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Cavino Hadrian Sestertius33 viewsObv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head Right.
Rev. S C, Mars Walking Right, Holding Trophy and spear.
Mint: Padua, Italy, 16th century

36mm 28,52g

Klawans Hadrian, 3 p. 78
1 commentskcAug 23, 2019
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander, Bimetallic Medaillon91 viewsObv. IMP CAES M AVREL SEV ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Rev. PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, Alexander on quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and olive branch, crowned by Victory.
Mint: Rome, 226 AD.

38mm 41.44g

Cohen 481?

Curtis Clay

"A spectacular acquisition!

I know of two other specimens of this medallion:

(1) In ANS, ex Newell Coll.; ex Naville X, 1926, 1765; ex Hirsch 29, 1910, Herzfelder Coll., 1221; ex Sotheby, 29 June 1893, Hermann Weber Coll., 230; doubtless ex Northwick Sale, 1860, 333 (description only). Published by Toynbee, Roman Medallions, p. 85, note 103 and Fagerlie, ANS Medallions, Museum Notes 15, 1969, p. 82.

From the same dies as yours, 55.14g, and also bimetallic according to the Naville X catalogue, though Fagerlie fails to mention this fact and it's not clear one way or the other from the photographs.

(2) In Paris according to Gnecchi no. 21, 50.0g, not illustrated, no mention of bimetallic, but personal examination would be needed to be sure!"
3 commentskcJun 25, 2019
Roman Empire, Vespasian, Sestertius111 viewsObv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M T P P P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev. S C, Mars, helmeted, naked except for cloak around waist, advancing right, holding transverse spear in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left hand.
Mint: Rome, 71 AD.

34mm 25.46g

RIC 113

Ex Portuguese Collection, purchased 2019.
Ex A. E. Cahn, Auction 75, 30th May 1932, lot 1017.

Curtis Clay
This example: no. 102d (A139/P184) in Kraays unpublished die catalogue (Cahn 75, 1017).
Other examples of the same dies: BMC 570, Hall 1189, Fitzwilliam 59.

The reverse type of Mars advancing (and likely an image of Mars Ultor) is common to all three Flavians. The representation of Mars is different from the Augustan types but likely has a similar inference – here being that of avenging the rebellion of the Jews. Even so the connection to earlier Augustan issues was probably well recognized at the time. (NAC)
5 commentskcJun 22, 2019
Roman Empire, Vespasian, Sestertius with As 119 viewsObv. IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG P M TR POT P P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI S C, Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopiae and rudder on globe.
Mint: Rome, 71 AD.

32/33mm 26.61g

Cohen- RIC II¹- (cf. 422) RIC II²- (cf. 73) BMC- Sear- (cf. 2323

Ex Münzhandel Henzen, MA-Shops, 2019.

This is an extremely rare Sestertius of Vespasian which obverse was strucked with a die of an As.
A similar piece with the same As die but reverse type "LIBERTAS PVBLICA" is in the Mazzini collection, listed under no. 255.
This coin is uncommonly sharp for example looking at the SC.
It is an interesting coin, I will be pleased for additional informations.

Thank you to Curtis Clay for the excellent following write-up:

"Not a trial strike or a mint error in my opinion, but an intentional sestertius obv. die, though why the portrait and legend were cut in middle-bronze size is anyone's guess!

The mint of Rome may have begun its bronze coin production of 71 with two short issues, of which this was the second, before settling on its main first obv. legend of the year,


The latest obv. legend on bronzes of the preceding year, 70 AD:

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M T P P P COS II DES III on sestertii (only 1 die), the same but CAES VESPASIAN and COS II D III on middle bronzes (also only 1 die, with bust laureate, draped, cuirassed r.). RIC 32-38. The middle bronzes of this issue might be dupondii or asses or both, since Vespasian had not yet restored the radiate crown as a denominational mark for his dupondii, as we will soon see. Kraay, a very competent practical numismatist, considered them asses; Carradice and Buttrey suggest dupondii, though without being able to assure us that at least one example is definitely in yellow orichalcum rather than red copper. Hopefully renewed examination of the few surviving specimens, or new specimens that are clearly either yellow or red, will eventually clarify the question.

My proposed first short issue of bronze coins in 71: with obv. legend omitting COS III, just

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M TR P, RIC 50-65. Three such obv. dies are known on sestertii. The middle bronzes all have laureate busts, and at least one type definitely occurs both as a yellow dupondius and as a red As (RIC 64 with note), showing that by the beginning of 71 Vespasian had not yet reintroduced the radiate crown as a mark of his dupondii.

The second short issue of early in 71, to which KC's new acquisition belongs: obv. legend

IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG P M TR POT P P COS III on sestertii (only 1 die, with portrait and legend in middle-bronze size, RIC 137-140 and KC's new piece).

On middle bronzes two slight variants of the same legend were used,

(a) CAES not CAESAR on the one known dupondius, RIC 141, Kraay plaster cast in Oxford, with Head radiate r. on obv., so Vespasian had now reintroduced the radiate crown as a mark of his dupondii, proving that this short issue was later than the other one that omits COS III.

(b) CAES not CAESAR as on the dupondius, but also T P instead of TR POT, Head laureate r., apparently an As, RIC 31, a unique coin in Oxford, formerly in my collection, ex Lanz Graz IV, 1974, Hohenkubin middle bronzes, lot 134. The obv. legend might appear to end just COS II, and Buttrey accepted this reading in RIC, though I had informed him that I believed it was just a slightly tooled COS III.

Coming at last to the point, the sestertius obv. die with middle-bronze-size portrait and legend cannot originally have been cut as an As obv. die, because the one certain As of this issue has a variant, slightly shorter, obv. legend, and because in that case no sestertius obv. dies at all would have been engraved for use in this short issue. I also suspect that the broad ring of empty space outside the dotted border on this obv. die, shown clearly by RIC pl. 20, 137, suggests that it was always meant to be a sestertius not a middle-bronze die.

The Fortuna Redux rev. die of KC's new coin had earlier been used in the COS II DES III issue of late 70 AD, RIC pl. 15, 33, giving some support to my suggestion that this second small issue of bronzes in 71 was probably produced quite early in the year. The same rev. die, as Kraay observed, was also used a little later with an obv. die of the main VESPASIANVS issue of 71, Paris pl. XLIV, 486. But it is not certain, of course, that these two small issues of bronze coins were produced one after the other early in 71, before the main VESPASIANVS issue had started, as I have here suggested. Perhaps they were instead produced early in 71 indeed, but as isolated experiments alongside the main VESPASIANVS issue."

Thanks to Alberto "FlaviusDomitianus"

"Your coin is apparently unpublished and belongs to a small issue of Sestertii described in RIC 2.1 page 69:

"(d) Variant group of sestertii with small (as) die ending VESPASIAN AVG P M TR POT COS III - Pl. 20".

As noted by Carradice and Buttrey the obverse die has not be found on any As.

They are numbered from 137 to 141; since your reverse would be the first one in alphabetical order, it would probably get number 136A.

This small series is also discussed in the introduction (page 23)."

5 commentskcJun 15, 2019
Roman Empire, Commodus, Bronze Medallion127 viewsObv. M AUREL COMMODUS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII P P / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Pomona seated right, holding corn ears and poppy in left hand, right hand raised to grapevine, below which two children in tub, and a third at feet of goddess.
Mint: Rome, 183 AD.

40mm 65.92g

Ex Tradart Sale 21, 15th February 2018, Lot 139.
Ex Ars Classica XVIII, Lucerne 1938, Lot 292.
Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch, Auction 18, 27th May 1907, Lot 1031.
Ex Collection Dr. Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer.

Pomona, a goddess among the Romans, presiding over fruit -trees. Her worship was of long standing at Rome, where there was a Flamen Pomonalis who sacrificed to her every year for the preservation of the fruit. She lived in the time of Procas, king of Alba, devoted to the culture of gardens, to which she confined herself and shunning all society with the male deities.
Vertumnus, under various shapes, tried to win her hand, sometimes he came as a reaper, sometimes as a haymaker, another time as a ploughman or a wine-dresser, a soldier and a fisherman, but to equally little purpose. At length, under the guise of an old woman, he won the confidence of the goddess. And, by enlarging on the evils of a single life and the blessings of the wedded state, by launching out into the praises of Vertumnus, and relating a tale of the punishment of female cruelty to a lover, he moved the heart of Pomona; whereupon, resuming his real form, he obtained the hand of the no longer reluctant nymph.

Felicitas Temporum ("Prosperity of the Times"), reflecting a Golden Age ideology, was among the innovative virtues that began to appear during the reigns of Trajan and Antoninus Pius. Septimius Severus, whose reign followed the exceedingly brief tenure of Pertinax and unsatisfactory conditions under Commodus, used coinage to express his efforts toward restoring the Pax Romana, with themes such as Felicitas Temporum and Felicitas Saeculi, "Prosperity of the Age" (saeculum), prevalent in the years 200 to 202. Some Imperial coins use these phrases with images of women and children in the emperor's family.
6 commentskcJun 14, 2019
Hadrian Sestertius107 viewsObv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, draped bust right.
Rev. DACIA S C, Dacia seated left on rock, holding vexillum in right hand, curved sword in left.
Mint: Rome, 134-138 AD.

32/33mm 23.71g

RIC 849

Ex Kölner Münzkabinett, MA-Shops 2019
Ex Heidelberger Münzhandlung, Auction 76, 14th May 2018, lot 202.
Ex Thierry Parsy, Paris Auction 13/14th February 2018, lot 148.
Ex Collection Note (1910-1982)

This sestertius belongs to Hadrian's much-beloved travel series of coins depicting the provinces and cities he visited on his several tours throughout the empire. Earlier in his reign, Hadrian had reorganized the Dacian territories so recently conquered by his predecessor, Trajan, giving up to the Roxolani Sarmatians to rule as a client kingdom on behalf of Rome much of the Dacian territory that had been added to Moesia Inferior. Trajan's sweeping conquests along the Danube frontier as well as in the East had greatly extended Rome's borders, but Hadrian correctly saw the impractical nature of the additional strain this imposed on the Empire and quickly shored them.
4 commentskcJun 14, 2019
Roman Empire, Maximus, Sestertius181 viewsObv. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right.
Rev. PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C, emperor standing left, holding baton and spear, at the right two standards.
Mint: Rome, 236-238 AD.

32mm 21.38g

RIC 13; Cohen 14; BMC 213

Ex Münzenhandlung Manfred Olding, Lagerliste
Ex Reusing /Schürer Collection
Ex Münzenhandlung A. Riechman 1930 (65 Reichsmark)

Princeps Juventutis was a name of dignity even in the most flourishing days of the republic. It was an honorary appellation given to him who took the lead of the greater and lesser boys appointed to perform a part in the game of Troy (ad ludum Troja). The prince of the youth was, in the earlier times, the chief of the Equestrian Order. Under the empire, and from the very commencement of that monarchical form of government, this title, although simply honorary, appears to have been given, as an apanage, to such young princes of the imperial family as were destined to reign, and was sometimes conferred on them at a very early age. (Numiswiki, FAC)
6 commentskcJun 13, 2019
Nerva Sestertius96 viewsObv. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II DESIGN III P P, laureate head right.
Rev. CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM S C, clasped hands in front of legionary standard.
Mint: Rome, 96-98 AD.

33.5mm 26.40g

RIC 70

Ex CNG, Electronic Auction 156, 2007, Lot 173.
Ex CNG, Mail Bid Sale 67, 22.09.2004, Lot 1402.
EX Tony Hardy Collection
Ex Mazzini Collection

This sestertius shows the clasped hands of unity holding a legionary aquila set on a prow, the latter symbolizing the imperial navy.

The type of this reverse alludes to the concurrence and union of the forces, both on land and at sea, during the reign of this good prince. (numiswiki, FAC)

3 commentskcJun 11, 2019
Roman Empire, Caracalla Bimetallic Sestertius219 viewsObv. M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, emperor, accompanied by two officiers, standing r. on platform, haranguing soldiers behind, standards, in ex. S C.
Mint: Rome, 214 A.D.

32mm 32.71g

RIC 525c var. (draped bust); Banti 59

Before a battle, or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops and inspire morale and esprit de corps among them. A sestertius of Gaius (Caligula), issued on behalf of a donative for the Praetorian Guard, was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type. Similar subsequent issues were minted to emphasize the emperor's perceived, if not actual, role as military commander. The present specimen commemorates Caracalla's victory against the Germans and his preparations for a Persian war. Caracalla idolized Alexander the Great and, as other emperors before him, wished to recreate his successes in the east. Thus, in 214 AD, after having been proclaimed "Alexander" at Philippopolis in Thrace, he assembled his troops, who had been outfitted as Macedonians, and proceeded into Asia Minor. Caracalla's ambitions were, however, hampered by his own unfit physical and mental state; over the next three years the campaign degeneratged into near-chaos and ended with Caracalla's murder.
(written by CNG, 2003)
7 commentskcMay 12, 2017
Roman Empire, Maximinus I Thrax Sestertius247 viewsObv. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. SALVS AVGVSTI S C, Salus seated left on throne, feeding, with her right hand, snake rising right from altar to left.
Mint: Rome, 235-238 AD.

20mm 20.18g

RIC 85, BMC 175, Cohen 92

Ex Nomos 1, 6 May 2009, 159.
Ex Bank Leu 18, 5 May 1977, 368. From the collection of Ph. S.

Salus was considered since the time of the Flavians as one of the most important ideals of the Roman Empire and embodied health and safety. Salus is here not only to express the personal health of the ruler, but also connected to the well-being of the people and a general sense of security.
Although Maximinus led successful campaigns against the Jazygen tribe and against the Dacians (title GERMANICVS), he was not particularly popular in the Senate, because he denied the Senate in Rome probably the usual voice and his rule largely based on the Rhine and Danube regions. Other reasons for the resistance in the Senate played the (historians controversial) origin of the Maximinus from Thrace and also from very simple conditions, which the nobiles did not think befitting.
In addition, his campaigns were so costly that he allegedly even had to take money from the poor and grain supply of Rome. Although he pushed forward not only military expenditure but also the development of the road network, the ruler's budgetary planning attempt to remedy the foreign policy problems of Rome through elaborate campaigns met with general misunderstanding, which was especially prevalent in the south and east of the empire, where only the increased tax pressured but the people did not notice the successes. Maximinus evidently did not understand how to efficiently promote his policy. For these reasons, it came after only three years in office to surveys against the Emperor, which ultimately led to his murder by his own troops.
7 commentskcApr 15, 2017
GREEK, Attica, Athens, 465-454 BC, AR Tetradrachm416 viewsObv. Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and palmette, round earring and pearl necklace.
Rev. Owl standing right with head facing, ΑΘΕ to right, crescent and olive sprig to left; all within incuse square.
Mint: Attica, Athens, ca. 465-454 BC.

17.10g, 24mm, 10h.

Starr Group V.B.

Ex Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 19, 1. August 2015, lot 95
9 commentskcMay 13, 2016
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