsPenny, 955-959, possibly minted in York.
Obverse: +E-A-DǷIG REX / Small cross.
Reverse: HERIG / +++ / 'ER MO
Moneyer: Heriger.
1.40 gm., 21 mm.
North #724; Seaby #1122.

Provenance: Tetney Hoard, 1945.
E.J. Winstanley Collection.
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03382z00.jpg
315. Quintillus109 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
1 commentsecoli
32-Eadgar.jpg
32. Eadgar.28 viewsPenny (group HT 1 NE V (northeast Midlands)), 959-975.
Obverse: +EADGAR REX / small cross.
Reverse: IVE M / +++ / ONET
Moneyer: Ive.
1.34 gm., 21 mm.
North #741; Seaby #1129.
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33-Edward-Martyr.jpg
33. Edward the Martyr.41 viewsPenny, 975-978, Stamford mint.
Obverse: +EADǷEARD REX ANGLO / Diademed bust of Edward.
Reverse: +ǷACER M-O STAMFO. / small cross.
Moneyer: Wacer.
1.36 gm., 20 mm.
North #763; Seaby #1142.
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34a. Aethelred II.46 viewsPenny, 979-985, First Hand type, York mint.
Obverse: +ĆĐELRED REX ANGLOX / Diademed bust of Aethelred, right.
Reverse: +ZTYR M-O EOFER / Hand of Christ between A and ω .
Moneyer: Ztyr.
1.42 gm., 21 mm.
North #766; Seaby #1144.

The moneyer Ztyr is not listed as being a moneyer for Aethelred's First Hand type from York. However, there is a moneyer named Styr at York who coined for Edward the Martyr, 975-978. Ztyr is probably the same man.
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34b. Aethelred II.39 viewsPenny, 991-997, Lincoln mint.
Obverse: ĆĐELRED REX ANGLOX / Bust of Aethelred, scepter in front of face.
Reverse: +COLGRIM M-O LIN / Cross with the letters CRVX in angles.
Moneyer: Colgrim.
1.15 gm., 20 gm.
North #770; Seaby #1148
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35-Cnut.jpg
35. Cnut.27 viewsPenny, 1023-1029; London mint.
Obverse: +CNVT REX AN / Bust of Cnut, wearing pointed helmet, sceptre in front.
Reverse: +EADǷOLD ON LVND / short cross, voided.
Moneyer: Eadwold.
1.08 gm., 18 mm.
North #787; Seaby #1158.
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36. Harold I.15 viewsPenny, ca 1038-1040; Norwich mint.
Obverse: +HAROLD REC / Diademed bust of Harold, in armor, with shield and sceptre in front.
Reverse: +MANNA ON NORĐ / Long cross, voided; with fleur-de-lis in angles.
1.16 gm., 19 mm.
North #803; Seaby #1165.
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37. Harthacnut.24 viewsPenny, 1035-1042; Lund, Denmark (now Sweden) mint.
Obverse: +HARĐECNVT / Crowned and cuirassed bust of Harthacnut.
Reverse: +TOCI ON LVDI / Cross, with a crescent in the second and fourth quarters.
Moneyer: Toci.
1.02 gm., 17 mm.
Seaby #1170.
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38. Edward the Confessor.15 viewsPenny, 1059-1062; Hastings mint.
Obverse: +EADǷAIRD RE / Crowned bust of Edward, bearded, with sceptre in front.
Reverse: +DVNING ON HEST / Short cross, voided, with hammer ends.
Moneyer: Duning.
1.28 gm., 19 mm.
North #828; Seaby #1182.
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40. Harold II.76 viewsPenny, 1066; London mint.
Obverse: +HAROLD REX ANG / Crowned bust of Harold, sceptre in front.
Reverse: +SǷETMAN ON LVN / Across field and between two lines: PAX
Moneyer: Swetman.
1.20 gm., 19 mm.
North #836; Seaby #1186.
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41. WIlliam I.39 viewsPenny, 1086-1087, Southwark mint.
Obverse: +ǷILLELM REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre to right.
Reverse: +OSMVND ON SVĐI / Cross with one letters of PAXS in each angle.
1.41 gm., 19 mm.
North #848; Seaby #1257.
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42. William II.34 viewsPenny, 1093-1096; London mint.
Obverse: +ǷILLELM REIX / Crowned bust, facing, between two stars.
Reverse: +ǷVLFPORD ON LV / Voided cross.
Moneyer: Wulfword.
1.38 gm., 21 mm. North #853; Seaby #1260.

The moneyer ǷVLFPORD (Wulfword) is found at three mints: London, Ipswich, and Stamford. On this coin the city is not well-struck, but enough can be made out to determine it is LV, which is London.
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43-Henry-I.jpg
43. Henry I.33 viewsPenny, 1122-1124; Sandwich mint.
Obverse: +HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, holding sceptre.
Reverse: + VL N: SANǷI / Quatrefoil with star in center, pellets on limbs, and four lis around.
1.32 gm., 20 mm. North #870; Seaby #1275.

The moneyer's name can not be read. At Sandwich there were three moneyers who had a VL near the front of their names: Wulfric, Wulfwart, and Wulfstan.
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44-Stephen.jpg
44. Stephen.36 viewsPenny, Colchester mint.
Obverse: FNE / Crowned bust, holding sceptre.
Reverse: D . ON : COL / Cross moline with a fleur in each angle.
1.13 gm., 17 mm.
North #873; Seaby #1278

The only moneyer at Colchester with a name ending in a D is Edward.
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45-Henry-II.jpg
45. Henry II.28 viewsPenny, 1180-1189; London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS . REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +PIERES . ON . LVND / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Pieres.
1.44 gm., 21 mm. North #963; Seaby #1344.

Classification from North Vol. 1, p. 163-64, and Seaby 1994 p. 87:
- Class 1: Narrow face, five pearls to crown, five curls to right and two to left.
- b : Round C and E. Seaby also mentions "a stop before REX on most coins."


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46-Richard-I.jpg
46. Richard I.19 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +STIVENE . ON . LVN / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Stivene.
1.36 gm., 19 mm.
North #968; Seaby #1348A (old #1348).

Classification from North, Vol.1, p. 163-64, 170, Addendum; and Seaby 1994:
- The moneyer Stivene coined types 2 - 4b.
- Types 2 and 3 can be eliminated because the beard consists of small curls.
- Type 4 has beard consisting of pellets (as does this coin).
- Type 4b has a much coarser portrait and letters; the pellets in the crown run into one line.

North (1963) assigns type 4 to John, but later works (Seaby 1994, for example) assign 4a-4b to Richard. It appears that Stivene coined only for Richard. The difficulty in attribution stems from the fact that both Richard and John kept the name of their father (Henry II) on their coins.

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47-John.jpg
47. John20 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +ILGER . ON . LVND / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Ilger.
1.46 gm., 18 mm.
North #970; Seaby #1351.

Classification from North Vol. 1, p. 163-64:
- Type 5 had oval eyes, two curls on each side enclosing a pellet, and five pearls on crown.
- Type 5a or 5b has a small X.
- Type 5b has a cross pattee as a mint mark on the reverse, and a normal S.

The difficulty in attribution stems from the fact that both Richard and John kept the name of their father (Henry II) on their coins.

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48. Henry III18 viewsPenny, ca 1251-1272; London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX III / Crowned bust, facing, sceptre in right hand.
Reverse: HENRI ON LVNDE / Long cross voided, with three pellets in each angle.
Moneyer: Henri.
1.49 gm., 18 mm.
North #992; Sear #1368.

Classification from North, Vol. 1, p. 166-68:
- Type 4 and 5 are with sceptre.
- Type 5 has legend starting at left above sceptre.
- Types 5a and 5b have new crown (fig.3) and round eyes.
- Type 5b has wedge tail on R.

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49-Edward-I.jpg
49. Edward I19 viewsPenny, ca 1280-1281; London mint.
Obverse: EDW R' ANGL' DNS HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
1.45 gm., 19 mm.
North #1022; Seaby #1393.

Classification from North, Vol. 2, p. 19-21:
- This coin has the following characteristics of type 3:
barred A, closed E and C, Roman N, no annulet on breast.
- The following characteristics indicate sub-type g:
small bust, narrow face, new side fleurs on crown (fig. 29).
- This coin is type 3g.

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50. Edward II15 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWAR R ANGL DNS HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
1.41 gm., 19 mm.
North #1065; Seaby #1468.

Classification from North, Vol. 2, p. 24-25; and Seaby 1994:
- E with angular back = types 11b - 15b.
- Bifoliate crown = types 10a - 15b.
- The distinguishing feature is the central fleur of the crown with straight sides and tall lis (fig. 13 on p. 25 of North, vol. 2.)
- Along with this goes the "large smiling face with leering eyes."
- This coins is therefore type 14 -- which is attributed to Edward II.

Perhaps unusual is the obverse legend with two Rs in it, not mentioned by North or Seaby.
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51-Edward-III.jpg
51. Edward III16 viewsGroat, 1351-1352, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWARD DEI G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
4.43 gm., 28 mm.
North #1147; Seaby #1565.

Classification and dating from North, Vol 2, p. 29-31:
- Fourth coinage (no groats in the 1'st - 3'rd coinages).
- Pre-treaty period 1351-1361, with French title.
- London "series C" 1351-1352:

mint mark: Cross 1 (p. 29); closed C and E; Roman N, but also backwards N; wedgefoot on R.

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52-Edward-Black-Prince.jpg
52. Edward the Black Prince.17 viewsHardi d' argent, ca 1362-1372, Poitiers mint.
Obverse: ED PO GENT REGI AGIE / Half-length figure of the Prince, facing, under Gothic canopy, sword in right hand.
Reverse: PRINCIPS AQITAIN / Long cross with lis in first and third angles, and leopard in second and fourth angles.
Mint mark: P between Q and I in AQITAIN on reverse.
1.12 gm., 19 mm.
Elias #205b.

The name of Edward the Black Prince exists only on coins of English possessions in France, like this coin from Aquitaine.
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53-Richard-II.jpg
53. Richard II.12 viewsHalf penny, London mint.
Obverse: +RICA . . . . . ANGL / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
.58 gm., 14 mm.
North #1331; Seaby #1699.

Classification from Seaby 1994, p. 113; and North, Vol. 2, p. 45:
Seaby lists four types of half pennies for Richard II. The type of lettering on this coin excludes types 3 and 4. The 1'st type is excluded because there is no annulet on the breast and there are no Roman Ns in LONDON. So this coin is the second "intermediate" type with no marks on the breast and Lombardic Ns in LONDON.
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55. Henry V.19 viewsGroat, London mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGLIE Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing; mullet on right shoulder.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Lond cross with three pellets in each angle.
3.72 gm., 25 mm.
North #1367; Seaby #1765.

Classification: The identifying feature on this coin is the mullet on the right shoulder. That places it in "class C" in both North and Seaby.

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56-Henry-VI.jpg
56. Henry VI.23 viewsGroat, 1422-1427; Calaise mint.
Obverse: +HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust facing, with annulet on each side of neck.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM VILLA CALISIE / Long cross with three pellets in each angle, annulet in two quarters and after POSVI.
3.43 gm., 27 mm.
North #1424 or #1427; Seaby #1836.

Classification: North, Vol. 2, p. 56 is a bit confused as to the differences between #1424 and #1427. Otherwise this coin is very easy to assign to the "annulet issue" of 1422-1427.

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58-Edward-IV.jpg
58. Edward IV.18 viewsGroat, light coinage of 1464-1470; London mint.
Obverse: EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing, quatrefoils at neck.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: crown on both sides.
3.09 gm., 25 mm.
North #1570; Seaby #2000.

Classification: North classifies Edward IV's groats into at least 22 types. Fortunately many of them have different mint marks, and the crown mint mark on both sides of this coin readily identify it as type 7. It is suggested that this mint mark was used from July 1466 to July 1467.

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60. Richard III.17 viewsGroat, London mint.
Obverse: RICARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross, with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: boar's head on both sides.
2.93 gm., 25 mm.
North #1679; Seaby #2159.
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61-Henry-VII.jpg
61. Henry VII.15 viewsGroat, 1504-1507, London mint.
Obverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AGLI Z FR / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: POSVI DEV' ADIVTORE' MEV' CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross, with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: crosslet on both sides.
2.93 gm., 25 mm.
North #1706; Seaby #2201

Classification: The arch on the crown is a double bar with six uprights or crockets as jewels. This makes it type 4b. According to the table of mint marks (initial marks) on page 77 of North, Vol. 2, the crosslet mintmark was used 1504-1507.

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62. Henry VII.20 viewsGroat, 1505-1509, London mint.
Obverse: HENRIC VII DI GRA REX AGL Z FR / Crowned bust, right.
Reverse: POSVI DEV' ADIVTORE MEV' / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: crosslet & arrow on obverse, arrow on reverse.
2.97 gm., 27 mm.
North #1747; Seaby #2258.
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63-Henry-VIII.jpg
63. Henry VIII.31 viewsGroat, Second coinage 1526-1544, London mint.
Obverse: HENRIC VIII D G R AGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, right.
Reverse: POSVI DEV' ADIVTORE' MEV' / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: Fleur-de-lis both sides.
2.57 gm., 24 mm.
North #1797; Seaby #2337E.

Dating: North, Vol. 2, p. 85, presents several types of Fs and Ms which appear on this issue (second coinage). The M on this coin is obviously M1. This dates the coin to 1529-1532.
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64-Edward-VI.jpg
64. Edward VI.14 viewsShilling, ca 1553, London mint.
Obverse: EDWARD VI D G AGL FRA Z HIB REX / Crowned bust, facing, with rose to left and XII to right.
Reverse: POSVI DEV ADIVTORE MEV / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: tun (small barrel) both sides.
6.14 gm., 31 mm.
North #1937; Seaby #2482.
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65. Mary Tudor.14 viewsGroat, 1553-1554; London mint.
Obverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI / Crowned bust, left.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: pomagranate after first word on both sides.
2.13 gm., 24 mm.
North #1960; Seaby #2492.
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66-Elizabeth-I.jpg
66. Elizabeth I.36 viewsShilling, 1592-1595; London mint.
Obverse: ELIZAB D G ANG FR ET HIB REGI / Crowned bust, left.
Reverse: POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: tun (small barrel) on both sides.
5.95 gm., 29 mm.
North #2014; Seaby #2577.

Dating: Fifth issue = 1582-1600; tun mint mark = 1592-1595.
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67-James-I.jpg
67. James I.17 viewsShilling, ca 1624, London.
Obverse: IACOBVS D G MAG BRI FR ET HI REX / Crowned bust, right; XII at left.
Reverse: QVAE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET / Royal shield.
Mint mark: trefoil on both sides.
Trefoil mint mark - Seaby 1994 assigns this mark to the year 1624.
5.76 gm., 31 mm.
North #2124; Seaby #2668.

Dating: Sixth bust - see North, Vol. 2, p 115. This identifies this coin as being from the 3'rd coinage (1619-1625).
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68-Charles-I.jpg
68. Charles I.11 viewsShilling, 1643-1644; York mint.
Obverse: CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX / Crowned bust, left; XII to right.
Reverse: CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO / Crowned oval garnished shield, with EBOR below.
Mint mark: lion on both sides.
5.80 gm., 30 mm.
North #2319; Seaby #2873.
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69-Commonwealth.jpg
69. The Commonwealth.12 viewsShilling, 1656.
Obverse: THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND / The shield of St George within wreath formed of palm and laurel branches.
Reverse: GOD WITH VS 1656 / Conjoined shields of St George and Ireland with XII above.
5.77 gm., 30 mm.
North #2724; Seaby #3217.
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70-Charles-II.jpg
70. Charles II.11 viewsShilling, 1663.
Obverse: CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA / Laureate bust, right.
Reverse: MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX 1663 / Four crowned shields, two intertwined Cs in each angle.
5.75 gm., 25 mm.
Seaby #3372.
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71-James-II.jpg
71. James-II.32 viewsShilling, 1685.
Obverse: IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA / Laureate bust, left.
Reverse: MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX 1685 / Four crowned shields.
6.07 gm., 26 mm.
Seaby #3410.
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VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
72-William-Mary.jpg
72. William & Mary.13 viewsShilling, 1693.
Obverse: GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA / Jugate busts, right.
Reverse: MAG BR FR ET HI REX ET REGINA / Four crowned shields with intertwined W and M in each angle, also one numeral from the date (1693) in each angle.
5.98 gm., 25 mm.
Seaby #3437.
Callimachus
73-William-III.jpg
73. William III.19 viewsShilling, 1697.
Obverse: GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA / Laureate bust, right.
Reverse: MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX 1698 Four crowned shields, rampant lion from the arms of the House of Orange at center.
6.20 gm., 26 mm.
Seaby #3505.
Callimachus
titus denar RIC21a.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AR denarius - struck Jan.-July 80 AD60 viewsobv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM (laureate head right)
rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P (trophy with a captive on either side)
ref: RIC 21a (C), RSC 306 (3frcs), BMC 37
3.30gms, 18mm
mint: Rome
Scarce

History: Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the eleventh governor of Roman Britain in AD78 defeated the Ordovices tribe in north Wales and conquered the Druid stronghold of Mona (Anglesey). In AD79 consolidated the north-west of England by forts and garissons. As a result of these events Titus received the title of imperator for the fifteenth time from the beginning of AD 80.
Note: Legio II Adiutrix (later served in Aquincum, Pannonia) fought against the tribe of the Ordovices and occupied the Isle of Mona.
1 commentsberserker
Probus-RIC-202.jpg
88. Probus.16 viewsAntoninianus, 276 - 282 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG / Radiate bust of Probus, facing left, and wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO / Sol in chariot pulled by four horses, holding globe and whip. R * E in exergue.
3.67 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #202; Sear #12038.

This coin is from a collection formed in the mid-1800s in England. One of the gentleman's great grand children finally sold the collection in 1990, which is when I acquired this coin.
Callimachus
Aethelred_II.jpg
Aethelred II - Canterbury, England184 viewsAethelred II (968-1016). King of England 978-1013 and 1014-1016. AR (20 mm, 1.62 g) penny of long cross type struck at Canterbury; moneyer Leofric.
Obverse: ĆTDELRĆD REX ANGLO.
Reverse: LEOFRIC M O CĆNT.
References: North 774; Sear 1151.
5 commentsjbc
alle.jpg
Allectus (293 - 296 A.D.)31 viewsBillon Antoninianus
O: IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
R: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, globe in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S in left field, P in right field, ML in exergue.
Londinium (London, England) mint
21mm
2.52g
RIC V-2 36
1 commentsMat
Imitative_Fel_Temp_ab.jpg
Ancient imitation of Constantius II (RIC Trier 358)43 viewsImitative AE (16 mm, 1.91 g) found in England. The official prototype was minted in Trier (Constantius II RIC Trier 358) during the period 337-361 AD. Obverse: diademed bust right, (...)AVIIO. Reverse: Soldier spearing fallen horseman, (...)RATIO, TRS in exergue.1 commentsJan (jbc)
253-3-horz.jpg
Anglo-Gallic Coinage, Edward The Black Prince, 1355-1375 Aquitaine31 viewsPoitiers Mint

Hardi d'Argent (type of coin) - Roberts #6832

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG (1330 –1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.

He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose Order he was one of the founders.

Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Edward was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old.

The seller of this coin sent it to me in the dealer envelope it was purchased in many decades ago. The price on the envelope was $2.25 and it was graded UNC.

Purchased on eBay

NGC XF-45 – An exceptional grade

Cost $315
1 commentsRichard M10
gsr1.JPG
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Bronze applique of female head, c.150 A.D.24 viewsSolid cast, heavy applique, in the form of a female head.
It was said to have been found outside Piercebridge Roman Fort.
Height: 2 1/9 inches.
Piercebridge Roman Fort (possibly originally known as Morbium or Vinovium) is a scheduled ancient monument situated in the village of Piercebridge on the banks of the River Tees in County Durham, England.
superflex
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
Athalaric_2.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 10 nummi132 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). Ć 10 Nummi (17 mm, 3.11 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: king standing right holding spear and shield, DN ATAL-ARICVS, S-C, X in left field. Metlich 85a; MIB 77.

This coin is said to have been found in North Yorkshire, England. It does not appear to have been in circulation for a long time, and the find is an interesting indication of contacts with the continent during the Early Middle Ages.
1 commentsjbc
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux Ă©cus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France ŕ partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compičgne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
SoaneBankofEnglandTaylor106a.JPG
BHM 1662. 1834. Sir John Soane, Architect. Bank of England. Taylor 106a.102 viewsObv. Portrait head right JOHN SOANE Signed W WYON A B A MINT
Rev. Elevation of the "Tivoli Corner" of the Bank building A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT FROM THE BRITISH ARCHITECTS MDCCCXXXIV.

AE58.

A gold example of this medal was presented to Sir John Soane, one of Britains premiere architects, in 1834.
LordBest
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Black-glazed Handled bowl37 viewsBlack-glazed bowl in buff terracotta with single horizontal handle.

Apulian, S. Italy. 4th century B.C. Maximum diameter 12.11 cm (4.77 inches).

Intact with minor wear and soil deposits consistent with prolonged burial.

Ex Lincolnshire, England private collection.
1 commentsTLP
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Bludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe34 viewsBludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe.
Found near Dunster, england. Dated 13th century.
Many people think of battle axes as huge things swung around by massivly muscled barbarians. This is not generaly the case and are more of the imagination than of reality.
This particular axe, dated to around the 13th century could well have been used as a wood cutters axe. It does have one tell tale sign that distinguishes it from an ordinary axe and that is the distinctive armourers/makers mark. Clearly a soldiers battle helmet is stamped on this axe, leaving little doubt to its purpose


The Middle Ages was an extremely violent era in history featuring battles in both Europe and the Holy Land when the crusades, and the crusaders who fought them, were numerous. Warfare during the Middle Ages, or Medieval era called for a variety of weapon expertise. Knights and men-at-arms ( foot soldiers, or archers ) used different types of weapons. The Battle Axes were predominantly used by Foot Soldiers.
It has been documented that the Romans used Germanic axemen in the centre front of their formations to act as an awful ‘softner’ and demoriliser before the standard infantry came through.
lorry66
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Bronze - 1862 Half Penny99 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
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Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Obverse134 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
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Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Reverse104 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
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Bronze - 1874 H Farthing47 viewsGreat Britain 1874-H Farthing. Queen Victoria.rexesq
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Bronze Age Reworked Dagger44 viewsAn ancient European Bronze Age reworked dagger, dating to approximately 800 BC.

Of rare and unusual form, with a long ridged handle, slender blade and prominent central rib. Unusually, this piece appears to have originally been made as a spear head, subsequently broken (possibly in battle), and reworked into a dagger. Beating marks from this process of reworking are still clearly visible.
A weapon such as this would have been used in battle by the early Celtic peoples and their predecessors, indeed the period to which this artifact dates was characterized by migrations and invasions of warrior led groups across Europe. The late Bronze Age appears to have been a time of widespread warfare and social upheaval, ultimately carried on the back of weapons such as this.

Length: 8 ˝ inches.


Provenance:
Ex-Collection of Henk Huffener (1923 – 2006), a respected artist, officially honored hero of the Dutch resistance, and successful antiques dealer, with establishments in Surrey and Kensington, England.
Huffener was born in Utrecht in 1923. One of nine children, he soon became known for his artistic talents, most notably for his still lifes, portraits, and abstractionist works. Huffener, inspired by his father, also became immersed in the world of anti-fascist activism. Come the start of the war, he began traveling the Netherlands, helping Jews escape Nazi-occupied Europe by providing them with forged papers, and hiding them from their persecutors. This incredible bravery and selflessness was documented in The Other Schindlers by Agnes Grunwald-Spier (2010), and Huffener was honoured by Yad Vashem as 'Righteous Among the Nations' in 1998. His wartime contributions were also commemorated posthumously in March 2010, when Prime Minister Gordon Brown awarded him the Hero of the Holocaust medal for "the service of humanity."
Huffener eventually moved to England in the 1950s, establishing his own antiques business in 1959 in Albury, Surrey. Here, his knowledge and collections grew to encompass antiquities, ethnographic art, glass, paintings and fossils. Also noted for his restoration skills, Huffener was much respected in his field, coming to befriend Herbert Reiser, one of the world's leading collectors.
Salaethus
spain_I_F_coinweight.jpg
Bronze weight for a gold excellente, busts of Ferdinand and Isabella31 viewsBronze coin weight, c. 1500. Bronze weights, Bronze weight for a gold excellente, 2.856g, 21.3mm, obverse confronted busts of Ferdinand and Isabella in a circle of parallel dashes; reverse, shield. Probably made in the Low Countries, but found in England. Ex FORVMPodiceps
BRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALLENBERG-HANNOVER_II_mariengroschen_1708.jpg
BRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALENBERG-HANNOVER -- George Ludwig (George I of England)45 viewsBRUNSWICK-LUNEBERG-CALENBERG-HANNOVER -- George Ludwig (George I of England) (1698-1727) SILVER 2 Mariengroschen, 1708-HB. Obv.: In circle: * II * / MARIEN / GROS: / FELS . S . / H•B Around: * GEORG : LVD : D • G • BR • ET • LVN : S • R • I • EL • Rev.: In circle: St. Andrew with cross, date 1708 below; around: S.ANDREAS REVIVISCENS. Reference: KM #52.dpaul7
Caracalla_RIC225.jpg
Caracalla, 198–217 CE53 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 213 CE; 2.94g. BMCRE 97, C 508 (10 Fr.), RIC 225. Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS – AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: PROFECTIO AVG; Caracalla standing right holding spear, two standards behind him.

Notes: Special issue of the sole reign of Caracalla commemorating Caracalla’s departure for Gaul.

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 175 (May 2011), lot 221; from a private collection, acquired from dealer Michael Trenerry, Cornwall, England (March 1988).
3 commentsMichael K5
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Carausius Virtus reverse billon antoninianus72 viewsBillon antoninianus, RIC V-2-,Webb Carausius-, Borne Carausius-,SRCV IV-,Hunter IV-, Linchmere-, Burton Latimer-,Bicester-,Carausian Hoard-,et al., aF, broad flan, near blackpatina, rough, corrosion, scratches, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, weight 4.186g, maximumdiameter 23.1mm, die axis225o, c. mid 292; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor),Mars walking right, transverse spear in right hand,shieldortrophyin left hand,S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; extremely rare3 commentsorfew
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CELTIC, Britain, Durotriges, c.20BC - AD2033 viewsAR Cranborne Chase c.20BC - AD20.

Weight: 3.51g
Ř: 17 mm

Obv: Crown of the Durotrigan Tribe.

Rev: Stilicized Horse facing left.

Was found in England near Gloucester, ex Cotswold collection.

Condition: gF/gF

Ref: VA 1235-7 , BMC 2637-40.
Jorge C
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Celtic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed. Class I Flat Linear potin. Allen A.12 viewsCeltic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed, ca. 100 BC. Class I Flat Linear cast potin, 16.14mm x 19.89mm; 2.31 g, 3h.
Obverse: Celticized head of Apollo left; design scribed in mold with stylus.
Reverse: Celticized bull charging right; same comment.
References: Allen A; VA 104
Ex Leslie Ross, 4-19-2011. Found near Rochester, in Kent, England, in March or April of 2011.
Mark Fox
CeltMassTetrobol-Kent1.jpg
Celtic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?), imitating Massalian drachm. Potentially unrecorded.30 viewsCeltic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?). Circa 2nd century BC. AR Drachm, 16mm (4.42 g.), 6h. Imitating Massalia.
Obverse: Wreathed head of nymph right; her pendant earring having possibly been reinterpreted as hair(!).
Reverse: ΜΑΣΣΑ, lion walking right; diamond-shaped symbol below.
References: Cf. Triton IX, lot 666, for likely prototype.
Comments: Found in Whitfield, in Kent, England, probably in early or mid January of 2011. A very heavy, early imitation that is superior to the average work of the Insubres and/or Salluvi. Cut in antiquity for possible recycling. The bright silvery interior indicates the coin is silver through and through.
Ex solidv-x2, 1-29-2011.
Mark Fox
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Claudius I, Asse (41-42 AD) , da hoard inglese37 viewsClaudius I AE AS (41-42 AD), Rome mint
AE, 28 mm, 10.7 gr, 180°,
D/ TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP: Bare head left..
R/ S-C: Legend cross field, Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm.
RIC 100, Cohen 84v, BMC 149
Provenance: collezione Berardengo, ex J. Mastrario collection (imperator coins), 2012. Ex Phillip Elkins collection, Norfolk UK. Found Norfolk England via MD.
paolo
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Claudius RIC 003298 viewsClaudius AR Denarius. 41-54 AD. Rome mint Struck 46-47 AD.
(17.28 mm 3.62 gr).
Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right
Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia seated left of curule chair, hand raised to face.
RIC 32 (R2), RSC 8 BMC 31.
Ex: AU Capital Management LLC



Claudius was rumoured to have been deformed in some way. This probably saved his life because no one considered him to be a threat. After the murder of Gaius Claudius apparently hid in the palace. He was found by the guards and he was proclaimed emperor.
One of his best known accomplishments was his successful invasion of England in 43 CE.

On the reverse of this coin is the figure of Constantia. She was the personification of constancy or steadiness. Since emperors often used their coins as propaganda, it is safe to assume that Claudius was trying to portray the empire as being in good hands and in untroubled condition. This would have been especially true in the case of Claudius who, one can assume, was untrusted by some as the result of his diasability.
2 commentsorfew
cnut~0.jpg
Cnut36 viewsPenny of Cnut, king of Denmark 1018-1035, England 1016-1035, and Norway 1028-1035
Moneyer: Brunman
Mint: London
S. 1159
O: +CNVT REX A
R: +BRVNMAN ON LV

Ex- Harlan J. Berk
1 commentsNap
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Coin Weight for Hungarian Ducat (=aranyforint = gulden)228 viewsAE 13 mm x 14 mm x 1.5 mm; original weight 3.5 gr.

Withers, P. and B.R., "Lions, Ships & Angels: The Galata Guide to Identifying Coin-Weights Found in Britain" (1995 & 2nd ed. revised 2011), p. 29 (per the dealer's flip).

Obv: Crowned St. Lászlo (= Ladislaus) standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, flanked by H-D (= Hungaricus Ducatus), all in a beaded circle.

Rev: Blank.

The Hungarian aranyforint was struck in great quantities and circulated widely throughout Europe, so that they are found as far afield as England and Scotland. As many currencies circulated throughout Europe, coin weights were sold in boxed sets containing weights for a wide variety of coins that a merchant may encounter, together with a scale.

The obverse devise on this weight is similar to the medieval depiction of St. Lászlo which continuously appeared on the aranyforint from the reign of Lajos I (1342-1382) through the reign of Lajos II (1516-1526), and after the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohács, on the ayanyforints of János Szapolyai (1526-1540), but not on those of his Habsburg rival, Ferdinand I (1526-1564), or on those of the subsequent Habsburg kings of Hungary (the depiction of St. Lászlo on the Habsburg coins, and even on some of the later Jagiellon issues, was in a Renaissance style). The devise on the weight differs from that on the aranyforint primarily in that (a) St. Lászlo is holding a long cross rather than a halberd; and (b) St. Lászlo is not nimbate (although he is not consistently nimbate on the later Jagiellon issues and is not nimbate on the issues of János Szapolyai). The style of this weight suggests that it was manufactured pre- Mohács, and according to Withers, it was made in Germany during the 1400’s to 1500’s (Note: I am reliant upon the dealer’s flip for this information, as I have not been able to obtain Withers). However, a number of similarly styled coin weights issued by Antwerp masters who were active in the mid to late 1500’s (i.e., Bernaert Foncq (active 1550-1578), his son, Hans Foncq (active 1577-1603) and Rogier Verpoorten (active ca. 1580 and later)) indicates that the medieval St. Lászlo continued to appear on coin weights even after that style had become obsolete on the actual coins. presenting the possibility that this weight may have been manufactured post-Mohács.
1 commentsStkp
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Commonwealth of England - Halfgroat, 1649-1660 AD38 viewsENGLAND, Commonwealth. 1649-1660.
AR Halfgroat. Tower mint.
Coat-of-arms bearing St. George’s cross; all within wreath
Coats-of-arms bearing St. George’s cross and Irish harp; II above
ESC 2160; North 2728; SCBC 3221
Ardatirion
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Confederate States of America: $10,000 1884 Scrip Certificate (Cr. 175)8 viewsThe purpose of the British Bondholder Committee was to pool all of the outstanding Confederate Bonds purchased by England with an attempt to collect on them. Bondholders would deposit their bonds into an account and were given this Scrip Certificate in exchange. Payment was never made on the bonds since the Confederacy no longer existed after the War and the U.S. would not honor them.SpongeBob
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Confederate States of America: $10,000 1884 Scrip Certificate (Cr. 175)7 viewsThe purpose of the British Bondholder Committee was to pool all of the outstanding Confederate Bonds purchased by England with an attempt to collect on them. Bondholders would deposit their bonds into an account and were given this Scrip Certificate in exchange. Payment was never made on the bonds since the Confederacy no longer existed after the War and the U.S. would not honor them.SpongeBob
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Constantine I Ć follis, Trier mint. RIC 873.19 viewsConstantine I (AD 307/310–337). Ć follis, 23mm, 4.58 g., 6h. Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 310–313.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI INVIC–TO COMITI, Sol standing and facing with head left and right palm raised; wearing chlamys draped over upper chest and left shoulder and holding globe in left hand; T–F//PTR.
References: RIC VI Trier 873 (C2)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.
Mark Fox
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Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.57 viewsAE 3: RIC VI 282, 312-313 AD, 3.3 g, 22 mm; London, EF; Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing facing, right hand raised, globe in left hand, PLN in ex., star in left field; an attractive bronze with great detail. Ex Ancient Imports.

As I have noted elsewhere, I have chosen the date 395 AD, with the emperor Arcadius, to mark the beginning of the Byzantine Empire in my collection.

That said, it seems appropriate to display a couple of coins struck for the man whose decision made Byzantium possible. As historian John Julius Norwich has writen, “The Byzantine Empire, from its foundation by Constantine the Great on Monday, 11 May 330 to its conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, lasted for a total of 1,123 years and 18 days – a period of time comfortably longer than that which separates us from the Norman conquest of England in 1066. For everyone except astronomers and geologists, such a period must be considered a long time . . ." (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. xxxvii).


Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, is as controversial as he is "great."


From John Julius Norwich:
"The first thing to be said is that no ruler in all history--not Alexander nor Alfred, not Charles nor Catherine, not Fredrick nor even Gregory--has ever more fully merited his title of "the Great . . . [he has] a serious claim to be considered--excepting only Jesus Christ, the Prophet Mohammed and the Buddha--the most influential man who ever lived" (Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. 50-1).

From Michael Grant:
". . . But he was also murderous, and the many whom he murdered, or executed, included not only his rival Licinius (to whom he had promised survival) but also his own eldest son and his own second wife Fausta. There is no excusing those deaths, at any time or in any society . . . There are, and remain, certain absolute standards, and by his death-dealing Constantine offended signally against them. . . It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . . (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
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Constantius II69 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantiusII_arles_141var.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII, Arles 141 var.19 viewsConstantius II, AD 337-361
AE 3 (Centenionalis), 4.24g, 24mm, 210°
Arles, 1st officina, 348-350
obv. DN CONSTAN - TIVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
behind bust A
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
Soldier, helmeted, with shield, spearing fallen horseman, who is sitting beside his horse
and is stretching his hands against the soldier (type FH2 sitting)
in l. field A, in r. field dot
in ex. PAR
ref. RIC VIII, Arles 141 var. (has no A in left field of rev.); LRBC -
scarce, about VF, oval flan

From the Bridgnorth Hoard, Scropshire, England, buried ca. AD 355, unearthed 2007. Preliminary report of the British Museum by Lopez-Sanchez & Abdy under "Bridgnorth, Scropshire"
1 commentsJochen
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Crispus as Caesar - London Mint Follis - 'VOT X' - PLON crescent in exergue28 viewsCrispus as Caesar, AD 316 - 326.
AE Follis.
London Mint, London, England.

obv: JUL CRISPUS NOB C - Laureate head right.

rev: 'VOT X' inside wreath, surrounded by: CAESARUM NOSTRORUM
'PLON crescent' in exergue.

3.1 Grams
---------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
rexesq
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Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Eagle.jpg
Eagle141 viewsA limestone sculpture of an Eagle, (representing Jupiter) clutching a Snake in its beak (representing Death). Was found in September 2013 during building work in the Minories area of the City of London. It was made in what is now the Cotswolds area of England around 1900 years ago and would have sat in an alcove of a tomb, just outside the city boundary of Londinium. I was lucky to see this back in November 2013 as it is now no longer on display.3 commentsMasis
Edward_I.png
Edward I AR Penny 28 viewsEngland, Plantagenet Kings
ND AR Penny Edward I
1272-1307 London
(19.1 mm 1.4 g)
Class III g, late “S”.
North 1022
Purchased from H. J. Berk May 15, 2017
1 commentsorfew
alexandria_gallienus_Dattari5288.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Gallienus, Dattari 528833 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, Gallienus, AD 253-268
AE - Tetradrachm, 22mm
struck AD 266/267 (year 13)
obv. AVT KP LIK GALLIHNOC CEB
Bust, bearded, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. Eagle, advancing r., holding wreath in beak, palmbranch behind
in l. and r. field L - I Gamma (year 13)
ref. Dattari 5288; Emmett 3806; Milne 4119f.; Geissen 2928; SNG Copenhagen 789; 2236
VF+
Pedigree:
ex. Sayles & Lavender
ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Art. 88.198 (acquired in 1888!)
ex coll. Benjamin Pierce Cheney

Benjamin Pierce Cheney (1815-1895) was an American businessman, director of Wells Fargo and a founder of the firm that became American Express. He was born as son of a blacksmith and he began working in his father's shop at age 10. In 1831 he started work as a stagecoach driver. With a reputation for honesty and reliability, he was frequently entrusted with large sums of money destined for banks on his route. Cheney was elected a director of Wells Fargo in 1854. Cheney sold United States & Canada Express in 1879 to American Express, at which time he became the company's largest shareholder as well as treasurer and a director. Cheney amassed a fortune estimated at $10,000,000.

He was widely social engaged. He donated $50,000 to Dartmouth College. He also helped develop the eastern part of Washington state with a railroad line. As a result, Cheney, Washington, is named in his honor, where he helped establish a school later evolved into Eastern Washington University. Cheney's estate in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has since become the Elm Bank Horticulture Center. He retired to this property on the Charles River in his last years and occupied himself with beautifying the land with conservatories and gardens

Cheney was a member of the New England Historic and Genealogical Society. In 1888 hedonated his big coin collection to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Jochen
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Elizabeth I6 viewsBritish, House of Tudor. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR sixpence (25.81 mm, 2.94 g, 11 h). Third Issue, 1561-77. struck 1565. ELIZABETH · D · G · ANG · FR · ET · HI · REGINA, crowned bust left, behind, rose; mintmark, crown / POSVI | DEV · AD | IVTORE | M · MEV. / 1565, date atop arms of England divided by cross moline, all within dotted circle; mintmark, crown . SCE 2561. aVF, original toning.ecoli
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Elizabeth I 29 viewsENGLAND. Elizabeth I Silver Hammered Threepence, 15781 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Elizabeth_I_sixpence.jpg
Elizabeth I, 1558 - 160370 viewsEngland, Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603. Silver sixpence, Spink 2578B, North 2015, tun mintmark, VF, light scratches, toned, Tower mint, weight 2.838g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 270o, 1592. Obverse: ELIZAB D'G' ANG'FR:ET:HIB REGI, crowned bust left, rose behind; Reverse POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV (I have made God my helper), quartered coat-of-arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) on long cross fourchée, 1592 above shield; ex A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd., Autumn Argentum Auction 2009. Ex FORVM.

Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603
Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. She inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord, a weakened pawn between the great powers of France and Spain. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. But Elizabeth had other ideas.
She ruled alone for nearly half a century, lending her name to a glorious epoch in world history. She dazzled even her greatest enemies. Her sense of duty was admirable, though it came at great personal cost. She was committed above all else to preserving English peace and stability; her genuine love for her subjects was legendary. Only a few years after her death in 1603, they lamented her passing. In her greatest speech to Parliament, she told them, 'I count the glory of my crown that I have reigned with your love.'

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/eliz1.html
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
England-AR-penny-AethelredII-070000-SE1795-shadowbox-label.jpg
England (Anglo-Saxon): silver penny of Aethelred II (978-1016 AD), struck ca. 997-1003 AD25 viewslordmarcovan
charles i.jpg
ENGLAND - CHARLES I153 viewsCharles I half groat (S 2833). mm appears to be (P) on rev. Silver
dpaul7
ENGLAND CHAS I ROSE FARTHING.jpg
ENGLAND - Charles I112 viewsENGLAND - Charles I (1625-1649) CU Rose Farthing. Minted 1635-1644. Reference: KM-436.1dpaul7
chas_ii_half_groat.jpg
ENGLAND - CHARLES II78 viewsENGLAND - CHARLES II (1660-1685) AR 2-Pence (half-groat). Third issue. KM-401, S-3326.dpaul7
charles ii 2.jpg
ENGLAND - CHARLES II83 views1683 Charles II Maundy Threepence, Silver.dpaul7
CHAS II MAUNDY.jpg
ENGLAND - Charles II67 viewsENGLAND - Charles II (1660-1685) Maundy 3-Pence. AR. No date (1660-1662). Reference: KM #282, Spink #3385.dpaul7
CHAS_II_HALFCR.jpg
ENGLAND - CHARLES II47 viewsENGLAND - CHARLES II - (1660-1685) AR Half-Crown, 1676. Although worn, it is a scarcer variety, with retrograde "1" in the date. KM#438.1.dpaul7
commonw.jpg
ENGLAND - COMMONWEALTH88 viewsCommonwealth (1649-1660) halfgroat. Fine. (1649-1660) halfgroat. Seaby 3221. 15 mm, 0.9 g. 1 commentsdpaul7
DUROTRIGES_STATER.jpg
ENGLAND - DUROTRIGES CELTS42 viewsENGLAND - DUROTRIGES CELTS, 1st Century BC - 1st Century AD. Billon Stater (17mm, 2.9gms). Obv: Abstract head of Apollo. Rev: Disjointed horse. Reference: Spinks 367.
dpaul7
EDW1.jpg
ENGLAND - EDWARD I134 viewsAR Penny, London Mint.dpaul7
engl_edward_ist.jpg
ENGLAND - Edward I70 viewsENGLAND - Edward I "Longshanks" (1272-1307) AR penny. Long cross, class 4a3, London mint. EDWARD ANGL' DNS HIB, crowned facing bust / CIVITAS LONDON, long cross with trefoils. North 1023. Seaby 1394dpaul7
EDW_1_LONDON_12-12.jpg
ENGLAND - Edward I35 viewsENGLAND - Edward I "Longshanks" (1272-1307) AR penny, London mint. Long cross,Class 10cf3(b). Obv.: Crowned bust of king facing; +EDWAR R ANGL DNS HIB Rev.: CIVITAS LONDON, long cross with trefoils. Reference: Seaby #1411/2dpaul7
edw_ii_1460s.jpg
ENGLAND - Edward II61 viewsENGLAND - Edward II (1307-1327) AR PEnny. Sear 1460. London Mint. EDWAR ANG DNS HYB/CIVITAS LONDON.dpaul7
edward iii.jpg
ENGLAND - EDWARD III100 viewsEdward III (1327-1377) Hammered Silver Round Halfpenny. Third coinage, EDWARDVS REX... London mint.dpaul7
ENGLAND_EDW_III_GROAT.jpg
ENGLAND - Edward III27 viewsENGLAND - Edward III (1327-1377) AR Groat (4 Pence). London mint, 4th Coinage, Pre-Treaty Issue (1351-1361). Obv.: +EDWARD D G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB, crowned bust facing in tressure Rev.: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV and LONDON CIVITAS, long cross and pellets. Reference: Seaby #SE1565.dpaul7
edw iv.jpg
ENGLAND - EDWARD IV70 viewsEDWARD VI (1461-1483) Hammered Silver York Penny. Reverse quatrefoil, no marks by neck.dpaul7
ELIZ1.jpg
ENGLAND - ELIZABETH I125 viewsShilling, Silver. Nice!1 commentsdpaul7
ELIZABETH_I_HALF-GROAT.jpg
ENGLAND - ELIZABETH I84 viewsENGLAND - ELIZABETH I (1558-1603) AR half-groat. Tower Mint, London, made 1594-1596. Obv.: Crowned bust left, 2 pellets behind; E. D. G. ROSA SINE SPINA. Rev.: Quartered coat of arms on long cross fourchee; CIVITAS LONDON. Reference: North 2016; Seaby 2579. 0.764 g., 17.3 mm.dpaul7
ENGLAND_ELIZABETH_I_SIXPENCE_1570.jpg
ENGLAND - Elizabeth I23 viewsENGLAND - Elizabeth I (1558-1603) AR Sixpence. Third issue, dated 1570. London mint; mm: crown. Obv.: ELIZABETH : D : ANG : FR : ET : HIB : REGINA, crowned bust left (intermediate bust) Rev.: POSVI DEV' ADIVTOREM MEV' coat-of-arms on cross fourchée. Reference: Seaby #SE2562.dpaul7
ELIZABETH_I_SIXPENCE__3.jpg
ENGLAND - Elizabeth I38 viewsENGLAND - Elizabeth I (1558-1603) AR Sixpence, 1561. Third coinage, AR Sixpence (25mm). Pheon mint-mark, ELIZABETH D G ANG FR ET HIB REGINA, crowned bust left, rose behind / pheon, POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV, shield on long cross fourchée, 1561 above. Reference: Seaby #SE2561.dpaul7
GEORGE I.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE I87 viewsGeorge I - Rev.: Britannia seated. 1719 1/2 PENNY - G. KM-557dpaul7
GEORGE I SHILLING.jpg
ENGLAND - George I80 viewsENGLAND - George I (1714-1727) AR Shilling, 1723. The SSC on the reverse of the coin stands for South Sea Company, the source of the silver used in minting the coin. KM#539.3dpaul7
GEORGE I I.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE II71 views1754 Farthing (1/4 Penny). Bust of George II obverse/Reverse: Britannia. Copper. KM-581.2.dpaul7
ENGLAND GEORGE III HALFCROWN.JPG
ENGLAND - George III67 viewsENGLAND - George III (1760-1820) silver Half Crown, 1817. Reference: KM #667.dpaul7
CARTWHEEL.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE III98 viewsGREAT BRITAIN 1797 PENNY, COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS THE "CART WHEEL" PENNY, A PHRASE ALLUDING TO IT'S HEFTY SIZE AND WEIGHT AND DESIGN. AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE WITH ONLY A COUPLE OF MINUTE RIM NICKS INSTEAD OF NUMEROUS ONES AS USUALLY FOUND. KM.618. GRADED: FINE +.dpaul7
GEO_II_FARTHING.jpg
ENGLAND - George III58 viewsENGLAND - George III (1760-1820) 1799 Cu Farthing. KM #646.dpaul7
george_iii_counterf_half-d.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE III70 viewsENGLAND - GEORGE III (1760-1820) 1/2-Penny -1787- CONTEMPORARY COUNTERFEIT! Britian did not make an officical issue this year. Many counterfeits circulated in this era alongside regular coinage. Obv: ARmored bust right, GEORGIUS III REX/Reverse: Brittania seated left with shield, holding branch. "BRITAN-NIA" around, date 1787 in exurge. Counterfeit of KM #601.1 commentsdpaul7
ENGL_GEO_III_BULL_HEAD_SHILL.jpg
ENGLAND - George III (1760-1820)38 viewsENGLAND - George III (1760-1820) AR Shilling, 1819. Obverse shows the "Bull Head" design. Although issued to make the king look like a Roman Emperor, the Royal Family was not pleased. Reverse shows the Order of the Garter, with motto around. Reference: KM#666.dpaul7
GEORGE IV.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE IV60 viewsGeorge IV - Britannia seated on reverse. 1826 FARTHING. KM-697dpaul7
HENRY III.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY III93 viewsHENRY III 1216-1272. AR Penny (1.39 gm). Long Cross class 5g, circa 1251-1272. Canterbury mint; Alein, moneyer.
dpaul7
HENRY_III_PENNY_2.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY III 30 viewsENGLAND - HENRY III (1216-1272), AR Penny, Voided Long Cross Coinage, Class 5c, (1251-1272), Ricard - London minter. Obv.: Crowned facing bust of Henry, HENRICVS REX III Rev.: Voided long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, RICARD ON LVND Reference: (N.997; S.1373).dpaul7
HENRY V.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY V103 viewsEngland, Henry V, 1413-1422, AR Penny (15mm), VG/F, Seaby/Spink 1788 or 1790, York mint. Obv.+ hENRIC REX ANGL, crowned bust facing, mullet to left, trefoil to right. Rev. CIVITAS EBORACI, long cross with three pellets in each angle, quatrefoil in center. The coin is gray, on a clipped flan. Very little of the obverse legend is pesent, and only about 1/3 of the reverse legend, as most letters are off of the flan. The crown on the portrait is clear, but little else is visible. The reverse is better struck.dpaul7
HENRY VI.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY VI92 viewsSILVER GROAT OF HENRY VI annulet issue 1422-1427 HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL E FRANC DNS HYB/POSI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM - (1422-1461) Calais mint, mm: pierced cross. Crowned bust facing within polylobe, annulets flanking / Long cross pattée. North 1424. SEAR 1836.
dpaul7
henry_vi_half_penny.jpg
ENGLAND - Henry VI51 viewsENGLAND - Henry VI (1422-1461) Silver Hammered Halfpenny. Circa 1422. It is of the Annulet issue and was minted in Calais. The Spink reference is 1849. dpaul7
henry viib.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY VII47 viewsHenry VII Hammered Silver Sovereign Penny. 1485-1509 Bishop Sherwood of Durham (D-S by Shield)dpaul7
HENRY_VII_SILVER_HALF_GROAT.jpg
ENGLAND - Henry VII15 viewsENGLAND - Henry VII (1485-1509) AR Halfgroat. Canterbury mint, mintmark: tun. Archbishop Morton. Joint issue, 1498-1499. Obv.: Crowned bust facing Rev.: Long cross voided with trefoil in each angle. Reference: Seaby SE2211, North 1720.dpaul7
HENRY_VIII_DURHAM_PENNY.jpg
ENGLAND - Henry VIII44 viewsENGLAND - Henry VIII (1509-1547). AR Penny, Durham ecclesiastical mint, 1509-1523 AD. Obv.: King enthroned holding orb and scepter, HE[NRIC DI] GRA REX AG[L (Z F)]. Rev.: Royal shield over cross fourchée, which divides the legend; T D above shield; CIVI[TAS] DVRRAM. Reference: Spinks 2331. Struck by Bishop Ruthall. Ex-Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
henry viii.jpg
ENGLAND - HENRY VIII56 viewsHenry VIII (1509-1547), First Issue Hammered Silver Half Penny, 1509-1526 portcullis mm Londondpaul7
ENGLAND JAMES I FARTHING.jpg
ENGLAND - James I71 viewsENGLAND - James I (1603-1625) Farthing. dpaul7
james i.jpg
ENGLAND - JAMES I63 viewsJames I hammered shilling, silver. Very nice!dpaul7
james ii.jpg
ENGLAND - JAMES II36 viewsJames II silver Groat (4-Pence), 1687. dpaul7
JOHN_I.jpg
ENGLAND - John I79 viewsENGLAND - John I (1199-1216) - Silver penny, Seaby 1350B North 969, VF detail, broken flan, 1.139g, 18.0mm, obverse HENRICVS REX, the S inverted, facing bust, holding scepter; reverse short cross, with four smaller crosses in quadrants. London mint.1 commentsdpaul7
dadmary.jpg
ENGLAND - MARY I60 viewsQueen Mary (1553-1558) Silver Groat, 1553-1554. S-2492. Nice, slightly wavy flan. Decent detail on portrait.dpaul7
ANNE.jpg
ENGLAND - QUEEN ANNE - 1702-171447 viewsSilver 4 Pence (Groat), 1713. KM-515.dpaul7
engl_RICHARD_I_.jpg
ENGLAND - Richard I 48 viewsENGLAND - Richard I "The Lionhearted". AR Penny. Moneyer: Henri. Crowned facing bust; HENRICVS REX Rev: Short cross, cruciform pellets in angles; HENRI ON LVND. S-1348c. Type 4b. dpaul7
richard_I_penny.JPG
ENGLAND - Richard I13 viewsENGLAND - Richard I (1189-1199) AR short-cross Penny. Obv.: + hENRICVS REX, crowned bust facing, holding scepte. Rev.: HVE ON EVERV short cross with four pellets in each angle. York mint. Reference: Seabby 1348A. Weak obverse; nice reverse!dpaul7
RICHARD_II_ENGLAND.jpg
ENGLAND - RICHARD II44 viewsENGLAND - RICHARD II (1377-1399) Halfpenny, AR. Late style, fishtail letters. Obv.: facing crowned bust of the king, no marks, "+RICARDVS REX ANGL" Rev.: Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, "CIVITAS LONDON", .50 g. N. 1332A, s-1700. dpaul7
william iii.jpg
ENGLAND - WILLIAM III37 views1696 Sixpence of William III, Silver.dpaul7
WILLIAM III CROWN.jpg
ENGLAND - William III80 viewsEngland, William III (Alone - 1694-1702) 1 Crown, Silver. First bust. KM486.dpaul7
251-3-horz.jpg
England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny24 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Ćthelred the Unready, or Ćthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ćlfthryth. Ćthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Ćthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ćlfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Ćthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Ćthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Ćthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unrćd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Ćthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).

Purchased on eBay

NGC AU-55 – An exceptional grade

Cost $438
1 commentsRichard M10
263-3-horz.jpg
England, Charles I 1625 – 1649, Groat (4P)15 viewsMint Mark (Open Book) = Aberystwyth
Obv. Legend – CAROLUS D G M B F ET H REX – Charles by the grace of God Great King of Britain France and Ireland – Small left-facing bust with lace collar, no armor on shoulder and a plume in front of the king’s face, value behind
Rev. Legend – CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO – I reign under the auspices of Christ, Plume over oval shield with royal arms
S-2893
Purchased on eBay
NGC XF-45
Cost $776 (I think I really over paid for this one)
1 commentsRichard M10
England_Charles_I_Shilling_(2).JPG
England, Charles I, 1625-164916 viewsShilling, Tower Mint under Parliament, 1642-48
Type 4/4, mintmark (P), 1643-4.
S.2800
1 commentsMatt Inglima
Balkerne_Gate%2C_Colchester_-_geograph_org_uk_-_189116.jpg
England, Colchester, Balkerne Gate281 viewsBalkerne Gate, Colchester. The largest Roman arch in Britain. Colchester and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in AD 60 and detroyed the town. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamulodunumJoe Sermarini
Dover.jpg
England, County of Kent, Dover: Roman Lighthouse97 viewsA visit to Dover on 20 March 2016, the Roman Lighthouse still stands within Dover Castle, which is still an important port of Britain by the English Channel. The upper 1/3 is a mix of Medieval (when it was used as a Bell Tower) and 19th century restoration (when the Church of Saint Mary, next to it, was also restored). The Lighthouse stands on the "eastern heights". There was another on the "western heights", they both guarded the entrance into the Roman harbour of Dubris (Dover) which was also an important base for the "Classis Britannica".Masis
IMG_3279.JPG
England, Edward I60 views England, Edward I (1272-1307), Penny, 1.26g., New coinage, class 9a1 (c.1299 to 1300/1), London mint, facing bust of King, star on breast, +EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB, rev., long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, CIVITAS LONDON (N.1036/1; S.1407), struck flat in parts, fine. 5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
edward_I.jpg
England, Edward I.30 viewsEngland, Edward I (Longshanks) 1272-1307, silver penny.
New coinage, class 4b (1282 to 1289).
Obverse- Tall central fleur to crown, sinister side-fleur broken, late S, facing bust of King, +EDWR ANGL DNS HYB.
Reverse- Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, CIVITAS LONDON.
(N.1024; S.1395) 1.41g., London mint.
b70
Edward_II.jpg
England, Edward II (1307-1327 A.D.)46 viewsAR Penny
Durham mint, 1311-1316
Bishop Kellawe issue
19mm, 1.43g

Obverse:
+ EDWA R ANGL DNS hYB
Crowned bust facing

Reverse:
CIVITAS DUNELM
Long cross, crozier (bishops crook) on top with trefoil of pellets at each angle.
rubadub
Elizabeth.jpg
England, Elizabeth I (1558-1603 A.D.)34 viewsSixpence
Mint 1575 A.D.
26mm, 1.43g

Obverse:
ELIZABETH D:G:ANG:FR:ET:HI:REGINA
Crowned bust of Elizabeth left. Rose behind, eglantine mint mark.

Reverse:
1575
POSVI DEV:ADJVTOREM:MEV
Cross and shield.
rubadub
Henricus-III_star-HENRICVS-REX-IIP_NIC-OLE-ONC-ANT_Canterbury_Mon-Nicole_Seaby-1362_North-988_1180-1189-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
England, Henricus-III., (1216-1272 A.D.), North-988, AR-Penny, Canterbury mint, #1211 viewsEngland, Henricus-III., (1216-1272 A.D.), North-988, AR-Penny, Canterbury mint, #1
Long Cross type, without scepter; portrait class 3c issue. Moneyer, Nicole.
avers: *hENRICVS REX:III', (NR are ligate), Around central beaded circle enclosing a crowned and bearded face frontal.
reverse: NIC OLE ONC ANT, ( ON and AN are ligate), Spaced around arms, long voided cross with pellet center and finials, over central beaded circle, with pellet trefoil in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 1,36g, axis: 2h,
mint: Canterbury, Moneyer: Nicole, date: 1247-1272 A.D., ref: Seaby-1364, North-988,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
MED-England,_HENRY_III_-3.jpg
England, Henry III 1248 - 1250 3 viewsSilver Penny - London

Moneyer - Nicole

NGC Graded AU-55

S-1361A

Purchased from Australia

My cost was $190
Richard M10
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England, House of Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, Silver Penny, 6th Issue. Metal Detecting find from Yorkshire.1 viewsTower 1595-98 A.D. 0.46g - 13.7mm, Axis 1h.

Obv: E • D • G • ROSA • SINE • SPINA - (Key Mintmark) Crowned bust left.

Rev: CIVITAS LONDON - Long cross fourchee over quartered shield of arms.

Spink 2680.
Christian Scarlioli
38891q00.jpg
England, James I, 1603 – 162532 viewsSilver halfgroat, Seaby 2659 or 2660, Fair, 0.728g, 17.0mm, 225o, obverse I D G ROSA SINE SPINA, crowned rose; reverse TVEATVR VNITA DEVS, crowned thistle ex Forvm

"James was King of Scots as James VI from 1567 and in succeeded Elizabeth I as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1603. He often used the title King of Great Britain. The English colonization of North America began during his reign. In 1607, Jamestown was founded in Virginia, and in 1620 Plymouth in the Massachusetts Bay Colony."
Randygeki(h2)
England,_John_Lackland,_(1199-1216_AD),_AR-Penny,_HENRICVS_R_EX,_Cross_ABELON_LVN_DE,_London,_Abel,_class-Vc_,_Seaby_1352,_N__971,_1204-9_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_18-19mm,_1,33g-s.jpg
England, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Seaby 1352, AR-Penny, London mint, Moneyer: Abel, Short cross, #166 viewsEngland, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Seaby 1352, AR-Penny, London mint, Moneyer: Abel, Short cross, #1
Short Cross type, with scepter, Class Vc,
avers: Scepter hENRICVS R• EX, Crowned bust facing, crowned, with a beard, two curls on each side of the head, scepter in right hand.
reverse: ✠ABELON•LVN•DE•, Short cross voided, cross botonnée in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 1,33g, axis: 4h,
mint: London mint, Moneyer: Abel, date: c.1204-1209 A.D., ref: Seaby 1352, N. 971,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
England_John_Lackland,_1199-1216_AD_AR-Penny_HENRICVS_REX_Cross-RAVF_ON_LVN_DE__London_mint_CI_5b_-Seaby-1351_AD_Q-001_0h_19,8mm_1,34g-s.jpg
England, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Spink 1351, AR-Penny, London mint, Short cross, #1109 viewsEngland, John Lackland, (1199-1216 A.D.), Spink 1351, AR-Penny, London mint, Short cross, #1
Short Cross type, with scepter; Class 5b,
avers: Scepter hENRICVS R•EX, Crowned bust facing, crowned, with beard, two curls on each side of head, sceptre in right hand.
reverse: ✠RAVLF•ON•LVN•DE•, Short cross voided, cross botonnée in each angle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,8mm, weight: 1,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: London mint, Moneyer: Ralph, date: c.1204-09 A.D., ref: Spink 1351,
Q-001
quadrans
25089859.jpg
England, London (Londinium) - city walls432 viewsmodern bronze statue of Trajan

next to Tower Hill - station of London underground
Johny SYSEL
19th_century_photograph_of_the_Roman_Baths,_Bath_.jpg
England, Roman Baths, Bath (1)162 viewsThese celebrated Roman Baths were unknown until, in 1880, sewer workers uncovered the first glimpse of Roman structures under the Georgian Spa. This led to the discovery of the Roman Baths and their treasures.

The walls, columns and parapet that surround the Great Bath today were built in the Victorian period, and the "Roman" statues that gaze down upon the pool from the upper walkway are also Victorian.

This photograph was taken in the 19th century not long after the Baths were discovered and before the Victorian structures we see today were built.
*Alex
Roman_Baths_c1900.jpg
England, Roman Baths, Bath (2)148 viewsThis is a Photochrome print of the Roman Baths, Bath, England taken sometime between 1895 and 1905.
It shows the new Victorian embellishments added to the Baths since their discovery in the 1880's and which, for the most part, are the works that visitors to the site see today.
The familiar green hue of the pool seen by modern visitors is caused by algae, resulting from the water's exposure to the open air. In Roman times the pool was roofed over and its waters, while perhaps not crystal clear, would almost certainly not have been green.

Photochrome prints are coloured images produced from black-and-white photographic negatives via the direct photographic transfer of a negative onto lithographic printing plates.
*Alex
charles_ii_b.jpg
ENGLAND--KING CHARLES II15 views1649 - 1685
struck 1681
Silver 3 Pence
O: Laureate draped bust right
R: Three interlocking "C"s, crowned
laney
Misc_England_Edward_I_(corrected_+).JPG
England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307)54 viewsNorth 1018-19; Spink 1389-90

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 3c-d, (1280-1281), London mint. 1.43 g. 19.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: + (cross potent) EDW R’ ANGL’ DNS hyB (round E; barred A; normal barred Ns; composite S; incurved tail on h; thin-wedge contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight trifoliate side-fleurs; arrowhead intermediate ornaments; drapery of two triangular pieces).

Rev: CIVI-TAS LON-DON (rounded C; barred A; composite S; normal barred Ns), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
2 commentsStkp
John_penny.png
England. King John Penny66 viewsJohn (1199-1216), Penny, class VIa2, London,
Walter, walter · on · lvn, 1.40g/4h
(SCBI Mass 1755, this coin; N 974/2; S 1353).
Good fine, dark-toned
J.D. Brand Collection [from Baldwin October 1960];
J.P. Mass Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 61, 17 March 2004, lot 355 (part);
J. Sazama Collection, Part I, DNW Auction 93, 26 September 2011, lot 1140 (part)
The collection of the late ray Inder
DNW Auction Coins tokens and Historical Medals September 18-20 2018, lot 192.
5 commentsorfew
MISC_England_Edward_I_Canterbury_Class_10ab1.jpg
England. Plantagenet. Edward I (1272-1307) 8 viewsNorth 1039/1; Spink 1409B

AR penny, new coinage (struck post 1279), Fox System class 10ab1b (1301), Canterbury mint. 1.42 g.18.92 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: + (cross patteé) + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB (=EDWARDVS REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE = Edward, King of England, Lord of Ireland) (round E; unbarred As; normal barred Ns; non-composite S; no contractive marks), Crowned facing bust (crown with straight bifoliate side-fleurs).

Rev: CIVI-TAS-CAN-TOR (rounded Cs; unbarred As; non-composite S; normal barred N), Long cross; trefoil of three pellets in each quarter.
Stkp
MISC_England_Henry_III.jpg
England. Plantagenet. Henry III (1216-1272)12 viewsNorth 988; Spink 1364

AR penny, voided long cross coinage, Lawrence System class 3c (struck 1248-1250), refined by Churchill and Thompson as class 3d1 (struck 1250) Type L446, London mint, by moneyer Nicholas of St. Albans. 1.38 g., 18.35 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: Initial mark: [Six-pointed star with rounded or angular points (MM4)], hENRICVS REX : III apostrophe (NR ligated; wedge-footed R [R1]; pellet in S), Crowned facing bust with pointed chin, pellets above lower hair curls (PL4), beard of pellets, no scepter.

Rev: NIC-OLE ON L-VND (ON and ND ligated, pellets on Ns in third and fourth quadrants), voided long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle, eight pellets per quadrant in inner circle.

Note: There were 711 class 3d1 coins issued by Nicholas of St. Albans from the London mint in the Brussels Hoard, spread between 11 Churchill and Thompson types. Type L446 coins were the most common type, represented by 520 coins.
1 commentsStkp
weight_1772.jpg
England; ½ GUINEA. 177227 viewsCoin Weight, ˝ GUINEA. 3.8g, 17mm. Obv. GIIIR . Rev. Dw.Gr/2:16/1772 in three lines, coffee pot countermark.Podiceps
weight_21.jpg
England; GUINEA27 viewsCoin Weight, GUINEA. 8.4g, 20mm. Obv. S/21/5.9 in three lines all within decorative border. Rev. As obverse with lion countermark.Podiceps
2599LG.jpg
FAUSTINA Sr. (138 - 141 AD)261 viewsAR Denarius

Lifetime Issue

O: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
R: IVNONI REGINAE, Peacock seated on throne and scepter behind.
Rome
18mm
3.5g
RIC-340, RSC-221 BMC (Antoninus Pius) 145 (same reverse die)

Ex Robert Kutcher Collection (Triton X, 8 January 2007), lot 1606 (part of)

Ex.Hixenbaugh Ancient Art Ltd

Published on Wildwinds!

Thank you Curtis Clay for the following info!

It's in Cohen 221, citing Paris, and hence in RIC 340, citing Cohen.
BM 145 has one from the Bank of England Coll., pl. 4.7, same rev. die as yours.
Strack 221 cites specimens in BM, Paris, and Vienna, plus one with portrait left, in Berlin, ill. pl. VI.
None in Reka Devnia hoard, an indication of rarity.
14 commentsMat
Collection.jpg
First Page of Album176 viewsThe first page of my album. You can see some of the coins in my gallery.2 commentsaarmale
JET_France_Louis_XIV_Battle_of_Seneffe.jpg
France (French Flanders). The Battle of Seneffe11 viewsFeuardent 14726-14734; La Tour 1890-1893

Jeton; minted by Lazare Gottlieb Laufer (active 1660-1690) in Nuremburg during reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715); brass, 25.54 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX, laureate head of mature Louis XIV facing right, LGL beneath.

Rev.: PVGNA AD • SENEFFAM • (= the Battle of Seneffe), Victory flying right, holding a crown and a standard; below, a cannon, barrels of powder, flags and cannonballs.

The Battle of Seneffe was a fought during the Franco-Dutch War on August 11, 1674 between a French army under the command of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and the Dutch-German-Spanish army under the Dutch Stadtholder William III of Orange (later King William III of England). The jetons were based on the official silver medals struck to commemorate the battle.
Stkp
FRANCE_JETON_ET_VICTOR_FVLMINA_PONIT.jpg
FRANCE - Jeton, Louis XIV113 viewsFRANCE - Jeton, brass. Allegorical reference to the Peace of Ryswick. Obverse: The bust of King Louis XIV right (old head with a ribbon in his hair), surrounded by the legend: LVDOVICVS MAGNVS . REX Denticled border. Reverse: In the center, Jupiter seated on a cloud, lightning poses next to him, with an eagle at his feet. Around the legend: ET VICTOR FVLMINA PONIT (Victorius, he rests his lightning). Crossed palms in exergue. Denticled border. Edge: Plain. 27 mm. The Treaty of Ryswick or Ryswyck was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic. The treaty settled the Nine Years' War, which pitted France against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.[dpaul7
JET_Monneron_Confidence_Token.jpg
France. Monneron Confidence Token10 viewsAE/copper token; valued at 2 Sols; designed by Augustin Dupré and minted in 1791 (the first pieces leaving the mint on November 3, 1791) on the Watt steam presses of Matthew Boulton’s Soho Mint, Birminghan, England, for Frčres Monneron; 18.28 gr. (minted at 27 to the pound), 32 mm., 180°.

KM France TN23; Guilloteau.233l; Mazard153; Brandon 217c; Droulers.62; Bouchert 54/1; Hennin 342. Pl. 32.

Obv: France in the guise of Liberty seated, facing left, raising a spear surmounted by a Phrygian cap leaning on a tablet bearing the inscription DROITS / DE / L'HOMME / ARTIC. / V. (representing the Declaration of the Rights of Man), rooster on a pillar behind her, LIBERTE SOUS LA LOI (= Liberty Under the Law), L'AN III DE LA LIBERTE (= Year III/1791 of Liberty) in exergue.

Rev: MONNERON FRERES NEGOCIANS A PARIS (= Moneron Brothers, Merchats of Paris), MEDALLE / DE CONFIANCE / DE DEUX SOLS A / ECHANGER CONTRE / DES ASSIGNATS DE / 50L ET AU DESSUS / 1791 (= Medal of Confidence of Two Sols, to be Exchanged for Assignats of 50 Livres or Above, 1791).

Edge: ⁕ BON POUR BORD MARSEI ⁕. LYON ROUEN ⁕ NANT ET STRASB (= Good for Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Rouen, Nantes and Strasbourg).

Although the Bastille was stormed in 1789, the coinage of Louis XVI continued to be struck until 1792, with a new constitutional coinage in copper or bell-metal, silver and gold commencing in 1791. Thar coinage circulated alongside the ancien régime pieces, but did little to alleviate the shortage of specie. A short-term solution was attempted by the introduction of the assignats, which were paper money backed by confiscated church properties and land. Produced in vast quantities, the assignats eventually depreciated to the point of worthlessness. The tokens of Frčres Monneron were issued in response to this situation.

The Monneron brothers, Jean-Louis (1742-1805), Pierre-Antoine (1747-1811), and Joseph-François-Augustin (1756-1824), were the sons of a Huguenot lawyer from Annonay, who made his fortune by buying the rights to receive the gabelle (salt tax) for the town of Annonay. By 1791, Joseph-François-Augustin obtained the right to strike copper token coinage. Production began in late 1791. However, in March 1792, Frčres Monneron went bankrupt and Pierre-Antoine fled. His Francois-Augustin resumed the business, but a law of enacted on May 3, 1792 prohibited the manufacture of private coins. These currencies of necessity circulated only until the end of 1793.

The tokens were designed by the greatest engraver of the revolutionary era, Augustin Dupré (1748-1833), who had made his name as a medalist, producing many medals commemorating the American Revolution before becoming the Engraver General of the French mints in 1791.
Stkp
JET_Capture_of_Fontarabie.jpg
France. The Taking of Fontarabie7 viewsFeuardent cf. 13216-13223; La Tour cf. 2181-2187

Jeton, brass; minted in Nuremburg, 24 mm, 180°

Obv: LUD • XV D • G FR • -- ET N • REX, bust of Louis XV (1715-1774) facing left.

Rev: PACIS FIRMANDĆ EREPTUM PIGNUS (= peace strengthened, recovered, assured), Helmeted France on the left, standing to the right facing helmeted Spain, holding out an olive branch.

The jeton commemorates the capture of Fontarabie/Hondarribia (in the Spanish Basque country, on the French border) on June 16, 1719 by James I Fitz-James, Duke of Berwick, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720). By the Peace of Utrecht, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1714) ended with the Spanish inheritance divided between the Austrian Habsburgs and Spain to create a balance of power in Europe. Soon thereafter, Spain invaded Italy in an attempt to regain territories lost to the Habsburgs. Britain, France, the Dutch Republic and Austria formed the Quadruple Alliance to prevent Spanish revanchism.

Berwick (1670-1734) was the illegitimate son of James II Stuart, King of England and Scotland. He became a French citizen in 1703, Marshal of France in 1706 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1714, after his storming of Barcelona that year, essentially ending the War of the Spanish Succession. He resigned his titles in 1718 in favor of his son but remained in office by commission. Following the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Berwick was not called to serve in the field again until, 1733, when he led the Army of the Rhine in the War of the Polish Succession. He was decapitated by a cannonball during the Siege of Philippsburg in 1734.
Stkp
333477.jpg
George III,1760-1820. Eighteenpence Banktoken 1813. BANK OF ENGLAND ISSUE.6 viewsLondon mint. (7.4 g.) S-3772. Ruslan K
4330705.jpg
George III. 1760-1820. HANOVER. AR Dollar. Bank of England issue. Dated 1815.3 views(35mm, 14.57 g, 12h). Laureate head right / Denomination and date within wreath.
ESC 423; SCBC 3770.
Ruslan K
Scheuch-1869var.jpg
Germany, Third Reich: Meissen Porcelain Medal, 1940 Invasion of France and Benelux (Scheuch-1869var)33 viewsObv: Eagle standing left on pedestal, which bears inscription WIEDER ZUVORGEKOMMEN (We are coming again); around, ZUR ERINNERUNG AN DE 10. MAI 1940 (In memory of 10 May 1940)
Rev: Norse ship, sailing left, with swastika on the mainsail; around, DENN WIR FAHREN GEGEN ENGELLAND (Then we will sail against England)
SpongeBob
Scheuch-1867.jpg
Germany, Third Reich: Meissen Zinc Medal, 1940 Invasion of Norway (Scheuch-1867)18 viewsObv: Eagle standing left on pedestal, which bears inscription UM ZEHN STUNDEN ZUVOR-GEKOMMEN; around, ZUR ERINNERUNG AN DEN FELDZUG IN NORWEGEN; 9.APRIL 1940 in field
Rev: Norse ship, sailing left, with swastika on the mainsail; around, DENN WIR FAHREN GEGEN ENGELLAND (Then we will sail against England)
Quant.Geek
Geta_175_225_Comp.jpg
Geta (as Augustus), 209–11 CE81 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 210 CE; 3.08g. BMCRE 68, C 219 (3 Fr.), RIC 92. Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: VICTORI – AE BRIT; Victory standing left, naked to waist, holding wreath and palm.

Notes: Second special issue of the joint reign of Severus, Caracalla, and Geta commemorating victories in Britain. Scarce; fewer than thirty specimens in the hoards studied by P.V. Hill (twenty in Reka Devnia).

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 175 (May 2011), lot 225; ex Empire 9 (30 April 1988), lot 337; ex Glendining sale (21 November 1984), lot 220, hammer price Ł125; from the G.R. Arnold Collection, Burford, England.

Literature: H. A. Seaby (1898–1979), Roman Silver Coins, 2nd ed. (London: Seaby Publications Ltd., 1969; revised 1982), vol. 3, p. 99, no. 219 (this specimen illustrated), and Glendining & Co. and B.A. Seaby, Ltd., The G.R. Arnold Collection of Silver Coins of the Severan Dynasty (London, 21 November 1984), pl. IX, no. 220 (this specimen illustrated).
4 commentsMichael K5
EDWARD_I_ENGLAND_2.jpg
GREAT BRITAIN - Edward I41 viewsGREAT BRITAIN - Edward I (1272-1307), AR Penny. Bristol mint.
“+ EDW R ANGL DNS HYB“ - crowned and draped bust facing / “VILLA BRISTOLLIE“ - long cross with three pellets in each angle. North 1015, Class 2b. Seaby SE1386.
dpaul7
James_Cook_Memorial_Medal_by_Pingo_1784.jpg
Great Britain, Captain James Cook Medal (Ć) by Lewis Pingo for the Royal Society 178411 viewsLeft-facing bust of Captain James Cook (1728-1779) in his naval uniform. IAC. COOK OCEANI INVESTIGATOR ACERRIMVS (James Cook the most intrepid investigator of the seas) around the border. REG. SOC.LOND. / SOCIO. SVO (The Royal Society London, to its Fellow) below; signed L.P.F. (Lewis Pingo fecit) beneath the truncation of the shoulder.

The personified figure of Fortune leaning against a rostral column, holding a rudder resting on a globe; shield bearing Union Jack leaning against rostra column. NIL INTENTATVM NOSTRI LIQUERE (Our men have left nothing unattempted) around the border. In exergue AUSPICIIS / GEORGII / III (Under the auspices of George III).

MH 374; BHM 258; Betts 553; Eimar 780.

(43 mm, 12h).

On 14 February 1779, the world’s greatest navigator and maritime explorer, Captain James Cook (1728-1779), was killed in a skirmish with the Hawaiian inhabitants at Kealakekua Bay, on the big island. News of his death took almost a year to reach England. On receiving the news, the Chairman of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks, sought designs for a medal to celebrate Cook’s achievements. Many artisans submitted ideas for consideration. However, it was the design of the chief engraver of the London Mint, Lewis Pingo (1743-1830) that won the sanction of the Royal Society. Work on the dies commenced on 15 June 1780 although it was to be more than three years before Sir Joseph Banks announced that the engraving was complete in November 1783. The medal was struck the following year in gold (22 copies), silver (322 copies) and bronze (577 copies). The bronze strikes were distributed free to the Fellows of the Royal Society, while gold and silver were by subscription only, with several of the gold medals reserved for dignitaries, including the King George III and James Cook’s widow Elizabeth.

The portrayal of Cook on the medal is derived from the famous portrait by Nathaniel Dance. The accompanying Latin legend translates to ‘James Cook the most intrepid explorer of the seas.' The reverse celebrates Cook's journeys, with the image of Fortune holding a rudder over the globe and a motto in Latin, which translated reads 'Our men have left nothing unattempted'.
n.igma
GB_Shilling_1745_Lima.JPG
Great Britain, George II, 1727 - 176015 viewsObv: GEORGIUS . II . DEI . GRATIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust facing left, LIMA below.

Rev: M . B . F . ET . H . REX . F . D . B . ET . L . D . S . R . I . A . T . ET . E . 1745, four crowned shields.

Note: The complicated reverse inscription states: "Magnae Britannieae, Franciae ET Hiberniae REX Fidei Defensor Brunsviciensis ET Luneburgensis Dux, Sacri Romani Imperii Archi-Thesaurarius ET Elector."

Translation: King of Great Britain, France (Normandy) and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, High Treasurer and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire."

With all that work who says “it’s good to be the king?”

The “Lima” inscription under the bust identifies that this coin was made from silver captured in raids on Spanish settlements in the New World in what now is Peru. (All of Latin American except Brazil was called El Peru. Individual countries independent from Spain didn’t emerge in South and Central America until the 19th century.) The state of war between England and Spain was the normal state of affairs for more than a century.

Silver Shilling, London Mint, 1745

5.8 grams, 26 mm
Matt Inglima
Guillaume_X_.jpg
Guillaume X AR denier21 viewsFRANCE. PROVINCIAL. Aquitaine. Guillaume X. 1127-1137. AR denier. 1.05 gm. 20 mm. Bordeaux mint. Four central crosslets; +GVILILMO around ("G" is made up of two distinct punches) / Short cross with flared ends; +BVRDEGVLA around. Poey D'Avant 2733. Roberts 4301. Good Very Fine. The Douglas Bayern Collection. William X, the father of Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Henry II of England.Davissons Printed Auction 37 Lot 328. Feburary 21, 2018. 1 commentsorfew
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~2.jpg
HADRIANVS BRITANNICUS937 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
5 commentsPetitioncrown
harpokratescomp.jpg
Harpokrates Bronze63 viewsAn ancient Egyptian bronze statuette of the God Harpokrates, shown seated wearing the sidelock of youth, sun-disc and tripartite wig, dating to Egypt's Late Period, approximately 664-323 B.C.E.

Harpokrates is the Greek name for the Egyptian God Horus, depicted in his child form with finger to the mouth - a recognition of the Egyptian "child" hieroglyph. He was the God of the sunrise, and was often depicted as a falcon.

A suspension loop at the back would have enabled the figure to be worn as an amulet.

Height: 3 1/2 inches.

Provenance:
Ex. Collection of C.E.Best (died 1973). Cecil Best was an incredibly colorful character. Educated at Ardingley college in the late 1800's, Best trained as a banker but subsequently worked as a miner, soldier, merchant, editor and singer. He served as syllabus secretary at the Theosophical Society, England, where he met his future wife Inayat Khan, who converted him to the Sufism form of Islam and renamed him Shahbaz. Shahbaz Best, as he was now known, traveled to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil to spread his religion and work as a banker. It was during this time that he met H.E.Inman, a marine engineer, who gifted him his collection of antiquities that he had acquired in lieu of payment from the Egyptian government between 1910-1912. The antiquities were excavated from tombs in lower Egypt and were on display at the Southampton Museum in England after the death of Mr. Best in 1973.

Ex. ArtAncientLtd
Salaethus
harthacnut.jpg
Harthacnut49 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of Denmark 1035-1042 and England 1040-1042
Moneyer: Toci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170, Hbg 28 (var.)
Hauberg 28
O: NARĐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
Henry_II_ab.jpg
Henry II - London, England112 viewsHenry II Curtmantle (1133-1189). King of England 1154-1189, House of Plantagenet. AR (20 mm, 1.45 g) short cross penny minted in London by moneyer Reinald.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX.
Reverse: REINALD M O LVN.
Reference: Sear 1344 Class 1b1.
Jan (jbc)
30737.jpg
Henry III7 viewsEngland. Henry III. 1216-1272. AR penny (17.56 mm, .92 g, 1 h). hЄnRICVS x RЄX x AnGLIЄ, Crowned facing bust of Henry III (no beard?), annulets at bottom of hair curls on both sides / Long cross potent divides moneyer's name and city abbreviations; three pellets in each quarter, two sets of three are joined by an annulet between them. aVF, clipped.ecoli
Henry_V_new.jpeg
Henry V AR Penny 24 viewsENGLAND. Henry V, 1413-1422 AD. AR Penny (17.46 mm 0.94 gm) of York.
Obv: Crowned bust facing with mullet and broken annulet
Rev: Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
S.1785. Toned aVF.
Pegasi Auctions (hosted by Agora Auctions) #34 Lot 756.
May, 2016.
orfew
henry_viii.jpg
Henry VIII AR Groat45 viewsEngland. House of Tudor. Henry VIII (1509-1547). Second Coinage, 1526-1544. Groat, mm rose. Laker bust D, rev. Shield over cross fourchee. S.2337E. PCGS Genuine, Cleaned - XF Detail. Spink USA, The Numismatic Collectors' Series Sale
Sale Date: 04/17/2018
2 commentsorfew
CONDER_TOKEN_-_IPSWICH.jpg
IPSWICH HALF-PENNY TOKEN21 viewsIPSWICH HALF-PENNY TOKEN - Cu 1/2-Penny Token, Ipswich, Suffolk, England; 1794. Obv.: Ancient market cross; IPSWICH CROSS, 1794 in exurge. Rev.: PAYABLE AT CONDER'S DRAPERY WAREHOUSE, IPSWICH. Reference: D&H-35, Conder-38.dpaul7
IRELAND_EDWARD_I_PENNY.jpg
IRELAND -- Edward I of England (1272–1307)58 viewsIRELAND -- Edward I of England (1272–1307) AR penny, 1283 (third issue) Dublin Mint. Obv.: Crowned bust facing in triangle, + EDW . R. ANGL DNS HYB Rev.: long cross with three pellets in each angle, CIVITAS DVBLINIE. This coin illustrates all the traits of a third issue coin: On the obverse it has the characteristic small cross before a straight backed E - a trefoil on the breast (as the first three issues have) and punctuation; commas and stops in the legend and a contraction bar above the S. On the reverse it has a Lombardic 'n' rather than a Roman 'N' in the mint signature. Many third issue coins have only obverse or reverse die characteristics rather than both, in these cases the other die is a second issue one. Reference: S-6248dpaul7
MISC_Italian_States_Norman_Sicily_Tancred_Spahr_139.jpg
Italian States: Norman Sicily. Tancred of Hauteville (1189-1194) with Roger III (1192-1193)16 viewsTravaini 399; Spahr 139; Biaggi 1237; MEC Italy XIV 449-453.

AE Follaro, second coinage, 1192-1193. Messina mint. 1.81 g., 13.55 mm. max, 0°

Obv: al–malik Tanqrīr (= King Tancred) in Kufic script.

Rev: + ROGERIVS : around margin, • / REX / • in center.

Tancred was the illegitimate son of Duke Roger III of Apulia, eldest son of King Roger II (1130-1154) by his mistress Emma, daughter of Count Achard II of Lecce. Roger II was succeeded by his fourth son, William I, the Bad (1154-1166). As soon as William's son and successor, William II, the Good (1166-1189) (who was married to Joanna, sister of Richard I, the Lionheart, King of England), died without issue, Tancred seized Sicily against the claims of his Aunt Constance, the posthumously-born daughter of Roger II, and her husband, Henry VI Hohenstaufen, then King of the Romans (soon to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, and later, Henry I of Sicily). Tancred's claim was supported by the official class, while most of the nobility supported the claim of Henry and Constance. Tancred's premature death several months after that of his eldest son, Roger III (then age 18/19) lead to Hohenstaufen rule of Sicily, after the failed 10-month regency of Tancred's second son, William III (age four) in 1094.
Stkp
John_ab.jpg
John - London, England54 viewsJohn Lackland (1166-1216). King of England 1199-1216, House of Plantagenet. AR (19 mm, 1.40 g) short cross penny minted in London by moneyer Ilger.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX.
Reverse: ILGER ON LVNDE.
Reference: Sear 1351 Class 5b2.

Jan (jbc)
Kent_13.jpg
Kent 1319 viewsObv: KENTISH LIBERTY PRESERVED BY VIRTUE & COURAGE, Kentish men meeting William the Conqueror, who is on horseback, 1067 below.

Rev: PROSPERITY TO THE WOODEN WALLS OF OLD ENGLAND, the stern of the ROYAL GEORGE, KENT HALFPENNY / 1795 / TDH.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THO’S HAYCRAFTS DEBTFORD

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Kent 13
SPQR Coins
Edward I AR Penny. Class 3b, Canterbury, CIVITAS CANTOR.JPG
King 009, Edward I 1272-1307. AR Penny, Class 3b, Canterbury. 41 viewsObv. Crowned head of Edward I facing EDWR ANGL DNS HYB
Rev. Long Cross CIVITAS CANTOR.
Class 3b, Canterbury mint.
LordBest
Henry III AR Penny. Class Vb, London, NICOLE ON LVND.JPG
King 08, Henry III 1216-1272. AR Penny, Class Vb, London mint. NICOL ON LVND.59 viewsObv. Crowned head of Henry III facing, with sceptre hENRICVS REX III
Rev. Long cross NICOL ON LVND
Class Vb, London mint.
LordBest
EanredHvaetred1.jpg
King Eanred, Northumbria44 viewsThis coin is likely a counterfeit/reproduction of a genuine Eanred Base-Styca of c. 810AD. It is currently undergoing XRF analysis to determine this. The weight is suspicious at 1.85g though the coin itself, if fake, is dangerously good.

Given that Tony Abramson, an acknowledged specialist has given his initial opinion that it might be genuine from the photo, I sent it to him for a look in the hand.

Discussion with Tony here:

'Dear Alex,
The weight is a real concern but it's difficult to tell just from the photograph - there may be some casting bubbles on the surface. I attach the Museum Reproduction Limited's no. 382 which differs from your coin. Also your's doesn't appear to be dished, so isn't a new Ashmore. I would recommend that you have the coin analysed by XRF or similar to detemine the amount of silver and confirm the presence of trace elements - tin and zinc. This could be done as Sheffield Assay office or at most universities. The leading authority is Peter Northover at Oxford. I can put you in touch.
Regards,
Tony Abramson'

So off it went to Oxford. After XRF analysis at Oxford by Peter Northover, he stated the following, almost as a footnote having discussed at length two doubtful 'Vanimundas Thrymsa':

'The Eanred coin has a composition that matches other early 9th century silver coins in England and is probably OK, although it is a very crisp example.

Regards,
Peter

--
Dr Peter Northover,
BegbrokeNano - OMCS
Tel: +44 1865 283721; Fax +44 1865 848790
Mob: +44 7785 501745
e-mail; peter.northover@materials.ox.ac.uk'


Further notes added from research email to Tony Abramson:

Just done some basic research on my coin via the EMC. There are 600+ coins of Eanred on there so this really was a quick scan through. Results:

These coins are quite heavy, certainly over the 1.35g you'd 'expect'. In one case, a coin is 2.25g!:

1001.0270
1001.0295
1024.0250
1036.0035
1042.2430

These coins are the same style as mine but no weight recorded:

2001.0274
2001.0270
2001.0600
2001.0601

These are the same as Pirie 2000, P.66 no.146 and 147 in 2 of the cases. Find spots include Sherburn, Wharrem-Le-Street, Staxton, all in Yorkshire on A64, the old Roman road from York to Scarborough. The legend for EANRED is however retrograde on all these coins, but not on mine.

Stewart Lyon and Tony correspondance:

On 08/01/2012 23:56:
Dear Tony,

I just don't believe that a coin weighing 1.8g and having a diameter of close to 15 mm can be a genuine styca of Eanred's reign. It cannot have been difficult to forge styca dies in the 18th or 19th century (though who would want to do it today?) since the designs are simple and the lettering often straightforward, as on Hwaetred's coins. If Peter Northover finds that the trace elements in the silver are consistent with 9th century silver we may have to wonder how this came about, but it would take a lot of persuasion to make me change my opinion that it is false.

Kind regards,
Stewart

Biarnred May 2017 - Updating thoughts - no new news here but to summarise, I am happy to sit this one out. On the one hand I may have identified a fake/reproduction on the market, and this serves as a warning to others. On the otherhand, with its composition and accurate style, just maybe this coin is genuine and represents a coinage now long forgotten, at a higher weight. I suspect that this coin is of relatively modern construction - perhaps some old Stycas (they are common) have been melted down and new dies used to produce this. Further the patination looks false to me, which would back up the age claim. Why? Well you can pick up Stycas virtually for free, and if you have the ability it would be an easy way to make some cash. Saying that, why aren't there more of these? Maybe a short-term venture.
AlexB
Edward_I_penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Edward I AR Penny20 viewsEdward I
Kingdom of England
AR Penny
Durham mint
+EDWR' ANGL' DNS hYB
Crowned head facing
+CIVITAS DVREME
Long cross with quartered pellets
Ardatirion
edward iv groat london mint (2).jpg
Kingdom of England - Edward IV groat, London mint63 viewsEdward IV, AD 1461-1483
London, 1461-1464 AD
Crowned bust facing within a tressure of arches; trefoil on breast
EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL [Z FR]ANC
Long cross pattée dividing legends; three pellets in each angle
Outer: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM; Inner: CIVITAS LONDON
Spinks 1973
1 commentsArdatirion
Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London.JPG
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London38 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Crowned bust of queen facing left
ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HI REGINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend
POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV
Martlet mm
Spink 2555
Ardatirion
Elizabeth I penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I, AR penny, 1560-1561 AD37 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Queen crowned facing left
E D G ROSA SINE SPINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend, Martlet mintmark
CIVITAS LONDON
Spinks 2558
Ardatirion
Henry_V_penny,_1413-1422_AD,_York.JPG
Kingdom of England - Henry V penny, 1413-1422 AD, York33 viewsHenry V
AR Penny
York, 1413-1422
HENRICVS REX ANGLIE
Crowned bust of king facing; mullet to left and whole annulet to right of crown.
CIVITAS EBORACI
Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle; quatrefoil at centre.
Spink 1786
Ardatirion
Henry VIII Ecclesiastical Penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Henry VIII Ecclesiastical Penny80 viewsHenry VIII, AD 1509-1547
Durham ecclesiastical mint, 1509-1523 AD
King enthroned holding orb and scepter
HE[NRIC DI] GRA REX AG[L (Z F)]
Royal shield over cross fourchée, which divides the legend; T D above shield
CIVI[TAS] DVRRAM
Spinks 2331
2 commentsArdatirion
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 16 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
RS197-Roman-AE2-Arcadius_(found_coin).jpg
Late Roman (Arcadius?) AE2, GLORIA ROMANORVM28 viewsSo why is this in my gallery, you ask? Looks like something you'd maybe see in a $1.00 pick bin, doesn't it? Well, the truth is, it cost me less than that, because I FOUND it. Here... in GEORGIA. I was walking a sand roadbed on a colonial site in Liberty County, GA, casually looking for artifacts, though I didn't even have my metal detector with me. In a washout caused by recent rains, I noticed a gunflint from an 18th century firearm and some old plantation-era pottery sherds. And this, lying right there exposed in the washout. Though it's possible it was lost the day before I found it, I doubt that. I think it had been there 150-200 years. I have two pet theories. Either it was lost by an early collector (a famous 19th century antiquarian happened to have lived nearby), or it came over a bit before that, on a boat from England during the colonial era. In the early colonial period, small change was so scarce in this area that people spent just about any kind of coin they could get their hands on. I've dug some pretty strange stuff. This might have circulated as a farthing in the 1700s, and I guess nobody would have given it much thought at the time.lordmarcovan
LiciniusTrierGeniusFollis1_Close.jpg
Licinius I Ć follis, Trier mint. RIC 845b19 viewsLicinius I (AD 308–324). Ć follis, 22mm, 4.22 g., 5h. Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 310–313.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO–POP ROM, turreted Genius standing and facing with head left; holding patera in right outstretched hand and cornucopia with end of himation in left arm; T–F//PTR.
References: RIC VI Trier 845b (C)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.
Mark Fox
Lucilla_RIC_III_1750.jpg
Lucilla, AE Sestertius, RIC III 175072 viewsLucilla
Augusta, 164 - 169 A.D.

Coin: AE Sestertius

Obverse: LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust facing right.
Reverse: IVNO REGINA, Juno, standing, facing left, holding a Patera with her right hand and a Sceptre with her left. A Peacock, to the left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 23.87 g, Diameter: 30 x 29.3 x 4.7 mm, Die axis: 160°, Mint: Rome, struck between 164 - 169 A.D. Referencee: RIC III 1750, Note: A metal detecting find, near Marlborough in the County of Wiltshire, England in April 2013

Rated Scarce
Masis
VERUS-2-ROMAN.jpg
Lucius Verus, RIC III-505 Rome22 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 162-163 A.D.
18mm, 2.51g
RIC III-505, RSCv.2-255

Obverse:
L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS
Bear head right.

Reverse:
TR P III IMP II COS II
Armenia seated left, surrounded by arms, resting chin on right hand; before her, standard.

Found just outside Amersham, England
Will J
YHWH.jpg
Maria Di Medici Jeton52 viewsMARIA. D. GR. FRANC. AND. NAVA. REG, 16 NB 08 in exergue.
Coat of arms half of France and quartered of Medici, and of Austria, surrounded by a crown half of laurel and half of palm

SERVAT DATAM 1608 in exergue
Two intertwined hands as a sign of trust between a palm and an olive branch. Above, the name JEHOVAH in Hebrew (YHWH) , whose rays penetrate dense clouds.

5.24g, 28mm

"Mary of God's Grace Queen of France and Navarre"

"He protects those who trust him."

Maria was born at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, Italy, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora survived to adulthood.

Maria is not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family referred to as the 'cadet' branch. She does descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. Nonetheless this 'cadet' branch produced every Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1537 to 1737, and the kings of France from Louis XIII in 1601 to Louis XVI in 1793.

She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The wedding ceremony in Florence, Italy (to which Henry did not turn up, marrying her by proxy) was celebrated with 4,000 guests and lavish entertainments. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

Maria was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court.

Her daughter, Henrietta Maria was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. Henrietta Maria, in turn, was mother of two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
2 commentsJay GT4
MaximianHerculiusAquileiaMonetaFollis1_Close.jpg
Maximian Herculius, first reign, Ć follis, Aquileia mint. RIC 31b.16 viewsMaximian Herculius, first reign (AD 286–305). Ć follis, 28mm, 10.47 g., 6h. Aquileia mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 301.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing and facing with head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left arm; V//AQS.
References: RIC VI Aquileia 31b (C)
Ex Martyn Bodkin, 3-22-2013. Reportedly found 30 years ago, possibly at Aylesford, in Kent, England.

Mark Fox
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Medieval England, Edward IV, Silver Penny, Second Reign, Under Archbishop Lawrence Booth, Mintmark Rose.6 viewsYork 1471-1483 A.D. 0.64g - 15.9mm, Axis 10h.

Obv: (Rose) ЄDWΛRD’ DI GRΛ’ RЄX ΛnGL x - crowned bust facing; B and Key next to neck.

Rev: CIVITAS EBORACI - Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle; quarterfoil in the centre.

Spink 2132.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, Henry VII, Silver Sovereign Penny, Minted under Bishop Sherwood.10 viewsDurham 1489-1493 A.D. 0.66g - 16.1mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: + hЄnRIC DI GRA RЄX - Enthroned facing portrait of King Henry VII, holding lis-tipped sceptre and globus cruciger, one pillar, crozier to the right.

Rev: CIVITAS DVRhAm - Long cross over arms and initials D - R at sides.

Spink 2231.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, King Edward III, Silver Farthing- Florin Coinage.1 viewsLondon 1344-1351 A.D. 0.39g - 14mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: + EDWARDVS REX - Crowned bust facing.

Rev: CIVITAS LONDON - Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle.

Spink 1562.
Christian Scarlioli
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Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross cut Halfpenny, Class 7b-7c, UK Metal Detecting find from Suffolk and recorded with PAS.6 viewsLondon 1216-1247 A.D. 0.68g - 17.8mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: ......ON LVN - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-24_19_41_54.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7a, Moneyer: Abel. UK Metal Detecting find.1 viewsLondon 1216-1247 A.D. 1.31g - 19.1mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + ABEL•ON•LVND - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356A.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-01-24_16_01_38.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7a3, Moneyer: Willelm. UK Metal Detecting find from Cambridgeshire.6 viewsBury St Edmunds 1216-1247 A.D. 1.20g - 13.2mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + WILLELM ONSANT - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356A.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-11_12_49_36.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7b, Moneyer: Ioan. 9 viewsCanterbury 1216-1247 A.D. 1.00g - 17mm, Axis 2h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: +IOAN ON CANTE - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356b.
2 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2017-11-25_17_33_37.png
Medieval England, King Henry III, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 7b1, Moneyer: Iun, (Hiun).1 viewsCanterbury 1216-1247 A.D. 1.31g - 17.9mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust of king holding sceptre.

Rev: + IVN ON CANTERD - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1356B.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-04-07_12_25_27.png
Medieval England, King John, Silver Short Cross Penny, Class 6a1, Moneyer: Abel.6 viewsLondon 1199-1216 A.D.

Obv: hENRICVS REX - Crowned bust facing.

Rev: + ABEL·ON·LVND - Short cross voided with quatrefoil in each angle.

Spink 1353.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-01-08_12_15_12.png
Medieval England, Richard II, Silver Penny, Type I. UK Metal Detecting find from Cambridgeshire.12 viewsYork 1377-1399 A.D. 1.02g - 17.3mm, Axis 11h.

Obv: + RICARDVS REX ANGLIE - Crowned bust facing, cross on breast.

Rev: CIVITAS EBORACI - Long cross pattée with three pellets in each angle. quatrefoil in centre.

Spink 1690.
2 commentsChristian Scarlioli
cnut.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Anglo Saxon England, Cnut, AR Penny, 1016-1035 AD.39 viewsAnglo-Saxon Kings of England, Cnut AR Penny. AD 1016-1035. Short Cross type (BMC xvi, Hild. H). Lundene (London) mint; Godman, moneyer. Struck circa 1029-1035/6.
Obverse: + CNVT T R·ECX:, diademed bust left; sceptrE before
Reverse: + GODMΛN ON LVN, voided short cross with pellet-in-annulet in center.
SCBI 14 (Copenhagen), 2601-3 var. (same obv. die, mint name); Hild. 2426; BMC –; North 790; SCBC 1159; CNG 90, lot 2396 (same dies). 1.14g, 17mm, 3h.
chance v
251-3-horz~0.jpg
MEDIEVAL, England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny64 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Ćthelred the Unready, or Ćthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ćlfthryth. Ćthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Ćthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ćlfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Ćthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Ćthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Ćthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unrćd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Ćthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).
Richard M10
1279_Edward_I_AR_PENNY.JPG
Medieval, England, EDWARD I (1272 - 1307), AR Penny minted at London in 1279.10 viewsObverse: EDW REX ANG DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 1382

Undated Penny, type 1c. Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".
*Alex
edward1.jpg
MEDIEVAL, ENGLAND, Edward I (1272-1307), AR Penny, Class 3g, London.102 viewsEdward I, Plantagenet king of England (1272-1307)

Obverse: +EDW R ANGL DNS HYB, Facing small neat bust of Edward I with narrow face and spread crown.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON, Long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle.
Weight: 1.35g.
N.1022; SPINK.1393

New coinage, class 3g penny (struck 1280 to 1281) London mint.

2 commentsAnemicOak
EnglandND1Penny1.jpg
Medieval, England, Edward I, (1272-1307) 1 Penny.22 viewsEngland N.D. (1272-1307) 1 Penny.

Newcastle-On-Tyne Mint.

King Edward I (1272-1307).

King Edward I was commonly known as the 'Hammer of the Scots',as he tried to take over Scotland in the turmoil that ensued as a result of the death of King Alexander III of Scotland (1249-86).

King Edward I's silver 1d. coins are the commonest English hammered coins - but not from some of the provincial mints though.
BCNumismatics
Edward_I.jpeg
MEDIEVAL, ENGLAND, Edward I, AR Penny.11 viewsStruck A.D.1302 - 1307
Seaby: 1414
Steven H3
1248_-_1250_HENRY_III_AR_Penny.JPG
Medieval, England, Henry III (1216 – 1272), AR Penny struck 1248 - 1250 at London17 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363
*Alex
733a_1.jpg
MEDIEVAL, England, Henry lll cut Penny54 viewsNervousRex
EnglandND1Groat1.jpg
Medieval, England, Henry VI, (1422-27) 1 Groat (4 Pence).22 viewsEngland N.D. (1422-27) 1 Groat (4 Pence).

Calais Mint.

King Henry VI, 1st. Reign (1422-61).

This is the only English coin in my collection that was struck in what is now part of France.King Henry VI's 1st. Reign coins are an underrated series,in my view.
BCNumismatics
1526-1530_Henry_VIII_Halfgroat.JPG
Medieval, England, HENRY VIII (1509 - 1547), AR Half-groat struck 1526 - 1530 at York under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey14 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8 | Dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.
*Alex
Richard I~0.jpg
MEDIEVAL, England, Richard I (the Lion Heart).44 viewsRichard I, fought against Saladin in a struggle of epic proportions. Legend has it that when Richard's horse was killed under him, Saladin gave him one so that he would not have to fight on foot. Richard managed to recapture the coastal cities that were lost during the disastrous second crusade. But Richard failed to recapture Jerusalem, forced to return to France where his lands were under attack by the King of France, he hastily concluded a treaty with Saladin leaving Saladin in control of the city.
goldcoin
ScotlandND1Penny1.jpg
Medieval, Scotland, Alexander III, (1280-86) 1 Penny.23 viewsScotland N.D. (1280-86) 1 Penny.

King Alexander III (1249-86).

The death of King Alexander III of Scotland led directly to turmoil that allowed England to interfere in Scots affairs, and in which King Edward I tried to take over Scotland.
BCNumismatics
merovingian-1a.jpg
Merovingian denier21 viewsMerovingian denier, unclear mint
Belfort 6400
Prou 2884

Found in England, this denier has an obverse very similar to English secondary sceattas of series G.

The reverse legend with the letters "A IT B" has not been clearly deciphered (maybe A B TI in retrograde). It is thought to be related to coins of Quentovic which have the legend ABBATI. This suggests the coin may have had some ecclesiastical significance, possibly coined for an abbot in northern France.

Ex- eBay, EMC 2017.0053
Nap
Middlesex_287.jpg
Middlesex 28714 viewsObv: LONDON CORRESPONDING SOCIETY, a scholar instructing his pupils on the lesson of the bundle of sticks (strength through union).

Rev: GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES, bust facing right.

Edge: AN ASYLUM FOR THE OPPRESS’D OF ALL NATIONS – X –

Note: The edge inscription is associated with tokens that were produced in England and distributed in the United States.

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 287
SPQR Coins
Oliver_Cromwell_AR_Shilling_1658_50.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), England, Oliver Cromwell, 1658 CE16 viewsAR Shilling, milled, dies engraved by Thomas Simon, Pierre Blondeau's Drury House, London mint, dated 1658 CE.

Obverse: draped and laureate bust of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell left, legend: OLIVAR• D• G• R P• ANG SCO HIB &c PRO around.

Reverse: crowned coat-of-arms of the Protectorate, date in legend above, legend: PAX• QVĆRITVR• BELLO ( peace is sought by war ) around.

ESC 1005, SCBC 3228, North 2745, Lessen J28, KM A207

Acquired: OTC, October 1991, Londinium - The Coin Store, North York
Scribonius Probus
England1704Maundy4Pence.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Anne, 1704 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).25 viewsEngland 1704 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).

Queen Anne (1702-07/14).
BCNumismatics
England1687Maundy4Pence.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, James II, 1687 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).32 viewsEngland 1687 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).

King James II (1685-88,Pretender-King until 1701).

'1687/6' overdate.

King James II's silver coins are notoriously difficult to find in any grade.
BCNumismatics
tohanover.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria, 19th Century Gaming Token, To Hannover 1837/1848124 viewsMost 'To Hanover' counters depict Queen Victoria on the obverse. Victoria became Queen of Great Britain in 1837, but because she was a woman she could not become King of Hanover like her predecessors had also been. Her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland went off to Hanover instead, and these counters celebrate his departure. They were made for over 30 years, mainly in Birmingham. In 1871 a new design was introduced on the gold sovereign which closely resembled the To Hanover pieces. Unscrupulous people began to pass the counters as gold coins and their production became illegal under the Counterfeit Medal Act of 1883.

Reign - Queen Victoria : Material - Brass : Production - 19th century at Birmingham in England
Event - Separation of the monarchy of Hanover from Great Britain (Duke of Cumberland and Queen Victoria)
Reference: Birmingham Museum and Art gallery & Heavenscent
oneill6217
Mudie 30.JPG
Mudie 30. Visit of the Allied Sovereigns to England, 1814.73 viewsObv. Helmeted head of Britannia to left BRITANNIA J MUDIE D
Rev. Hercules standing holding trident, Temple of Janus behind, doors closed, prow of ship to right TEMPLVM JANI VISIT OF THE SOVEREIGNS OF RUSSIA AND PRUSSIA in Ex JUNE VI MDCCCXIV.

Issued to commemorate the visit of Czar Alexander of Russia and Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia to England in 1814 following Napoleon's exile to Elba and the cessation of hostilities.
1 commentsLordBest
rjb_2009_08_40.jpg
Neolithic Britain13 viewsA collection of Neolithic flint scrapers, blades and awls from northern England. Average size 5 cm in length, dating to post 4,000 BC.mauseus
JCT_Norwood_Jewish_Orphanage.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)85 viewsAE token, 28 mm., undated.

Obv: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and NORWOOD. along rim, Jewish star in center, מזל (luck) within star.

Rev: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and NORWOOD. along rim, horseshoe in center opening to the right, GOOD LUCK TO YOU/WHEREVER YOU ARE./AT HOME, ABROAD./OR ON THE SEA., within horseshoe.

Ref: None known. But see generally, “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
JCT_Jewish_Orphanage_at_Norwood_1953.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)43 viewsAE medal, 35 mm., 1953.

Obv: JEWISH / ORPHANAGE / NORWOOD / JUNE 2ND 1953, Jewish star below, PATRON below star, H • M • THE QUEEN around rim.

Rev: • CORONATION • OF • ELIZABETH II • along rim, head facing right, flower below neck.

Ref: None known. But see generally, “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
JCT_Jewish_Orphanage_at_Norwood_1937.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)54 viewsAE medal, 28 mm., 1937.

Obv: CORONATION GEORGE VI & ELIZABETH and • MAY 12TH 1937 • along rim, jugate crowned busts facing left in center.

Rev: THE JEWISH ORPHANAGE and H.M. KING GEORGE VI along rim, building in center, NORWOOD and PATRON above and below.

Ref: “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
Phliasia,_Phlious_AE_Chalkous_-_ex_BCD,_Brand___Weber.jpg
Phliasia, Phlious, ca. 400-350 BC, Ć Chalkous 37 viewsBull butting left, head lowered and turned to face viewer.
Large Φ with two pellets.

HGC 5, 177; BCD Peloponnesos 129; Weber 3882 (this coin); MacIsaac Issue 2, G.

(14 mm, 1.60 g, 3h).
CNG Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX, 1, April 2014, 834574; ex- BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); ex- Virgil M. Brand Collection (Part 7, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1984), lot 306 (part of); ex- Sir Hermann Weber Collection, no. 3882 purchased from W.C. Thieme, Leipzig, 1888.

Provenance Notes:
Sir Hermann David Weber (1823-1918) was a German physician who had a very distinguished lifetime career in medicine in England, including that of being a doctor to the royal family. Collecting from the late 1870’s, he amassed one of the largest private collections of ancient Greek coins of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It consisted of over 8,500 coins in total. Weber purchased this humble Phlious chalkous in 1888 from the dealer W.C. Thieme, Leipzig. Spink and Son purchased the collection from the executors of Weber’s estate, with the condition that the firm undertake the publication of the collection. This was duly completed by the mid-1920’s in a four-volume work that remained a standard reference for ancient Greek coinage throughout much of the twentieth century. Spink and Son dispersed the Weber collection, from whence this coin found its way into the collection of the prominent American collector Virgil M Brand.

Virgil M. Brand (1862-1926), born into a wealthy American brewing family in Chicago, developed an interest in coin collecting in 1889 and amassed one of the greatest private collections of all time, consisting of 386,000 ancient and modern coins including 68,000 gold coins. Each coin in the collection was documented by an entry in what became a thirty-volume set of descriptive ledgers. A lifetime bachelor and somewhat eccentric character, Brand chose to live modestly in a small apartment above his brewery in Chicago, shunning ostentation and devoting his time to the pursuit of his collecting, reading and local charity. He spent over $3 million on coins during his life. The collection was housed in cigar boxes that were packed into leather satchels, hidden behind his book collection. Virgil M. Brand died intestate and amongst various probate disputes his two brothers began to sell off the most prominent pieces from the collection in the 1930’s. Eventually, Jane Brand Allen, a niece of Virgil M. Brand, inherited the remains of the collection. These coins were sold in a series of auctions conducted by Sotheby’s, Bowers and Merena and Spink and Son during the 1980’s.

By this means the coin came into the collection of BCD the pre-eminent collector of mainland Greek coins during the last half of the twentieth century. BCD disposed of the coins of the Peloponnesos from his collection in 2006 at which time this coin passed into the inventory of the Classical Numismatic Group from whom it was purchased after its listing in the first edition of the newly revived Classical Numismatic Review produced by the company in April 2014.
2 commentsn.igma
EnglandND1Penny2.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Commonwealth, (1649-60) 1 Penny.26 viewsEngland N.D. (1649-60) 1 Penny.

Commonwealth of England.
BCNumismatics
EnglandND2Pence1.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Commonwealth,(1649-60) 2 Pence (1/2 Groat).19 viewsEngland N.D. (1649-60) 2 Pence (1/2 Groat).

Commonwealth of England (1649-60).
BCNumismatics
England15806Pence.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Elizabeth I, 1580 6 Pence.28 viewsEngland 1580 6 Pence.

Mintmark - Latin Cross.

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
BCNumismatics
England16046Pence.jpg
Post Medieval, England, James I, 1604 6 Pence.22 viewsEngland 1604 6 Pence.

Mintmark - Lis.

King James I (1603-25).
BCNumismatics
EnglandND1Groat2.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Mary Tudor, (1553-54) 1 Groat (4 Pence).20 viewsEngland N.D. (1553-54) 1 Groat (4 Pence).

Queen Mary I.

The coins of Queen Mary I prior to her marriage to King Philip II of Spain are an extremely rare series.I am fortunate that this coin came my way a few years ago over here in New Zealand.
BCNumismatics
Ireland15571Groat.jpg
Post Medieval, Ireland, Philip & Mary 1557 1 Groat (4 Pence).17 viewsIreland 1557 1 Groat (4 Pence).

Queen Mary I of England & King Philip II of Spain (1554-58).
BCNumismatics
ScotlandND1Bawbee1.jpg
Post Medieval, Scotland, Mary I, (1542-58) 1 Bawbee (6 Pence).29 viewsScotland N.D. (1542-58) 1 Bawbee (6 Pence).

Queen Mary I (1542-67).

Queen Mary I of Scotland is best remembered as the ill-fated Mary, Queen of Scots who was deposed & forced into exile in England,where she was detained until she was executed at Fotheringay Castle in 1587.
BCNumismatics
James I 1603_1625_England.jpg
Post Medieval, UNITED KINGDOM, James I Half Groat (Reigned as James VI of Scotland from 1567)54 viewsJames VI of Scotland 1567-1625 / James I of England 1603-1625 AD
AR Half Groat i.m. mullet.
Crowned rose/crowned thistle. S. 2660. N.2105/1. Toned VF.
Size: 16 mm Weight: 1.02 grams
James loved the arts and was very generous to actors, playwrights, and other performers of the day. In particular, James I loved the theatre, and was captivated by Shakespeare's acting troupe, the Chamberlain's Men. Within ten days of arriving in London, James demanded that Shakespeare's troupe come under his own patronage. So they were granted a royal patent and changed their names to the King's Men, in honour of King James.
2 commentsHis Star
PROBUS-2.jpg
PROBUS-229 viewsObv: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back

Rev: CONCORD MILIT Emperor standing right clasping hand of Concordia

Exe: XXIVI Siscia mint 278 AD

Ref: RIV V pt2 651 Alfoldi 26/52 3.2g 21mm Dug in England
Matthew Raica
Birmingham_-_Manille.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Manilla, 19th Century, Manufactured in Birmingham12 viewsManillas like this one were manufactured in Birmingham in the 19th century for use in Africa where they were traded for palm oil and ivory.
Manillas (an ancient form of money or barter coinage) were originally metal bracelets or armlets. Later forms were made of copper, bronze, or brass open rings. The term is derived from the Spanish for bracelet or manella.
During the 1470s Portuguese explorers became aware that, all along the west coast of Africa, copper bracelets and leg-bands were a means of exchange. These early Portuguese traders bought tusks of ivory, peppers, and slaves by exchanging currency ‘bracelets’ acceptable to the Africans. Eventually manillas became known as slave trade money after they were used by Europeans to acquire slaves. the slave trade in question being that to England and the Americas prior to 1807.
The earliest use of manillas was in West Africa. As a means of exchange they originated in Calabar which was the chief city of the ancient southeast Nigerian coastal kingdom of that name. It is recorded that in 1505 a slave could be bought here for 8-10 manillas, and an elephant’s tooth for one copper manila.
Numis-Student
3~15.PNG
Queen Anne one shilling Silver 21 viewsQueen Anne (1702-1714) one shilling Silver Dated-1711

Obverse : Bust of Anne left; around, ANNA DEI GRATIA

Reverse: Crowned shields - with arms of England and Scotland impaled at top and bottom, Ireland at left and France at right, forming a cross shape with the badge of the Star of the Garter at the centre; around, MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG 1711, the date being divided by a crown.

26 mm (Diameter) 5.875 g (Weight)
discwizard
13528899_1132024050203053_7343109708134358914_n.jpg
Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin 12 viewsType: Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin
Origin: Great Britain Cat. Num.: KM# 781
Era / Ruler: Victoria Face Value: 1 Florin
Issued from: 1893 Issued until: 1901
Alignment: Medal M Desgr. / Engr.: Thomas Brock, Edward Poynter
Obverse: Victoria mature veiled bust left
Reverse: Crowned shields of England, Scotland and Ireland
Edge: Reeded
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.9250
Weight(g): 11.3104g
Weight(Oz): 0.36 Oz
Net Content: 0.34 Oz (10.46g)
Bullion Value: $6.58
Diameter: 28.00mm
The British two shilling coin, also known as the florin, was issued from 1849 until 1967. It was worth one tenth of a pound, or twenty-four old pence. It should not be confused with the medieval gold florin, which was nominally worth six shillings.
In 1968, in the run-up to decimalisation, the two shilling coin was superseded by the decimal ten pence coin, which had the same value and initially the same size and weight. It continued in circulation, alongside the ten pence, until 1993, when the ten pence was reduced in size.
Antonivs Protti
richard1.jpg
Richard I "Lionheart" (1189 - 1199 A.D.51 viewsAnglo-Gallic, Aquitaine Count of Poitou and Duke of Aquitaine 1172-1185 A.D., King of England 1189-1199 A.D.
AR denier
O: + / RICA / RDVS / ω.
R: +AQVITANIE. Cross pattée.
Bordeaux mint.
19mm
.83g
Elias 4; Poey D'Avant 2768.
 
The coins issued in Richard's French possessions are the only coins to bear his name. In addition to Aquitaine, coins were also struck in his name for Poitou. Richard's English coinage was entirely in the name of his father, Henry II.
4 commentsMat
CARAUSIUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CARAUSIUS (287 - 293 D.C.) 22 viewsAE Antoninianus Ř: 23,0 mm. p: 4,30 gr.

ANVERSO: IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG
REVERSO: PAX AVG // Pax en pie-izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo y cetro.
EXERGO: C

Ceca: Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

Grado de rareza: C

Referencias: RIC V - 305
peter2
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIAN - EXERC BRITANNICUS168 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
1 commentsPetitioncrown
THEODORA_AE4_Pietas_TRP.JPG
Roman Empire, THEODORA. AE4 of Treveri. Struck A.D.337 - 340 under Constantine II.63 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England.
SCARCE

Little is known about Theodora. She was the daughter or step-daughter of Maximianus and married Constantius I c.A.D.292. Theodora and Constantius had six children whose names were Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia and Eutropia. This coin was struck after her death, as were all her coins, under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, the sons of Constantine I.

1 comments*Alex
titus.jpg
Roman Empire, Titus14 viewsThis coin was found near to the Roman town of Chesterton Just off the Foss Way England
I was working there in a field when cleaning out a ditch
I do not know much about it
Other than I think it is the same as one you have on your web page
Titus Silver coin ,14.5mm dai, Titus head , victory on the back
I was told that it could be a rare coin , by a friend ?

I have no wish to sell it but I would appreciate and help on the history
As to being a rare coin , then I am a luck person .
Roger Chamley
roger c
st-peter-1b.jpg
S.1006 St. Peter62 viewsViking penny in the name of St. Peter of York ca. 910-920
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: probably York
S.1006 (var.)
N.551 (var.)
O: ZCIIIT R, tree and key symbols
R: +B.RACEC

This a rare variant of the "swordless" St. Peter coinage, with a blundered version of "Sancti Petri" in one line, instead of the usual two lines.

Viking coinage in York began at around the start of the 10th century with a coinage in the names of Cnut and Siefred, a probably short-lived coinage but one which survives in great numbers due to the Cuerdale hoard. Subsequently, an anonymous coinage in the name of St. Peter follows, of which this coin is probably a late type. After the St. Peter coinage there was an inscribed coinage in the names of Ragnald and Sihtric Caech, Hiberno-Norse kings from Ireland who conquered Northumbria. A subsequent anonymous second coinage in 920s in the name of St. Peter features a sword (probably the Sword of Carlus, a 9th century Irish Viking hero), and Thor's hammer. The Vikings wrangled with the kings of Wessex throughout the 10th century until king Eadred of England brought Northumbria into the English fold. Viking coinage continued, mostly in the name of the kings of York, until the mid 10th century, culminating with Eric Bloodaxe.

All Viking coinage from York is rare, but the Cnut, Siefred, and St. Peter coinages are the most common, due to their survival in several large hoards.

The one-line St. Peter coins make up a rare subset of the earlier swordless type. There are only a handful known, and they all feature symbols, including the tree, the key (St. Peter's key to heaven), a candelabra, a star or propeller, and a large cross.

This particular coin is a die match to a coin in the British Museum, BMC 1141, which was found in Geashill, Ireland.

Ex- Hanson Historica Auction, PAS NMS-BDD828, EMC 2013.0245
2 commentsNap
aethelwulf.jpg
S.1044 Aethelwulf (Osmund)61 viewsPenny of Ćthelwulf, king of Wessex, 839-858
Moneyer: Osmund
Mint: Canterbury
S. 1044
O: +EDELVVLF REX
R: +OSMVND MONETA. SAX ONIO RVM in center.

This particular type was believed to be struck in Canterbury, as other coins by this moneyer have the insignia, "Dorib" which is either Dorovernum (Canterbury) or Dorobrevis (Rochester). The Saxoniorum monogram was also used on coins from the late period of Aethelwulf's father Ecgberht's reign, and this issue is thus presumed to be from early in Ćthelwulf's reign.

This coin is slightly chipped, as are many of this type, coins from later in Ćthelwulf's reign seem to be better preserved.

Ex- DNW 2-3 Dec 2013 (lot 2031), Glendining auction 10-11 Dec 1980 (lot 252)
Nap
aethelstan-godfred-1b.jpg
S.1089 Ćthelstan (Godfred)32 viewsPenny of Ćthelstan, king of Wessex, 924-939
Moneyer: Godfred
Mint: Unknown
North East mint
S. 1089
O: +ĆĐELZTAN REX
R: GODF +++ RED Mo

Ćthelstan, with the sobriquet "the Glorious" consolidated power in the former heptarchy, and can probably be considered the first king of England.

Ex- Silbury Coins, J.Radford
1 commentsNap
eadred-1a2.jpg
S.1115 Eadred (Wilbeorht)42 viewsPenny of Eadred, king of England 946-955
Moneyer: Wilbeorht
Mint: unknown (possibly Norwich)
S. 1115
O: crowned bust, +EADRED RENE
R: AAILEBERT MONETA

A portrait penny of King Eadred. Eadred's reign was marked by conflict with the Vikings in Northumbria, and their adventurous leader Eric Bloodaxe. By the end of Eadred's reign however, Northumbria was brought into the English fold.

This particular coin is likely from Norwich, as the portrait is in the East Anglian style, and there is another coin from the same moneyer (EMC 1998.0096) with a mint signature "N" probably from Norwich.

Ex- eBay, EMC 2016.0297
Nap
eadwig-eanwulf-1.jpg
S.1122 Eadwig (Eanwulf)42 viewsPenny of Eadwig, king of England 955-959
Moneyer: Eanwulf
Mint: unknown (possibly Lincoln)
S. 1122
HT1, NE IV
O: +EADVVI REX
R: EAEN oLF M

Coins of Eadwig are somewhat scarce due to his short reign. For whatever reason, portrait coins are almost non-existant; a single unique example is known. There are a few mint signed coins of Eadwig but the majority are just presumed to be from certain regions. This one is called "NE IV" type, a subtype of the HT1 (horizontal trefoil) type, from a Northeast mint, which is probably Lincoln.

Ex- StacksBowers
1 commentsNap
edward-martyr-1a.jpg
S.1142 Eadward the Martyr (Ćthelstan)8 viewsPenny of Eadward "the Martyr", king of England 975-978
Moneyer: Ćthelstan
Mint: Canterbury
S. 1142
O: EADPEA REX ANGLOR
R: ĆĐESTAN M-O CĆNT

The unfortunate Eadward, with the sobriquet "the Martyr", obviously wasn't destined for long life. Just three years into his reign, the hapless Eadward was killed, probably by his step mother Ćlfthryth, mother of his half-brother Ćthelred (II).

This particular coin appears to have been from an altered die of Eadgar, with the last three letters of the presumably still serviceable die altered.

Ex- Davissons, Spink
1 commentsNap
aethelred_ii.jpg
S.1148 Aethelred II29 viewsPenny of Aethelred II, king of England 968-1016
Moneyer: Leofnoth
Mint: Lewes
S. 1148
O: EĐELRED REX ANGLOR
R: LEOFNOĐ M-O LĆPE

Ex-Spink
Nap
cnut.jpg
S.1159 Cnut33 viewsPenny of Cnut, king of England 1016-1035, Denmark 1018-1035, and Norway 1028-1035
Moneyer: Brunman
Mint: London
S. 1159
O: +CNVT REX A
R: +BRVNMAN ON LV

Ex- Harlan J. Berk
Nap
harold-i-skuli-1.jpg
S.1165 Harold I (Skuli)31 viewsPenny of Harold I, king of England 1035-1040
Moneyer: Skuli
Mint: York
S. 1165
O: +HAR.O.LD RECX
R: +SCVLA O.M EOFER.

Harold, nicknamed "harefoot" presumably because he was a fast runner, became king in England after the death of his father Cnut, and in opposition to his half-brother Harthacnut, who had a competing claim. Harthacnut was busy in Denmark and could not press his claim for several years.

Not much is known about Harold, who did not live very long and died at age 24, before the war with his half-brother began, and his death probably spared England from yet another civil war.

Despite his short reign, his coins are fairly prolific, and frequently come high grade, as they have been found in some decent number in hoards.

Ex- S. Elden
2 commentsNap
harthacnut-leofwine-1.jpg
S.1169 Harthacnut34 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of England 1040-1042 and Denmark 1035-1042
Moneyer: Leofwine
Mint: Thetford
Arm-and-scepter type
S. 1169
O: +CNVT RECX A
R: +LEFPINE ON ĐEOTVO

The arm-and-scepter type in the name of "Cnut" was produced during the reign of Harthacnut

Ex- Mark Rasmussen, Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 43), Archbishop John Sharp
2 commentsNap
harthacnut~0.jpg
S.1170 Harthacnut40 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of England 1040-1042 and Denmark 1035-1042
Moneyer: Tooci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170
Hauberg 28 (var.)
O: NARĐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
edward-the-confessor-1.jpg
S.1173 Edward the Confessor26 viewsPenny of Edward the Confessor, king of England 1042-1066
Moneyer: Edwine
Mint: London
S. 1173
O: +EDPERD REX A
R: +EDPINE ON LVND
Nap
edward-the-confessor-2.jpg
S.1176 Edward the Confessor29 viewsPenny of Edward the Confessor, king of England 1042-1066
Moneyer: Leofric
Mint: Thetford
S. 1176
O: +EDP[EA]RD RE
R: +LEOFRIC ON [ĐE]ODE

Ex- York Coins, Elmore Jones, Baldwins
Nap
henry-i-1.jpg
S.1271 Henry I33 viewsPenny of Henry I, king of England 1100-1135
Moneyer: Godwine
Mint: Thetford
S. 1271
B.M.C. 10
O: +hENRICVS REX AN
R: GODPINE ON TETF

Ex- Heritage
Nap
stephen-1.jpg
S.1278 Stephen37 viewsPenny of Stephen, king of England 1135-1154
Mint: Lincoln
Moneyer: Sigverd
S.1278 (var.)
N.874
BMC i
O: +~TIEF[NE]
R: [+~IG]VE[R]T [O]N: L[IN]

Penny of Stephen of Blois, king of England during the period known as "The Anarchy". This was a time of civil war, during which Stephen and Matilda of Anjou, daughter of the late Henry I, feuded for the throne. The country was thrown into chaos, and local barons or warlords took power when central authority disintegrated. The coinage reflects this disorganization, and there are pennies of Stephen, Matilda, and several of the prominent barons, along with "local issues" struck from crude dies with unusual legends. Most coins of this period are poorly struck, with incomplete legends, and this one is no exception.

This type, called the "Watford" type in honor of a large 19th century hoard found in Watford, features the king facing right, with a crown and scepter. The reverse depicts a cross moline with an inward facing fleur-de-lis at the junction of the ends. This is the most common type of Stephen's coinage

This particular coin is of a sub-variety without the inner circle around the king's portrait.

The legend is nearly impossible to make out, but comparison with a finer coin with preserved legends (from the same dies) has enabled me to figure out the legend.

Ex- Halls Hammered Coins, London Coins Auction 150 (lot 1790)
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S.1326 Matilda26 viewsPenny of Matilda, queen of England (disputed) 1139-1148
Mint: Cardiff
Moneyer: Bricmer
S.1326
N.936
O: [MATI]LLIS IMP
R: [+BRIC]MER:CAIE[RDI]

This coin, cracked and somewhat crudely repaired by the Cardiff Museum, is from the famous Coed-y-Wenallt hoard found in 1980. This hoard tripled the number of coins of Matilda known up to that time. THe best of the hoard went to museums. Some of the coins were sold by Spink in 1982, many ended up in institutional collections. A good number of them were cracked and repaired by the museum.

Matilda was ultimately unsuccessful in her invasion and war against Stephen, but her son would become king Henry II and one of the most successful English monarchs.

Ex- DNW 3 Jul 2019 (lot 431), M Lessen, P Withers, Seaby Coins, Spink Auction 20 (lot 26), Coed-y-Wenallt hoard
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S.1339 Henry II (Nicole)5 viewsPenny of Henry II, king of England 1154-1189
Moneyer: Nicole
Mint: Ipswich
S. 1339
O: +hENRI:RE
R: +NICOLE ON GIPE

Cross and crosslets type penny, also known as 'Tealby' for a large hoard of them that was found in Tealby, Lincolnshire, in the early 19th century. These first issues of Henry II are often of wretched quality, and the legends can be very difficult to read.

Ex- eBay
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S.1352 John29 viewsPenny of John, king of England 1199-1216
Moneyer: Rauf (?)
Mint: London
S. 1352 (?)
Class 5c (?)

Unusual flip-over double struck short cross penny. Looking at both sides, one can make out the design of both obverse and reverse on both sides of this coin. Double struck hammered coins are quite common, but flip over double strikes are fairly rare, and a coin with as much detail on both sides as can be seen here is an unusual thing.

I believe it is a class 5c penny of John, and it looks like the moneyer is Rauf or Raul, but I cannot be entirely sure.

Ex- eBay
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S.1393 Edward I12 viewsPenny of Edward I, king of England 1272-1307
Mint: London
Class 3g
O:+EDW R ANGL DNS HYB
R: CIVITAS LONDON

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
edward-ii-1.jpg
S.1455 Edward II10 viewsPenny of Edward II, king of England 1307-1327
Mint: London
Class 11a
O:+EDWA R ANGL DNS HYB
R: CIVITAS LONDON

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
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S.1570 Edward III10 viewsGroat of Edward III (1327-1377)
Mint: London
Pre-treaty
Series Gc
S.1570
O: +EDWARD D G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB
R: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON

Edward III, the great medieval warrior-king, hero of battle of Crecy, was a major figure that transformed England into a contemporary English states. He lived long enough to see some of it unravel during his lifetime, but his legacy has remained one of England's greatest figures.

Ex- Hammered British Coins
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S.1765 Henry V14 viewsGroat of Henry V, king of England, 1413-1422
Mint: London
Mintmark: cross pattee
S.1765
Class C

Ex- P.Hutchings, I.White
1 commentsNap
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S.1875 Henry VI28 viewsGroat of Henry VI, king of England, first reign 1422-1461
Mint: Calais
Mintmark: pinecone and mascle
S.1875

Ex- Silbury Coins
2 commentsNap
edward-v-groat-1.jpg
S.2155 Edward V32 viewsGroat of Edward V, king of England 1483
Mint: London
Mintmark: boar's head 1 over sun and rose 1/sun and rose 1
S.2155

This issue was probably struck under Richard III but before Edward's death in the tower. The coin's obverse depicts the boar's head mint-mark, which replaced the halved sun-and-rose, which was in use probably from the end of Edward IV's reign until Richard. The sun and rose groats in the name of Edward cannot conclusively be attributed to either Edward IV or Edward V. On the other hand, coins with the boar's head are presumably from Richard's time, since the boar's head was Richard's symbol.

This leads to a confusing coinage of 1483, where major events occurred during a period of 3 months. Edward IV died on April 9. His eldest son Edward was styled Edward V, though never had a coronation. The 12 year-old Edward unfortunately became a political pawn, and his uncle Richard, unsatisfied with his role as Lord Protector, managed to have Edward and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury declared illegitamate and marginalized. Uncle Richard became King Richard III on June 26. Edward and his brother were prisoners in the tower, and it is likely that they were murdered that year, though nobody really knows when they died. Bones purporting to be the two princes were found in the 17th century, but have never been analyzed by modern DNA testing.

So we are left with a coin in the name of Edward, but depicting Richard III's badge. The Edward could be Edward IV, and there are plenty of situations of coinage continuing in the name of the recently deceased king (coins of Richard I in the name of Henry II, coins of Edward I in the name of Henry III, and Edward VI in the name of Henry VIII). It could also be Edward V, since Richard was trying, at least initially, to appear to be ruling in Edward V's name as Lord Protector. It can possibly be considered that ths coin was struck by Richard in Edward V's name before the demise of the young king, perhaps during Richard's protectorate. Or it could be a posthumous issue as it seems to be contemporaneous with other coins in the name of Richard himself.

My take is that the Edward written on the coin is most likely to be Edward V, making this one of the very few coins that come from that reign.

Ex- DNW 3 Jul 2019 (lot 802), M Lessen, Spink, SNC Jan/Feb 1926 (lot 49003)
2 commentsNap
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S.2492 Mary I31 viewsGroat of Mary I (1553-1558)
First issue (1553-1554)
Mintmark: Pomegranate
O: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI
R: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA

Mary, daughter of Henry VIII by his first wife Catherine of Aragon, is a controversial figure in English history because of her religious persecutions against Protestants. She gets the moniker "Bloody Mary" because under her watch several hundred Protestants were burned at the stake. Mary's husband, Philip II of Spain, was also unpopular in England. Mary died childless and her sister Elizabeth undid pretty much all of her political and religious changes.

Coins of Mary take two flavors- in just her name prior to her marriage to Philip, and after 1554 with Philip's name. This coin belongs to the earlier issue. These coins frequently demonstrate large scratches across the queen's face, done intentionally as Mary was not liked in her time. This particular example is remarkable free of surface marks.

Ex- Heritage auction 3073 (lot 31062), Spink 11039 (lot 345), F Brady, Seaby, R Carlyon-Britton, WC Boyd
2 commentsNap
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S.2776 Charles I9 viewsHalfcrown of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1625-1649
Mint: Tower (London)
Mintmark: Triangle
S.2776
Group III

This coin was produced under the authority of the king

Ex- A.Worby, DNW, A.Chesser
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S.2778 Charles I11 viewsHalfcrown of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1625-1649
Mint: Tower (London)
Mintmark: Sun (?over eye)
S.2778
Group III

This coin was produced under the authority of Parliament

Ex- A.Worby, M.Bull
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S.5001 David I (Erebald)18 viewsPenny of David I of Scotland (1124-1153)
Mint: Probably Carlisle
Moneyer: Erebald
Imitation of Henry I BMC XV
S. 5001
O: +DA[VI]D [ ]
R: [+]EREBA[LD: O]N C[A]RD[:]

Believed to be the first coin made in Scotland. It imitates Henry I's last type but in the name of David. Made by the moneyer Erebald, who coined for Henry, David, and Stephen. Presumably produced after David's invasion of England following the usurpation of Stephen of Blois. This coin really demonstrates the Anarchy of the time. A masterpiece it is not! Poorly made, with only a few survivors known, most of which are in wretched shape. As far as I can tell, all known examples are from the same die pair. There are probably about 10 known, including damaged examples.

Ex- M.Gallon
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S.6228 John18 viewsPenny of John, King of England and Ireland (1199-1216)
Moneyer: Roberd
Mint: Dublin
Third coinage
S.6228
O: IOHA NNES RE X
R: ROBE RDON DIVE

Ex- eBay
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S.6235 Henry III5 viewsPenny of Henry III, King of England and Ireland (1216-1272)
Moneyer: David
Mint: Dublin
S.6235
O: hENRI CVSR EX III
R: DAV ION DIV ENI

Ex- eBay, P.Lindeman, V.England
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S.6247 Edward I19 viewsPenny of Edward I, king of England and Ireland (1272-1307)
Mint: Dublin
Second coinage
S. 6247
O: .EDW.R. ANGL.D NSHYB
R: CIVI TAS DVBL INIE

Ex- B&G Coins
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S.781 Anglo-Saxon sceat6 viewsPrimary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series F
Type 24b
S.781
N.62
Abramson 106-30
O: Helmeted bust right
R: Small cross on steps, degenerated legend surrounding

An English imitation of a Merovingian coin, this type was produced in large numbers and its origin is thought to be Eastern England, maybe East Anglia.

Ex- J. Linzalone
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S.800 Anglo-Saxon sceat32 viewsAnglo-Saxon secondary phase sceat, ca. early 8th century
Series G, type 3a
S.800
O: Diademed bust right
R: Standard with 3 saltires

Thought to be from southern England, possibly Sussex

Ex- eBay
1 commentsNap
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S.801 Anglo-Saxon sceat49 viewsAnglo-Saxon secondary phase sceat, ca. early 8th century
Monarch: unknown (possibly Ine of Wessex)
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: Hamwic
Series H, type 49
S.801
O: Face in circle with pellets around, cross beneath and seven pellets-in-annulets around
R: Bird standing right with cross with dots below

This "Woden" head coin comes in multiples styles, with anywhere from 5-12 annulets around the face. While the face is purported to be a representation of Woden, or Odin, there is no particular reason it must be.

The type was manufactured in Hamwic, a port city thought to be modern day Southampton. This area was developed during the time of Ine of Wessex, and that ruler may have made it his seat; not surprisingly coinage took place there. Hamwic was the first Channel port of the expanding kingdom of Wessex, and provided a site for trade with the Franks and Frisians. This particular coin is probably from the period of 720-740.

Surprisingly, while there was certainly continental trade through Hamwic, this coin type has not been found in any great number outside of the Hamwic area. Perhaps this was an internal coinage for the merchants of England, and other coins such as the series E "porcupine" sceat were for international trading.

Ex- Silbury Coins
1 commentsNap
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S.853 Ćthelwald Moll with Archbishop Ecgberht59 viewsSceat of Ćthelwald Moll, king of Northumbria 759-765 with Ecgberht, Archbishop of York
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 853
N. 192.5
Abramson 76-10
O: +EDILhpLd
R: ECGBERhT A[R]
Motif: 1/1

Ćthelwald, also called Moll, was a nobleman who ascended the throne after the murder of King Oswulf, which he may have orchestrated. He was deposed after some years, and went to a monastery. His son Ćthelred I would later become king in Northumbria.

Despite a rule of 6 years, coins in Ćthelwald's name are excessively rare. Until quite recently, this coin was the only one known. It depicts the name of Ćthelwald, with the archbishop's name on the reverse. Due to the odd spelling of Ćthelwald's name, there
has been some controversy as to whether the name is supposed to be a variant of Alchred, Ćthelwald's successor who also struck coins with Archbishop Ecgberht. Most experts (including Abramson, Booth, Lyon, and Stewart) now accept this as belonging to the former monarch.

There are 5 coins of Ćthelwald Moll known. Two others, like this one, were struck with Archbishop Ecgberht. The other two are inscribed with Ćthelwald and his son Ćthelred. The ancient chip makes the coin easily identifiable.

It is not totally clear why coins of this monarch are so very rare, given his reign of at least 6 years, but the "Continuation" of Venerable Bede's Ecclesiastical History, pressumably written by one of his students after Bede's death, gives a clue. It notes that early in Ćthelwald's reign a pestilence came over the kingdom, and the populace suffered for years with what was described as "dysentery." One might suppose that this illness upset the order of the kindgom, and led to disruption in economics and possibly the day-to-day running of the state. Perhaps this explains the lack of coinage.

This particular coin carries a long provenance, and has been depicted in multiple publications on Northumbrian coins, dating back to the 1840s. It is pictured in Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 3 (1841), Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 9 (1869), Sceattas in England and the Continent (1984), and Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 151 (1991).

Ex- Spink Auction 16019 (lot 58), Lord Stewartby, Spink Auction 1 1978 (lot 89), C.J. Firth, Glendining January 27-28 1944 (lot 798), Lord Grantley, Sotheby June 28-July 1 1909 (lot 131), E.W. Rashleigh, J.C.S. Rashleigh, Sotheby July 1858 (lot 85[part]), T.F. Dymock
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S.908 Offa (Ćthelnoth)59 viewsPenny of Offa, king of Mercia 757-796
Moneyer: Ćthelnoth
Mint: Probably Canterbury
S. 908
O: M +OFFA REX
R: + EŢELŢ NO

King Offa was responsible for the first pennies produced in England, which were modeled on the continental European deniers. He created a very varied series of coins, some of which have portrait and others like this without one.

This heavy coinage of Offa is generally believed to have been produced at Canterbury. Ćthelnoth was one of Offa's more prolific moneyers.

Ex- Studio Coins, Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 24), Archbishop John Sharp
2 commentsNap
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S.964 Imitation of Alfred38 viewsViking penny imitating Alfred, king of Wessex 871-899
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: unknown (probably East Anglia)
S. 964

Viking imitation of the well-known 'Londonia' type struck for King Alfred. Alfred was the only king of England to carry the moniker 'the great', due to his success in saving his kingdom and people from destruction at the hands of the Vikings.

This type copies the official penny of Alfred featuring the monogram of the city of London, which copies earlier monograms seen on Roman, Gothic, and Frankish coins. The original is believed to have been struck to commemorate the retaking of London from the Danes, ca. 886. This imitation presumably dates from a few years later.

Alfred struck a peace treaty with Guthrum, warlord of the Danes, probably after retaking London. This established a boundary for Danish territory and brought some peace to England for a period. Presumably trade between the two peoples began, and the Danes started minting coins imitating the contemporary issues from Wessex.

This particular coin is almost certainly a Viking imitation due to the crude style and low weight (1.2g). It was double struck about 10 degrees off, and as such the imagery is a little muddled, but still quite readable.

Ex- Downies
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Septimius Severus RIC 796 var 47 viewsSeptimius Severus
Orichalcum Sestertius, Rome Mint, 210 AD
Obverse: L SEPT SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder.
Reverse: PM TR P XVIII PP-SC, Two Victories attaching shield to palm tree, Two captives seated below
34.1mm, 26.475gm
RIC IV 796 Variant (Bust Type); Seaby, Coins of England 653
Jerome Holderman
SeptimiusBrit.jpg
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.14 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 241, RSC 542, gVF, Rome mint, AD 210; Obverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right; Reverse: P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Neptune standing left, holding trident dolphin, foot on globe. Ex Maridvnvm.


Septimius Severus

His health fading and weak from gout, Severus would set out one last time on military campaign. This time it was Britain which demanded the emperor's attention. The Antonine Wall had never really acted as a perfectly successful barrier to the troublesome barbarians to the north of it. By this time it had in fact been virtually abandoned, leaving the British provinces vulnerable to attack from the north. In AD 208 Severus left for Britain with his two quarrelsome sons. Large military campaigns now drove deep into Scotland but didn't really manage to create any lasting solution to the problem.

Lucius Septimius Severus died at York, England, 4 February, 211.

Throughout his reign Severus was one of the outstanding imperial builders. He restored a very large number of ancient buildings - and inscribed on them his own name, as though he had erected them. His home town Lepcis Magna benefited in particular. But most of all the famous Triumphal Arch of Severus at the Forum of Rome bears witness to his reign.
(http://www.roman-empire.net/index.html)


Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna, Africa was proclaimed emperor by his troops after the murder of Pertinax. He is at the same time credited with strengthening and reviving an empire facing imminent decline and, through the same policies that saved it, causing its eventual fall. Severus eliminated the dangerous praetorians, unified the empire after turmoil and civil war, strengthened the army, defeated Rome's most powerful enemy, and founded a successful dynasty. His pay increases for the army, however, established a severe burden on Rome. Future emperors were expected to increase pay as well. These raises resulted in ever-increasing taxes that damaged the economy. Some historians believe high taxes, initiated by Severus policies, played a significant role in Rome's long-term decline. . . (Joseph Sermarini).


Severus had clear political vision, still he cared nothing for the interests of Rome and Italy. He nourished within himself the Punic hatred of the Roman spirit and instinct and furthered the provincials in every way. He was revengeful and cruel towards his opponents, and was influenced by a blindly superstitious belief in his destiny as written in the stars. With iron will he labored to reorganize the Roman Empire on the model of an Oriental despotism. . .

Severus rested his power mainly upon the legions of barbarian troops; he immortalized them upon the coinage, granted them, besides large gifts of money and the right of marriage, a great number of privileges in the military and civil service, so that gradually the races living on the borders were able to force Rome to do their will. . .

During the reign of Severus the fifth persecution of the Christians broke out. He forbade conversion to Judaism and to Christianity. The persecution raged especially in Syria and Africa.
Written by Karl Hoeber. Transcribed by Joseph E. O'Connor.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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Struck A.D.289 - 293, CARAUSIUS, AE Antoninianus minted at Londinium (London, England)3 viewsObverse: IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Carausius facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG. Pax standing facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and vertical sceptre in left; across field, S - P: in exergue, MLXXI.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 6 | Some remaining patches of silvering.
Unlisted. cf.RIC V ii : 98
VERY RARE

Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius, of Menapian origin and commander of the fleet under Maximianus, rebelled and set himself up as Emperor in Britain in A.D.287. All attempts by the central Empire to dislodge him failed and he adopted the title "Caesar" c.A.D.289 having negotiated a peace with Diocletian. He was murdered by Allectus, one of his chief ministers, in A.D.293.
*Alex
ALLECTUS_PAX_ML.JPG
Struck A.D.293 - 296, ALLECTUS, AE Antoninianus minted at Londinium (London, England)3 viewsObverse: IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Allectus facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG. Pax standing facing left, holding olive-branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in her left; across field, S- A; in exergue, ML.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 28

Allectus, a chief minister under Carausius, murdered the British Emperor soon after the capture of Boulogne by Constantius in A.D.293 and took his place. Constantius invaded Britain in A.D.297 in a two pronged attack. Allectus was caught off balance and he was defeated and killed near Farnham as he hurriedly marched west to meet the invaders.
*Alex
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Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, double crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Derbyshire, England. This hoard, consisting of some 1375 coins, was deposited about A.D.340. It was found by a metal detectorist near Chesterfield on 7th January 2001. The find site at Grassmoor lies close to the route of a Roman Road, the modern-day A61, running south from Rotherham to Derby. However, there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the immediate area so it is thought that the hoard was either buried by a traveller along the road or by someone living close to the nearby Chesterfield fort, which seems to have been abandoned by this date. All the coins were professionally conserved and identified by the British museum. Some of the coins from the hoard were retained by the British Museum to be displayed both there and at the Chesterfield Museum, the remainder were put up for auction and this is one of those.
*Alex
THEODORA_TRP2.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340 after her death, THEODORA, AE4 of Treveri (Trier)5 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
Struck under Constantine II.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England
*Alex
Louis_XIV_AE_(Brass)_Jeton.jpg
Struck c.1644 – 1645, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton6 viewsObverse: LVD•XIIII•D:G•FR•ET•NA•REX. Laureate and cuirassed youthful bust of Louis XIV facing right; • B • (for Briot) below.
Reverse: CONSILIO•NIL•NISI•. The escutcheon of France, surrounded by the chain of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Spirit): Necklace and Cross. The legend translates as “He undertakes nothing without Council”, a reference to the administrative council of the king.

Struck at the Monnaie de Louvre mint, Paris, France
Die engraver: Nicholas Briot
Dimensions: 25.65mm | Weight: 5.4gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. Feuardent: 239 var.

Nicholas Briot (c.1579–1646) was an innovative French coin engraver, medallist and mechanical engineer, who is credited with the invention of the coining-press. He emigrated to England in 1625 and in 1626 he was commissioned to make 'puncheons and dies' for the Coronation of Charles I. His Coronation Medal established his reputation and he went on to produce a considerable number of dies for medals and coins in the following years. In 1633, he was appointed chief engraver to the Royal Mint and went to Scotland to prepare and coin the coronation pieces of Charles I. These demonstrated both his artistic skill and the technical superiority of his new coining machinery and in 1635, on the death of Sir John Foulis, Briot was appointed Master of the Mint in Scotland and superintended the Scottish coinage for several years. Briot was then recalled to England by the King, and on the outbreak of the English Civil War he took possession of the coining apparatus at the Tower and had it removed 'for the purpose of continuing the coining operations in the cause of the King'. Briot travelled to France in the early 1640's and sent coining presses to his brother Isaac, now in a senior position at the Paris Mint, he died on Christmas Eve 1646.
*Alex
LOUIS_XIV_AE__NEC_PACE_MINOR.JPG
Struck c.1699, LOUIS XIV (1643 – 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Head of Louis XIV facing right; T•B in small letters below head.
Reverse: NEC•PACE•MINOR•. Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on club in his left hand and holding cloak at his hip with his right; in exergue, crossed palms.

Struck at unidentified mint, possibly Caen, France
Die engraver: Thomas Bernard
Dimensions: 26.5mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 12788

Thomas Bernard entered the King's service while still young and from 1685 to 1688 famously engraved dies to produce a history of Louis XIV in gold medallions. He was Engraver General at the Caen mint between 1693 and 1703.

This jeton was struck under the authority of the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” in commemoration of the signing of the “Peace of Rijswijk” on the 20th of September 1697. This treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years' War), which had seen France pitted against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Louis XIV was unusual by taking particular pleasure from having a large collection of coins and medals, claiming that he used his coins to instruct himself in classical history. He enjoyed his coin collection so much that, at Versailles, he had his cabinet of coins and medals placed where visitors passed every day, between the grand staircase and his apartments, so that he could see them and show them off.
*Alex
PhilipIAntiochApolloProvincial1.jpg
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch. Philip I. BMC 534.21 viewsSyria, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch. Philip I (AD 244–249). Ć 22–23mm (7.9g.).
Obverse: [ΑVΤ]ΟΚ Κ ΜΑ ΙΟVΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC CЄΒ, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: ANTIO[XЄ]ΩN MHT[PO KOΛΩN], Apollo, in long drapery, standing left, holding patera in right hand and lyre in left, before whom is a coiled serpent; Δ-E and S C across fields.
References: BMC Galatia, etc. p. 215, 534.
Ex Lawrence Mulcrow, 10-16-2011. Reportedly found in Suffolk, England.
Mark Fox
Sancroft_Medal_.jpg
temp. STUART, William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1677-1690, AR Medal by George Bower 1688 29 views* GVIL · SANCROFT · ARCHIEPISC · CANTVAR · 1688 Bust of William Sancroft, the Archbishop of Canterbury, wearing camauro and canonical robes, facing right.
Seven medallions of the Bishops committed to the Tower of London: Bishops Henry Compton (middle – London), Francis Turner (upper right, proceeding clockwise – Ely), Thomas Ken (Bath), Sir John Trelawney (Bristol), Thomas White (Peterborough), John Lake (Chichester), and William Lloyd (St. Asaph); twelve stars around; signed GB·F· (George Bower fecit) below.

MI 622/37; Eimer 288b. By G. Bower. Dated 1688.

(51 mm, 53.45 g, 12h).

CNG 85 (15 September 2010) Lot 1562: California Collection of British Historical Medals.

This remarkable medallion portrays no less than eight people directly associated with a historical event that did much to shape the modern secular British democracy. In 1687, King James II enacted unilaterally and against the will of the Parliament the Declaration of Indulgence as the first step in establishing the freedom of religion in England. The ensuing protest concerned the legality of James right to make the dispensation in the absence of the support of Parliament, plus the absence of a guarantee that the Anglican Church would remain as the established church. Many leaders within the clergy refused to read the Declaration in church from the pulpit as instructed by the King in early 1688. This culminated in a petition to the King against the reading of the Declaration. The petition originated from the hand of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, depicted on the obverse of the medal and was signed by the six other bishops identified around the margin of the reverse of the medallion. Bishop Henry Compton, depicted in the centre of the reverse, was included on the medal due to his earlier dissent to the King’s approach to Catholicism, for which James removed him from office.

The seven bishops who signed the petition were charged with seditious libel and imprisoned in the Tower of London in May 1688. Brought to trial before the Court of the King’s Bench, the bishops were acquitted. This served as a precursor to James’ deposition shortly thereafter.

This medal was issued following the trial, in commemoration of the action taken by William Sancroft and his fellow bishops in refusing to follow James II’s edict to read the Declaration of Indulgence from the pulpit. The medal connects directly with one of the key events in British history, which lead ultimately to the deposition of James II by his son-in-law and daughter, William III and Mary II of Orange on 5 November 1688. As a direct result of the action of the seven bishops, the right to petition the king was enshrined in the new Bill of Rights in 1689. Simplistically, some people see this medal as a testament to religious intolerance, although the issues of the time that brought it into being were far more complex, involving matters of secular authority, constitutional right, and the very basis of power in the evolving secular democratic British state. This is demonstrated by the decision of Sancfroft and five of the seven bishops that they could not swear allegiance to the new protestant King William III, for to do so would be a repudiation of their prior sworn loyalty to the deposed Catholic King James II. As a result, Sancroft was dismissed from his role in 1690 and died in relative obscurity three years later.

Few coins, or medals, connect so directly with history and in doing so depict so many influential participants. The medal was the work of George Bower (d. 1690) a medallist who worked in London from 1650-1689. He had been appointed to the position of Engraver of the Royal Mint and Embosser in Ordinary in 1664.
2 commentsn.igma
Theodora_AE4_Pietas_TRP~0.JPG
THEODORA. Struck c.A.D.337 - 340 after her death. AE4 of Treveri (Trier).91 viewsObverse: FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. Laureate and draped bust of Theodora facing right.
Reverse: PIETAS ROMANA. Pietas standing facing right, holding child in arms; in exergue, •TRP•.
Struck under Constantine II.
RIC VIII : 65.
Found in Cambridgeshire, England

Little is known about Theodora. She was the daughter or step-daughter of Maximianus and married Constantius I c.A.D.292. Theodora and Constantius had six children whose names were Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia and Eutropia. This coin was struck after her death, as were all her coins, under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, the sons of Constantine I.
*Alex
Clipboard~43.jpg
Tiny Roma She Wolf Unofficial imitation - Found Yorkshire, England.15 viewsThis is a tiny little coin weighing 0.5g and less than 10mm across.
It's a metal detecting find not far from a well known roman settlement in Yorkshire, England.
An unofficial imitation of the much larger copper-alloy AE 3 of She-wolf and twins reverse type.
Possibly copying the type minted in Trier (some of the Lyon types are similar too).
These were minted to possibly alleviate a shortage of small change and were at least condoned by officials.
The detail of the fur is astounding, considering someone had to manufacture a Die, with out the aid of magnification. The eyes, fur and teats can be seen quite clearly. Romulus and Remus can be seen reaching up to the she wolf. Two stars can be seen above the Wolf.
My photography, though improving does not do this wonderful little coin Justis.
lorry66
titus_captive_and_trophy2.jpg
Titus RIC 3069 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome Mint, 79 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P; Trophy, below captive kneeling r.
RIC 30 (C). BMC 15. RSC 274. BNC 12.
Acquired from Zuzim, august 2008.

A 'Capta' type that may alternately be a Judaea or Britannia type. Mattingly in the BMCRE (BMC 2.xli) interprets these types of Titus as Augustus as referring to Britannia and Agricola's campaigns in Northern England and Scotland. Jane M. Cody in the book 'Flavian Rome' (pg. 111) agrees with Mattingly, citing the differences in shield and trophy designs with the standard Judaea Capta types. Confusingly, Mattingly states that this type issued for Titus as Caesar under Vespasian refers to Judaea while Cody believes both issues were minted for victories in Britain because of identical composition and detail.

Personally I think it commemorates the victories in Britain. It would be odd if the Flavian expansion going on in that province was not celebrated on the coinage.

A nice example with a slightly off-center obverse, but featuring a very pleasing portrait.
vespasian70
_2_00.jpg
Two Dollar Bill53 viewsDate: 1953, United States of America
Obverse: President Thomas Jefferson
Reverse: Monticello

Two dollar bills currently depict the signing of the Declaration of Independence of the American Colonies from England. It was given by my paternal grandmother's father to the first great-grandchild (me!)
Noah
URBS_ROMA_TRS_(Treveri).JPG
URBS ROMA. Mint: Treveri106 viewsStruck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, crescent symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Nottinghamshire, England.
*Alex
VALENS-5.jpg
VALENS-572 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch

Exe: CONSPΓ Constantinople mint

Ref: RIC IX 21c 2.5g 18mm Dug in England
Matthew Raica
44-1-Vhoard-CNG.jpg
Victoriatus Cr. 44/121 viewsDenomination: Victoriatus
Metal: AR
Obverse: Jupiter L.,
Reverse: Victory holding up wreath in r., Trophy on l. with helmet, shield and spears. Trophy has skirt and base, with two raised rings around column.
Weight: 3.23 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/1
Provenance: Victor England, March 2017
Comments: Obverse head in high style for the issue. Reverse well struck.
1 commentsSteve B5
44-1-VHoard-CNG-Wh1.jpg
Victoriatus Cr. 44/119 viewsDenomination: Victoriatus
Metal: AR
Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter. Border of dots.
Reverse: Victory holding Wreath over military trophy. ROMA in Exergue.
Weight: 3.23 gm
Reference: Crawford 44/1
Provenance: CNG. Obtained from Victor England, March, 2017

Comments: Realistic portrait of Jupiter. Rather unusual raised band around the base column.
1 commentsSteve B5
98A-1b-CNG-8-2-2017-3_43gm-3.jpg
Victoriatus of Luceria - Archaic L-T monogram16 viewsDenomination: Victoriatus
Metal: AR
Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter. In border of dots.
Reverse: Victory holding Wreath over military trophy. ROMA in Exergue. L-T monogram in field between Victory and trophy
Weight: 3.43 gm
Reference: Crawford 98a/1b
Provenance: CNG private purchase from Victor England, August 2, 2017

Comments: Unusual obverse style for this issue. Reverse slightly off center, otherwise EF.

1 commentsSteve B5
98-1b-CNG-8-2-2017-3_13gm-2.jpg
Victoriatus of Luceria with hair in ringlets33 viewsDenomination: Victoriatus
Metal: AR
Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter. Bead and reel border.
Reverse: Victory holding Wreath over military trophy. ROMA in Exergue. Archaic L in field between Victory and trophy
Weight: 3.13 gm
Reference: Crawford 97/1b
Provenance: CNG private purchase from Victor England, August 2, 2017

Comments: Near FDC
2 commentsSteve B5
97-1a-3_2.jpg
Victoriatus of Luceria with scraggly hair25 viewsDenomination: Victoriatus
Metal: AR
Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter. Bead and reel border.
Reverse: Victory holding Wreath over military trophy. ROMA in Exergue. Archaic "L" in field between Victory and trophy
Weight: 3.01 gm
Reference: Crawford 98/1a
Provenance: CNG, private purchase from Victor England, Aug 11, 2016

Comments: Struck with new dies both obverse and reverse with reflective fields. Slightly ragged flan and minor weakness in Victory’s head. Otherwise FDC.
2 commentsSteve B5
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue130 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

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Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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