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178c.jpg
samosata0020 viewsElagabalus
Samosata, Commagene

Obv: ...T K MAV AN..., Laureate head right.
Rev: CAMOC-ATεΩN, Tyche turreted seated left on rocks, eagle in right hand, left hand on rocks, Pegasus running left below.
27 mm, 11.82 gms

Butcher 30a, BMC 41 variant (bust type)
Charles MApr 22, 2019
239c.jpg
samosata001_30 viewsElagabalus
Samosata, Commagene

Obv: AVT KI MAP AVPH ANTΩNεINOC CεB, Laureate head right.
Rev: CAMOC-ATεΩN, Tyche turreted seated left on rocks, eagle in right hand, left hand on rocks, Pegasus running left below.
32 mm, 18.90 gms

Butcher 29, BMC 42
Charles MApr 22, 2019
550c.jpg
samosata001_22 viewsElagabalus
Samosata, Commagene

Obv: AVT KAI MAP K AVPΛI ANTΩNεINOC Cε, Laureate head right.
Rev: CAMOC-ATεΩN, Tyche turreted seated left on rocks, eagle in right hand, left hand on rocks, Pegasus running left below.
34 mm, 22.46 gms

Butcher 29, BMC 42
Charles MApr 22, 2019
1256c.jpg
samosata0011 viewsElagabalus
Samosata, Commagene

Obv:...MAV ANTΩ..., Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: CAMOC-ATεΩN, Tyche turreted seated left on rocks, eagle in right hand, left hand on rocks, Pegasus running left below.
33 mm, 17.90 gms

Butcher 29, BMC 42 variant (bust type), Hunter 28 (per Butcher)
Charles MApr 22, 2019
Béla_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_AR-Obulus,_H-417,_C1-367,_U-252,_RR,_Q-001,_7h,_9-9,3mm,_0,18g-s.jpg
022. H-417 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-417, CNH I.-367, U-252, AR-Obulus, Rare! #0115 views022. H-417 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-417, CNH I.-367, U-252, AR-Obulus, Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, holding orb and scepter with lily, circle on left, Line border.
reverse: Agnus Dei advancing left, with a cross with a flag, line border.
exergue/mintmark: -/-//--, diameter: 9,0-9,3mm, weight: 0,18g, axis: 7h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-417, CNH I.-367, Unger-252, Rare!
Q-001
quadransApr 22, 2019
1211c.jpg
gabala0011 viewsElagabalus
Gabala

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: ΓABA-Δ-[εΩN, Tyche standing left holding rudder and cornucopia.
21 mm, 6.00 gms

SNG Cop 317, SNG München 840, BMC---
Charles MApr 22, 2019
Augustus~3.jpg
Roman Augustus Denarius5 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius. Rome mint. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Struck 19 BC.

Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Reverse: P•PETRON•TVRPILIAN•III•VIR, Pegasus walking right

banker’s mark on reverse.

RIC I 297; RSC 491.
1 commentsTanitApr 22, 2019
Phrygia,_Hadrianopolis-Sebaste,_051_Caracalla,_BMC_4,_SNG_Cop_407,_Caracalla_r_,_Tyche_l_,_Poteitos,_198-217_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21mm,_5,52ga-s~0.jpg
Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, 051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, #112 viewsPhrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, 051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, #1
avers: •M•AV•AN TωNЄIN, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: AΔPIA•AP X•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 5,52g, axis:6h,
mint: Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, Magistrate Poteitos., date: 198-217 A.D.,
ref: BMC 4 (?), SNG Cop 407(?).
Q-001
quadransApr 22, 2019
Phrygia,_Hadrianopolis-Sebaste,_051_Caracalla,_BMC_4,_SNG_Cop_407,_Caracalla_r_,_Tyche_l_,_Poteitos,_198-217_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21mm,_5,52ga-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, #112 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, #1
avers: •M•AV•AN TωNЄIN, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: AΔPIA•AP X•ΠOTЄITO, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 5,52g, axis:6h,
mint: Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, Magistrate Poteitos., date: 198-217 A.D.,
ref: BMC 4 (?), SNG Cop 407(?).
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 22, 2019
310.jpg
Parthia, Andragoras, ca. 245-238 BC, AR Didrachm5 viewsHelmeted head of Athena r.; bunch of grapes behind.
Owl standing r., head facing, crescent, olive spray (largely off-flan) and bunch of grapes (mostly off-flan) behind, AΘE to r.

Taylor Birds of a Feather 2.3, 96 (dies a7/p12) ; HGC 12, 4 (Baktria); H. Nicolet-Pierre & M. Amandry, RN 1994, 24-28 (Baktria); SNG ANS 9, 5 (Baktria).

(19 mm, 7.94 g, 6h).

Roma Numismatics XVII (28 Mar. 2019), lot 587; ex 'Andragoras-Sophytes' Hoard.
1 commentsn.igmaApr 22, 2019
constans_~1.jpg
Constans AE24. 337-350 AD.2 viewsD N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Constans standing left on galley, holding Phoenix and labarum, piloted by Victory s left field. Mintmark RS. BritanikusApr 22, 2019
1019.jpg
leucas0020 viewsElagabalus
Leucas (Balanea-Leucas)

Obv: AVT K MA AN-T..., laureate head right.
Rev: Emperor driving quadriga, facing.
26 mm, 19.37 gms

Lindgren-Kovacs 2188 variant (bust type)
Charles MApr 22, 2019
1375.jpg
leucas0011 viewsElagabalus
Leucas (Balanea-Leucas)

Obv: AVT K MA AN-TWNεINOC Cε. laureate head right.
Rev: Emperor driving quadriga, facing.
25 mm, 14.05 gms

Lindgren-Kovacs 2188 variant (bust type)
Charles MApr 22, 2019
Divo_Galerius.jpg
Divus Galerius0 viewsDivus Galerius

A.D. 311, 23x25mm 4.5gm
DIVO MAXIMIANO; veiled head right.
MEM DIVI M-AXIMIANI; Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors. B in right field.
In ex. •SM•TS•
RIC VI Thessalonica 48
Posthumous issue struck under Licinius
Ancient AussieApr 22, 2019
trajan_decius_.jpg
Trajan Decius Antoninianus 3 viewsIMP CMQ TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG , VICTORIA AVG
RIC29c , Sear 9387

From Old Collection placed in Gold Bezel around 1937
BritanikusApr 22, 2019
gordian_III_Securitas_denarius2.jpg
Gordian III Denarius.1 views
Gordian III Denarius. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Securitas seated left holding sceptre and propping head on left hand. RIC 130, RSC 340.
BritanikusApr 22, 2019
Domitian_RIC_1085_[Vespasian].png
Domitian AR Denarius26 viewsDomitian as Caesar Denarius 79 to 24 June
18mm., 3,15g.
Obv:Head laureate l; CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANUS COS VI
Rev: Salus stg r resting on column feeding snake out of patera; PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS
RIC 1085 [Vespasian] BMC page 47 note. RSC 385.
Ex: Savoca Blue 19th auction April 21, 2019 Lot 1138
4 commentsorfewApr 21, 2019
Domitian_RIC_788_[Vespasian].png
Domitian AR Denarius21 views
Domitian as Caesar Denarius 75 CE
18mm., 3,21g.
Obv: Head leaureate r; CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III
Rev: Spes stg l with flower; PRINCEPS IVVENTVT
RIC 788 [Vespasian] BMC 156
Ex: Savoca Blue 19th auction April 21, 2019 Lot 1143
1 commentsorfewApr 21, 2019
276c.jpg
damascus0022 viewsElagabalus
Seleucia Pieria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: ΔAMA[CKOΥ IεΡAC KAIεNΔOCOΥ] outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
23 mm, 8.38 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21

Smaller denomination than most of these coins.
Charles MApr 21, 2019
D9D01C8A-E644-4A85-9DC5-B8C8DC37C255.jpeg
Caria. Mylasa. Eupolemos Æ15 / Overlapping Shields13 viewsAttribution: SNG Copenhagen (Macedonia) 1166
Date: circa 295-280 BC
Obverse: Three overlapping shields with spear heads on bosses
Reverse: EYΠO / ΛEMOY; Sword in sheath, monogram below
Size: 15.67 mm
Weight: 4.09 grams
Description: EF with choice silky patina
5 commentsMark R1Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-mpdxe23wIOFM-Constantine_I.jpg
Constantine I (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Follis 1 viewsIMP CONSTANTINUS PF AVG - Bust laureate, cuirassed right
SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI - Sol standing left raising right and holding globe in left
Mint: Ticinum (313AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 0.00g / 22mm / 180
Acquisition/Sale: martyschmitt Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-NaRsH15rtZyCu-Lucius_Verus.jpg
Lucius Verus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 2 viewsIMP L VERVS AVG - Bare head right
PROV DEOR TR P III COS II - Providentia, draped, standing left, holding globe on extended right hand and cornucopiae in left hand
Mint: Rome (162-163AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.78g / 18mm / 360
References:
RIC III, Marcus Aurelius 491
Sear 5354
RSC 156
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
Nerva_sestertius.jpg
Nerva (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsIMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P - Laureate head right
LIBERTAS PVBLICA - Libertas standing left, holding pileus in right hand and sceptre in left. SC
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (97AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.39g / 34mm / 180
References:
RIC 86
C. 114
BMC 112
BN 100
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 39 #638 $0.00 8/26/17
Notes: Jan 4, 19 -The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"Nerva maintained that he had liberated Rome from the tyranny of Domitian and restored a constitutionally-based regime." -- David Van Meter
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-BYUad3uLtR6no-Faustina_II.jpg
Faustina II (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Silver Denarius 2 viewsDIVA FAUSTINA PIA - Draped bust right
CONSECRATIO - Pietas standing left, sacrificing from patera over a lighted altar and holding a sceptre.
Mint: Rome (175 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 17mm / 360
References:
RIC III 741
RSC 65
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Feb 4, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-H9QV76EkR9h8-Faustina_II.jpg
Faustina II (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Brass Sestertius 2 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
AVGVSTI PII FIL, S-C - Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (c.145-146 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 29.20g / 32mm / 12h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC III 1390v-As
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay $0.00 02/19

Lifetime portrait struck under her father Antoninus Pius.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-mUwOOzkQCgR-Faustina_II_denarius.jpg
Faustina Jr. (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Silver Denarius 2 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right, wearing diadem.
IVNONI REGINAE - Juno standing left, holding a patera & scepter, peacock before.
Mint: Rome (139-141AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.53g / 16mm / 180
References:
RIC 695
RSC 140
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

A scarce lifetime issue.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-nx7sxByvkB46in-Faustina_I.jpg
Faustina I (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Antoninus Pius- Brass Sestertius 2 viewsDIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right, hair coiled on top of head.
CERES - Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long, vertical torch; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (after 141 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.65g / 32mm / 12h
References:
RIC 1128
Sear 4621
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay $0.00 12/18
Notes: Jan 1, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
D-074_Philippus-I__(244-249_A_D_),_AE-28,_IMP_M_IVL_PHILIPPVS_AVG,_PROV_INC_IA_D_ACIA,_AN-III,_Pick-16,_PM-2-67-22,_Mus-R,_Q-001,_1h,_28mm,_14,20g-s~0.jpg
074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 02-67-22, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare! #124 views074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Dacia, Dacia, PM 02-67-22, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare! #1
avers: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: PROV INC IA D ACIA, Dacia stands left in long chiton and Phrygian cap, curved sword in right, standard inscribed V in right, on left standard inscribed XIII and eagle head right wreath in beak, on right lion walking left.
exergue: -/-//ANIII, diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 14,20g, axis: 1h,
mint: Dacia, date: 248-249 A.D.,
ref: Pick-16, PM-2-67-22,
Q-001
2 commentsquadransApr 21, 2019
D-074_Philippus-I__(244-249_A_D_),_AE-28,_IMP_M_IVL_PHILIPPVS_AVG,_PROV_INC_IA_D_ACIA,_AN-III,_Pick-16,_PM-2-67-22,_Mus-R,_Q-001,_1h,_28mm,_14,20g-s.jpg
Dacia, Dacia, 074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), PM 02-67-22, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare! #121 viewsDacia, Dacia, 074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), PM 02-67-22, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANIII, PROVINCIA DACIA, Dacia standing left, Rare! #1
avers: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: PROV INC IA D ACIA, Dacia stands left in long chiton and Phrygian cap, curved sword in right, standard inscribed V in right, on left standard inscribed XIII and eagle head right wreath in beak, on right lion walking left.
exergue: -/-//ANIII, diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 14,20g, axis: 1h,
mint: Dacia, Dacia, date: 248-249 A.D.,
ref: Pick-16, PM-2-67-22,
Q-001
quadransApr 21, 2019
Agrippa-Brass_As_of_Roman_Co.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 1 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head of Agrippa, left, wearing rostral crown
S C - Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 161
RIC 1 58
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
GETA_AS_CO-EMPEROR_WITH_HIS_BROTHER_CARACALLA,__209-211_AD_34_99.jpg
Geta (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsP SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
FORT RED TR P III COS II - Fortuna seated left, holding rudder & cornucopia, wheel under chair, S C in ex.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (211 AD )
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.30g / 24.4mm / 360
References:
RIC 175a
Cohen 53
BMC 273cf
Acquisition/Sale: imporatorcoins-and-estatesales eBay $0.00 05/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-DOrMjlQ9wrB5Xza-Philip_I.jpg
Philip I (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsIMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG - Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
P M TR P II COS P P S-C - Philip seated left, holding globe and parazonium.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (245 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.30g / 28mm / 12h
References:
RIC IV 148a
Banti 30
Cohen 121
Acquisition/Sale: snakerus4z5r eBay $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 29, 19 - 1st officina. 4th emission

The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-WRkP4jIC1W-Gallienus.jpg
Gallienus (Augustus) Coin: Bronze/Silver Antoninianus0 viewsGALLIENVS AVG - Radiate and draped bust right
PIETAS AVG - Gallienus standing left, holding patera and sceptre, sacrificing at flaming tripod altar. VIIC dot
Exergue:


Mint: Antioch (259 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 1.00g / 1mm / 180
References:
RIC 618
Goebl 1645
Cohen 788
Sear 10311
Acquisition/Sale: estetebureau eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
Trajan_Decius_(249-251)__Æ_Sestertius_(29mm,_13_61g,_6h)__Rome,_249-250.jpg
Trajan Decius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG - Laureate & cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG S-C - Victory advancing left with wreath & palm branch.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (249-250 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.61g / 29mm / 12h
References:
RIC IV 126d
Cohen 117
Sear 9410
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction 61 #606 $0.00 09/18
Notes: Oct 9, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
Volusian__A_D__251-253__Æ_sestertius_45.jpg
Volusian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
FELICITAS PVBLICA S-C - Felicitas standing left, leaning on column, holding caduceus and sceptre.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (251-253 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 14.79g / 28mm / 360
References:
RIC 251a
Cohen 35
Sear 9786
Acquisition/Sale: Triskeles Auctions VAuctions 329 #557 $0.00 04/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Wikipedia:
Volusian, was a Roman Emperor from 251 to 253. His father, Trebonianus Gallus, became Roman Emperor after being elected in the field by the legion, following the deaths of the previous co-emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus. Trebonianus Gallus raised Hostilian, the son of Decius, to augustus, making him his co-emperor in June 251. Volusianus was elevated to caesar in the same month. After the death, or murder, of Hostilian in November 251, Volusianus was raised to augustus, co-ruling with his father. The short reign of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus was notable for the outbreak of a plague, which is said by some to be the reason for Hostilian's death, the invasion of the Sasanian Empire, and the raids of the Goths. Volusianus was killed alongside his father in August 253, by his own soldiers, who were terrified of the forces of the usurper Aemilian which were marching towards Rome.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
Licinius_II__AE_3,_N.jpg
Licinius II (Caesar) Coin: Bronze Follis 0 viewsDN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C - Laureate and draped bust left, holding globe, mappa and sceptre
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS - Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre. Left field: wreath angled Dot over G in right field. Mintmark SMN.
Exergue:



Mint: Nicomedia (317-320AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.20g / 18mm / 180
References:
RIC VII 33, Γ (var.)
Sear 15419
Acquisition/Sale: sjbcoins Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-tcdtx28PzK-Trebonianus_Gallus.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
LIBERTAS AVG-G, S C - Libertas standing left, holding pileus in extended right hand and long sceptre in left hand.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (251-253 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 19.50g / 30mm / 12h
References:
RIC 114a
Hunter 31
Cohen 64
Acquisition/Sale: taterthecat Ebay $0.00 10/18
Notes: Oct 9, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-epJSjJKv2qgAuHB-Gordian_III.jpg
Gordian III (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
LAETITIA AVG N SC - Laetitia standing left, with wreath and anchor
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (238-244AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 17.70g / 30mm / 360
References:
RIC 300a
Cohen 122
Sear 8712
Acquisition/Sale: beeker1 Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-FoVTANMmEFe7O1M-Julian_II_the_apostate.jpg
ulian II (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Double Maiorina1 viewsD N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG - Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian right
SECVRITAS REIPVB - Apis bull standing right, two stars above horns
Exergue:



Mint: Sirmium (361-363AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 7.95g / 28mm / 360
References:
RIC VIII 106
Acquisition/Sale: xcelatorx Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Oct 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

While the coinage of Julian is most remarkable for its depiction of the Apis bull, historians are uncertain of what the emperor actually intended to portray through this coinage. Was it an effort to link the emperor to the mysterious power of the bull common amongst the Egyptians? Was it an attempt to portray the ritual sacrifice of bulls that Julian re-instated after decades of Christian-sympathizing rule? Or was it something else, perhaps a representation of the astrological sign Taurus? The chronicler Ammianus Marcellinus is the primary source on Julian's reign and unfortunately never commented on the coinage, whilst mostly praising Julian's actions, personality, and character. [1]

More on the Apis Bull:

The Apis bull was an important sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. As with the other sacred beasts Apis' importance increased over the centuries. During colonization of the conquered Egypt, Greek and Roman authors had much to say about Apis, the markings by which the black calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis (with a court for his deportment), the mode of prognostication from his actions, his death, the mourning at his death, his costly burial, and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found. Auguste Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum of Saqqara revealed the tombs of more than sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenhotep III to that of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Originally, each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it.

According to Arrian, Apis was one of the Egyptian deities Alexander the Great propitiated by offering a sacrifice during his seizure of Ancient Egypt from the Persians. After Alexander's death, his general Ptolemy I Soter made efforts to integrate Egyptian religion with that of the new Hellenic rulers. Ptolemy's policy was to find a deity that might win the reverence of both groups, despite the curses of the Egyptian religious leaders against the deities of the previous foreign rulers (i.e. Set, lauded by the Hyksos). Without success, Alexander had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but that deity was more prominent in Upper Egypt and not for those in Lower Egypt, where the Greeks had stronger influence. Since the Greeks had little respect for animal-headed deities, a Greek statue was created as an idol and proclaimed as an anthropomorphic equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and later was said to represent Osiris fully, rather than just his Ka.

The earliest mention of a Serapis is in the authentic death scene of Alexander, from the royal diaries. Here, Serapis has a temple at Babylon, and is of such importance that he alone is named as being consulted on behalf of the dying Alexander. The presence of this temple in Babylon radically altered perceptions of the mythologies of this era, although it has been discovered that the unconnected Babylonian deity Ea was entitled Serapsi, meaning king of the deep, and it is Serapsi who is referred to in the diaries, not Serapis. The significance of this Serapsi in the Hellenic psyche, however, due to its involvement in Alexander's death, also may have contributed to the choice of Osiris-Apis as the chief Ptolemaic deity during their occupation of Ancient Egypt.

According to Plutarch, Ptolemy stole the statue from Sinope, having been instructed in a dream by the Unknown God to bring the statue to Alexandria, where the statue was pronounced to be "Serapis" by two religious experts. Among those experts was one of the Eumolpidae, the ancient family from which the hierophant of the Eleusinian Mysteries traditionally had been chosen since before any historical records. The other expert supposedly was the scholarly Egyptian priest Manetho, which increased acceptability from both the Egyptians and the Greeks.

Plutarch may not be correct, however, as some Egyptologists assert that the Sinope in Plutarch's report is the hill of Sinopeion, a name given to the site of an existing Serapeum at Memphis. Also, according to Tacitus, Serapis (i.e. Apis explicitly identified as Osiris in full) had been the tutelary deity of the village of Rhacotis, before it suddenly expanded into the great capital of "Alexandria".

Being introduced by the Greeks, understandably, the statue depicted a fully human figure resembling Hades or Pluto, both being kings of the Greek underworld. The figure was enthroned with the modius, which is a basket or a grain-measure, on his head, a Greek symbol for the land of the dead. He also held a sceptre, indicating rulership, and Cerberus, gatekeeper of the underworld, rested at his feet. It also had what appeared to be a serpent at its base, fitting the Egyptian symbol of sovereignty, the uraeus.

With his (i.e., Osiris') wife, Isis, and their son (at this point in history) Horus (in the form of Harpocrates), Serapis won an important place in the Greek world, reaching Ancient Rome, with Anubis being identified as Cerberus. The cult survived until 385, when Christians destroyed the Serapeum of Alexandria, and subsequently, the cult was forbidden by the Edict of Thessalonica.[2]

[1] Lewis, Will. Taking the Bull by the Horns, Ancient World Magazine, March 16, 2018
[2] The Apis Bull, Wikipedia online encyclopedia
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-J2AbTfZl2u-Julian_II.jpg
Julian II (Caesar) Coin: Silver Siliqua 0 viewsDN IVLANV-S NOB CAES - Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VOTIS V MVLTIS X - Four lines within wreath with large central jewel. Mintmark TCON
Exergue:


Mint: Arelate (Arles) mint, (355-360 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.52g / 19mm / 6h
References:
RIC VIII 264
RSC 154b
Acquisition/Sale: macvanderstein Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 23, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-j5Eu3HcIfQ7zR-Vitellius_As.jpg
Vitellius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 1 viewsA VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN - Laureate head left
FIDES EXERCITVVM. S.C. - clasped hands
Exergue:


Mint: Tarraco (January-June AD 69)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.00g / 27mm / 180
References:
RIC I, 42
Acquisition/Sale: Lucernae Catawiki/internet $0.00 10/17
Notes: Jan 1, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Fides Exercitvvm means "the loyalty of the armies".
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
1226c.jpg
damascus0010 viewsElagabalus
Seleucia Pieria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: ΔAMACKOΥ IεΡAC KAIεNΔO[COΥ] outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
28 mm, 14.98 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21
Charles MApr 21, 2019
1407c.jpg
hj6.26.48.2_31 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, crescent moon with three stars.
17 mm, 2.50 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.48.xx This obverse legend not in HJ.
Charles MApr 21, 2019
Caracalla_sestertius.jpg
Caracalla (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsM AVREL ANTON INVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head of right
PONTIF TR P XIII COS III - Caracalla and Geta standing facing one another, sacrificing over altar, veiled Concordia standing in background.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (210AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.89g / 32.71mm / 180
Rarity: Very Rare
References:
RIC452a
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
Caracalla,_28_Januar.jpg
Caracalla (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Laureate head right
INDVLGENTIAE AVG - Indulgentia seated left, patera in extended right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, feet on small stool
Mint: Rome (213 - 217 A.D)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.09g / 20.2mm / 360
References:
RIC IV 300 (S)
RSC III 103
BMCRE V p. 444, 68
Hunter p. 87, 48
SRCV II 6808
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet $0.00 11/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Indulgentia is the personification of clemency, leniency, grace, or favor. This coin may refer to some specific permission or clemency given, or some privilege bestowed by the emperor.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RbPFR08I4mI4UzP2-Caracalla_sestertius.jpg
Caracalla (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsM AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT - Laureate and cuirassed bust right, drapery on left shoulder
PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM S C - Providentia standing left holding wand over globe
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (210-213AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.00g / 31mm / 360
References:
RIC 511b.1
Acquisition/Sale: taterthecat Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Oct 9, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-teGxC6dzo4yyEN-Caracalla_denarius.jpg
Caracalla (Caesar) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate draped bust right
VICT PART PONT TR P IIII - Two captives, seated r. and l., mourning, at foot of trophy.
Mint: Rome (201-210 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.29g / 17mm / 180
References:
RIC 54a
RSC 175a
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-CMt5FFY7AjAV0pX-Septimius_Severus_sestertius.jpg
Septimius Severus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsL SEPT SEV PE RT AVG IMP IIII - laureate and cuirassed bust right
ANNONA AVG COS II P P - Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius in right hand, cornucopia in left.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (194AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.34g / 32.23mm / 360
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC IV 677c
Sear 6405
Cohen 33
Acquisition/Sale: wcnonline Ebay $0.00 10/17
Notes: Oct 9, 18 - See CNG Coin Shop #968670

Per CNG:"Only two known to Banti with this bust type."

The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-e161AaQVtVgT-Septimus_Severus_denarius.jpg
Septimius Severus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsSEVERVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right
P M TR P XIIII COS III P P - Genius standing left, sacrificing out of patera over altar, holding grain ears.
Mint: Rome (206 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.86g / 18mm / 180
References:
RIC 201
RSC 475
BMCRE 493 and pl. 40.7
Sear'88 #1776
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-D9xmlTKLnIcvxngd-Elagabalus_sestertius.jpg
Elagabalus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG TR P COS - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
PM TR P IIII COS III PP SC - Providentia standing left, holding rod over globe and cornucopiae; in left field, star.
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (221 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 17.78g / 30mm / 12h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 321
C. 191
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet Asta Numismatica 44E #415 $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 16, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-GOFq8naFsc8HyDoE-Elagabalus_denarius.jpg
Elagabalus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsIMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, horned, draped bust right.
INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG - Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over tripod, holding club in left hand; behind tripod, bull lying down; in field, star
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (220-222 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.77g / 18.6mm / 12h
References:
RIC 88b
RSC 61
BMC 212
Provenances:
Ex. Richard Weigel
Acquisition/Sale: ancientgalleonllc eBay $0.00 01/19
Notes: Feb 20, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per Curtis Clay: "The star apparently stood for his sun god, to whom the emperor was depicted sacrificing, and therefore it should have been placed before him...".
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purchase.
Gary W2Apr 21, 2019
augustus_agripa.jpg
2 viewsGAUL, Nemausus. Augustus, with Agrippa. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ Dupondius (26mm, 13.19 g,). Struck AD 10-14. Heads of Agrippa, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus, laureate, back to back / Crocodile right, chained to palm frond with wreath at top; two palm fronds at base. RPC I 525; RIC I 159; SNG Copenhagen 700-1.BritanikusApr 21, 2019
1336c.png
bmc---20 viewsElagabalus
Edessa, Mesopotamia

Obv: AV KAIC MAP AVP ANT..., laureate head left.
Rev: εΔεCCA KOΛ, turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche left.
17 mm, 2.80 gms

BMC---, SNG Hunterian 2545 variant (bust type), Babelon/Kurth, page 33, Savoca Numismatik , 1st Blue Auction, Lot 925 variant (reverse legend)
Charles MApr 21, 2019
1344.jpg
syd5220 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Cappadocia


Obv: AV K M AVPHΛIOC ANTWNεINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: MHTP[OΠ]O KAICAPI, Agalma of Mt. Argaeus. In exergue εTΓ.
27 mm, 11.13 gms

Sydenham 522
Charles MApr 21, 2019
1399c.jpg
asmcalee809b0 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. MAP. AV. Cε. ANTΩNεINOC. legend from upper left, radiate head left.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHT KO , Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. Star in left upper field..
32 mm, 19.28 gms

McAlee 809(b)
Charles MApr 21, 2019
Pontus.jpg
Septimius Severus, Pontus, Neocaesarea.1 viewsSeptimius Severus, Pontus, Neocaesarea.
Septimius Severus, AD 193-211. AE29 (29 mm, 15,1 g). Pontus, Neocaesarea. AY K Λ CEΠ CEOYHPOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / KOI ΠON NЄO-KAI MHTPO, ЄT PMR, tetrastyle temple with wall visible in background, flaming altar within; date below. Rec Gen 13; SNG von Aulock 100. Very Fine with beautiful patina.
Ancient AussieApr 20, 2019
884.jpg
bmc30 viewsElagabalus
Raphanea, Syria

Obv: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: In exergue, BΛΘ. turreted Genius stands facing, head left, wears himation around hips and legs and over left shoulder, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, bull left, two eagles flanking in upper field.
25 mm, 5.32 gms

BMC 3 (as Caracalla), Mionnet V, p. 268, 831, CNG Electronic Auction 345, lot 429.
Charles MApr 20, 2019
RI_064ub_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -2 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEVER PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev– FORTA EDVC or FORT REDVC (R corrected from A), Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE ???. RIC IV ??? (??). RSC ??(£?)
maridvnvmApr 20, 2019
RI_146dx_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 561a Bust Type C2 viewsObv:- IMP C M VAL MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right (seen from front)
Rev:- IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing facing, looking right, holding sceptre in right hand and a thunderbolt in left
Minted in Ticinum; B | _ //XXIT.
Reference:- RIC VI-2, 561a
maridvnvmApr 20, 2019
541c.jpg
bmc---20 viewsElagabalus
Laodicea ad Mare, Syria

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟ, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΛΑΟΔΙΚƐΩΝ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ, winged Tyche Pantheia standing facing, looking left, wearing kalathos, holding ears of corn, cornucopia and rudder.
24 mm, 5.69 gms

BMC ---, RPC Online 5512
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1404c.jpg
prieur2690 viewsElagabalus
Syrian Tetradrachm

Obv: AYT K M A ANTWNεINO-C CEB, laureate head right, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind.
Re: ΔHMAPXεΞYΠATOC TOB, Eagle to front, head and tail left, Δ and ε in right and left field, star between legs.
27 mm, 12.55 gms

Prieur 269
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1339.jpg
prieur261A_30 viewsElagabalus
Syrian Tetradrachm

Obv: AYT K M A ANTWN(…), laureate head right, one ribbon over shoulder.
Re: ΔHMAPXεΞYΠATOΔ, Eagle to front, head and tail left, Δ and ε in right and left field, star between legs.
25 mm, 10.05 gms

Prieur 261A
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1349c.jpg
seleucia0011 viewsElagabalus
Seleucia Pieria

Obv: AVT K MA ANTΩNεINOC. laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: CεΛεVKεIACΠIAIPIAC, Thunderbolt on draped throne.
26 mm, 13.93 gms

Butcher 87 (discussion on page 424, #90.)
Charles MApr 20, 2019
66a.jpg
antipatris0010 viewsElagabalus
Antipatris, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, holding small bust and scepter, within tetrastyle temple; below, river-god swimming left.
16 mm, 5.6 gms

Rosenberger 1
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1260Hadrian_Strack336.jpg
208 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-138 AD Felicitas standing6 viewsReference.
Strack 336; RIC --; C. --

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head of Hadrian, right, slight drapery over left shoulder

Rev. FELICITAS AVG COS III P P
Felicitas, draped, standing facing, head to left, holding caduceus in right hand, and cornucopiae in left.

3,34 gr
19 mm
6h
2 commentsokidokiApr 20, 2019
Severina_Concordiae_Militvm_Large.jpg
Ulpia Severina - A Coin of an Interregnum?1 viewsUlpia Severina, Augusta (274 AD), wife of Aurelian
Obv: SEVERINA AVG; Bust of Severina, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent, facing right.
Rev: CONCORDIAE MILITVM; Concordia standing left, facing left, flanked by two standards, one in each hand, VI in left field, XXI in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 6; Date: early 275 to September 275 AD; Weight: 3.77g; Diameter: 23.3mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 20; MER - RIC 3198.

Notes:

Is this a coin of an interregnum?
That there was an interregnum, in the literal meaning of the word, between the murder of Aurelian and the Senatorial appointment of Tacitus as emperor is undisputed. What is disputed, however, is the length of the interregnum as well as its meaningfulness, i.e. for whatever period of interregnum that did exist, did Severina or the Senate actually rule the empire and thereby make decisions that engendered consequences and/or directed actions? This coin type (although not the only coin type) has played a part in the interregnum story. In Aurelian and the Third Century (London and New York: Routledge, 1999) Alaric Watson dedicates seven and a half pages (pp. 109 - 116) to discussing the interregnum, where he vociferously argues that there was no meaningful interregnum. As part of this discussion he references, on p. 115, this particular coin type and in footnote 66 he cites a number of sources that assign this type in the name of Severina to the period after Aurelian’s death. For example:
Percy Webb in RIC, vol. V, part 1 (1927), pp. 4, 35, and 253 does not take a stance on the possible length of the interregnum, but on p. 253 he states that if the interregnum lasted eight months, then the mints certainly could not have been closed and so “...it is necessary to find coins representing their output.”1 This coin type, dedicated to Concordia and in the name of Severina alone, might represent that output. In “The Imperial Recovery” (chapter nine of The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XII, The Imperial Crisis and Recovery AD 193 - 324. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939) Harold Mattingly acknowledges that although the length of the interregnum is in debate “... the coinage shows clearly that for some considerable period government was carried on in the name of the Empress Severina for the the dead Aurelian.” (p. 310). In all officina for several mints the coinage of Severina, such as the “Concordia Militum” type “...bear witness to the conditions of the interregnum.” (p. 310). In “The Reform of Aurelian” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vol. 7, 1965: 225 - 235) R. A. G. Carson mentions on pp. 233 and 234 that Severina’s Concordia Militum type is for Severina alone, and that as such it was minted after the death of Aurelian (p. 233). Carson is not concerned with the question of an interregnum, but his placement of this coin type for Severina alone after Aurelian’s death allows this coin type to be taken as evidence of an interregnum. Eugen Cizek in L’Empereur Aurélien Et Son Temps (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1994) also refers to this coin type (not by specific legend, but by reference to “concord with the soldiers”) when discussing the interregnum. He notes that other scholars assign this coinage to the interregnum, a position that he appears to adopt. In Repostiglio della Venèra Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato Aureliano II/I (Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1995) Sylviane Estiot also assigns this coin type to the period after Aurelian’s death.2

But what of the coin here, this coin actually attributed to the 6th officina, mint of Antioch, 6th issue? Estiot attributes this coin not to an interregnal period between Aurelian and Tacitus, when Severina might have ruled in her own right. Rather, on p. 90 of “Aureliana” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vo. 150, 1995: 50 - 94) Estiot attributes this coin, because of exact parallelisms to Aurelian’s coinage at Antioch at this time, to a period of joint coinage between Aurelian and Severina.3

Footnotes:

1He actually allows for the possibility of coinage even if the interregnum was short. See footnote 1, p. 253.
2I assume this to be the case. Although I have no reason to doubt Watson’s citation I was unable to verify it because I am unable to obtain a copy of this book by Estiot.
3Also see Estiot, Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004, pp. 28 (table 1) and 122.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins
Tracy AielloApr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KoutjfGaeGOz-Commodus_sestertius.jpg
Commodus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsM COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
PIETATI SEN-ATVS - Emperor, holding volumen, and the Genius of the Senate, holding scepter, standing vis-à-vis and clasping hands; S C in field, COS V P P in exergue.
Exergue: COSVPP



Mint: Rome (186-189 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.50g / 28mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 549
MIR 18, 760-33/30
Banti 236
Mazzini 410
Acquisition/Sale: Centsles eBay $0.00 02/19
Notes: Feb 9, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The Passage of Commodus:
The upper foundation of the Colosseum is crossed by five tunnels, with the four main tunnels, contemporary to the construction, located along the two main axes of the monument, while the fifth tunnel was built later. The four main tunnels divide the upper foundation into four sectors, which in turn were possible sub-divided along radial and elliptic directions by formworks during the construction phase.

The fifth tunnel, named "Passage of Commodus", was dug under Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD), as a private passage for the emperor, directly connected to the imperial residence. The passage is radial-directed and extends for about 60 m from the arena towards south, with a final east-directed part out- side the foundation.

The ceilings are brick-made barrel vaults and both walls and ceilings were originally covered with a thick layer of mortar. However, over time it has been partially removed [La Regina 2001] and nowadays the walls are rough surfaces. Two major earthquakes which occurred in 1349 and 1703 [Molin and Guidoboni 1989], caused the collapse of a large part of the external ring in the southern sector of the Colosseum above the area where the Passage of Commodus is located'
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-TKlTeSmwrrzf-Commodus_sestertius_2.jpg
Commodus (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 0 viewsM COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT - Laureate head right (star countermark before bust)
CONC MIL P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P S C - Concordia, draped, standing left, holding a standard in each hand
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (186AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.32g / 24mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC III Commodus 481
Acquisition/Sale: dn4coinz Ebay $0.00 01/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

I have tagged this coin as 'scarce'. There are no records of this type in Wildwinds or in CNG's sales research. Interestingly enough, I did find another example here on Tantalus but even that listing had no reference. I found the reference in RIC online and even that reference failed to have a photo example.

I'm not sure what's going on with the sellers on eBay (other than buyers being Very Careful due to all of the fakes being listed) but this seller said this is a coin of Antoninus Pius, was a sestertius and it came from a Detroit dealer and had been in his 'personal collection'. He went on to say about how many types Pius had. Well...ok. :-)

This coin is fully patinated despite the image.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-uoEBVCkCHhUF2QVc-Commodus_denarius.jpg
Commodus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsL AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL - Laureate head right
P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P - Victory, winged, draped, advancing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and palm, sloped over left shoulder, in left hand; in field, sometimes star
Mint: Rome (192AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.47g / 18mm / 360
References:
RIC III, Commodus 237
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
Mark_Antony_Denarius_91_90.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 1 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Legion XII Antiqvae - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.72g / 1mm / 12h
References:
RSC 40
BMC 222
Cr544/9
Syd 1231
Sear5 #1480
Provenances:
Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE
Acquisition/Sale: Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE MA-Shops $0.00 10/18
Notes: Nov 23, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"



From Wikipedia:
Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N;[note 1] 14 January 83 BC – 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.

Relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide.

With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.

LEG XII ANTIQVAE
This was Caesar's 12th legion, raised in 58 BC for the campaign against the Helvetii. It served throughout the wars in Gaul (58 to 49), Italy (49), and at Pharsalus (48). It was disbanded 46-45 BC and the colonists were settled at Parma. The legion was reformed in 44-43 BC most likely by Lepidus. The legion was then passed to Antony in 41-31 BC and was present at Actium. It appears on Antony's coinage as LEG XII ANTIQVAE. Colonists were settled at Patrae, Greece alongside men of Legio X Equestris, perhaps by Antony, more likely by Octavian soon after Actium.

The legion's whereabouts during most of Augustus' reign is unclear. The 12th was very possibly the unnamed third legion (with III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana) stationed in Egypt. That unnamed legion disappears from Egypt at just about the same time that Legio XII Fulminata is first found in Syria. By early in the reign of Tiberius, the 12th legion was based at Raphanae.

Above the ship ANT AVG abbreviates the name Antonius along with one of his titles, Augur, a priest of the Roman state religion. Below the ship is his other title III VIR. R.P.C. (tresviri rei publicae constituendae), which loosely translates as “Triumvir for the Reorganization of the Republic”. A triumvir in this case was a member of the “Second Triumvirate” an informal power-sharing arrangement formed in 43 BCE between three men: Antony, Octavian (Julius Caesar’s great-nephew and designated heir,) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 88 – 12 BCE), last high priest of the Republic and Caesar’s political ally.

From Forvm:
The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition. The Francis Jarman collection includes the very rare and scarce named legions and cohorts.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
Julius_Caesar,_Rome,_February-March_44_BC__Fourrèe_Denarius_307.jpg
Julius Caesar (Dictator) Coin: Bronze Denarius Fourree1 viewsCAESAR DICT PERPETVO - Wreathed and veiled head of Caesar r.
C MARIDIANVS - Venus standing l., Holding Victory and resting arm on shield set on globe.
Mint: Rome (February-March 44 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.90g / 19mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RSC 9
Crawford 480/16
Sear 1415
Syd 1067
CRI 111
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction/59 #522 $0.00 05/18
Notes: Nov 10, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Julius Caesar Lifetime Issue.

Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C., C. Cossutius Maridianus, moneyer

"The Coin That Killed Caesar." The obverse legend declares Caesar is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar would be both the dictator and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For Caesar to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself king was too much for Brutus and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied, "Aye, Caesar, but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."

From Wikipedia:
Gaius Julius Caesar (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as an author of Latin prose.

This coin shows a centered strike which possibly indicates the counterfeiter took his time and was not under the same pressure as the official mint was in producing coins as fast as possible in preparation for Caesar's planned Parthian war.

From CNG:
Before 44 BC, Roman coin portraiture had been confined to various deities and historic figures of renown, these usually ancestors of the moneyers appointed each year to strike coins. The very few portraits of living Romans were confined to coins minted and circulating outside of Italy. But early in 44 BC, the Senate granted Julius Caesar, recently appointed Dictator for the fourth time, the honor of having his portrait placed on silver coinage struck in Rome. The break with tradition was sudden, startling and, as it turned out, enduring, for Caesar’s successors (and even his assassins!) soon adopted the practice. This denarius, struck in February and March of 44 BC, falls into the third issue of portrait coinage from Caesar’s lifetime, naming him as Dictator Perpetuo – “Dictator in Perpetuity,” another unprecedented honor bestowed by the Senate, probably on February 15. Caesar would bear the title only a month before his assassination on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-dw1DGopEm9wADCaN-Vespasian_As.jpg
Vespasian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 2 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII - Laureate Head Right
S/C - Eagle, head right, perched atop globe with wings half open.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (72-73 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.70g / 27.5mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 764a
Sear 2362 var.
Acquisition/Sale: numismatics-eu eBay $0.00 01/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
Vespasian_Æ_Sestertius_-_Judaea_Capta.jpg
Vespasian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsIMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III - Laureate head right
IVDAEA - CAPTA - Palm tree; to left, Vespasian standing right, foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium; to right, Jewess seated right on cuirass, in attitude of mourning.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (71 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.89g / 33.07mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 167
Hendin 1504
Sear 2327
BMCRE 543-4
BN 498
Provenances:
Marc R. Breitsprecher
Pegasi auction
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet $0.00 11/18
Notes: Nov 8, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by the legions in the East in AD 69, he left his son Titus to quell the Jewish uprising led by the Zealots, John of Gischala and Simon bar Giora. Titus accomplished the task in 70 AD, and in the following year, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian celebrated a splendid triumph in Rome. Several different reverse types were employed on the coinage of the Flavians to commemorate the triumph.

The main Judaea Capta coinage was a series of imperial issues struck in gold, silver, and bronze, and provincial issues struck in silver and bronze, to celebrate the Roman defeat of Judaea, the capture of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the Jewish Second Temple during the First Jewish War (66-73 CE). Generally, the reverse of this coinage shows a Jewish female seated in an attitude of mourning beneath a palm tree. Sometimes a bound male captive, or the figure of the victorious emperor or Victory, is found standing on the other side amid weapons, shields, and helmets. While some gold and silver coins bear no legend on the reverse, most issues are inscribed IVDAEA CAPTA, IVDAEA DEVICTA, or simply IVDAEA. The imperial coins were struck for only Vespasian and Titus. Provincial drachms were minted in Asia Minor for Titus (who oversaw the capture of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple). The provincial bronze coinage for Titus and Domitian (who did not participate in any of the actions, but was included by familial association) was struck in Judaea by the Roman administration at Caesarea Maritima and even by the Romanized Jewish ruler, Agrippa II, who was a friend of Titus and his supporter during the war.

From Roma:
Struck for 25 years by Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, the Judaea Capta coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. The present piece proudly displays imagery of this significant Roman victory, after which Vespasian boldly closed the gates of the Temple of Janus to signify that all of Rome’s wars were ended, and that the Pax Romana again prevailed.

The obverse portrait of Vespasian shows him as strong, robust and in the prime of life; the reverse celebrates Rome and Vespasian’s triumph over the Jewish revolt in Judaea, which Titus had brought to a close the previous year with the capture of Jerusalem after a seven month siege and the destruction of the Second Temple. It had been a costly and devastating war which had cost the lives of twenty five thousand Roman soldiers and somewhere between two hundred and fifty thousand and one million Jewish civilians. The design incorporates Vespasian who stands with his left food on a helmet and holds a spear and parazonium while a Jewish woman is seated in an attitude of mourning. It has been occasionally suggested that the female figure represents Judaea, and it is sometimes noted that the reverse of this coin can be interpreted to reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: 'For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen ... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground'.

The Arch of Titus in Rome, built by his brother Domitian shortly after his death and in commemoration of this victory, depicts the Roman army carrying off the treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah, after the siege of the city had ended. The spoils were used to fund the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum, the great lasting monument of the Flavian dynasty.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
VESPASIAN_AR_silver_.jpg
Vespasian (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 1 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG - Laureate head right
PON MAX TR P COS VI - Pax seated left holding branch
Mint: Rome (75AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.00g / 20.5mm / 360
References:
RSC 366
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins $0.00 11/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-F01VvSWb6i-Vespasian_sestertius_Spes.jpg
Vespasian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsIMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS VII - Laureate head right
(no legend) SC - Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (76AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.18g / 33mm / 180
References:
Cohen 454
RIC 881
Acquisition/Sale: emerald-imports Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
Trajan_Æ_Sestertius__Rome,_AD_103-111_144.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 2 viewsIMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P - Laureate bust right, wearing aegis
S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI - Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (103-111 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.60g / 34mm / 6h
References:
RIC 497
Woytek 237c
Banti 178
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Live Auction 4 #770 $0.00 01/19
Notes: Jan 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Aequitas on the reverse of this antoninianus struck under Claudius II. The goddess is holding her symbols, the balance and the cornucopia.
Aequitas (genitive aequitatis) is the Latin concept of justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness. It is the origin of the English word "equity".[1] In ancient Rome, it could refer to either the legal concept of equity, or fairness between individuals

During the Roman Empire, Aequitas as a divine personification was part of the religious propaganda of the emperor, under the name Aequitas Augusti, which also appeared on coins.[4] She is depicted on coins holding a cornucopiae and a balance scale (libra), which was more often a symbol of "honest measure" to the Romans than of justice.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
Trajan_AR_Denarius__Rome,_AD_112-113.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius0 viewsIMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder
S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI - Equestrian statue of Trajan
Mint: Rome (112-113 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.33g / 20mm / 6h
References:
RIC 291
RSC 497a
BMC 445
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Live Auction 1 #605 $0.00 07/18

From Roma:
The reverse depicts an equestrian statue of Trajan that once stood in the centre of the plaza of Trajan’s Forum. Although several coin variants depict Trajan on horseback, those dating to his sixth consulship (AD 112), the year in which the forum was dedicated, would seem to commemorate the monument, itself, which was likely modelled on that of Domitian in the Forum Romanum. In turn, the equestrian statue of Trajan probably influenced the design of the surviving statue of Marcus Aurelius
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-6gJ9i6TzSYvQ-Trajan_sestertius_cleaned.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP COS VI P P - Laureate, draped bust right
FELICITAS AVGVST S-C - Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (112-114AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 29.14g / 33mm / 180
References:
RIC 625 var (bust type)
Woytek 480v
Utrecht 2197-2203
BMC 965
Cohen 144
Acquisition/Sale: cichosgladiator11 Ebay $0.00 11/17
Notes: Dec 23, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The patina on this coin has been completely stripped off. Only the yellow metal is showing. Oh well, at least you can see what a newly minted sestertius looked like.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KKtczVxJ61Zv-Trajan_sestertius_99.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P - Laureate bust right with drapery on shoulder
S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI S C - Victory standing right, inscribing Vic Dac on a shield attached to palm tree
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (103-111AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 33mm / 180
References:
Sear 1006
Provenances:
The Time Machine
Acquisition/Sale: The Time Machine Vcoins $0.00 7/17
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-rq89xuiEwd6jf-Trajan_As.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass AS 0 viewsIMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, aegis on left shoulder
DAC PARTHICO PM TRP XX COS VI PP around oak wreath around SC - S C within wreath
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (115-116 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.39g / 25mm / 180
References:
RIC II 648
Acquisition/Sale: adamfrisco eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Oct 10, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-R6I0ePIfU3NxrWZl-Trajan_sestertius_100.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsIMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P: - Laureate and draped bust right.
SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS S C - Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (114-117 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.73g / 35mm / 360
References:
RIC II 672
Cohen 352
BMC 1022
Hill 680
Acquisition/Sale: arkadyn eBay $0.00 05/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
TRAJAN_AE_sestertius__Early_issue,_struck_99_AD_88.jpg
Trajan (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsIMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M - Laureate head right.
TR POT COS II P P S C - Pax seated left holding branch & sceptre, SC in exergue.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (98-99 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 26.60g / 33.5mm / 12h
References:
RIC II 401
Woytek 58a
Banti 319
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins VCoins $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 23, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2oIMBWCjCSGhrDb-Marcus_Aurelius_sestertius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsM AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M - laureate and cuirassed bust right
TR P XVIII IMP II COS III S C - Minerva standing left, holding olive branch and leaning on shield; spear resting on her left arm.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (163-164AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.03g / 31mm / 360
References:
RIC 870
Acquisition/Sale: foro_numis Ebay $0.00 7/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-BjW4o5vFw4-Marcus_Aurelius_Caesar.jpg
Marcus Aurelius (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsAVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F - Head of Marcus Aurelius, bare, right
TR POT COS II S C - Minerva, helmeted, draped, standing, right, holding vertical spear in right hand and resting left hand on round shield set on ground.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (145 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.60g / 30.9mm / 360
References:
RIC III 1248 (Antoninus Pius)
Banti 299
Acquisition/Sale: erie-antiques eBay $0.00 03/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The spot on the reverse looks like corrosion but once I received the coin, it is a hard piece of encrustation.
Minerva, equated with the Greek Athena, was the Roman virgin warrior goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic, and the inventor of music. She was worshiped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad along with Jupiter and Juno.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
1405.jpg
bmcxxx-20 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: The legend of the founding of Tyre. Palm tree flanked by holy Ambrosial Stones, in exergue hound advancing right finds murex shell.
28 mm, 11.09 gms

BMC-, SNG Cop-, Cf. Rouvier 2411 (for Julia Maesa), CNG E-Sale 375, lot 106 variant, CNG E-Sale 368, lot 292 variant (In both CNG sales hound is advancing left.)
Charles MApr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-JAYdgC1B874tk-Marcus_Aurelius_denarius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius0 viewsM ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM - Laureate head right
TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III - Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear.
Mint: Rome (175-178 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.05g / 18mm / 360
References:
RIC 352
Sear 4939
RSC 929a
BMC 669
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-l3c7zTtbYqzT-Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsM ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII - Laureate head right
GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III S C - Trophy with shields at foot; to left, German woman, seated left on shield, propping up head with right hand and resting left arm on knee; to right, German man, standing right, with hands tied behind back
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (Dec. 172-173)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.74g / 30mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC III 1058
MIR 18, 255-6/30
Banti 100
Sear 4974
Cohen 227
Acquisition/Sale: macvanderstein eBay $0.00 04/18

This was minted to commemorate victory in the German Campaign of A.D. 172
The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-UY8Ftdm9LPrma-Divi_Vesp_Titus.jpg
Titus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS VESP - Radiate Vespasian seated left holding branch and scepter.
IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII Around large S C - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (80 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.10g / 35mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 145
Sear 2573
Cohen 207
Provenances:
Father Wilbur B. Dexter Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay CNG Electronic/137 #216 $0.00 11/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
TITUS_as_Augustus_AR.jpg
Titus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsIMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM - Laureate head right
TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP - Elephant walking left.
Mint: Rome (January-June 80AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.90g / 18mm / 180
References:
RCV 2512
RIC 115, (RIC [1962] 22a
RSC 303
BMC 43
Cohen 303
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins $0.00 11/17
Notes: Jul 21, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games in 80 AD, after ten years of construction.

From CoinTalk:
Titus’ short reign was fraught with disasters. Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. A disease spread across Rome in the same year, and a fire broke out shortly after which raged for three days and nights.

Seeing the need to reinvigorate a shattered population, Titus decided that it was necessary to expedite the opening of the Colosseum and to allow the people to partake in an incredible celebration.

Part of the celebration involved the minting of new coins like this one, a denarius depicting an elephant. Primarily originating in Africa, elephants were exotic and rare. During the inauguration of the Colosseum, Titus imported thousands of animals for exhibition, including elephants. Many of these animals were killed in the famous gladiator battles during the first games.

Romans prominently featured the elephant as a symbol on their coinage due to its impressive attributes. Elephants were frequently used in war and offered a major advantage over cavalry and infantry. The elephant’s size, strength, and thick, defensive hide made it a symbol of power, and, because of their long lives, they represented longevity and prosperity.

On this coin, the presence of an elephant also alludes to the desire for the success of the Flavian dynasty. Having just exited a substantial Civil War, it was hoped that the Flavians would bring a sustained period of peace to the empire.

From CNG:
For the Romans, the elephant was representative of many different things. Its African origins made it a logical symbol of Africa. Consequently, the personification of Africa was usually represented wearing an elephant’s skin headdress. Its size, strength, and seemingly impervious hide also made it a natural symbol of power, and it appears in that connection on several Republican denarii, including those of Julius Caesar. Because of its longevity, the elephant was a symbol of eternity. As such, elephants were often employed in processions involving cult statues of deities. The issues of Divus Augustus and Divus Vespasian both show their cult statues being conveyed by such animals. Among the menagerie depicted on the Saeculares issues of Philip I is an elephant, as a hoped-for wish for the continued success of empire. Therefore its presence among some of the earliest issues of the Flavians may express the hope that their dynasty, born as a result of Civil War, would endure long enough to bring a period of peace to the empire.

The elephant depicted here has also a specific and immediate reference. The elephant represents one of the numerous species displayed in the newly constructed Flavian Amphitheater, or Colosseum, built by prisoners of the First Jewish War on the site of the Domus Aurea of Nero. Opened to the public during Titus’ rule, in AD 80, and commemorated by Martial in de Spectaculis, the Colosseum was welcomed with great fanfare and games. During the opening ceremonies a great number of animals, including elephants, were both exhibited and slaughtered.
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
1315c.jpg
caesarea074-20 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL I FL[A AV F C CAESA]. Bust of Serapis right.
23 mm, 6.83 gms

Sofaer 74, Rosenberger 72
Charles MApr 20, 2019
80-81_AD_Titus_seste.jpg
Titus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsIMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII - Head of Titus, laureate, right
PAX AVGVST S C - Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (80-81AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.43g / 33.64mm / 180
References:
RIC 2, Pt. 1-Titus 154
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 7/17

The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 20, 2019
1330.jpg
caespan0270 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea Panias, Samaria

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: KAIC ΠAN…, across fields, KA/…, Tyche standing right holding rudder on globe and cornucopia.
21 mm, 5.78 gms

Sofaer 27
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1212c.jpg
hj6.26.17.02_30 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Priapus standing facing, lifting his robe with both hands exposing his erect penis.
16 mm, 1.08 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.17.2
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1377.jpg
petraspijk056_21 viewsElagabalus
Petra (Barbarous imitation)

Obv: ...MAV ANTWNN... Laureate head right.
Rev: ... COL... in exergue. Founder, right hand raised, ploughing right with pair of oxen.
23 mm, 4.83 gms

Cf. Spijkerman 56

The crude style, botched legends and light weight all point to a barbarous imitation.
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1376.jpg
gadaraspijk0760 viewsElagabalus
Gadara

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: In exergue, ΓAΔAP…, Zeus seated left on throne within hexastyle temple.
24 mm, 8.03 gms

Spijkerman 76
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1350c.jpg
diumspijk010_20 viewsObv: AV KAI MAV ANT..., Laureate draped bust right, seen from front.
Rev: Hexastyle temple, flaming altar within under central arch, divided above roof, ΔIHNW in exergue.
21 mm, 9.47 gms

Spijkerman 10 variant (obverse and reverse legends); CNG, Electronic Auction 307, Lot 201; CNG, Electronic Auction 339, Lot 283 (Exact legend matches for both CNG coins.)
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1380.jpg
charachspijk050 viewsElagabalus
Charachmoba

Obv: AVK MAV ANTWNINO, Laureate head right.
Rev: XAPA[XMWBA], On right, priest seated left before raised platform with steps leading up to it, on which is a tall column between two small baetyls.
20 mm, 6.78 gms

Spijkerman 5
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1378.jpg
bmc1250 viewsElagabalus
Tripolis, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate cuirassed bust right wearing paludamentum.
Rev: TPI ΠO ΛI TΩN →BΛΦ, Temple of Astarte consisting of central portion surmounted by arch and two wings, each with four columns, surmounted by pediments; flat roof over the wings and pediment over the central protion; steps approaching middle of podium; within Astarte wearing turreted crown, leaning right on standard, raising chiton with left hand; left foot on prow; she is being crowned by a small Nike on column right.
28mm, 15.17 gms


BMC 125
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1333.jpg
sidonbmc2380 viewsElagabalus
Sidon, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CMA ANT-ONINVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: [C]OL AV PM METSIDON, Kadmon standing left, head right; right foot on prow; right hand raised; sword in sheath at waist; left hand on waist.
23 mm, 7.48 gms

BMC 238
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1332.jpg
bmc404_40 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
27 mm, 11.30 gms

BMC 404
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1329.jpg
sidonbmc2290 viewsElagabalus
Sidon, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAESAR MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: A P across fields →SIDCO/METRO, Europa riding bull right, cloak billowing out above her.
24 mm, 9.23 gms

BMC 229
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1394c.jpg
varb1781_30 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKO, in left field PΩ, in right field N, Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
18 mm, 4.61 gms

Varbanov 1780 (different arrangement of reverse letters)
Charles MApr 20, 2019
1395c.jpg
hhj8.26.47.070 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Tropaion with 2 captives between Nike on left and emperor on right.
17 mm, 2.82 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.47.7
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-YkhzPRFPE6mfbhXv-Hadrian_denarius.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 1 viewsIMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA - Bust of Hadrian, laureate, cuirassed, right
PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS CONCORD - Concordia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting left on figure of Spes on low base; cornucopiae under throne
Exergue: CONCORD


Mint: Rome (117AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.90g / 19mm / 180
References:
RIC II, Hadrian 9c
BMC 18
RSC 248
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Oct 10, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Scarce issue struck at the very beginning of Hadrian's reign!
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ICvmYUEhNj7ZxW-Hadrian_dupondius.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Radiate head right, with slight drapery
COS SC below - Pegasus running right
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (124-128 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.15g / 25mm / 180
References:
RIC II 658
Cohen 436cf
BMC 1330
Acquisition/Sale: adamfrisco eBay $0.00 02/18
Notes: Oct 10, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

One look at Medusa would turn a man to stone. Bellerophon slew Medusa with one blow of his sword. From her blood sprang Pegasus. Minerva gave Bellerophon a golden bridle with which he caught Pegasus. Later he placed the head of Medusa on Minerva's shield to repay her. But Bellerophon grew proud and sought to ride Pegasus to the Palace of Jupiter in the heavens. Angered, Jupiter, sent an insect to sting Pegasus, causing the winged steed to throw Bellerophon to his death.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-CJNtnbehvhi-Hadrian_4.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass AS 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian right.
COS III around, S-C across fields, - Tyche of Antioch seated left on rock, holding grain ears, river-god Orontes swimming left below.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome/Antioch (125-128 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.91g / 23mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 680
BMCRE 1350
McAlee 544
Sear 3696
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 28, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-nTuifR5sORID-Hadrian.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Bare headed, draped bust right.
CLEMENTIA AVG P P - Clementia standing left, holding patera and sceptre, S-C across fields, COS III in ex.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (132-134 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.53g / 28mm / 6h
References:
RIC 715
Van Meter 116
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 24, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1402c.jpg
hhj8.26.20.200 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVK M AVP ANTΩNINO, laureate head right.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Serpent entwined staff, head right.
17 mm, 3.13 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.20.20
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-sdEOmhQZnjHwMcXk-Hadrian_3.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right
COS III - Salus standing right feeding snake from patera S C in fields
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (128 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.02g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 975
Sear 3681
Cohen 371
BMCRE 1381
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs Ebay $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 24, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-1YxnODXo4F2ckZ-Hadrian_2.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Laureate bust of Hadrian right drapery over left shoulder.
COS III - Janus standing facing resting on scepter left hand on hip S C in fields
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (125-128 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.26g / 26mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 662
Sear 3678
Cohen 281
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay $0.00 03/19
Notes: Mar 24, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ihHNVBwJaAIkcJ-Hadrian_sestertius.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsIMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder
PONT MAX TR POT COS III S-C ANNONA AVG in ex - Anonna standing left with cornucopiae, placing grain into modius; prow of ship behind.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (119-121AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 26.00g / 33mm / 180
References:
RIC II, Hadrian 564
Acquisition/Sale: kapolowe Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1400c.jpg
hhj8.26.06.07_20 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K AVPH ANTΩNINO-C, laureate head right.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩ-N ΠPOC ICTPON, bust of Serapis right draped and wearing kalathos.
17 mm, 3.43 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.6.7
Charles MApr 19, 2019
DOMITIAN_-_SESTERCE_193_26.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P - Bust of Domitian, laureate, right with aegis
S C - Domitian standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar in front of distyle shrine enclosing statue of Minerva
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (85 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.79g / 35mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC II, part I (second edition) Domitian 355
Cohen : 491
Provenances:
Numisaisne
Acquisition/Sale: Numisaisne Internet Website $0.00 08/18
Notes: Feb 8, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
2 commentsGary W2Apr 19, 2019
Domitan_Æ_AS_-_Jupit.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 1 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI - Laureate bust right, wearing aegis
IOVI - CONSERVAT, S - C - Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (85AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.84g / 26.94mm / 180
Rarity: R2-Rare
References:
RIC II 302 Rome
BMCRE 313A
Paris 336
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet $0.00 01/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. In 96 A.D., he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1403c.jpg
hj6.26.14.xx0 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIA-NOΠOΛITΩN, Club of Hercules.
17 mm, 2.17 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.14.xx (this obverse legend not listed in HJ with this type)
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 1mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-YzDJ0RvuoZO9-Domitian_Quadrans.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 0 views(no legend) - Rhinoceros standing left.
IMP DOMIT AVG GERM - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (84-85 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.57g / 17mm / 12h
References:
RIC II (second edition)250
Sear 2835
Cohen 674
BMC 498
Paris 539-541
Provenances:
NUMISMÁTICA PRADOS
Acquisition/Sale: NUMISMÁTICA PRADOS VCoins $0.00 03/19

From The Hazelton Collection: The Rhinoceros in the Room
Domitian quadrantes, RIC 248-251
January 6, 2019



Sollicitant pavidi dum rhinocerota magistri

seque diu magnae colligit ira ferae,

desperabantur promissi proelia Martis;

sed tandem rediit cognitus ante furor.

namque gravem cornu gemino sic extulit ursum,

iactat ut inpositas taurus in astra pilas.

Fearfully its handlers poked at the rhinoceros, while he slowly gathered his fierce ire; they despaired of the promised battle, worthy of Mars himself, but at last his previously-known ferocity returned. See, with his twin horns, how he tosses the heavy bear into the sky as a bull throws a straw dummy!

Martial, De Spectaculis Liber, xxii.



omnis habet sua dona dies: nec linea dives

cessat et in populum multa rapina cadit;

nunc veniunt subitis lasciva nomismata nimbis,

nunc dat spectatas tessera larga feras.

Every day brings its own gifts: the line of riches doesn't cease but falls upon the grasping populace; now suddenly fun and frivolous coins rain down, now the grand token offers spectacular beasts.

Martial, VIII.lxxvii.7-10

And according to T.V. Buttrey ("Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial's Liber De Spectaculis," The Journal of Roman Studies, 2007) fun and frivolity might have been the purpose of the coin. Of course I'm talking about Domitian's rhinoceros quadrans, in four varieties, RIC 248-251. Prof Buttrey points out that the Latin "lasciva nomismata," which previous editors have taken to refer to the obscene spintriae minted under the Julio-Claudians (for use in the bordellos where the emperor's numismatic portrait shouldn't appear), actually just means "playful coins," or, as I have translated the second passage from Martial, "fun and frivolous coins."

Were these rhinoceros coins the same ones that Domitian showered upon Martial's grasping populace during the gladiatorial games? Yes, without a doubt. Prof Buttrey thought so, and so do I.

Furthermore I believe, contrary to RIC, that these coins were in continuous use throughout the reign (from Domitian's adoption of the title "Germanicus," GERM, in 83 until the end). The quantity of surviving coins compared with other varieties of the same denomination support this theory. In my opinion, the reason that they aren't dated is because a date would constitute an expiration date and thus restrict their future use.

However, it seems to me that we ought to be able to place them into a consecutive order even without a date. The rhinoceros quadrantes contain two overlapping variables to consider when determining their chronology, whether the rhinoceros is facing left or right and whether the reverse inscription starts at the top or at the bottom. Clearly, since they do overlap, the two variables can't both be relevant to the question of dating.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1401c.jpg
hj6.26.20.090 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), serpent entwined staff, head to right
18 mm, 2.96 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.20.8
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AZHPr90kZBFMK-Julia_Titi_sestertius.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsDIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F SPQR - Carpentum drawn right by two mules.
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (92-94 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.24g / 33mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 760 (Domitian)
BMCRE 471-3 (Domitian)
Sear 2891
Cohen 10
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops $0.00 08/18

Julia Titi was the daughter of the Emperor Titus, and although married, she had an affair with her uncle Domitian. In 83 A.D., Domitian divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because Domitian forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-Skrvs3aOlYiQT-Divvs_An_toninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right
DIVO PIO - Column of Antoninus, surmounted by statue of the emperor.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.00g / 32mm / 180
References:
RIC III 1269 (Marcus Aurelius)
Cohen 354
BMCRE 880 (Marcus Aurelius)
Acquisition/Sale: buy_yourself_a_coin Ebay

From Wikipedia:
Previous to the 18th century the base was completely buried, but the lower part of the shaft projected about 6m above the ground. In 1703, when some buildings were demolished in the area of Montecitorio, the rest of the column and the base were discovered and excavated. The column was raised from the ground by Carlo Fontana's son Francesco (1668–1708), but no decision was made about its use. It remained lying on the ground under some sheds, and was damaged by fire in 1759. Unsuccessful attempts were made to repair it soon afterwards in 1764, with some pieces from it being used in 1789 to restore the obelisk of Augustus that is now in the Piazza di Monte Citorio.

Meanwhile, the base (of white Italian marble) was restored in 1706-08 and erected in the centre of Piazza di Montecitorio by Ferdinando Fuga in 1741, before being taken to the Vatican Museums in 1787, where it has been in the Michelangelo niche in the Cortile della Pigna from 1885 until its final move to its current position in the courtyard outside the entrance to the Vatican Pinacoteca.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-fMO30FI6GY7m-Antoninus_Pius_sestertius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II - Laureate bust of Antoninus Pius right
TR POT XX COS IIII SC - Annona standing right holding modius of grain , rudder; foot on prow
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (156-157AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.80g / 29mm / 180
References:
RIC 964
C. 1017
Sear 4251
Acquisition/Sale: taterthecat Ebay
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1397c.jpg
hj6.26.21.081 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIAN-OΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
19 mm, 3.34 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.8
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-axHee3vYMpwI-Antoninus_Pius_2.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP - Laureate Head Right
TR P COS II - Hands clasped around a caduceus and two grain-ears.
Mint: Rome (139 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.50g / 19mm / 180
References:
RIC 43
RSC 833
BMC 84
Sear 4111
Acquisition/Sale: iszpint eBay
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AKqZfSqOcaxKsm0h-Antoninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII - Laureate head right
VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III, COS IIII in ex, - Antoninus Pius, standing left, sacrificing with patera over tripod, left arm at side
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (158-159 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.09g / 31mm / 12h
References:
RIC 1010
Cohen 1124
BMC 2068
Sear 4262
Acquisition/Sale: mtmstores Ebay
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-b9tAwJN3DLk3zyk9-Antoninus_Pius_3.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - Laureate head right
ANNONA AVG, S-C - Annona standing right, holding two corn ears over modius with corn ears, and cornucopiae; prow to right.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.73g / 30.20mm / 360
References:
RIC 597a
Cohen 34
Sear 4147
Acquisition/Sale: scalabitano Ebay
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-jSWKU6cWB6kFDC-Antoninus_Pius_5.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III - Laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius right
AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, S C - bare head of Marcus Aurelius right, slight drapery on left shoulder.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 19.94g / 32mm / 180
References:
RIC III 1212
Cohen 34
Acquisition/Sale: glnumismatics Ebay

On 24 Jan 138, Hadrian selected Antoninus as his new successor. After a few days' consideration, Antoninus accepted. He was adopted on 25 Feb. As part of Hadrian's terms, Antoninus adopted Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, the son of Lucius Aelius. The adoption of Marcus Aurelius was probably a suggestion of Antoninus himself, since he was the nephew of his wife. At Hadrian's request, Antoninus' daughter Faustina was betrothed to Lucius.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
1398.jpg
hj6.28.21xx_20 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT. K. M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC. IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ, laureate head of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEV KOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Hygeia standing right, feeding snake from patera. E in left field.
28 mm, 12.50 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.21.xx (not in Hristova-Jekov)
Charles MApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RxkXwWaOx2TyMMi-Claudius_Spes.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Head of Claudius, laureate, right
SPES AVGVSTA S C - Spes, draped, advancing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41-50AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Claudius 99
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellussxtabilita Ebay

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

The fact that Claudius choses Spes, the goddess of hope, to occupy such a prominent place on his coinage, makes it clear
that she was present in his thoughts. Carson suggests the type was introduced in the accession year of 41 because his own
birthday, August 1, was the day of the vota to Spes, and in that accession year, Claudius invoked her assistance on behalf
of his newborn son, Britannicus.
Spes was also the goddess of the future, which gave her a prominent role in certain kinds of occasions, especially weddings
and births, the latter of which made her valuable to children. With all of this in mind, his choice of Spes was especially
appropriate during the event-filled year of 41.
Carson notes that the Spes type afterward became a standard dynastic type for imperial heirs. In this case the reverse
inscription, SPES AVGVSTA, takes on a more complete dimension by suggesting hope for the empire through the
imperial family. Kent notes that by the time the later Spes sestertii were minted by Claudius, the “hope” of the Imperial
succession had been transferred from Britannicus to his adopted son, Nero.
The existence of numerous temples and altars to Spes in the capital, and the fine renderings of the goddess on Claudius’
sestertii suggest they are based upon a statuary prototype – perhaps one of great antiquity, considering its archaizing
qualities.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-V7wOu24E4Q74a-Tiberius_sestertius_capracorn.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Orichalcum Sestertius 0 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO S P Q R - Shield inscribed OB CIVES SER in three lines within oak-wreath supported by two capricorns; below, globe
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.20g / 33mm / 12
Rarity: R2
References:
BMCRE 109 (Tiberius)
RIC I 63 (Tiberius)
Cohen 303 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops

From Roma:
The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan's body which was submerged was transformed into a fish.

An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-reCiIurqi8PJzgw-Livia.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius0 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.07g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 43
BMCRE 98 (Tiberius)
BN 74
Cohen 1 (Livia)
Acquisition/Sale: sculptor17 Ebay

Livia Draped bust of Livia as Pietas. Livia was the powerful second wife of Augustus. By her first marriage, Livia is the mother of Tiberius (Emperor) and Drusus (husband of Antonia) and grandmother of Claudius (old friend of Alexander the Alabarch). SR 1731

From Marvin Tameanko:
As usual, there was much vicious gossip and slander surrounding Livia and today it is impossible to separate fact from fiction. In all fairness, one must assume she was neither as good nor as evil as ancient and modern authors say. Tacitus, the 1st century Roman historian, was her worst critic and accused her in his book The Annals, Book 1.3 and 1.6, of causing the murder of the adopted heirs of Augustus, Caius and Lucius, to clear the way for her own son, Tiberius. The historian, Cassius Dio, writing in the 2nd century AD, repeated this ugly rumor in his book, Roman History, Book 53, 33.4, 55, 32 and 57, 3.6. Both these authors are usually dependable, and not know to be falsifiers of history or slanderers, but they both despised the emperor Tiberius and could attack his reputation only by maligning his mother. Today, most historians reject their terrible and outrageous accusation that Livia murdered Augustus by poisoning his dessert of fresh figs. (Tacitus, The Annals Book 1.5 and Dio, History, 55.22.2, and 56.30). This horror story was made popular by the 20th century author, Robert Graves, in his historical novel, I Claudius, but both Tacitus and Dio had devious political agendas that overrode their duties to be honest reporters. However, Livia’s busts on the ancient coins struck by her son, the Emperor Tiberius, although considered to be merely propaganda images, offer kinder assessments of her character. One extraordinary coin portrays Livia as the deity Pietas, goddess of piety, affection and dutifulness.
Divinities were often used to personify the sterling qualities of an ideal Roman matron so, as the ‘First Lady’ of the Empire, Livia Augusta, representing these divinities, became the textbook example of Roman womanhood. To cultivate this image, Livia was shown in sculpture and on coins dressed and posed as various goddesses. Most remarkably, Tiberius struck a series of dupondii, low denominations of currency and therefore coins that would come frequently into the hands of many Romans, depicting the Augusta as various divine personifications. For example, she is portrayed as the deity Pietas, representing the piety of the people, as Justitia, for the Justice administered to the citizens, and as Salus, symbolic of the Good Health or Well Being of the nation.

From CNG:
Claudia Julia Livia, nicknamed Livilla (”Little Livia”), was the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and sister to Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Though Roman historians describe her as remarkably beautiful and charming, they also condemn her as a power-hungry adulteress and murderess. Tacitus accuses her of conspiring with her lover, the Praetorian Prefect Sejanus, to poison her husband, the imperial heir Drusus Caesar, who died in AD 23. This coin, struck in the name of Drusus shortly before his death, depicts on the obverse a veiled and classically beautiful woman as Pietas, goddess of religious piety and dutifulness. David Vagi has argued convincingly that the head represents Livilla, given that the other bronze coins issued the same year depict Drusus himself and the couple’s twin sons, forming a “family set.”
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KwDQ4wsp7yxXEaJ-Tiberius.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO SPQR - Statue of Augustus seated left on throne, set on ornate triumphal car drawn by four elephants.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXVII around large SC - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 33.50mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC (Tib.) 62
MIR 2, 52-4
BMCRE 108 (Tiberius)
BN 90 (Tiberius)
Cohen 307 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 45E #259
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-u7D9Sg7AbSAsb-Tiberius_sestertius_Asia.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsCIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS - Statue of Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and sceptre.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 48
Cohen 3
Sear 5 #1764
Acquisition/Sale: northsidety eBay

CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS=The Cities of Asia Re-established.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII =Tiberius Caesar, Divi Augusti Filius, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitiae Potestatis 24.


AD 17 Lydia Earthquake

Location of some of the affected towns and cities in Asia Minor
The AD 17 Lydia earthquake caused the destruction of at least twelve cities in the region of Lydia in the Roman province of Asia in Asia Minor. The earthquake was recorded by the Roman historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder, and the Greek historians Strabo and Eusebius. Pliny called it "the greatest earthquake in human memory". The city of Sardis, the former capital of the Lydian Empire, was the most affected and never completely recovered from the destruction.

Damage
Historical records list up to fifteen towns and cities that were destroyed or damaged by the earthquake: Sardis, Magnesia, Temnos, Philadelphia, Aegae, Apollonis, Mostene, Hyrkanis, Hierapolis, Myrina, Cyme, Tmolus, Pergamon, Ephesus and Kibyra. Of these, Pergamon, Ephesus and Kibyra are not mentioned by Tacitus. The record of damage at both Ephesus and Kibyra may refer instead to an earthquake in AD 23. In Pergamon the Heroon of Diodoros Pasparos was remodelled after the earthquake.

Earthquake
There are very few extant details for this earthquake. It is known that it occurred during the night, in AD 17 and that it affected a series of cities. A variety of epicenters have been used in catalogues, near Ephesus in the NGDC database, at Sardis in the CFTI4MED database and near Magnesia in the IISEE catalogue.

Aftermath
The Roman Emperor, Tiberius, agreed to waive all taxes due from Sardis and the other cities for a period of five years after the earthquake. He further sent Sardis ten million sesterces and appointed Marcus Aletius, an ex-Praetor, to assess their needs. In recognition of the aid received and the tributes that were waived, twelve of the cities raised a colossal statue in Tiberius' honour in Julius Caesar's Forum in Rome, with each of the cities represented by a recognisable figure. Two additional figures were added later, representing Kibyra and Ephesus as they had also received aid from Tiberius. A copy of this statue, with the figures transferred to a frieze around the base, was erected in Puteoli where it can still be seen.

A statue was raised in Tiberius' honour at Sardis in AD 43, with an inscription calling him the "founder of the city". Another incomplete inscription, found at Sardis, is thought to have been a copy of a formal document from the cities to the emperor expressing their gratitude. The surviving part includes signatories from representatives of eight of the cities.

Commemorative coins were struck in AD 22–23 in Rome, showing Tiberius with the inscription "CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS" or "cities of Asia restored". Provincial coins were also struck, including one from the city of Magnesia, bearing the inscription "ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΝ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ" or "Tiberius Augustus Founder".

Some of the cities changed their names in honour of the emperor. Hierapolis became Hierocaesarea, Kibyra added Caesarea after its name, Philadelphia was renamed Neocaesarea, and Sardis added "Caesarea" briefly to its name.

Additional images: Cities affected by the earthquake of 17 AD and the marble base from Puteoli (Naples).

Provinces of Asia
The marble base, which was found at Puteoli (Naples) in 1793, dates to the second quarter of the first century AD (30-37 AD). It was built at the behest of the Collegium of the Augustales, in order to celebrate the magnanimity of Tiberius, and it supported a statue of the emperor.

One of the long sides bears a dedicatory inscription, which is flanked by the personifications of 14 Asian towns that were damaged by devastating earthquakes between 17 and 29 AD and had always received the emperor’s help, so that they built him a monument in Rome in about 30 AD, of which the Puteoli base is a small copy.
Important are the figures that symbolize the towns (on the right: Philadelphia, Tuolos and Kyme with a trident; on the left: Mostene, Aegre and Hierokaisareia;on the back: Temnos, Kibyra, Myrina, Ephesos, Apollonidea and Hyrcania), since they are the reproductions of famous ancient sculptures, of which they contribute to reconstruct the iconography.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-EQtbRIy4dfkgFi-Tiberius_sestertius_Divvs_Avgvstvs.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER - Statue of Augustus radiate, seated, left, feet on stool holding laurel-branch in right hand and long sceptre in left; in front an altar on left
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.17g / 33mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 49 (Tiberius)
BMCRE 74 (Tiberius)
Cohen 309
Provenances:
Artemide Kunstauktionen GmbH

The obverse may represent the statue of Divus Augustus set up near the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-fSFCvAgOfjk34Dn-Tiberius_fourree_denarius.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze/Silver Fourree Denarius0 viewsTI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right
PONTIF MAXIM - Livia, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre, seated right; plain legs to chair with double line below.
Mint: Lugdunum (Lyon) mint (18-35AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.80g / 19mm / 360
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1 30 (c), Group 4 (official)
BMCRE I 48 (official)
RSC II 16a (official)
SRCV I 1763 (official)
Giard Lyon, Group 4, 150
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellusstabilit Ebay

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible

The Tiberius Denarius - 'The Tribute Penny'
Since Tiberius was Caesar during Christ's time on earth, the denarius of Tiberius is most often identified as "The Tribute Penny."

The Tiberius PONTIF MAXIM type denarius, struck from c. 15 to 37 A.D. at the Lugdunum mint (Lyon, France today), is described as follows:

Obverse legend: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS: Tiberius Caesar, divi Augustus Filius, Augustus - Tiberius Caesars, son of the Divine Augustus, Emperor.
Obverse type: laureate head of Tiberius right.

Reverse legend: PONTIF MAXIM: Pontifex Maximus - The High Priest (Chief Pontiff).
Reverse type: Female enthroned right, long scepter (or inverted spear) vertical behind in right, branch in right.

In Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, Jean Baptist Giard identifies the seated female as Justitia (Justice). She is more commonly identified as Pax or Livia (Tiberius' mother). Jean Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time. To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years.

Group 4, c. 18 - 35 A.D.
Obverse: Tiberius is depicted as an older man. One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
Reverse: No base under the throne (just the single exergual line), Pax usually holds scepter (or rarely a reversed spear), her feet rest on a low footstool.
Aureus: Giard Lyon, Group 4, 149; RIC I 29 (R); BMCRE I 46; Calico 305b (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760 - Rare
Denarius: Giard Lyon, Group 4, 150; RIC I 30 (C); BMCRE I 48; RSC II 16a; SRCV I 1763 - Common (approximately half of all Tiberius denarii are this type)
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS2 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-S6uwoDGtUKfYSt5i-Nero_As.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS1 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
SC - Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR, large S-C at sides.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (62-68 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.91g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 312
Sear 1976
BMCRE 241
WCN 285, 290
Provenances:
Artemide Kunstauktionen GmbH
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Kunstauktionen GmbH Internet eLive Auction 6 #395 $0.00 02/19
Notes: Feb 16, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
a6~0.jpg
2118 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2118 DOC IV 603 viewsOBV Bust of Christ , beardless and nimbate. wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand .

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma , divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type, and saigon; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 1.97gm

DOC lists 4 examples with sizes 17-18mm and weights 1.66 to 2.37.
SimonApr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-e8PlbewaZW-Nero_Decvrsio.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head left
DECVRSIO - Nero, bare-headed, cuirassed, cloak flying behind, prancing right on horseback carrying spear at rest in right hand; in front of him, advancing right, looking back left, a foot soldier holding vexillum in right hand over left shoulder right; behind him a
Exergue: DECVRSIO


Mint: Rome (63 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 28.51g / 36mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 108
Sear 1956
BM 155
MacDowall WCN 78
Acquisition/Sale: rembrand-2000 Ebay

The decursio, which occurs on the coins of Nero, probably refers to the military manœuvres or sham fights in the circus.

These words were used to signify the manœuvres of the Roman army, by which the soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They are frequently mentioned by Livy , and sometimes consisted of a sham fight between two divisions of the army (Liv. xl. 6, 5). With the standing armies under the Empire these manœuvres assumed a more regular form, and were constantly practised. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. This is called by Vegetius campicursio (Veget. i. 27, iii. 4), and by Suetonius campestris decursio ( Galb. 6).

From Roma:
The decursio was a military exercise of mock combat or a display of equestrian skill made by horse-riders and charioteers at public games. Despite Nero’s provision of regular games, the presence of the vexillum on this type suggests a more military character to the scene. It has been suggested that the reverse refers to Nero’s institution of cavalry manoeuvres for the Praetorian Guard. An alternative interpretation is that there is a link to Nero’s fondness of racing horses, although Stevenson (DRC) disregards this. He explains that “the speed of the horses is not sufficiently rapid”.

Banti states that “For this period it is thought that the bronze without S C was minted by an imperial mint... The portraits are almost all youthful” (CNR XVII, p. 139).

THIS COIN IS 100% AUTHENIC!
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-Wl8EMMOmMrVX80Z7-Nero_sestertius_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right
PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C - Temple of Janus with latticed windows & garland hung across doors; closed double doors on the right.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (65AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.70g / 33.75mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 266
cf Sear 1959
BMC 161
WCN 139
Acquisition/Sale: erie-antiques Ebay

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

The reverse inscription translates: "Peace to the People of Rome both on land and sea having come, the doors of Janus he closed."

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-9YATV4K86VTKnp-Nero.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsIMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR POT PP - Head of Nero, laureate, right; small globe at point of neck
DECVRSIO S C - Nero, bare-headed, cuirassed, cloak flying behind, prancing right on horseback, holding spear; in front and behind, to left, mounted soldier riding holding vexillum over shoulder
Exergue: DECVRSIO



Mint: Lugdunum (67 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.24g / 37mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Nero 581
WCN 462
Lyon 259
BMCRE 315
Acquisition/Sale: Lucernae Ebay

The decursio, which occurs on the coins of Nero, probably refers to the military manœuvres or sham fights in the circus.

These words were used to signify the manœuvres of the Roman army, by which the soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They are frequently mentioned by Livy , and sometimes consisted of a sham fight between two divisions of the army (Liv. xl. 6, 5). With the standing armies under the Empire these manœuvres assumed a more regular form, and were constantly practised. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. This is called by Vegetius campicursio (Veget. i. 27, iii. 4), and by Suetonius campestris decursio ( Galb. 6).

From Roma:
The decursio was a military exercise of mock combat or a display of equestrian skill made by horse-riders and charioteers at public games. Despite Nero’s provision of regular games, the presence of the vexillum on this type suggests a more military character to the scene. It has been suggested that the reverse refers to Nero’s institution of cavalry manoeuvres for the Praetorian Guard. An alternative interpretation is that there is a link to Nero’s fondness of racing horses, although Stevenson (DRC) disregards this. He explains that “the speed of the horses is not sufficiently rapid”.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-JD3YHug3rb2-Nero_Neptune.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS1 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Laureate head right
(NO LEGEND) SC - Neptune standing left, holding trident and dolphin; S C to either side.
Exergue:



Mint: Balkan mint (Perinthus?) (64-66 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 7.95g / 29mm / 12
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I (old edition) 441
RPC I 1760
Acquisition/Sale: donnalouise67 eBay

From CNG:
Recent scholarship suggests that this rare issue of aes coinage with Latin legends was struck at Perinthus. The style is quite distinct from the two western issues of Rome and Lugdunum, and there is nothing in common with the Latin issues of Antioch or Corinth. Provenance, when known, is almost always in the northwest Balkan area. In addition, the coins are frequently encountered countermarked with Galban stamps (GAL KAI and GALBA) that were used to countermark provincial Perinthan issues.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-iSWNaNWHrCepxN-Nero_Altar.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS1 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM PP - Laureate head left
PROVIDENT SC - Altar
Exergue:



Mint: Balkan mint (Perinthus?) (64-66 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.33g / 27mm / 12
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RPC I 1761
RIC I 440 (1st edition)
Acquisition/Sale: donnalouise67 eBay

From CNG:
Recent scholarship suggests that this rare issue of aes coinage with Latin legends was struck at Perinthus. The style is quite distinct from the two western issues of Rome and Lugdunum, and there is nothing in common with the Latin issues of Antioch or Corinth. Provenance, when known, is almost always in the northwest Balkan area. In addition, the coins are frequently encountered countermarked with Galban stamps (GAL KAI and GALBA) that were used to countermark provincial Perinthan issues.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As1 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans0 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field Exergue:
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.43g / 1mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I (first ed.) 41
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
BMCRE I, no. 79
Cohen 8
Acquisition/Sale: hmm shop eBay

he last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-jL32v9k6T0fUkE3l-Agrippa.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS1 viewsM AGRIPPA. L. F. COS. III - Head left, wearing rostral crown
S-C across field - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.70g / 28.45mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 58 (Gaius)
BMCRE 161 (Tiberius)
Cohen 3
Acquisition/Sale: 22noelnoel22 Ebay $0.00 08/18
Notes: Aug 24, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)2 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ehW7BvU2jIvxxn-Caligula_countermark.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As0 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT (COUNTERMARK - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.60g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Sear5 #1803
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 Ebay

The countermark-TICA- is either from Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus), or, less likely from Titus (Titus Caesar Augustus)

Since this coin was found in Spain, it escaped the Roman recall of Caligula coinage which was to be melted down in Rome. Also I suspect that token coinage was needed in the Western Provinces which thereby also helped keep this coin intact with the countermark of Claudius provided to inform the populace of a new emperor.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS0 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
Hilderich.jpg
VANDALS Hilderic AR 50 Denarii1 viewsVANDALS. Hilderic. 523-530. AR 50 Denarii. Carthage mint.

Obv.: D N HILDI RIX REX, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: KARTG FELIX, Karthago standing facing, holding three grain ears in each hand.

MEC 1, 21-2; BMC Vandals 3.

Rare.
TanitApr 19, 2019
lydia1.jpg
Nacrasa, Lydia, c. 138 - 161 A.D. 2 views Bronze AE 16, RPC III 1812; SNG Cop 295; BMC Lydia p. 166, 7; SNG Munchen 335; SNGvA 3033 var. (magistrate); Imhoof-Blumer Lydien -, aVF/F, well centered, green patina, light corrosion, Nakrasa (near Kirkagach, Turkey) mint, 2.749 grams, 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Marcus Junianus strategos, c. 98 - 150 A.D.; obverse EΠI CTPA MAP IOVNIANOV, bearded head of Herakles right; reverse NAKPACITΩN, snake coiled around omphalos, head left; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; rare; From Forum Ancient coins auction NORMAN KApr 19, 2019
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Aretas_IV_and_Shugailat,_Meshorer_114,_AE_16,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_12,2x15,5mm,_3,18g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #127 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of King Aretas IV. conjoined with his Queen Shugailat right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Aretas and Shugailat in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2-15,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. date: 9 B.C.-40 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 114,
Q-001
quadransApr 19, 2019
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Rabbell_II_and_Gamilat,_Meshorer_163,_AE_18,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_13x16mm,_2,84g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #125 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of king Rabbell II. conjoined with his queen Gamilath right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Rabbell and Gamilath in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. date: 70-106 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 163,
Q-001
quadransApr 19, 2019
magnus.jpg
Roman Magnus Maximus AE42 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE4, 11-12 mm. Aquileia. 387-388 AD.

Obv: DN MAG MA(-XIMVS PF AVG), diademed, draped and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM , Campgate, 6 rows, two turrets with beacons, star above.
Mintmark SMAQS,

RIC IX Aquileia 55a; Sear 20657.

Scarce.
TanitApr 19, 2019
Sear-1967.jpg
4 viewsQuant.GeekApr 19, 2019
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Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 2 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans1 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
Hadrian_Æ_Sestertius__Rome,_AD_134-138_130.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVG COS III P P - Laureate and draped bust right.
SPES P R - Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt; S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (134-138)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.50g / 31mm / 6h
References:
RIC 790
BMCRE 1564
Sear 3648
Cohen 1432 var.
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 55 #788 $0.00 04/19
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
Hadrian_Sestertius_with_Galley_89_99.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Laureate and draped bust right.
FELICITATI AVG - galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (132-135 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.65g / 33mm / 12
References:
RIC 706
Cohen 664
Acquisition/Sale: emperorashur eBay $0.00 07/18

From Numiswiki:

FELICITATI AVG means: "To the happiness of the emperor."

FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S C (Felicitati Augusti Consulis tertium, Patris Patriae, Senatus Consulto). First Brass of Hadrian.




"A pretorian galley, full of men, impelled along both by oars and a large square sail, across which the inscription is written, in the taste then prevalent; for we are assured, that, in the time of Trajan, it was not uncommon to have the name of the emperor embroidered on the sails, in gold and silver. Besides being the type of felicity, this medal is supposed to allude to the prudent government of Hadrian; for as in a ship, though the officers and crew are liable to the same hazard, the success of the voyage will chiefly depend on the skill and judgment of the commander, so in the management of the State, the happiness and prosperity of the community depend upon the wisdom and prudence of the sovereign at the helm of affairs. The sail to this ship, this 'navis velis ventique,' is stretched to a yard supported by lifts; it is deep roached, with both sheets aft, in token of auspicious winds; the emblem of happiness..."

This reverse seems to have had for its object to record the vows made by the senate for the success of one of Hadrian's sea voyages, but which in particular is not known.

On a brass medallion of the same emperor, Minerva fills the place here occupied by Neptune, whilst dolphins disport themselves in the waves around this magnificent ship as it glides along.

From Roma:
The galley appears on several types of Hadrian's, and was struck in both silver and bronze. It is thought to have celebrated the safe return to Rome of the emperor after his second great tour of the empire, but it has been suggested that it is imbued with further symbolism than a standard type representing the arrival of the emperor: the legend of FELICITATI AVG is used to convey the good tidings not only of Hadrian's arrival, but also the happiness, security and prosperity that he has carried with him to the provinces of the empire.
Gary W2Apr 19, 2019
Troas,_Ilion,_020_Vespasian,_AE-,_Vespasian,_Titus,_Domitian_,_Athena,_RPC_II_893,_Bellinger_T197,_69-79_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_8,25g-s~0.jpg
Troas, Ilion, 020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #129 viewsTroas, Ilion, 020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #1
avers: (AYTOK K CEBAC) OYECPACIANOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right
reverse: TITω KAICAP I ΔOMITIANΩ KA IΛI, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left. Between them, cult image of Athena, standing on a low base, turned half left, brandishing spear and resting a hand on the shield.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-21,0mm, weight: 8,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Troas, Ilion, date: 69-79 A.D.,
ref: RPC II 0893, Bellinger T197,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 19, 2019
Troas,_Ilion,_020_Vespasian,_AE-,_Vespasian,_Titus,_Domitian_,_Athena,_RPC_II_893,_Bellinger_T197,_69-79_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_8,25g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #128 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #1
avers: (AYTOK K CEBAC) OYECPACIANOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right
reverse: TITω KAICAP I ΔOMITIANΩ KA IΛI, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left. Between them, cult image of Athena, standing on a low base, turned half left, brandishing spear and resting a hand on the shield.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-21,0mm, weight: 8,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Troas, Ilion, date: 69-79 A.D.,
ref: RPC II 0893, Bellinger T197,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 19, 2019
Titus_RIC_784_Vesp.jpg
Titus as Caesar AR Denarius24 viewsTitus as Caesar 75 CE
20 mm 3.30 g
Obv: Head laureate r; T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN
Rev: Securitas seated l; head resting on raised arm; PONTIF TR P COS IIII
Ric 784 (R2) [Vespasian] BMC--, RSC--
Purchased from Zurqieh on vcoins; April 18, 2019
2 commentsorfewApr 19, 2019
IMG_4888.jpg
Constantius II4 viewsFL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
GLORIA EXERCITVS
dot TRP dot

RIC 93
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)Apr 18, 2019
IMG_4878.jpg
1 Constans5 viewsConstans AE2, Antioch mint, 348-350 AD.

DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Constans on galley holding phoenix & labarum,
Victory at helm, to right, star in the field.
ANSin ex.

RIC VIII Antioch 124
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)Apr 18, 2019
IMG_4880.jpg
1 Constantius II4 viewsConstantius II AE3. AD 351-355. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding a phoenix on globe and a chi-rho standard, Victory at helm steers the ship. Γ in left field, * in right field. Mintmark dot TS epsilon dot.
Thessalonica
RIC VIII 174 var
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)Apr 18, 2019
IMG_4884.jpg
03 Constantius II3 viewsConstantius II
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Gamma in left, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier, AN epsilon in ex Antioch 132
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)Apr 18, 2019
maximian4.jpg
Roman Maximianus Follis 2 views Maximianus Follis
Billon Follis

Obs.: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ; laur. hd. r.
Mirrored Rev.: CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE ; hexastyle temple containing Roma seated facing, hd. l., holding globe and sceptre /RS in ex.

SEAR 13441
TanitApr 18, 2019
maximian3.jpg
Maximianus Follis1 views Maximianus Follis
Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310
AE Abdication Follis

D N MAXIMIANO FELICISS SEN AVG
Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left hand
Mirrored R/ PROVIDENT DEOR QVIES AVGG
Providentia on left, standing right, extending right hand; Quies on right, standing left, branch downward in right hand, leaning on scepter in left hand, S|F in field, RS in exergue

RIC.VI, p.365-6, 117b, 131b ; C 483
TanitApr 18, 2019
justinII.jpg
Byzantine Justin II Solidus 3 views Byzantine Justin II Solidus - Mirrored reverse
Justin II (565-578). AV Solidus, Constantinople mint.

Obv. : DN IVSTINVS PP AVI. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, beardless, holding globe surmounted by Victory and shield.
Mirrored Rev.: VICTORIA AVGGG S. Constantinople seated facing, head right, holding spear and globus cruciger; in exergue, CONOB.

Sear 345.
TanitApr 18, 2019
o6.jpg
2014A ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2014 DOC 4 CLBC 8.4.1 4 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned to r. Manus Dei in upper r. field

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand labarum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content unknown for this issue. The entire tetartera of Alexius III are much harder to find due to debasement of trachea virtually rendering the Tetarteron useless. The Metropolitan issues were believed to be produced only for two years 1195-1197.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 1 example with weight of 3.38gm and 19mm

This example matches the weights of my other example, the only difference between the two is this is slightly smaller but a slightly thicker flan.
SimonApr 18, 2019
n6~0.jpg
2015 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 2 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins but all tetartera from Alexius III are difficult to obtain.

Size 19.52mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
SimonApr 18, 2019
m6.jpg
2058 BYZANTINE, Latin Rule Half Tetarteron S-2058 0 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Leaved patriarchal cross.

17mm 1.59gm


I think this is the most attractive and unique design for any of the Latin issues.
SimonApr 18, 2019
elizabeth-i-1.jpg
S.2577 Elizabeth I5 viewsShilling of Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Sixth issue
Mintmark: Tun
O: Crowned bust left, ELIZAB;D;G;ANG;FR;ET;HIB;REGI
R: Shield, POSVI DEV.AD IVTORE M.MEV;

Ex- B Mayer, S Willis, Spink 17011 (Lot 1761), Lord Stewartby, C E Blunt, J Shirley-Fox
1 commentsNapApr 18, 2019
049_Septimius_Severus,_AE-17,_HrHJ_8_14_14_28,_,_Laureate_bust_r_,_Herakles_r_,_193-211_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_16,5-17,5mm,_3,22g-s~0.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Herakles right, #132 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Herakles right, #1
avers: AVK Λ CЄBHPOC, Laureate head right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Bearded head of Herakles right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D.,
ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., P.B. 1358, H.M. 928,
Q-001
quadransApr 18, 2019
049_Septimius_Severus,_AE-17,_HrHJ_8_14_14_28,_,_Laureate_bust_r_,_Herakles_r_,_193-211_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_16,5-17,5mm,_3,22g-s.jpg
Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Herakles right, #132 viewsMoesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Herakles right, #1
avers: AVK Λ CЄBHPOC, Laureate head right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC, Bearded head of Herakles right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D.,
ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HrHJ (2012) 08.14.14.28., P.B. 1358, H.M. 928,
Q-001
quadransApr 18, 2019
1261_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
SARMATIA, Tyra Caracalla, Eagle right 3 viewsReference.
N. Frolova Pl. XLI, under n° 4-10

Obv. AVT K M AVP C-E ANTWNIN-OC
Laureate head of Caracalla right

Rev. ΤΥΡΑΝΩΝ
Eagle standing on line, right, head, left, holding wreath in beak

3.17 gr
21 mm
6h
1 commentsokidokiApr 18, 2019
Domitian_(Augustus)-obverse.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 0 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER P P - Bust of Domitian, laureate, right with aegis
MONETA AVGVSTI S-C - Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (85AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.55g / 28mm / 180
References:
RIC II, Pt 1 (second edition) Domitian 417
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 11/17
Gary W2Apr 18, 2019
Domitian_Æ_Dupondius__Rome,_AD_86_51_29.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius5 viewsMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P - Radiate bust right.
VICTORIAE AVGVSTI - Victory standing left, inscribing shield set on trophy to left and holding palm frond; S-C across trophy.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (86 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 14.12g / 30mm / 7h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 483 var. (bust type).
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Live 4 #752 $0.00 11/18
3 commentsGary W2Apr 18, 2019
DOMITIAN_-_SESTERTIU.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P - Laureate head right
IOVI VICTORI, S C - Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (88-89AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.10g / 33mm / 360
References:
RIC 633
Cohen 313
BMC 406
Acquisition/Sale: budgies-beak Ebay $0.00 8/17

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Gary W2Apr 18, 2019
DOMITIAN_AR_silver_d.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P P TR P XI - Laureate head right
IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P P P - Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear; shield at her side.
Mint: Rome (92AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.90g / 19mm / 360
References:
RSC 272
RIC 732
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins $0.00 11/17
Gary W2Apr 18, 2019
056_Elagabalus,_AE-16,_HrHJ_08_26_06_7var,_Laureate_bust_r_,_Serapis_bust_r_,,_218-22_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_15-16mm,_2,22g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #133 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #1
avers: AVT M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, Laureated, bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩ N ΠPOC ICTPON (Legend variation!), Bust of Serapis, draped wearing kalathos right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218-222 A.D.,
ref: HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies).,
Q-001
quadransApr 18, 2019
056_Elagabalus,_AE-16,_HrHJ_08_26_06_7var,_Laureate_bust_r_,_Serapis_bust_r_,,_218-22_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_15-16mm,_2,22g-s.jpg
Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #132 viewsMoesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #1
avers: AVT M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, Laureated, bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩ N ΠPOC ICTPON (Legend variation!), Bust of Serapis, draped wearing kalathos right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218-222 A.D.,
ref: HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies).,
Q-001
quadransApr 18, 2019
197.jpg
Trajan Denarius - Vesta Seated (RIC 9)5 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 98-99 AD
3.52g

Obv: Laureate head of Trajan (R), wearing aegis.
MP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM

Rev: Vesta seated (L), holding patera and torch.
PM TRP COS II PP

RIC 9; BMC 26; RSC 203

Roma Numismatics E-Sale 55, Lot 756, 18/04/19
ex. Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
ex. Numismatica Ars Classica 40, Lot 696, 16/05/07
1 commentsOptimo PrincipiApr 18, 2019
Titus_RIC_124A.png
Titus AR Denarius34 views
TITUS Auguste (79-81), AR denier, 80, Rome.
D/ IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM· T. l. à d.
R/ TR P IX IMP XV- COS VIII PP Siège carré dr., avec un dossier triangulaire, décoré de cinq palmettes.
BMC 233, 61; RIC 124. 3,23g. Beau à Très Beau/Beau (Fine - Very Fine/Fine)
Purchased from Jean Elsen April 18, 2019

4 commentsorfewApr 18, 2019
15516_8_2_1.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Gela, AR Tetradrachm circa 480-470 BC 25mm 17.05g 3h Jenkins 181 O48/R1046 viewsCharioteer holding kentron and reins,driving slow quadriga right,above Nike flying right crowning horses with wreath/Forepart of man-headed bull right.1 commentsGrant HApr 18, 2019
Sear_0064.jpg
Sear 00642 viewsJustin I ( 518 – 527 CE) Follis, weight 16.0g, diameter 33mm. Mint of Constantinople, officina ε. Abu GalyonApr 18, 2019
050_Iulia_Domna,_AE-17,_HHG_8_17_05_2,_,_Draped_bust_r_,,_Cista_m__snake,_R3,_214-AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15,5-18,2mm,_2,57g-s~0.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., AE-17, Cista Mystica with a snake, #139 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., AE-17, Cista Mystica with a snake, #1
avers: IOVΛ ΔO CEBACTH, Draped bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛIT ΠPOC ICTP, Cista Mystica with an open lid, snake emerging left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-18,2mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 8h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 170-217 A.D.,
ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., P.B. 1482, H.M. 1043,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 18, 2019
050_Iulia_Domna,_AE-17,_HHG_8_17_05_2,_,_Draped_bust_r_,,_Cista_m__snake,_R3,_214-AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15,5-18,2mm,_2,57g-s.jpg
Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., AE-17, Cista Mystica with a snake, #140 viewsMoesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, 050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., AE-17, Cista Mystica with a snake, #1
avers: IOVΛ ΔO CEBACTH, Draped bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛIT ΠPOC ICTP, Cista Mystica with an open lid, snake emerging left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-18,2mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 8h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 170-217 A.D.,
ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HrHJ (2012) 08.17.05.02., P.B. 1482, H.M. 1043,
Q-001
quadransApr 18, 2019
V914lg.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC 91443 viewsÆ As, 11.03g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 914 (R). BMC 728.
Obv: T CAESAR IMP COS V; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Spes stg. l. with flower
Acquired from eBay, April 2019.

A small issue of bronze was struck by the Rome mint in 76. The asses of this issue were produced on larger than normal flans (27-28mm) and at a slightly heavier weight. Surprisingly, this Spes type from 76 struck for Titus Caesar is fairly rare with many specimens sharing this coin's die combination. Spes was a fairly common reverse type of the dynasty and was likely copied from a well known cult statue. As the goddess of hope, she is the perfect 'heir apparent' personification for a future emperor. As Mattingly put it in BMCRE II - 'The flower is an opening bud, she is raising her skirt in order to hasten forward.'

Although the patina has been largely stripped away, the piece has a pleasingly rich coppery hue.
3 commentsDavid AthertonApr 18, 2019
sev33.jpg
Severus Alexander (222 - 235 A.D.)22 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: Α ΚΑΙ ΜΑΡ ΑΥΡ СƐΥ ΑΛƐΞΑΝΔΡΟС ƐΥ laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus Alexander, r., seen from rear.
R: Nilus bust r., draped and wearing lotus wreath; to l., cornucopia on shoulder, r.; in front, palm branch L I = 10
Alexandria Mint
23mm
13.7g
Emmett 3122.10 (R3), Milne 3031; Dattari 4331

Rare

Pending Wildwinds Publishing
6 commentsMatApr 18, 2019
pto.jpg
Greek Ptolemee I - Tetradrachm9 viewsPtolémée I Soter (le sauveur), Alexandrie 323-283 BC Tétradrachme 14,35g
A:/ Tête diadermée de Ptolémée à dr.
R/ BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY. Aigle debout à g. sur un foudre les ailes déployées ; devant : P au dessus d'un monogramme.
SNG Cop 70, Svoronos 255
1 commentsBrennosApr 17, 2019
timoleonbis.jpg
Syracuse Time of Timoleon - AE-Dilitron8 viewsSicily Syracuse sous Timoleon, 344-336 BC, AE-Dilitron 21,22g
A:/ ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ , Tête barbue et laurée de Zeus à gauche ; grènetis circulaire.
R:/ ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ, Cheval libre bondissant à gauche ; grènetis circulaire.
Calciati 80 st 8/1 = Rizzo Tav LVIII n°6 = SNG Spencer-Churchill 62 (All this coin).
From the T. Virzi collection , Auction Leu 6, Zürich 1973, Nr. 223 (this coin illustrated on the front cover of the catalogue) and the Captain E. G. Spencer-Churchill collection , Auktion Ars Classica XVI, Luzern 1933, Nr. 813

PS : This coin has long been the most expensive greek bronze coin ever sold at an auction. With an estimation at 4,000 CHF It has realized an astounding 12,000 CHF at the famous Leu auction !!
it was at that time almost the price of a fine decadrachm.
it has only been surpassed on october 2017 (44 years later !), when Nomos has sold for 13,000 CHF a coin of the same type from the Moretti Collection (auction NAC 13 1998 n°499) . It's very personal but i definitly prefere mine :)

BrennosApr 17, 2019
Trajan_RIC_548.jpg
RIC 5483 viewsDupondius, 103-111
Obv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P
Rad. r.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI – S C
Trajan standing l., veiled, sacrificing at small altar.

10.77g, 27mm
Woytek 254a (1 specimen)
klausklageApr 17, 2019
RPC_II_2540_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2540 Domitianus31 viewsObv: AYT KAIΣAP ΔOMITIANOΣ ΣEB ΓΕΡM, Laureate head right
Rev: ETOYS EBΔOMOY, Bust of Zeus-Ammon right
AE/Diobol (24.66 mm 8.232 g 12h) Struck in Alexandria (Egypt) 87-88 A.D.
RPC II 2540, Missing in Dattari Collection
ex Savoca 32nd Silver Auction Lot 276
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianusApr 17, 2019
G_341_Massalia_Artemis.jpg
Artemis, Gaul, Massalia3 viewsGaul, Massalia (Marseille)

Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Artemis left, bow and quiver over shoulder
AR, 2.52g

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxiApr 17, 2019
G_341_Massalia_fac.jpg
Gaul, Massalia, Artemis Lion6 viewsGaul, Massalia (Marseille)
AR Drachm or Tetrobol
Obv.: Diademed and draped bust of Artemis left, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: Lion standing left, raising foreleg; A below raised foreleg, ΛΛ below, MAΣΣA above
Ag, 2.52g
Ref.: F&P DRM-43-4; Depeyrot, Marseille 43/– (unlisted variety), Same reverse die as CNG Electronic Auction 441, Lot 6
Ex Künker eLive auction 53, Lot 8008
1 commentsshanxiApr 17, 2019
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 1 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii PApr 17, 2019
Medaillen_Artemis_03_artemis.jpg
Modern depictions of Artemis/Diana, 1932, France3 viewsMedal by André Pierre Schwab

Obv: Artemis advancing right, holding bow, dog behind, signed SCHWAB

for obverse, reverse and details click here

shanxiApr 17, 2019
Medaillen_Artemis_03_fac.jpg
Schwab, Artemis/Diana3 viewsMedal by André Pierre Schwab (1883 Nancy – 1969)
Obv: Artemis advancing right, holding bow, dog behind, signed SCHWAB
Rev: EVIAN, EXPOSITION CANINE INTERNATIONALE, 1932, laurel wreath
Silver Plated Bronze, 41mm, 30g
Ref.: Eng. 4387
shanxiApr 17, 2019
G_340_Hierocaesarea_Artemis.jpg
Artemis, Lydia, Hierocaesarea1 viewsLydia, Hierocaesarea

Obv.: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN, draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxiApr 17, 2019
G_340_Hierocaesarea_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Artemis, forepart of stag, without monogram1 viewsLydia, Hierokaisareia
Anonymous issue
Time of Nero (54-68), Kapito, high priest.
Obv.: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN, draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: ЄΠΙ ΚΑΠΙΤωΝOC ΑΡXΙΕΡЄωC, forepart of stag right
AE, 3.86g, 17 mm
Ref.: RPC I 2390
shanxiApr 17, 2019
syb.jpg
Sybaris Stater12 viewsBruttium, Sybaris 540-530 BC Statère 7,77g
A:/ VM en haut; Taureau à gauche, tournant la tête à droite avec un diadème perlé ; ligne d’exergue perlée ; grènetis perlé.
R:/ R/ même type à dr. incus.
Spagnoli group A1, HNItaly 1729. SNG ANS 825
1 commentsBrennosApr 16, 2019
Eukleidas_R.JPG
Arethusa by Eukleidas8 viewsI think that this Portrait of Arethusa by the master engraver Eukleidas is worth to be in this gallery :)
Tetradrachm of Syracuse 399-387 BC Reverse die n°64 of the Tudeer Corpus
BrennosApr 16, 2019
alex.jpg
Alexander the great Tetradrachm13 viewsAlexandre III, Tarsos 327-323 BC Tétradrachme 17,12g
A/ Tête d'Heraclès, imberbe, à dr. coiffé de la peau de Lion.
R/ AΛEΞANΔPOY , Zeus aétophore, demi nu, assis à g., s'appuyant sur un sceptre, à g. un gouvernail, globule sous le trône et à dr.
Price 3018, Tarsos mint
BrennosApr 16, 2019
Philippou.JPG
Philip gold Stater15 viewsPhilippe II de Macédoine, Pella, 340-328 BC Statère en or 8.59g
D:/ Tête laurée d’Apollon à dr. avec baies dans la couronne
R:/ ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Bige galopant à droite, conduit par un aurige, tenant les rênes et le kentron ; au-dessous du bige, un canthare vu de face
Le Rider 133-226
BrennosApr 16, 2019
syrac.jpg
Syracuse Tetradrachm17 viewsSicile, Syracuse, 399-387 BC AR Tetradrachme 16.82g.
D:/quadrige au galop a g., Nike volant à dr. couronne l'aurige, à l’exergue dauphin nageant à g.
R:/ΣYRAKOΣIΩN Tête d'Aréthuse à g., un large bandeau dans les cheveux, quatre dauphins au pourtour
Tudeer 92 O33/R64
BrennosApr 16, 2019
SYRAC1.JPG
Syracuse Tetradrachm15 viewsSicile, Syracuse, 510-500 BC AR Tétradrachme 17.43g.
D:/SVRA Quadrige au pas à droite.
R:/Carré creux partagé en quatre carrés. Au centre dans un cercle creux, tête d'Aréthuse à gauche, les cheveux en pointillé retombant sur la nuque.
Boehringer 28 (V20/R14)
ex Chandon de Briailles collection sale Emile Bourgey 1959 lot 156
BrennosApr 16, 2019
ath1_mm_coins_Sv_PL_6_11_Selt_330_A214P275.JPG
Athens - tetradrachm18 viewsAttique, Athènes 505-490 BC Tétradrachme 16.77g
A:/ Tête d'Athéna à dr. coiffée d'un casque attique à cimier, les cheveux rangés en petites nattes.
R:/ AθE Chouette debout à droite, la tête de face , à g. une pousse d'Olivier.
Seltman Groupe L n°330 (A214/P275), Svoronos pl.6 11
BrennosApr 16, 2019
ath2.JPG
Athens - tetradrachm19 viewsAttique, Athènes 490-482 BC Tétradrachme 17.08g
A:/ Tête d'Athéna à dr. coiffée d'un casque attique à cimier, les cheveux rangés en petites vagues autour du front tombant sur la tempe en natte.
R:/ AθE Chouette debout à droite, la tête de face , à g. une pousse d'Olivier.
Seltman Groupe M, Svoronos pl.5 34
BrennosApr 16, 2019
ath3.JPG
Athens - tetradrachm19 viewsAttique, Athènes 483-480 BC Tétradrachme 16,6g
A:/ Tête d'Athéna à dr. coiffée d'un casque attique à cimier, les cheveux rangés en petites nattes autour du front.
R:/ (A)θE Chouette debout à droite, la tête de face , à g. une pousse d'Olivier.
Seltman Groupe E, Svoronos pl.3, 25-39
BrennosApr 16, 2019
poseidonia.JPG
Poseidonia Drachm (1/3 Stater)21 viewsLucania, Poseidonia 530-500 av. J.C. , Drachme 2.75g
D:/ΡΟΣ, Poséidon debout à droite, brandissant le trident.
R:/Même type incus à g. dans un cercle strillé
HN Italy 1108, SNG ANS 622 (same dies)
BrennosApr 16, 2019
sybaris2.JPG
Sybaris Stater20 viewsBruttium, Sybaris 525-514 BC Statère 7,82g
A:/ VM en Bas; Taureau à gauche, tournant la tête à droite ; ligne d’exergue perlée ; grènetis perlé.
R:/ même type à dr. incus.
Spagnoli group B, HNItaly 1729. SNG ANS 828-46
ex NAC 59 (2011) lot 1551
1 commentsBrennosApr 16, 2019
croton2.JPG
Metapont Stater16 viewsBruttium, Kroton 530-500 BC Statère 8,16g
A/ QPO - TON. Trépied delphien ; grènetis circulaire.
R/ même type incus à g. dans un cercle strillé
HN Italy 2075, SNG ANS 237 (same obv. die)
BrennosApr 16, 2019
croton1.JPG
Kroton Stater16 viewsBruttium, Kroton 530-500 BC Statère 6,43g
A/ QPO. Trépied delphien ; grènetis circulaire.
R/ même type incus à g. dans un cercle strillé
HN Italy 2075, SNG ANS 231 (same obv. die)
ex Dr. W Schink Collection and Ars Classica XV (2 July 1930), lot 230
2 commentsBrennosApr 16, 2019
Meta.JPG
Metapont Stater14 viewsBruttium, Métaponte 540-510 BC Statère 29mm 8,22g
A/ MET Épi de blé de haut relief avec huit grains par rangée, bordure circulaire perlée.
R/ même type incus, dans le champ à dr. MET
HNItaly 1459, Noe I n°7
ex Otakirak collection
BrennosApr 16, 2019
caulo2.jpg
Kaulonia Stater14 viewsBruttium, Caulonia 525-500 BC Statère 7,50g
A/ Apollon deb. à droite tenant à la main dr. une palme et portant sur le bras g. une petite figure nue courant à dr. portant deux rameaux, à dr. un cerf debout à dr. regardant en arrière, le tout dans un cercle orné.
R/ même type incus à g. dans un cercle strillé
Noe "The coinage of Caulonia" ANS NS 9 (New-York, 1958) group A, 6g (this coin) plate XVII
SNG ANS 143 (these dies). Historia Numorum Italy 2035.
From the "South Italian Hoard" IGCH 1888 (Taranto, 1929)
ex NAC 33 (2006) lot 45
BrennosApr 16, 2019
25i6ueo.jpg
01.- A. Postumius Serrate Denarius (81 BC)4 viewsA. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (18.7 mm, 3.85 g.). Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Togate figure standing left on rock, holding aspergillum over head of ox standing right; lighted altar between them. VF, toned.
Purchased at Aureo & Calico auction in 2015.
1 commentsOscar DApr 16, 2019
521280_(1).jpg
03.- Pontos AE18 (125-100 BC)3 viewsPontos. Amisos. Time of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 125-100 BC. (Bronze, 20.33-18.67 mm., 8.36 g). Diademed head of Artemis to right; at her shoulder, bow and quiver. Rev. ΑΜΙ - ΣΟΥ Tripod. Black patina. VF.
Purchased at Jesus Vico online auction in 2019.
Oscar DApr 16, 2019
montaje.JPG
02.- Attica Tetradrachm (287-262 BC)5 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 287-262 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 16.80 g). Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind; all within incuse square.
Purchased at Filatelia Numismatica Santos in 2015.
Oscar DApr 16, 2019
cng2.jpg
01.- Attica Tetradrachm (454-404 BC)10 viewsATTICA, Athens. Circa 454-404 BC. AR Tetradrachm (22mm, 17.09 g, 8h). Helmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind; all within incuse square. Kroll 8; HGC 4, 1597. VF, lightly toned, minor area of porosity on obverse, graffito and slight die shift on reverse.
Purchased at Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. auction in 2015.
3 commentsOscar DApr 16, 2019
elgabalusprovincial.jpg
Elagabalus, Nikopolis ad Istrum13 viewsElagabalus
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Legate Rufus
Ae 27mm; 12.32g

AV KV M AVRH ANTWNEINOC
laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

VP NOBIOV ROVFIOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRON
Serapis standing left, holding sceptre and raising right hand

Moushmov 1443
2 commentsRobin AyersApr 16, 2019
juliadomnaprovincial.jpg
Julia Domna, Amorion13 viewsJulia Domna
Phrygia, Amorion
Ae 24-25mm; 7.83g

IOVLIA(dot)AVGOVCTA
draped bust right

AMOPIANWN
Nemesis spitting into her bosom; wheel at feet

Ref?
2 commentsRobin AyersApr 16, 2019
AAHDb_small.png
City of Constantinople Commemorative2 viewsConstantine I ("the Great"). 307 - 337 AD.

Alexandria. 335-337 AD.

17mm., 2.47g

CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS. Bust of Constantinopolis, laureate, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak, left, holding reversed spear in right hand

Victory, winged, draped, standing left on prow, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand. MintMark: SMAL. OfficinaMark: Γ

References: RIC VII Alexandria 71

AAHD
RLApr 15, 2019
AAHJb_small.png
Licinius II AE follis1 viewsLicinius II. Caesar 317 - 324 A.D.

Siscia. 321-324 AD.

16mm., 2.80g.

D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C. Bust of Licinius II, helmeted, cuirassed, left, holding spear across right shoulder and shield on left arm

IOVI CONS-ERVATORI. Jupiter, nude, chlamys draped across left shoulder, standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and eagle-tipped sceptre in left hand; to left, eagle with wreath; to right, captive. X on III in right field. Minkmark: SMKB

References: RIC VII Cyzicus 18

AAHJ
RLApr 15, 2019
1259_P_Hadrian_eastern_--.jpg
Hadrian Denarius Antioch 119-22 AD Aequitas standing5 viewsReference.
Strack *-- ; RIC II, --; BMCRE --; C. --; BMC --

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. PM TR POTES III COS III
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia

3.40 gr
17 mm
h
2 commentsokidokiApr 15, 2019
AAFPb_small.png
Dalmatius AE4 Follis1 viewsDalmatius. Caesar 335–337 AD.

Constantinople. 336-337 AD.

15mm., 1.46g.

FL DELMATIVS NOB C. Bust of Dalmatius, laureate, draped, cuirassed, right

GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS. Two soldiers, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing facing each other, each holding reversed spear in outer hand and resting inner hand on shield; between them, a standard. Chi-Rho on standard. MintMark: -/-//CONS[?]

Reference:

AAFP
RLApr 15, 2019
AAAVb_small.png
Crispus AE33 viewsCrispus. Caesar, 317-326 AD.

Sisica. 321-324 AD.

19mm., 2.87g.

IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C. Laureate head right

CAESARVM NOSTRORVM around VOT X in wreath. Mintmark: [A]SIS. sunburst.

Reference: RIC VII 181

AAAV
RLApr 15, 2019
AAAPb_small.png
Licinius II AE follis1 viewsLicinius II. Caesar 317 - 324 A.D.

Siscia. 320-321 AD.

19mm., 2.46g.

LICINIVS-IVN NOB C. laureate head right

CAESARVM NOSTRORVM around wreath containing VOT V, dot in badge at the top of the wreath. Mintmark: ASIS*

References: RIC VII 162

AAAP
RLApr 15, 2019
1359.jpg
varb17212 viewsElagabalus
AE Medallion
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: MHTPOΠOΛεΩC ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEΩC (NE)Ω →KOPOV, Herakles standing facing, head left, right hand resting on club, lion skin hanging over left arm. Flan defect on reverse.
41.5 mm, 37.46 gms

Varbanov 1721
1 commentsCharles MApr 15, 2019
1355c.jpg
varb1789_31 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANT(ΩNE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN (NE)ΩKO →P(ΩN), Nemesis standing left holding scales and sceptre.
18 mm, 4.56 gms

Varbanov 1789
Charles MApr 15, 2019
1358c.jpg
varb1796var_31 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANT(ΩNE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKO →P(ΩN), Tripod with serpent entwined around central leg, head to left.
19 mm, 3.89 gms

Varbanov 1796 variant (bust type, serpent's head position and letters in exergue.)
Charles MApr 15, 2019
Diocletian_8a.jpg
DIOCLETIAN AE27 Follis3 viewsOBVERSE: IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right
REVERSE: SACR MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales & cornucopia, AQS in ex.; crescent and VI across fields
Struck at Aquileia, 304-305 AD
8.1g, 27mm
RIC VI Aquileia 39a
LegatusApr 14, 2019
MYSIA_Pergamon_1.jpg
PERGAMON, MYSIA AE201 viewsOBVERSE: Bust of Athena right wearing triple crested helmet
REVERSE: AQHNAS NIKHFOPOY, trophy of armor, PERG monogram to lower right
Struck at Pergamon 133-27 BC
4.11g, 20mm
SNG France 1880-2
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Arcadia_Megalopolis.jpg
ARCADIA MEGALOPOLIS Triobol3 viewsOBVERSE: Laureate head of Zeus left
REVERSE: Pan seated left, holding lagobolon; eagle on knee, monogram before, D/L behind
Struck at Megalopolis 182-168 BC
2.160g, 14mm
Dengate 13
ex Lewis L. Egnew
1 commentsLegatusApr 14, 2019
Cherronesos_3.jpg
THRACE Cherronesos AR Hemidrachm1 viewsOBVERSE: Forepart of lion right, head turned back
REVERSE: Quadripartite incuse square, a pellet in each of the two sunken quarters
Struck at Cherronesos, 400-350 BC
2.16g, 12mm
SNGCop 824, BMC 8
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Justinian2.jpg
JUSTINIAN I AE Follis1 viewsOBVERSE: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: Large M, star to left, cross above, star right, officina letter below, mintmark CON
Struck at Constantinople, 527-65 AD
10g, 28mm
SB 160
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Valerian_I_4.jpg
VALERIAN I AE Antoninianus 1 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing each other, one holding spear and globe, the other Victory and spear
Struck at Antioch, 255-56 AD
2.9g, 22.5mm
RIC 293, Cohen 276
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Faustina_4.jpg
FAUSTINA Sr AR Denarius1 viewsOBVERSE: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right
REVERSE: AETERNITAS, Juno standing left, hand raised, holding scepter
Struck at Rome, 141 AD
2.9g, 17mm
RIC 344
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Antonius_Pius_5.jpg
ANTONIUS PIUS AE 253 viewsOBVERSE: AVTO KAI TI AIL ADRI ANTWNINOC CEEBV, laureate head right
REVERSE: IOVLIEWN TWN KAI LAODIKEWN, turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; QE-HP P in fields
Struck at Laodikeia ad Mare, 140-141 AD
9.28g, 25mm
SNG Copenhagen 350 var, BMC 57
1 commentsLegatusApr 14, 2019
Vespasian_5.jpg
VESPASIAN AR Denarius2 viewsOBVERSE: IMP CAESAR VESP AVG, laureate head right
REVERSE: PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right, holding branch and sceptre.
Struck at Rome, 74AD
3.4g, 19mm
RIC 685, S 2305, C 387
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Augustus_20.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE Dupondius3 viewsOBVERSE: IMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate
REVERSE: COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right
Nemausus (Gaul) 20-10 BC
11.97g, 26mm
RIC 159
1 commentsLegatusApr 14, 2019
Augustus_2.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE As3 viewsAE As
OBVERSE: CAESAR PONT MAX, laureate head right
REVERSE: Altar of Lugdunum, Victory on each pedestal, ROM ET AVG below
Lugdunum 15-10 BC
8.4g, 26mm
RIC 230
LegatusApr 14, 2019
PHOENICIA_TYRE.jpg
PHOENICIA TYRE AE202 viewsOBVERSE: Turreted head of Tyche to right, palm branch behind
REVERSE: Galley to left, prow terminating in volute, aphlaston at stern, NA (= 76/5 B.C.) and Tyre monogram above over IEΡAΣ [AΣNΛON] in monogram above, Phoenican letters below
Tyre 76-75 BC
7g, 20mm
BMC 26, 255, 254
LegatusApr 14, 2019
C_NORBANUS.jpg
C NORBANUS ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS NORBANA AR Denarius1 viewsOBVERSE: LXXIII behind, C NORBANVS below, diademed head of Venus right
REVERSE: Corn ear, fasces and caduceus
Rome 83 BC
3.526g, 19mm
Cr357/1b
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Maroneia.jpg
MARONEIA, THRACE AE241 viewsOBVERSE: Wreathed head of Dionysos right
REVERSE: Dionysos standing naked, holding bunch of grapes and two narthex wands, monogram to lower left, Greek legend DIONYSOU SOTIROS MARONITON ("of Dionysos, saviour of the Maroneans")
Struck at Maroneia 148 BC
10.94g, 24mm
Sear 1638
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Claudius_II_6.jpg
CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) Antoninianus1 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate head right
REVERSE: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopiae
Struck at Rome, 268-69 AD
3.0g, 20mm
RIC 14
LegatusApr 14, 2019
Helena_2.jpg
HELENA AE31 viewsOBVERSE: F L HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed bust right
REVERSE: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with right hand, raising hem of robe with left hand.
Struck at Alexandria 327-328 AD
1.4g, 18mm
RIC 38A
LegatusApr 14, 2019
522795_l.jpg
Akarnania Leukas375--350 BC 20mm 8.24 g Pegasi 49/31 viewsPegasos flying left/Helmeted head of Athena left.Grant HApr 14, 2019
1258_P_Hadrian_RPC5661.jpg
5661 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 126-27 AD Euthenia reclining on sphinx2 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5661; Emmett 969.11; Köln 960; Dattari 1708

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Euthenia reclining on sphinx, l., holding ears of corn

25.29 gr
34 mm
12h
okidokiApr 14, 2019
justinian1.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I Half siliqua3 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. AR Half Siliqua (0.54 g). Carthage mint. Struck 533-534.

Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / O-V/T-M in the angles of a cross; all within wreath; CONOS.

Cf. DOC 282; cf. MIBE 52; SB 256.

Extremely rare.
TanitApr 14, 2019
theodosius~0.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius 1/3 Siliqua4 viewsTheodosius, son of Maurice Tiberius (590-602).
1/3 Siliqua (200 Nummi). Carthage, 592-597.
AR 0.3 gr.
DNTHEODO SIVSPPA. Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with trefoil ornament above circle.
Rv. Large N • M; above, +; beneath, CC, all within circle of dots surrounded by wreath.

BNC Maurice Tiberius 6; MIB Maurice Tiberius 62; Sear 615A.


Extremely rare.
1 commentsTanitApr 14, 2019
1393c.jpg
varb1788_32 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKO →PΩN, Nemesis standing left holding scales and scepter, wheel at her feet.
18 mm, 3.30 gms

Varbanov 1788
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1369.jpg
varb1796var_20 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKOP(ΩN), Tripod with serpent entwined around central leg, head to left.
17 mm, 4.36 gms

Varbanov 1796 variant (bust type and serpent's head position.)
Charles MApr 14, 2019
R680_Maximinus_I_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Phyrgia, Eucarpia3 viewsPhyrgia, Eucarpia
Rev.: ƐΥΚΑΡΠƐΩΝ, Artemis standing facing, looking l., holding bow and placing hand on quiver; stag left, looking right; priestess right

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxiApr 14, 2019
R680_Maximinus_I_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Phyrgia, Eucarpia, Maximinus, Artemis6 viewsMaximinus
Phyrgia, Eucarpia
Obv.: ΑΥΤ Κ Γ ΙΟΥ ΟΥΗΡ ΜΑΞΙΜƐΙΝΟС, laureate and cuirassed bust of Maximinus, r.
Rev.: ƐΥΚΑΡΠƐΩΝ, Artemis standing facing, looking l., holding bow and placing hand on quiver; stag left, looking right; priestess right
AE, 26 mm, 7,22 g
Ref.: SNG Cop. 372, RPC VI, № 5604 (temporary)
1 commentsshanxiApr 14, 2019
medaillen_artemis_06_artemis.jpg
Modern depictions of Artemis/Diana, 1931, France3 viewsMedal by Pierre-Alexandre Morlon (original design 1931)

Obv: UNION FEDERALE DES SOCIETES DE TIR AUX ARMES DE CHASSE, Artemis/Diana Standing right, holding bow, dog behind, signed MORLON


for obverse, reverse and details click here

shanxiApr 14, 2019
medaillen_artemis_06_fac.jpg
Morlon, Artemis2 viewsMedal by Pierre-Alexandre Morlon
1878-1951
(Morlon created also the french circulating coins)

Obv: UNION FEDERALE DES SOCIETES DE TIR AUX ARMES DE CHASSE, Artemis/Diana Standing right, holding bow, dog behind, signed MORLON
Rev: CHAMPIONAT DE FRANCE
BALL-TRAP “OLYMPIQUE”
1951, 2E Prix,
ILE DE FRANCE
(original design 1931)
shanxiApr 14, 2019
1340.jpg
hhj8.26.38.080 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNεINOC, laureate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: VΠNOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN (ΠP)OC I, in left field CTP, in right field ON, Tyche wearing kalathos holding cornucopia in left arm, right hand on rudder set on globe.
27 mm, 12.74 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.38.8
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1367.jpg
hhj8.26.21.051 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right.
Rev: ...OV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN..., Hygieia standing right feeding snake from patera.
25 mm, 11.38 gms

Cf. Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.21.5 (Same as outer coin shown in pictures---to be corrected in future edition--see FORUM Discussion, Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov, Nikopolis Addenda #5, coin #85.)
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1365.jpg
hhj8.26.32.080 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛI →TΩNΠ →POCICT, River god seated left with right hand on knee, left arm resting on urn from which water flows.
27 mm, 12.24 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.32.8
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1364.jpg
hhj8.26.01.191 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠOC I, Eagle facing, head left with wreath in beak.
25 mm, 11.48 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.1.19
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1353c.jpg
hhj8.26.21.130 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ[NINOC], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON ,Hygieia standing right feeding snake from patera.
18 mm, 3.22 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.21.13
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1341.jpg
hhj8.26.48.040 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVP ANT[ΩNEIN]OC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC TPON, crescent with 3 stars, dot in center
16 mm, 3.19 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.48.4
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1357c.jpg
hhj8.26.14.080 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC IC..., Club of Hercules.
16 mm, 3.55 gms

cf Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.14.08
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1366.jpg
hhj8.26.53.04_20 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICT →TPON, lion walking right
16 mm, 1.99 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.53.4
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1360.jpg
hj6.26.36.220 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ I(OV)Λ ANT CEΛEVKOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
25 mm, 9.32 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.22
Charles MApr 14, 2019
1384.jpg
hj6.26.36.xx0 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEVK(OV) MAPKIANOΠOΛIT →ΩN, Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
26 mm, 8.02 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.xx Not in HJ.
Charles MApr 14, 2019
RIC_VI-Geta-15a-wht.jpg
Geta, Denarius PRINC IVVENT, RIC 15a5 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: After c. 200-202 AD
Metal: AR
Obverse: PSEPT GETA CAES PONT; Draped bust r. Bare head. Young portrait
Reverse: PRINC IVVENT - Geta stg l. holding branch in r. long spear pointing down in l.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.05 gm.
Reference: RIC IV Part 1, 15a (Geta).
Provenance: Purchased from Munzen und Medaillen AG, at Pittsburg ANA convention, Aug 11, 1989

Superb EF, Superb old gray toning, good style, fully centered and complete.
2 commentsSteve B5Apr 13, 2019
V1015_best.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-101563 viewsÆ Quadrans, 2.31g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD
RIC 1015 (R). BMC 740A.
Obv: IMP VESPASIAN AVG; Rudder on globe
Rev: P M TR P P P COS VIII; S C in field; Caduceus, winged
Acquired from Numismatica Prada, April 2019.

The quadrans in the early imperial period typically lacked an imperial portrait. Possibly the denomination was deemed so lowly by mint officials that a portrait was considered improper. They were struck haphazardly and functioned primarily as an urban low value coinage in Rome and central Italy. The quadrans was the typical fee for entry into the baths, a urinal, or for a tryst in a cheap brothel. Being of rather low value quadrantes were not typically hoarded and thus are relatively scarce today. The rudder over globe suggests Vespasian's continued steady hand guiding the empire.

Nicely centred and well preserved for the type.
5 commentsDavid AthertonApr 13, 2019
G_339_Apamaeia_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Phrygia, Apameia, Artemis, Marsyas2 viewsApameia
Asia Minor, Phrygia
Magistrate Attalos, son of Bianor,
AE18, 88-40 BC
Obv.: Turreted head of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, Marsyas walking right on maeander pattern, playing flute; magistrate's name ATTAΛOY / BIANOPOΣ behind
AE, 5.05g, 17.7mm
Ref.: BMC 62; HGC 7, 674
shanxiApr 13, 2019
G_338_Ephesos.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesos AE102 viewsEphesos (375-325 BC)
Obv.: Female head (Artemis?) left
Rev.: E-Φ, Bee
AE, 1.55g, 10.3mm
Ref.: BMC 55, 68; Klein, KM 52, 378; SNG Muenchen 52
shanxiApr 13, 2019
1391.jpg
hj6.26.36.25_40 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ I(OV)Λ ANT CEΛEVKOV M(AP)KIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
25 mm, 8.40 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.25
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1382.jpg
hj6.26.36.261 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC , laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEV KOV MAPKIANOΠO →ΛITΩN. Concordia standing facing, head right, holding patera and cornucopia, burning altar to lower left.
26 mm, 8.65 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.26
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1390.jpg
hj6.26.35.020 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC A(VΓ), laureate draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: Rev: VΠ I(OV)Λ ANTCEΛEVK(OV) M(AP)KIANOΠOΛITΩN, Nemesis standing left, holding scales and scepter, wheel at feet.
25 mm, 8.22 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.35.01
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1385.jpg
moushmov6460 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP...NOC, laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ I(OV)Λ [ANT CEΛEV]KOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), eagle standing facing, head and tail right, wreath in beak.
26 mm, 8.23 gms

Moushmov 646
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1342.jpg
hj6.28.01.04_21 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ., laureate draped cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEV KOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Zeus standing left holding patera in right hand and staff in left arm, E to right.
26 mm, 11.72 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.1.4
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1383.jpg
hj6.28.35.xx0 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT. K. M. AVPH ANTΩNEINOC IOVΛIA MA(…), laureate head of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ. IOVΛ. ANT. CEΛEVKOV. MAPKIANOΠOΛIT →ΩN, Nemesis holding scales and scepter, wheel at her feet. E in right field
26 mm, 9.07 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.35.xx Not in HJ.
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1354c.jpg
hj6.26.21.10_21 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANO-ΠOΛITΩN, Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
18 mm, 2.78 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.10
Charles MApr 13, 2019
1356c.jpg
hj6.26.21.101 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANO-ΠOΛITΩN, Hygeia standing right feeding snake from patera.
19 mm, 2.30 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.21.10
Charles MApr 12, 2019
1361.jpg
hj6.26.47.07var_30 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ →N, serpent entwined tripod, head to right
17 mm, 2.87 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.47.xx --Not in HJ
Charles MApr 12, 2019
RIC_127,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG,_SPES_AVG,_C-,_Bust_A2-C,_Bast-402,_Lugdunum,_9th-em,_3rd-off,_282_AD,_R,_Q-001,_4h,_21-21,5mm,_3,76g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, C/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #167 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, C/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. (A2-C)
reverse: SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding a flower and raising robe.
exergue: C/-//--, diameter: 21,0-21,5 mm, weight: 3,76g, axis:4h,
mint: Lugdunum, 9th.em., 3rd. off., "C" in left field, date: 01.-08.282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, p-27, Bastien 402,
Q-001
quadransApr 12, 2019
1363.jpg
hj6.26.47.07var_20 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT M AVPHΛ ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ →N, serpent entwined tripod, head to right
16 mm, 2.84 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.47.xx(variant not in HJ--obverse legend and last "N" in exergue on reverse)
Charles MApr 12, 2019
1362.jpg
hj6.26.03.180 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hera standing left, holding patera and staff
16 mm, 2.80 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.3.18
Charles MApr 12, 2019
Austria,_Friesach_under_Salzburg_archbishops_Eberhard_I__1147-1164,_AR-Pfennig,_CNA_Ca5__Q-001,_6h,_17,5-18mm,_0,73g-s.jpg
Austria, Friesach, under Archbishopric of Salzburg, Eberhard I. (1147-1164 A.D.), AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca5, Sprag cross with balls in each angle, #162 viewsAustria, Friesach, under Archbishopric of Salzburg, Eberhard I. (1147-1164 A.D.), AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca5, Sprag cross with balls in each angle, #1
avers: Saint’s bust facing between Crozier and star, cross above.
reverse: Sprag cross with balls in each angle.
diameter: 17,5-18,0 mm, weight: 0,73g, axis: 6/12 h,
mint: Krems - Friesach, mint mark: ,
date:1147-1164 A.D., ref: CNA Ca 5,
Q-001
quadransApr 12, 2019
Faustina_I_R679_fac.jpg
RIC 3, p.074, 395Ca - Faustina I, Pietas6 viewsFaustina Senior
AR Denarius after 141
Obv.: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, Bust of Faustina I right
Rev.: PIETAS AVG, Pietas, veiled, draped, standing left, with right hand dropping incense on lighted candelabrum and holding box in left hand
Ag, 3.19g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC III 395Ca, CRE 117 [C]
1 commentsshanxiApr 12, 2019
16_10__Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_AR-Denarius,_CÁC_I__16_10_-b1_17_-49_,_H-066,_CP-19,_U--,_Q-001,_4h,_13mm,_0,19g-s.jpg
16.10. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 16.10./b1.17./49., H-066, CP-19, U--, #0171 views16.10. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 16.10./b1.17./49., H-066, CP-19, U--, #01
avers: BELA, anchor-like mark amongst three dots above and below; border of dots.
reverse: Rx (Monogram), line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,19g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-066, CP-19, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.10./b1.17./49.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 12, 2019
Ptolemy_30mms.jpg
Ptolemy I Soter Tetradrachm as Satrap12 viewsPtolemy I Soter. Silver Tetradrachm (15.65 g, 30mm), as Satrap, 323-305 BC. Alexandria, in the name of Alexander III
O: Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing elephant's skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY in left field, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, wielding javelin and holding forth shield;in right field, monogram, Corinthian helmet above and eagle standing right on thunderbolt.
Overstruck, traces of undertype visible.

The earlier 17g tetradrachms were withdrawn from circulation in 306/305 BC and reissued after weight adjustment. They were trimmed to remove 1.5g of silver, heated and restruck. This must have been faster than melting them down into bullion and restriking. Some issues show clear evidence of the edges being trimmed, although many, such as this one, do not.

Ptolemy was feeling the financial burden of repelling Antigonus’ invasion and supporting Rhodes through a thirteen-month siege. The government needed extra currency and Egypt produced little or no silver. The recall of the heavy issues meant 8 tetradrachms were restruck into 9 “Crisis Issues” but with no change in the appearance of the dies.
3 commentsNemonaterApr 12, 2019
PtolemyI26mms.jpg
Ptolemy I Soter Tetradrachm as Satrap11 viewsPtolemy I Soter. Silver Tetradrachm (15.68 g, 26mm), as Satrap, 323-305 BC. Alexandria, in the name of Alexander III. Overstruck on earlier Alexander tetradrachm, 306-305 BC.
O: Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing elephant's skin headdress, aegis around neck with tiny Δ in scales.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY in left field, Athena Alkidemos advancing right, wielding javelin and holding forth shield;in right field, monogram, Corinthian helmet right above ΔI and eagle standing right on thunderbolt.
Overstruck, undertype beading visible on obverse just above elephant's ear; on the reverse, portrait of Alexander above eagles head into Athena's shield.

The earlier 17g tetradrachms were withdrawn from circulation in 306/305 BC and reissued after weight adjustment. They were trimmed to remove 1.5g of silver, heated and restruck. This must have been faster than melting them down into bullion and restriking. Some of these issues, such as this one, show the clear evidence of the edges being trimmed, although many do not.

Ptolemy was feeling the financial burden of repelling Antigonus’ invasion and supporting Rhodes through a thirteen-month siege. The government needed extra currency and Egypt produced little or no silver. The recall of the heavy issues meant 8 tetradrachms were restruck into 9 “Crisis Issues” but with no change in the appearance of the dies.
3 commentsNemonaterApr 12, 2019
iPiccy-collage.jpg
enlargement of griffins head4 views1 commentsGrant HApr 11, 2019
Domitian_RIC_539_new_photo-removebg.png
Domitian AR Denarius26 viewsDomitian as Caesar AR Denarius 73 CE
(3.04 gm). Rome
Obv: Leaureate head r: CAES AVG F DOMITIAN COS II
Rev: Domitian on horseback, rearing left, right hand raised adlocutio, scepter in left.
RIC 539 [Vesp]
2 commentsorfewApr 11, 2019
1257Hadrian_RIC817.jpg
0817 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing4 viewsReference.
RIC 817f; C. 937; Strack 674

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust r.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG VI in field S - C
Libertas standing l., holding abacus and cornucopiae

10.24 gr
25 mm
6h
okidokiApr 11, 2019
DivaFaustinaSr-v2.jpg
Diva Faustina - RIC 348 (Antoninus Pius)3 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: Late After A.D. 141
Metal: AR
Weight: 3.18
Obverse: DIVA FAV STINA. Bust of Faustina r. Hair elaborately bejeweled with pearls
Reverse: AETER NITAS. Fortuna, veiled draped standing l., Holding globe on extended r. hand and vertical rudder, close to side on l.

Mint: Rome
Weight:.
Reference: RIC III 348 (Antoninus Pius)
Provenance: Purchased from CNG at Denver ANA, Aug. 16, 2006

Superb EF
2 commentsSteve B5Apr 11, 2019
V449asm_(3).jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC 44941 viewsÆ As, 10.92g
Rome mint, 72 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 449 (R). BMC 644.
Obv: T CAES VESPASIAN IMP P TR P COS II; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Aquila between two standards
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, April 2019. Ex Savoca Silver 30, 27 January 2019, lot 337.

The aquila between two standards type was struck early in Vespasian's reign to honour the loyalty of the legions, seen here on the reverse of this rare Titus as Caesar As. The aquila, which featured an eagle clutching a thunderbolt, was the most important standard of any legion. With the recent successful completion of the Civil War and Jewish rebellion Vespasian and Titus knew which side their bread was buttered on! The type was later revived under Titus and Domitian for their cistophori.

Solid portrait with a fetching dark patina.
6 commentsDavid AthertonApr 11, 2019
38220.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm.8 views Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm. Alexandria mint, Struck A.D. 95/6. Scarce (Emmett "frequency" 2). From the D. Thomas Collection
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm (34.7 mm, 23.61 g, 11 h). Alexandria mint, Struck A.D. 95/6. [AVT KAIC ΘЄ] OVIOC ΔOMIT [CЄB ΓЄPM], laureate head of Domitian right / Frontal elevation of triumphal arch; L - IE ( yr. 15 = A.D. 95/6 ). Emmett 257.15. Near VF / VF, very dark green smooth patina. Scarce (Emmett "frequency" 2).
3 commentsAncient AussieApr 11, 2019
19_03_1_1_-g1_01_-23_,_Anonymous_II__(Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_)),_AR-Denarius,_H-111,_CNH_I_-109,_U-112,_Q-001,_h,_12,5mm,_0,32g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 19.03.1.1./g1.01./23., Anonymous II. (Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-111, CNH I.-109, U-112, #0190 viewsCÁC II. 19.03.1.1./g1.01./23., Anonymous II. (Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-111, CNH I.-109, U-112, #01
avers: Illegible legend, the ornament of Kufic letters, the border of dots.
reverse: Cross, between four crosses and four dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5 mm, weight: 0,32g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1172-1196 A.D., ref: Huszár-111, CNH I.-109, Unger-112,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 19.03.1.1./g1.01./23.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 11, 2019
8640_8641.jpg
Provincial, Caesarea, Cappadocia, AE30, ΜΗΤΡΟΠ KAICAPC2 viewsAE30
Roman Provincial: Caesarea, Cappadocia
Julia Domna
Born circa: 170AD - Died: 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 217AD
Issued: 205AD
30.0mm 17.19gr 0h
O: IOYΛΙΑ ΔΟΜΝΑ ΑΥ; Draped bust, right.
R: ΜΗΤΡΟΠ KAICAPC; (MH ligate) Agama of Mt. Argaeus, surmounted by star, placed on altar.
Exergue: εΤΙΓ (Regnal Year = 13; 205AD)
BMC Galatia 26 var. (legend and date); Huntarian 2259
aVF
Savoca Auctions/Claudia Savoca 18th Blue, Lot 960
3/30/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
8611_8612.jpg
Provincial, Ankyra, Phrygia, AE18, ΑΓΚΥΡΑΝΩΝ1 viewsAE18
Roman Provincial: Ankyra, Phrygia
Julia Domna
Born circa: 170AD - Died: 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 217AD
Issued: ?
18.0mm 2.89gr 7h
O: ΔΟΜΝΑ CεΒΑCΤΗ; Draped bust, right.
R: ΑΓΚΥ-ΡΑΝΩΝ; Cult statue of Artemis Ephesia, stags at feet.
Ankyra, Phrygia Mint
Lindgren 890; SNG Munchen 103.
aVF
Savoca Auctions London/Philipp Eckhert 1st Blue, Lot 715
3/23/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
8609_8610.jpg
Provincial, Antioch, Pisidia, AE22, ANTIOCH MENCIS CO1 viewsAE22
Roman Provincial: Antioch, Pisidia
Julia Domna
Born circa: 170AD - Died: 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 217AD
22.0mm 5.09gr 7h
O: IVLIA DO-MNA AC; Draped bust, right.
R: ANTIOC-H (MEN)CIS CO; Men, draped and wearing Phrygian cap, standing facing, head right, left foot on bucranium, crescents on shoulders, holding scepter with right hand, Nike on globe in left hand, resting on cippus, rooster at left foot.
Antioch, Pisidia Mint
SNG Paris 1133-4; SNG Cop 39; Krzyanowska II/5.
aVF
Savoca Auctions London/Philipp Eckhert 1st Blue, Lot 748
3/23/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
8613_8614.jpg
Provincial, Parlais, Pisidia, AE22, IVL AVG COL PARLAIS1 viewsAE22
Roman Provincial: Parlais, Pisidia
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued:
22.0mm 5.58gr 7h
O: IMP CAES L SEP SEVER P; Laureate, cuirassed bust, left.
R: IVL AVG C-O-L PARLAIS; Men, standing right, left foot on bucranium, holding pine cone and scepter.
Parlais, Pisidia Mint
Waddington 4793; Paris 82-3; SNG Fitz. 5218; Mabbot 2103; SNG Cop 13; Imhoof MG 118; Righetti 1413; SNG France 1676-7; SNG von Aulock 8617.
Savoca Auctions London/Philipp Eckhert 1st Blue, Lot 759
3/23/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
8638_8639.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR1 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194AD
16.0mm 3.26gr 0h
O: IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: FELI-CIT TE-M-POR; Two cornucopiae, crossed, corn ear standing between.
Emesa Mint
BMC 347; Cohen 192; RIC 373; Sear (2000) 6274.
Aorta: 357: B3, O20, R77, T36, M2.
VF
Savoca Auctions/Claudia Savoca 18th Blue, Lot 1531.
3/31/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
8607_8608.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, CM XXIZ0 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 276 - 277AD
25.0 x 23.5mm 3.30gr 5h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, mantled bust left, holding scepter with eagle atop.
R: SO-LI I-INVICT-O; Sol driving spread quadriga, right hand raised, left holding whip and globe.
Exergue: CM, above; XXIZ, below.
Cyzicus Mint
RIC V-2 911, XXIZ
Aorta: 641: B47, O38, R155, T133, M2.
VF
sealed diamond 323738238421
3/24/19 4/10/19
Nicholas ZApr 11, 2019
Maxentius_as_Caesar_RIC_Carthage_51a.jpg
Maxentius as Caesar - RIC VI 51a (Carthage)2 viewsDenomination: Follis
Era: Late 306 AD
Metal: AE
Obverse: M AVR MAXENTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right

Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands; H in left field, Δ in exergue.
Mint: Carthage
Weight: 10.20 gm.
Reference: RIC VI Carthage, 51a.
Provenance: Purchased from Mike Vosper, March 28, 2019; ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 46, lot 804 (subsequently processed, removing dirt and deposits).

RIC: “The mint of Carthage, previously administered as part of Severus’ territories, passed into new control with Maxentius’ revolt at Rome in October 306…The immediate response to Maxentius’ revolt was a coinage in gold and Aes, in which Herculius appears as the sole legitimate Augustus, styled AVG or IMP…AVG; the title ‘Caesar’ is given to Maxentius (who receives it nowhere else at all)…”

GVF. Clean smooth surfaces, with no evidence of recent surface crud removal after the sale by Roma Numismatics.
Steve B5Apr 10, 2019
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_RIC_IV_301a_AE-Sest,_IMP_GORDIANVS_PIVS_FEL_AVG,_P_M_TR_P_III_COS_II_P_P,_S-C,_Roma_240-41,_Q-001,__h,_29mm,_20,61g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 301a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, -/-//SC, P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, #173 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 301a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, -/-//SC, P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, #1
avers: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M TR P III COS II P P, Apollo enthroned left, holding the olive branch and resting arm on the lyre, SC belove.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 28,0-29,0mm, weight: 20,61g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 240-241 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 301a, C-240,
Q-001
1 commentsquadransApr 10, 2019
20190408_171251.jpg
Taras, Calabria 5 views302-228 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 0.82g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with wing.
R: Herakles standing right, wrestling the Nemean lion; club behind, TAPAN above.
cf Vlasto 1365; HN Italy 976
Scarce
ex Savoca Coins

2 commentsEnodiaApr 10, 2019
ZH_4.jpg
Phoenicia, Arados 89-88 B.C3 viewsAE 21.88mm (Thickness 2.73mm), weight 5.42g, die axis = 12h (0 degrees), denomination B.

Obverse: Veiled bust of Astarte-Europa right, wearing stephane, border of dots.

Reverse: Humped bull galloping left, head facing, monograms above, Aradian era date 170 (POA) & Greek letter M with Phoenician letter gimel (G) below.
2 commentsAradosApr 10, 2019
Tacitus_INVICTVS.png
Tacitus Antoninianus2 viewsTacitus Antoninianus

Obverse:
IMP C TACITVS INVICTVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse:
PROVIDEN DEOR
Fides standing right, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol,
raising hand and holding globe. KA followed by officina mark A in ex.

Serdica (AD 275-6)

RIC 196-7 (var.)
Sear 11796 (var.)
1 commentsHarry GApr 10, 2019
BCC_BD4_pendant.jpg
BCC BD47 viewsBCC BD4
Stone Pendant or Bead
Uncertain date
Dark gray stone of medium-high hardness with
six flat edges and a double curve at the top. Slightly
asymmetrical, but weighted so as to hang point down.
Possibly made of basalt or very hard limestone.
The hole is drilled from both sides with a
very small opening in the middle.
Max. dimension: 4.1cm. Thickness: 0.65cm.
Weight: 21.36gm.
v-dromeApr 10, 2019
Brettiantrophy.jpg
The Bretti Æ Didrachm20 viewsHead of Ares left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a griffin; grain ear below.

ΒΡΕΤΤΙΩΝ
Nike standing left, placing wreath on trophy to left and cradling palm in her left arm; caduceus between.

Bruttium, 214-211 BC

11.72g

SNG ANS 34. HN Italy 1975; Scheu 6

Rare with caduceus


Ex-Artemide Kunstauktionen e-Live auction 7 lot 48
3 commentsJay GT4Apr 09, 2019
AlexanderTet.jpg
Philip III Tetradrachm44 viewsHead of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck

Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, eagle in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, ΦIΛIΠΠOY downward on right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ in exergue, radiate head of Helios facing on left, KY under throne

Struck under Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I,

c. 323 - 317 B.C

Babylon mint, 17.056g, 29.2mm, die axis 90o,

Price P205, Müller Alexander P117, SNG Cop 1083, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Saroglos -

Ex-Forum!

Coins from this issue were struck in the names of both of Alexander the Great's co-ruling heirs. Most, including this example, were struck in the name of his brother Philip III, but some were struck in the name of his son Alexander IV. During this period, Archon, Dokimos, and Seleukos I ruled in succession as Macedonian satraps in Babylon. Archon was appointed satrap of Babylonia after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Perdiccas suspected Archon of colluding in the theft of Alexander's corpse and, in 321 B.C., sent Dokimos to replace him. Archon was defeated and died from battle wounds. Seleucus, was made satrap by Perdiccas' rival Antipater, arrived in Babylon in October or November 320 B.C. and defeated Dokimos.

6 commentsJay GT4Apr 09, 2019
1256_P_Hadrian_RPC6435_26.jpg
6435 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Nome Obol 126-27 AD Khonsou-Harakhte standing6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6435.26; Dattari-Savio Pl. 307, 11069; Emmett 1270

Issue Xoite

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΞΟΙΤ, L ΙΑ
Khonsou-Harakhte/Heracles standing, facing, head l., wearing pschent, holding club in l. hand, and ram, l., in r. hand

4.95 gr
19 mm
12h
3 commentsokidokiApr 09, 2019
1255_P_Hadrian_RPC5458_10.jpg
5458 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Sphinx seated right4 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5458.10; Dattari-Savio Pl. 98, 2000; Emmett 1054.8

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Sphinx seated, r., paw on wheel

17.28 gr
34 mm
12h
okidokiApr 09, 2019
1254_P_Hadrian_RPC5452_9.jpg
5452 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5452.9; Dattari-Savio Suppl. Pl. 11, 113; Emmett 1015.8

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Nilus reclining on hippopotamus, l., holding reed and cornucopia, with lotus flowers below

17.24 gr
34 mm
12h
2 commentsokidokiApr 09, 2019
1253_P_Hadrian_RPC5578.jpg
5578 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Canopus van Osiris6 viewsReference.
Emmett 827.10; Köln 903; Dattari 1325; Milne 1151; SNG Cop 318v; RPC III, 5578

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TΡI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔEKATOV
Canopus of Osiris right.

12.04 gr
27 mm
12h
1 commentsokidokiApr 09, 2019
Plautilla_R678_fac.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 370 - Plautilla, Concordia7 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Laodicea
Obv.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Plautilla right
Rev.: CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left on backless throne, holding patera and double cornucopiae.
Ref.: RIC IVa 370, CRE 426 [S]
AR, 3.20g
Ex Freeman & Sear, Manhattan Sale I, Lot 371 (2010)
Ex A. Lynn Collection
Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 83, Lot 794, (2002)
2 commentsshanxiApr 09, 2019
CONTINE1-43-ROMAN.jpg
Constantine I, Antioch RIC VII-086.Γ0 viewsAE3
Antioch mint, 330-333, and 335 A.D.
19mm, 2.22g
RIC VII-86, RCVv.4-16359

Obverse:
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG
Rosette-diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GLORIA EXERCITVS
SM AN Γ
Two soldiers standing facing one another, each holding reversed spear and resting hand on shield set on ground; between them, two standards.
Will JApr 09, 2019
CALIGULA-1-ROMAN.jpg
Caligula, RIC I-38 Rome1 viewsAE As
Rome mint, 37-38 A.D.
30mm, 11.64
RIC I-38, RCVv.1-1803

Obverse:
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left.

Reverse:
VESTA
S-C
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse spear.
Will JApr 09, 2019
RPC_II_2522_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2522_Domitianus30 viewsObv: AVT ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡΜ, Laureate head right
Rev: NEIΛOΣ (above) / L ζ (left field), Nile reclined left; below hippopotamus and lotus
BIL/Tetradrachm (26.32 mm 11.440 g 12h) Struck in Alexandria (Egypt) 86-87 A.D.
RPC 2522, Dattari-Savio 442-6719
ex CGB From the ENP Collection
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianusApr 08, 2019
P1130471-.jpg
Venus Terracotta3 viewsVenus TerracottaTanitApr 08, 2019
_AN19462-.jpg
Capitoline Wolf6 viewsBronze
65 mm x 35 mm
1 commentsTanitApr 08, 2019
G029LG.jpg
ISLANDS OF THRACE, THASOS. Ca. 480-463 BC.13 viewsSilver Stater (8.52 gm; 21 mm). Satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 5; SNG Ashmolean 3661-2; SNG Cop. 1010-1. Well struck on a nice broad flan. Choice EF. Toned. 5 commentsMark R1Apr 08, 2019
PCW-G6443.jpg
ATTICA, Athens. 449-413 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.24 gm; 22 mm)9 viewsHelmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind. SNG Cop. 31; Starr pl. XXII, 7. Nicely struck on a compact flan. Elegant style with a full crest. Shallow marks on Athena's cheek. Choice Extremely Fine. Not from the recent hoards. Nice old-cabinet toning. 4 commentsMark R1Apr 08, 2019
Victorin_-_buste_armé_à_gauche_-_SALUS_AUG.jpg
4 viewsIMP VICTORINVS AVG
SALVS AVG
PYLApr 08, 2019
Dacians_bearing_the_draco_on_Trajan__s_Column.jpg
Dacian Draco on Trajan's Column4 viewsThe Dacian Draco was the standard ensign of troops of the ancient Dacian people, which can be seen in the hands of the soldiers of Decebalus in several scenes depicted on Trajan's Column in Rome, Italy. It has the form of a dragon with open wolf-like jaws containing several metal tongues. The hollow dragon's head was mounted on a pole with a fabric tube affixed at the rear. In use, the draco was held up into the wind, or above the head of a horseman, where it filled with air and gave the impression it was alive while making a shrill sound as the wind passed through its strips of material. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_DracoJoe SermariniApr 08, 2019
Dacian_Draco_on_Trajan__s_Column_2.jpg
Dacian Draco on Trajan's Column3 viewsThe Dacian Draco was the standard ensign of troops of the ancient Dacian people, which can be seen in the hands of the soldiers of Decebalus in several scenes depicted on Trajan's Column in Rome, Italy. It has the form of a dragon with open wolf-like jaws containing several metal tongues. The hollow dragon's head was mounted on a pole with a fabric tube affixed at the rear. In use, the draco was held up into the wind, or above the head of a horseman, where it filled with air and gave the impression it was alive while making a shrill sound as the wind passed through its strips of material. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacian_DracoJoe SermariniApr 08, 2019
Faustina_II_R677_fac.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.270, 697 - Faustina II, Juno, IVNONI REGINAE7 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: IVNONI REGINAE, IVNONI REGINAE, Juno seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre; to left, peacock standing left.
Ag, 3.34 g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III 697, CRE 185
2 commentsshanxiApr 08, 2019
Antioch_ad_Orontem~0.jpg
Antiochia ad Orontem 1st century B.C.3 viewsSyria, Seleukis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem. 1st century B.C. AE dichalkon 15.3 mm, 4.14 g. Obv: Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right. Rev: ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ THΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ to right and left of tripod. SNG Copenhagen 71; BMC 19-20 var (field mark); Mionnet 5, 20.1 commentsddwauApr 08, 2019
Faustina_II_R676_fac.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.273, 745 - Faustina II, CONSECRATIO, peacock, throne1 viewsFaustina II
AR-Denar, Rome mint, posthumous AD 176 - 181
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONSECRATIO, transversed sceptre on draped throne; in foreground, peacock standing right.
Ag, 2.62g, 19.5mm
Ref.: RIC III 745, CRE 219 [C]
shanxiApr 07, 2019
AAHG_small.png
Licinius I AE follis1 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD.

Cyzicus. 317-320 AD.

19mm., 3.52g.

IMP LICI-NIVS AVG. Bust of Licinius, laureate, draped, left, holding sceptre in right hand and mappa in left hand.

IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG. Jupiter, nude, chlamys draped across left shoulder, standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and sceptre in left hand. MintMark: (wreath)/SMK. OfficinaMark: Γ.

References: RIC VII Cyzicus 9

AAHG
RLApr 07, 2019
Sabina_R675_portrait.jpg
AD 128-137 - SABINA1 viewsVibia Sabina (83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin to Roman Emperor Hadrian.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxiApr 07, 2019
Sabina_R675_fac.jpg
RIC 2, p.389, 413a - Sabina, Vesta seated3 viewsSabina
AR Denarius, AD 128-136
Obv: SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, draped bust of Sabina to right, her hair piled on top of her head above an elaborate stephane
Rev: Vesta seated to left, holding Palladium in her extended right hand and transverse scepter with her left.
Ag, 3.26g, 20mm
Ref.: RIC 413a [S], CRE 67 [R]
1 commentsshanxiApr 07, 2019
Plautilla_03_portrait.jpg
AD 202-205 - PLAVTILLA3 viewsPublia Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Caracalla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxiApr 07, 2019
olbia_SNGblacksea484cf.jpg
Sarmatia, Olbia, cf. SNG Blacksea 4840 viewsOlbia, 330-300 BC
AE 19, 4.46g, 18.76x16.87mm, 180°
obv. Bearded head of Borysthenes l.
rev. [OLBIO]
Battleaxe and gorytos
below EPI (magistrat)
ref. cf. SNG Blacksea 484; cf. SNG Stancomb 379
F+, olive green patina, small oval flan
JochenApr 07, 2019
AAGUw_small.png
Licinius I AE follis2 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD.

Nicomedia. 321-324 AD.

20mm., 2.71g.

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG. Bust of Licinius, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right

IOVI CONS-ERVATORI. Jupiter, nude, chlamys draped across left shoulder, standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and leaning on eagle-tipped sceptre with left hand; to left, eagle holding wreath; to right, captive. X on III. Mintmark SMNA.

References: RIC VII Nicomedia 44; Sear 15223?

AAGU
RLApr 07, 2019
ambrakia_SNGcop23.jpg
Epiros, Ambrakia, SNG Copenhagen 230 viewsAmbrakia, 238-168 BC
AE 18, 4.97g, 18.25mm, 30°
obv. Head of Dione, veiled and laureate, r.
rev. A - M / B - R
Obelisk of Apollo Agyeios with two-stage base and peak, all wizhin laurel wreath
ref. SNG Copenhagen 23; SNG München 525; SNG Evelpidis 1770; BMC Thessaly p.94, 5
F+, green patina, some corrosion

Dione was Aphrodite's mother.
JochenApr 07, 2019
AAGMb_small.png
Constantine I, AE3 posthumous issue.1 views347-348 AD.

16mm., 1.58g.

DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG. Bust of Constantine I, veiled, draped, cuirassed, right

VN - MR. Constantine I, veiled, draped, standing right, raising left hand. Mintmark unread.

References:

AAGM
RLApr 07, 2019
AAGCb_small.png
Carinus AE Antoninianus. 6 viewsCarinus. 283-285 AD.

Rome, 283-285 AD.

21mm., 3.25g.

IMP CARINVS P F AVG. Bust of Carinus, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right, or bust of Carinus, radiate, cuirassed, right

AETERNIT AVGG. Aeternitas, draped, standing left, holding phoenix on globe in right hand and lifting robe with left hand

References: RIC V Carus 248

AAGC
RLApr 07, 2019
bosporus_asander_Anokhin224.jpg
Kingdom of Bosporos, Asander, Anokhin 2240 viewsAsander as Archon, 47-43 BC
AE 26 (Obol), 13.12g, 25.81mm, 0°
obv. Head of Apoll (Asander?), diademed, r., below chin c/m 8-pointed star in circular incus, between 2 rays Delta
rev. [ARXONTOC] - [A]CANDR[OV]
Prora, [r. before Trident], below c/m 8-pointed star in circular incus, between 2 rays Delta
ref. Anokhin 224; cf. MacDonald 193 (ASANDROV with Sigma); RPC I, 1848; Natwoka 12-14; SNG Copenhagen (with
same c/m)
rare, F, brown patina, some corrosion

These are usually overstrucked on coins of Bosporos or Pontic bronzes from the time of Mithradates Eupator.
JochenApr 07, 2019
1347.jpg
varb1788_21 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKOP(ΩN), Nemesis standing left holding scales and scepter, wheel at her feet.
19 mm, 3.20 gms

Varbanov 1788
Charles MApr 07, 2019
1345.jpg
hj6.28.04.04_20 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: [AVT] K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC [AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ CEPΓ TITIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩ, in right field N, Athena standing left holding patera and staff, shield resting on ground left. E in left lower field.
28 mm, 10.30 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.4.4
Charles MApr 07, 2019
489c.jpg
syd512d0 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Cappadocia


Obv: AV K M AVPH ANT..., Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MHTPOΠO KAICAPI, Agalma of Mt. Argaeus on altar inscribed with εTB
26 mm, 10.20 gms

Sydenham 512d (slightly different obverse legend)
Charles MApr 07, 2019
173.jpg
hj6.26.36.25_30 viewsElagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC, laureate head right.
Rev: VΠ I(OV)Λ ANT CEΛEVK(OV) M(AP)KIANOΠOΛITΩN, Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
26 mm, 8.40 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.36.25
Charles MApr 07, 2019
RI_170gd_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 1288 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laurel and rosette diadem, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and labarum; Victory behind, steering galley
Minted in Rome; (E| _//RE). A.D. 348 - 350
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 128 (R2)

5.95 gms, 25.24 mm. 180 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvmApr 06, 2019
RI_169by_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 0536 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:- FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding Phoenix and labarum, Victory sitting at the stern, steering the ship
Minted in Alexandria; (_ | * //ALEB), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 53 (R)

5.15 gms, 22.83 mm. 0 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvmApr 06, 2019
G_336_Larissa_fac~0.jpg
Thessaly, Larissa, Nymph Larissa, Horse and Foal1 viewsLarissa, Thessaly
AR Drachm
Obv.: Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left
Rev: Mare with foal, both standing right; ΛAPIΣ above, AIΩN in exergue.
Ag, 5.98g
Ref.: CNG 292, Lancaster 2012, Nr. 85 (same dies)
Ex Künker, eLive Auction 53, Lot 8042
shanxiApr 06, 2019
Julia_Domna_04_portrait.jpg
AD 193–211 - IVLIA DOMNA1 viewsJulia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress and wife of Septimius Severus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxiApr 06, 2019
Didia_Clara_01_portrait.jpg
AD 193 - DIDIA CLARA1 viewsDidia Clarawas a daughter and only child to the Roman Emperor Didius Julianus and Empress Manlia Scantilla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxiApr 06, 2019
Faustina_I_R674_portrait.jpg
AD 138-141 - FAVSTINA I4 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxiApr 06, 2019
Faustina_I_R674_fac.jpg
RIC 3, p.071, 361a - Faustina I, Ceres3 viewsFaustina Senior
Denarius after 141
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA, bust right
Rev.: AVGVSTA, Ceres standing left, raising hand and holding torch
Ag, 3.43g, 17.4mm
Ref.: RIC 361a [C], CRE 83 [S]
shanxiApr 06, 2019
Crispina_R673_fac~0.jpg
RIC 3, p.399, 281B - Crispina, altar1 viewsCrispina
Augusta AD 178-182
AR Denarius
Obv.: CRISPINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev.: DIS - GENITALIBVS. Garlanded and lighted altar
Ag, 3.01g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 281B, CRE 278 [S]
shanxiApr 06, 2019
28F7FB08-320E-40FC-A285-837AE735B564.jpeg
ILLYRIA, DYRRACHION AR DRACHM, ETRATONIKOS & PARMENISKOU MAGISTRATES2 views

BMC 110, Centered Very Fine, 18.3mm, 3.22 grams, Struck Circa. Late 3rd to 2nd Century B.C.E.

Obverse: Cow standing right suckling calf; head of Helios above, ETRATONIKOS between

Reverse: Double stellate pattern within linear borders, DUR PAR MENIS KOU around
Mark R1Apr 06, 2019
RI_064ua_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -4 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:– AEQVITA-TI AVGG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare. A.D. 201
Reference(s) – RIC IV -; BMCRE -; RSC 22a

Different dies to Arnold lot 5 and Barry Murphy SEV-169.

2.57 gms, 18.24 mm. 330 degrees
maridvnvmApr 06, 2019
AAFCb_small.png
Constantinus I. AE-Follis3 viewsConstantine I. 307-337 AD.

Trier. 310-313 or 313-315 AD

23mm., 4.10g.

CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Type: Bust of Constantine I, laureate, cuirassed, right

SOLI INVIC-TO COMITI. Sol, chlamys draped over left shoulder, standing left (or standing front, head left), raising right hand and holding globe in left hand. MintMark: T/F//PTR

Reference: RIC VI Treveri 873 or RIC VII Treveri 42

AAFC
1 commentsRLApr 06, 2019
AAEYb_small.png
Constantine I. AE reduced follis2 viewsConstantine I. 307-337 AD.

Antioch. 325-326.

18 mm., 2,70g.

CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Head of Constantine I, laureate, right

PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG. Camp gate with two turrets, without doors, with varying number of stone layers; star above. MintMark: -/-//SMANT. OfficinaMark: B.

References: RIC VII Antioch 63

AAEY
RLApr 06, 2019
RI_064tz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -2 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - !!, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.60g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but this example showw two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvmApr 06, 2019
RI_064fj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -2 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - (!!), Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.00g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but other examples of this die show two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvmApr 06, 2019
AAEFb_small.png
Galerius AE Post-reform Radiate7 viewsGalerius (as Caesar). 293-305 AD as Caesar. 305-311 AD as Augustus.

Antioch. 296 AD.

20mm., 2.52g.

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Bust of Galerius, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right

CONCORDIA MIL-ITVM. Galerius, draped, cuirassed, standing right, receiving small Victory on globe from Jupiter; Jupiter, standing left, leaning on sceptre with left hand. Officina Mark: Γ, star above. Mintmark ANT

Reference: RIC VI Antioch 61b

AAEF
1 commentsRLApr 06, 2019
AAEEb_small.png
Diocletian, AE radiate fraction1 viewsDiocletian. 284-305 AD.

Antioch. 296 AD.

20mm., 1.92g.

IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Head of Diocletian, laureate, right

CONCORDIA MIL-ITVM. Diocletian, draped, cuirassed, standing right, receiving small Victory on globe from Jupiter; Jupiter, standing left, leaning on sceptre with left hand. Officina Mark: ς, star above. Mintmark A[..]

References: RIC VI Antioch 60a

AAEE
RLApr 06, 2019
Lycimachos.jpg
Lysimachos AR tetradrachm5 viewsOBV: Head of Alexander right, with horn of Ammon
REV: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY
Athena seated left, holding Nike and resting on shield, upright crescent in outer left field, cult image in inner left field, ET monogram in exergue
Date: 323-281 BC, Pergamum mint
Thompson 224

31mm, 16.67g
miffyApr 06, 2019
nero2.jpg
Nero AE AS0 viewsOBV:IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR POT P P
bare head right, globe at point of bust
REV: S-C
Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR
Date: 66 A.D. Lyons Mint
RIC 545, BMC 389

29mm, 10.3g
miffyApr 06, 2019
Plancia_1.JPG
Gnaeus Plancius8 viewsObv: CN. PLANCIVS AED CVR SC, Head of Macedonia (sometimes identified as Diana) facing right.

Rev: Goat standing right, quiver and bow behind.

Silver Denarius, Rome Mint, 55 BC

4.2 grams, 18.7 mm, 180°

RSC Plancia 1, S396
Matt InglimaApr 06, 2019
1337.jpg
diumspijk0102 viewsElagabalus
Dium

Obv: AV KAI MAV ANTW..., Laureate draped bust right, seen from front.
Rev: Hexastyle temple, flaming altar within under central arch, ΓΠ-C (year 283) divided above roof, ΔIHNW in exergue.
22 mm, 8.74 gms

Spijkerman 10 variant (obverse and reverse legends); CNG, Electronic Auction 307, Lot 201; CNG, Electronic Auction 339, Lot 283 (Exact legend matches for both CNG coins.)
Charles MApr 06, 2019
Gunthamund.jpg
Vandals Gunthamund AE Nummus3 viewsVandals of North Africa, Gunthamund (484-496 AD). AE Nummus,
0.49 gr, 8mm.

Obv: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: D within wreath.

MEC 13-14; BMC -.

The letter D could signify the value = 1/1500th of
a siliqua.
Very rare.
TanitApr 05, 2019
redPMTRP_V_emperor_sacr_left_Cldc.jpg
PMTRP V sacrif Cldc 1 viewsObverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV_ALEXANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: P M TR P V COS II P P, SC left and right in field
Severus Alexander, laureate, togate, standing front, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over ligted tripod left and holding scroll in left hand at side
BMC 377, RIC 446
Weight, 22.10g; die axis, 12h.
mix_valApr 05, 2019
AAANb_small.png
Licinius I, AE follis.4 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD.

Heraclea (assumed). 313 AD.

20mm., 3.70g.

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG. Laureate head right.

IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVG or AVGG. Jupiter standing left, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory and sceptre; eagle at foot left. A or Δ in right field. Uncertain mintmark, probably S[MHT]

References: RIC VI Heraclea 73 [assumed]

AAAN
RLApr 05, 2019
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_07_19_pm.png
Septimius Severus0 viewsSilver Denarius Rome 193 CE
Obverse: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PART AV[G], laureate head right
Reverse: FIDEI LEG [TR P] COS, Fides standing left, holding Victory and vexillum
RIC 1
David M24Apr 05, 2019
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_07_10_pm.png
Clodius Albinus1 viewsSilver Denarius Lugdunum 195-196 CE
Obverse: IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG: Bust of Clodius Albinus, laureate, draped, right | Head of Clodius Albinus, laureate, right
Reverse: SPES AVG COS II: Spes, draped, advancing left, holding up flower in right hand and raising skirt with left hand
RIC 42
David M24Apr 05, 2019
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_06_50_pm.png
Pescennius Niger2 viewsSilver Denarius Antioch 193-194 CE
Obverse: IMP CAES C PESC NIG[ER]IVS A[VG?]Head of Pescennius Niger, laureate, right
Reverse: FORTVNAE REDV: Fortuna, draped, standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand
RIC 26
David M24Apr 05, 2019
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_06_42_pm.png
Didius Julianus2 viewsSilver Denarius Rome 193 CE
Obverse: [IMP] CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG: Head of Didius Julianus, laureate, right
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT: Concordia, draped, standing front, head left, holding legionary eagle in right hand and vexillum in left hand
RIC 1
David M24Apr 05, 2019
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_06_24_pm.png
Pertinax2 viewsSilver Denarius. Rome 193 CE.
Obverse: [IMP CAES P] HELV PERTIN AVG: Head of Pertinax, laureate, right
Reverse: OPI DIVINAE TR P COS [II]: Ops, draped, seated left on throne, holding two corn-ears in right hand
RIC 9
David M24Apr 05, 2019
Emerita35.jpg
Divus Augustus Emerita7 viewsSPAIN, Emerita. Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Æ Dupondius (35mm, 25.7 g, 2h).DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER CAE, Radiate head left / City-view seen from aerial perspective: city wall with five T-shaped crenellations fronted by main gate consisting of two arched bays flanked by two multi-story crenellated towers, each with arched window; gate inscribed AVGVSTA/EMERITA and decorated with four T-shaped crenellations. RPC 30b; SNG Copenhagen -; Burgos 1032.1 commentsAncient AussieApr 04, 2019
qii-1.jpg
S.809 Anglo-Saxon sceat4 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: East Anglia
Series Q II D
S.809
Type 65
O: Quadruped left, forked tail, in field of pellets
R: Bird left

Ex- Silbury Coins, Mark Rasmussen
NapApr 04, 2019
BCC_BD2,_BD3_bead_scale.jpg
BCC BD2 and BCC BD34 viewsTwo-Hole Beads
Caesarea Maritima
Uncertain Date

BD2, Lavender Lapis? or
Azurite? or Sodalite?
Uncertain shape description.
The holes are drilled from two
sides, with a restriction in the
middle where they meet at a
slight angle.
9.5 x 5.0 x 3.0mm.
approx. 0.25gm.

BD3, Dark blue glass
Double truncated, faceted
pyramid? The holes appear to
be drilled straight through with
a consistent diameter.
10.5 x 4.5 x 2.75mm
approx 0.15gm

Separate surface finds, 1972 and 1975.
Any other information or comments are
welcome. (Click for higher resolution)
v-dromeApr 04, 2019
4410076.jpg
Akarnania Leukas circa 375-350 BC 19.5 mm 8.49g 5h Pegasi 663 viewsPegasos flying left/Helmeted head of Athena left.
Rare Calciati list one coin from this die pair
1 commentsGrant HApr 04, 2019
76349q00.jpg
Pannonian Celts, Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) Type, c. 2nd Century B.C.5 viewsPannonian Celts, Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) Type, c. 2nd Century B.C., Bronzetetradrachm, cf. Göbl OTA 197, Lanz 465; derived from the Macedonian Kingdom tetradrachms of Philip II. This type normally has a prominent raised round (ball) cheek, but on this example, the cheek is less prominent than most.

Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. Today, it is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the west.
CE76349. Bronze tetradrachm, cf. Göbl OTA 197, Lanz 465; derived from the Macedonian Kingdom tetradrachms of Philip II, VF, tight flan, porous, Syrmia mint, weight 6.239g, maximum diameter 22.2mm, die axis 270o, c. 2nd century B.C.; obverse devolved laureate head of Zeus right, hair in arcs on both sides of central point, broad laurel wreath; reverse devolved horse trotting left, pellet in circle above
2 commentsMark R1Apr 04, 2019
Antiochus_III~10.jpg
Antiochus III 223-187 B.C.0 viewsAntiochus III 223-187 B.C. Ae 14.2~16.3mm. 3.76g. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo r. with short straight hair, dotted border. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, horse trotting r. dotted border. SC 1094, WSM 1189, CSE 438-439, SNG Spaer 628-635.ddwauApr 04, 2019
Domitian_RIC_435_.jpg
Domitian AR Denarius62 viewsDOMITIAN, (A.D. 81-96), silver denarius, Rome mint, issued A.D. 86, Second Issue
(3.47 g),
Obv. laureate head of Domitian to right, around IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V,
Rev. around IMP XII COS XII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right, fighting, holding javelin and shield,
(RIC 435, RSC 201b BMC 93).
Attractive blue and gold patina, extremely fine.
Ex Dr V.J.A. Flynn Collection. With old dealer's ticket.
Noble Numismatics Auction 120 Lot 3217 April 4, 2019.
10 commentsorfewApr 04, 2019
Divus_Antoninus_Pius_Æ_Sestertius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 1 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right
CONSECRATIO - Funeral pyre of four tiers decorated with garlands, surmounted by facing quadriga; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.68g / 32mm / 360
References:
RIC III 1266 (Aurelius)
Banti 74
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 45 #596

Antoninus Pius' funeral ceremonies were described as elaborate but, despite the pyre depicted on this coin, according to his Historia Augusta biography, Antoninus' body (and not his ashes) was buried in Hadrian's mausoleum. After a seven-day interval (justitium) Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. In contrast to their behavior during Antoninus' campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Antoninus, now Divus Antoninus. A column was dedicated to Antoninus on the Campus Martius, and the temple he had built in the Forum in 141 to his deified wife Faustina was rededicated to the deified Faustina and the deified Antoninus. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda.
Gary W2Apr 04, 2019
Divus_Antoninus_Pius_Æ_Sestertius_120.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 0 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare-headed and draped bust right
CONSECRATIO - Eagle standing right on globe, with head left and wings folded.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161-162 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 30.68g / 37mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce with draped bust.
References:
RIC 1262 (Aurelius) var. (bare head only)
Banti 68
BMCRE 871 (Aurelius) note
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 46 #630

Two days before his death, Antoninus was at his ancestral estate at Lorium, in Etruria, about twelve miles (19 km) from Rome. He ate Alpine cheese at dinner quite greedily. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. The day after that, 7 March 161, he summoned the imperial council, and passed the state and his daughter to Marcus. The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password - "aequanimitas" (equanimity). He then turned over, as if going to sleep, and died. His death closed out the longest reign since Augustus (surpassing Tiberius by a couple of months).
Gary W2Apr 04, 2019
Antoninus_Pius_AE_As_142_AD_PAX_14.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIX - Head of Antoninus Pius, laureate, right
COS IIII S C - Pax, draped, standing left, holding branch, extended in right hand and cornucopiae in left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (155-156 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 14.03g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC III 955
Cohen 257
Acquisition/Sale: mortown Ebay
Gary W2Apr 04, 2019
Antoninus_Pius_and_Marcus_Aurelius,_as_Caesar,_AR_Denarius__Rome,_AD_139_.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 0 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, - Bare head of Pius right.
AVRELIVS CAES AVG PII COS DES - Bare head of Aurelius left.
Mint: Rome (139 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.12g / 18mm / 7h
References:
RIC III 411b (Pius)
RSC 4
Provenances:
Ex Roma Numismatics E-LIVE Auction 2, 30 August 2018, lot 652.
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 54 #746

The earliest portrait of Marcus Aurelius.
Gary W2Apr 04, 2019
Antoninus_Pius__A_D__138-161__AE_sestertius__Rome_mint,_Struck_A_D__145-147_45.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius1 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P - Laureate head right
COS IIII - Antoninus Pius standing left, wearing radiate nimbus and military attire, holding olive branch and spear.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (145-161 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.49g / 30mm / 360
References:
RIC 765
Banti 116
Cohen 318
Acquisition/Sale: Numismatic Sale #73 Agora Auctions Numismatic Sale #73

Gary W2Apr 04, 2019
heraclius~0.jpg
Heraclius Half siliqua2 viewsHeraclius,
Silver half siliqua. Carthage mint, 614-618 A.D. or less likely 628-629 A.D.; obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross; reverse no inscription; to left bust of Heraclius Constantine, Heraclius' son, wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross, to right bust of Martina, Heraclius' wife, wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross, cross between heads

DO class III, SB-871, DO-233, MIB 149, DO 233, MIB 149, BMC 343-6, Tolstoi 319-20, Ratto 1460-64, Morrison (CBN) 3-11, S 871

scarce
TanitApr 04, 2019
gelimer+.jpg
Vandals Gelimer 50 Denarii2 viewsGelimer Vandals 50 Denarii
VANDALS. Gelimer. 530-534.
AR 50 Denarii (1.20 g). Carthage mint.
Obv.: D N REX G-EILAMIR, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Obv.: D • N/L (mark of value) in two lines; cross above; all within wreath.

MEC 1, 26; BMC Vandals 2-3.
TanitApr 04, 2019
AAAJb_small.png
City of Rome Commemorative2 viewsConstantine I ("the Great"). 307 - 337 AD.

Alexandria.

18mm., 2.67g

VRBS ROMA, crested and helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle

She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above. SMALΓ in exergue.

References:

AAAJ
RLApr 04, 2019
Ptolemy_V.jpg
Ptolemy V 204-180 B.C.0 viewsPtolemy V Epiphanes(?). 204-180 B.C. Æ Hemiobol (17mm, 4.14g & 16mm. 2.75g.). Kyrene mint. Obv:Diademed head of Ptolemy V right, aegis around neck Rev:Draped bust of Libya right,
wearing tainia; double cornucopia below chin.
ddwauApr 04, 2019
Drusus-Tiberius_(10_BC-37_AD)__Asse_21-22_AD__Rome_11_14_g_63_79.JPG
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Bronze AS 4 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head left
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (21-22 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.14g / 1mm / 6h
References:
RIC 45 (Tiberius)
Cohen 2
MIR 2, 31-6
BMCRE 99 Tiberius)
BN 79 (Tiberius)
Provenances:
V.L. Nummus
Acquisition/Sale: V.L. Nummus Internet E-Live Auction 11 #92

From Wikipedia:

Drusus Julius Caesar (14 BC – 14 September AD 23), was the son of Emperor Tiberius, and heir to the Roman Empire following the death of his adoptive brother Germanicus in AD 19.

He was born at Rome to a prominent branch of the gens Claudia, the son of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. His name at birth was Nero Claudius Drusus after his paternal uncle, Drusus the Elder. In AD 4, he assumed the name Julius Caesar following his father's adoption into the Julii by Augustus, and became Drusus Julius Caesar.

Drusus first entered politics with the office of quaestor in AD 10. His political career mirrored that of Germanicus, and he assumed all his offices at the same age as him. Following the model of Augustus, it was intended that the two would rule together. They were both popular, and many dedications have been found in their honor across Roman Italy. Cassius Dio calls him "Castor" in his Roman History, likening Drusus and Germanicus to the twins, Castor and Pollux, of Roman mythology.

Drusus died suddenly 14 September 23, seemingly from natural causes. Ancient historians, such as Tacitus and Suetonius, claim he died amid a feud with the powerful Sejanus, Praetorian prefect of Rome. They allege that he had been murdered. In their account, Sejanus had seduced his wife Livilla, and with the help of a doctor she had poisoned Drusus. Despite the rumors, Tiberius did not suspect Sejanus and the two remained friends until Sejanus' fall from grace in 31.

PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER = priest, holder of Tribunitian power for two years
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Germanicus__Died_AD_19__Æ_As_(29mm,_10_83_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__Struck_under_Claudius,_AD_42-43__106_20.jpg
Germanicus (Caesar) Coin: Bronze AS 4 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head of Germanicus right.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-43 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.83g / 29mm / 6h
References:
RIC I 106 [Claudius]
Cohen 9
BMC 241
von Kaenel Type 79
Provenances:
Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 368 (10 February 2016), lot 396.
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 441 #413

Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
(ac)-Claudius_as-Lib_2.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 2 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C - Libertas standing, to front, holding pileus in right and extending right hand
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 29.48mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 113
Sear 1860
Cohen 47
BMCRE 204
BN 230
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet

Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Claudius_Æ_Sestertiu.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 2 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right, NCAPR counterstamp behind bust
EX S C / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.42g / 36.39mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC² 112
Cohen 38
BMC 185
Sear 1850
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Old Roman Coins.Com
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.



The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Claudius_I_AE_quadra.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 1 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Three-legged modius
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II around S.C - Inscription around S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.10g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 90
Sear 1865
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The modius was a roman unit for grain corresponding to 8.7 liters (2.3 gallons).

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Claudius_I_AE_quadra_1.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 1 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Hand holding pair of scales above PNR
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT - Inscription around S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.20g / 16mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 85
BMCRE 174
Cohen 71
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

"PNR" is not fully understood but probably means "Pondus mummorum restitiutum which means "weight of the coins restored".

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD-This Coin
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero_Claudius_Drusus_AE_sestertius_-_37mm_188.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (for Nero Claudius Drusus)1 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP - Bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus left
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch, arms around.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41-43 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 37mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 109 (Claudius)
BMCRE 208 (Claudius)
CBN 198
Cohen 8
von Kaenel Type 72
Provenances:
Marti Classical Numismatics

Nero Claudius Drusus, commonly called Drusus senior, brother of Tiberius, second son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born in the year of Rome 716, three months after his father had yielded up Livia to Augustus.
Realizing the anticipations of that Emperor, he became the most accomplished hero of his time. Sent at the age of twenty-three into Rhaetia (the Tyrol) to quell a revolt, he conquered the insurgents at Trent in a pitched battle. Afterwards named General of the armies in Germany, his successes were so great that he extended the dominion of the Romans to the banks of the Elbe. This fine character conceived the design of re-establishing the Republic, and entrusted his secret to his brother Tiberius, who it is said betrayed him to Augustus. -- He died in the year 745 (A.D. 9), before he had repassed the Rhine, in the 30th year of his age, deeply regretted by the whole empire for the great and virtuous qualities with which his name was so gloriously associated. After his death the Senate surnamed him GERMANICVS, which was transmitted to his children. Statues and triumphal arches were also erected to his honour and figured on his medals. This Prince had married Antonia, by whom he had Germanicus and Livilla. On his coins which, in each metal, are all more or less rare, he is styled DRVSVS - NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANicus IMP.

Obverse translation:
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMPerator=commander

Reverse translation:
TIberius CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGvstvs Pontifex Maximvs TRibvnitiae Potestatis IMPerator=Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus, Sovereign Pontiff, invested with the tribunitian power.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Tiberius__AD_14-37__Æ_Sestertius_(35_5mm,_27_11_g,_7h)__Rome_mint__Struck_AD_36-37__Hexastyle_temple_with_flanking_wings;_Concordia_seated_within_216.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 views(no legend) - Hexastyle temple with flanking wings; Concordia seated inside, holding patera and cornucopiae; Hercules and Mercury stand on podia; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above pediment.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXIIX - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (36-37 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.11g / 35.5mm / 6
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 61
BMCRE 116
Cohen 69
Provenances:
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 424 #414

From Wikipedia:
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia, and erected at the western end of the Roman Forum. The earliest may have vowed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 367 BC, but history also records such a temple erected in the Vulcanal in 304, and another immediately west of the Vulcanal, on the spot the temple later occupied, commissioned in 217. The temple was rebuilt in 121 BC, and again by the future emperor Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10.

Backed up against the Tabularium at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the architecture had to accommodate the limitations of the site. The cella of the temple, for instance, is almost twice as wide (45m) as it is deep (24m), as is the pronaos. In the cella a row of Corinthian columns rose from a continuous plinth projecting from the wall, which divided the cella into bays, each containing a niche. The capitals of these columns had pairs of leaping rams in place of the corner volutes. Only the platform now remains, partially covered by a road up to the Capitol.

One tradition ascribes the first Temple of Concord to a vow made by Camillus in 367 BC, on the occasion of the Lex Licinia Sextia, the law passed by the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, opening the consulship to the plebeians. The two had prevented the election of any magistrates for a period of several years, as part of the conflict of the orders. Nominated dictator to face an invasion of the Gauls, Camillus, encouraged by his fellow patrician Marcus Fabius Ambustus, Stolo's father-in-law, determined to resolve the crisis by declaring his support for the law, and vowing a temple to Concordia, symbolizing reconciliation between the patricians and plebeians.

Camillus' vow is not mentioned by Livy, who instead describes the dedication of the Temple of Concord in the Vulcanal, a precinct sacred to Vulcan on the western end of the forum, by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC. Flavius' actions were an affront to the senate, partly because he had undertaken the matter without first consulting them, and partly because of his low social standing: not only was Flavius a plebeian, but he was the son of a freedman, and had previously served as a scribe to Appius Claudius Caecus. The Pontifex Maximus, Rome's chief priest, was compelled to instruct Flavius on the proper formulae for dedicating a temple. Cicero and Pliny report that Flavius was a scribe, rather than aedile, at the time of the dedication, and a law was passed immediately afterward forbidding anyone from dedicating a temple without the authorization of the senate or a majority of the plebeian tribunes.

Yet a third Temple of Concord was begun in 217 BC, early in the Second Punic War, by the duumviri Marcus Pupius and Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, in fulfillment of a vow made by the praetor Lucius Manlius Vulso on the occasion of his deliverance from the Gauls in 218. The reason why Manlius vowed a temple to Concordia is not immediately apparent, but Livy alludes to a mutiny that had apparently occurred among the praetor's men. The temple was completed and dedicated the following year by the duumviri Marcus and Gaius Atilius.

The murder of Gaius Gracchus in 121 BC marked a low point in the relationship between the emerging Roman aristocracy and the popular party, and was immediately followed by the reconstruction of the Temple of Concord by Lucius Opimius at the senate's behest, which was regarded as an utterly insincere attempt to clothe its actions in a symbolic act of reconciliation.

From this period, the temple was frequently used as a meeting place for both the senate and the Arval Brethren, and in later times it came to house a number of works of art, many of which are described by Pliny.

A statue of Victoria placed on the roof of the temple was struck by lightning in 211 BC, and prodigies were reported in the Concordiae, the neighborhood of the temple, in 183 and 181. Little else is heard of the temple until 7 BC, when the future emperor Tiberius undertook another restoration, which lasted until AD 10, when the structure was rededicated on the 16th of January as the Aedes Concordiae Augustae, the Temple of Concordia of Augustus.

The temple is occasionally mentioned in imperial times, and may have been restored again following a fire in AD 284. By the eighth century, the temple was reportedly in poor condition, and in danger of collapsing.

The temple was razed circa 1450, and the stone turned into a lime kiln to recover the marble for building.

From CNG:
The Temple of Concordia at the northern end of the Forum in Rome was unusual in that its width was greater than its length. We do not know precisely when the temple was originally built, but its unorthodox design was likely due to space limitations. The temple was restored after the revolt of the Gracchi in 121 BC, and again under Tiberius in AD 10.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Julia_Augusta_(Livia)__Augusta,_AD_14-29__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_25_80_g,_3h)__Rome_mint__Struck_under_Tiberius,_AD_22-23.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 viewsS P Q R IVLIAE AVGVST - Carpentum, ornamented with Victories and other figures, drawn right by two mules
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXIIII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.80g / 34mm / 3h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I (second edition) Tiberius 51
C. 6
BMC Tiberius 76
CBN Tiberius 55
Provenances:
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 433 #355

Commemorative struck for Livia, wife of Augustus, mother of Tiberius.

Julia Augusta Livia, the daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus, was born on 30 January 58 BC.

In 42 BC, her father married her to Tiberius Claudius Nero. Her father committed suicide in the Battle of Philippi, but her husband continued fighting against Augustus, now on behalf of Mark Antony and his brother. In 40 BC, the family was forced to flee Italy.

A general amnesty was announced, and Livia returned to Rome, where she was personally introduced to Augustus in 39 BC. At this time, Livia already had a son, the future emperor Tiberius, and was pregnant with Drusus the Elder. Octavian fell in love with her, despite the fact that he was still married to Scribonia. Octavian divorced Scribonia in 39 BC and Tiberius Claudius Nero was forced to divorce Livia. Octavian and Livia married on 17th January. Her second child was born three days later.

Livia was an extremely intelligent woman who had a great influence on how Augustus ran the Roman Empire. From their surviving letters, it is clear that Augustus listened very carefully to what she had to say. Many Roman politicians resented Livia's political power and this is probably why Roman historians tend to say unpleasant things about her.

After her marriage to Augustus, Livia did not have any more children. Augustus chose Tiberius, Livia's son by her first marriage, to become the next emperor. As part of the deal, Tiberius had to marry Augustus' daughter Julia. Tiberius, who was already happily married, objected but eventually agreed to accept the orders of Augustus.

Augustus died in AD 14, (the month that he died, Sextilis, was then changed to August). Augustus was one of the most outstanding leaders the world has ever known. In the fifty years of his rule, he completely reformed the Roman Empire, and in doing so, made it so strong that the system he installed lasted for hundreds of years. Although he had taken much of their power away, the Senate recognised his greatness and within a month of his death declared him to be a god.

Livia died in AD 29.

S P Q R
IVLIAE
AVGVST

Translation: Senatus Populus Que Romanus Iuliae Augustae (The Senate and the Roman People to Julia Augusta)

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII
S C

Translation:
Tiberius Caesar Divi Fili Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate Vicesimum Quartum (Tiberius Caesar, Son of Divine Augustus, Greatest Pontiff invested with the Twenty-Fourth Tribunician Power)
Senatus Consulto (By Decree of the Senate)
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Tiberius___Germanicus_Gemellus__AD_19_(37-8)_and_19_(23-4),_respectively__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_24_74_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__100.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 views(no legend) - Crossed cornucopias, each surmounted by the bareheaded bust of a boy facing one another; winged caduceus between
DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.74g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 42 (Tiberius)
BMC Tiberius 95
CBN Tiberius 73
Provenances:
Richard Baker Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 435 #315

This issue, commemorating the birth of twin sons to Drusus Caesar and his wife Livia Drusilla (Livilla), was part of the series issued under the Tiberius in AD 22-23 to promote the imperial virtue and dynastic solidity of the emperor's family. Although Germanicus Gemellus died very young, his brother Tiberius lived into his adulthood, with the expectation that he would be heir to his grandfather following the premature death of his father, Drusus. In the later years of the emperor’s life, though, Gaius (Caligula) was often seen in close company with the emperor, while Tiberius Gemellus’s status was shrouded in obscurity. Thus, after the death of the emperor, Caligula, assisted by the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, quickly moved to take the purple. Upon the reading of the deceased emperor’s will, however, it was discovered that Tiberius intended for both Tiberius Gemellus and his cousin Gaius to be jointly elevated, and, moreover, that Gemellus was to be the senior partner. Under unknown authority, Caligula quickly had the will vacated, and, shortly thereafter, his cousin murdered.

This sestertius was struck in 22/23, nearly three years after the death of Germanicus, Tiberius’ nephew and first heir. In the
interim Tiberius had named no heir, but with the nine coins in his dated aes of 22/23 he announces a ‘Tiberian dynasty’
that includes his son Drusus, his daughter-in-law (and niece) Livilla, and his twin grandsons Tiberius Gemellus and
Germanicus Gemellus, whose heads decorate the crossed cornucopias on this sestertius.
Since it is the only coin in the aes of 22/23 without an obverse inscription, we must presume its design was believed
sufficient to communicate the fact that the twin boys were portrayed. Though this type usually is thought to celebrate the
birth of the twins, that event had occurred two and a half years before this coin was struck. Rather, it is best seen in light of
early Julio-Claudian dynastic rhetoric in which male heirs were celebrated as twins (even if they were not literally twins, or
even biological brothers) and were routinely likened to the Dioscuri, the heavenly twins Castor and Pollux.
The crossed-cornucopias design is familiar on ancient coinage, and here the cornucopias, grape clusters, grape leaves and
pine cones seemingly allude to Bacchus or Liber in a reference to fecundity. In terms of dynastic appeal, the design boasts
of the prosperity and fruitfulness of the Tiberian line, with the caduceus symbolizing Mercury as the messenger of the gods
and the bringer of good fortune.
Despite the hopefulness represented by this series of coins, tragedy struck on two fronts. The ‘Tiberian dynasty’ collapsed
within months of its being announced when both Drusus and his son Germanicus Gemellus (the boy whose head is shown
on the right cornucopia) died in 23.
Poor fates awaited the remaining two members: Drusus’ wife Livilla became increasingly associated with Tiberius’ prefect
Sejanus, and she died shamefully in the aftermath of his downfall in 31, and the second grandson, Tiberius Gemellus,
survived long enough to be named co-heir of Tiberius with Caligula, but after Tiberius’ death he was pushed into a
subsidiary role and soon was executed by Caligula, who would not tolerate a second heir to the throne.

The Caduceus between two cornucopia indicates Concord, and is found on medals of Augustus, M. Antony, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Clodius Albinus in addition to this sestertius of Drusus.

Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known Gemellus and his twin brother Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, were born on the 10th of October 19AD. They were the win sons of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning “the twin”. Germanicus II Gemellus, died in early childhood in 23 AD whereas Nero Gemellus died 37 or 38AD perhaps on the orders of his cousin Caligula.

Gemellus’ father Drusus (also known as Castor) died mysteriously when Gemellus was only four. It is believed that Drusus died at the hands of the Praetorian Prefect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus. His mother Livilla was either put to death or committed suicide because she had been plotting with Sejanus to overthrow Tiberius, and also because she may have worked with Sejanus to poison her husband. Livilla had been Sejanus’ lover for a number of years before their deaths, and many including Tiberius believed that both Gemelli were really Sejanus’ sons.

We know very little about Gemellus’ life, since he was largely ignored by most of the Imperial family. When Gemellus was 12 years old, he was summoned to the island of Capri where Tiberius lived at that time, along with his cousin Caligula. Tiberius made both Caligula and Gemellus joint-heirs, but Caligula was the favorite.

After Tiberius died on March 16th, 37AD, Caligula became Emperor and adopted Gemellus as his son. Caligula soon thereafter ordered him killed in late 37 AD or early 38 AD . The allegation was plotting against Caligula while he was ill. Suetonius writes that Caligula ordered Gemellus killed.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Tiberius_(14-37)__Æ_Sestertius_(33mm,_27_07g,_12h)_166_26.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 views(no legend) - Triumphal quadriga without driver, stepping right, drawing a cart decorated with Victory, a trophy and a prisoner
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.07g / 33mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 60
C. 66
BMC 113
CBN 91
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts VCoins

The empty Quadriga probably alludes to the action of L. Vitellius against the Parthians, although no decision is known about the attribution of the Signa triumphalia to L. Vitellius. The father of the future emperor had been sent by Tiberius as legatus Augusti pro praetore to Syria, as in Armenia the Parthian king Artabanos III had used his son Arsakes. Lucius Vitellius was extremely successful, not only succeeded in establishing a king of Rome's mercy in Armenia, but also in Parthia himself to install a new king. Artabanos III had to flee to the Scythians.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero_Æ25_as__Genius_.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass As 4 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P - Radiate head right.
GENIO AVGVSTI - Genius Augusti standing left, holding patera over lighted and garlanded altar and cornucopia; S C across field; I in exergue.
Exergue: I


Mint: Rome (64AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.07g / 25mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 218
WCN 271
Provenances:
David Connors
Acquisition/Sale: David Connors Vcoins $0.00 10/17
Notes: Jan 4, 19 - The I in the exergue is the mark of value.

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Under Nero, the mint produced these brass asses on a weight standard of one half a dupondius. The letter I denotes one as, while II appears on dupondii equal to two asses and S appears on the semisses. This experiment with brass as was not continued by his successors, though some issued 3g brass semisses and Trajan and Hadrian produced brass 4g 1/3 dupondii and 8g 2/3 dupondii in the East.

Genio Avgvsti means 'to the guardian spirit of the Emperor'.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero__AD_54-68__Æ_Se.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head left
ROMA S/C - Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory and parazonium; behind her, two shields. In exergue, ROMA.
Exergue: ROMA


Mint: Lugdunum (65AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.38g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 443
WCN 428
Lyon 119
Provenances:
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 408/467

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero__AD_54-68__Æ_Sestertius_(35_4mm,_25_29_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__Struck_circa_AD_64___302.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 5 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head left
SC - S C: View of triumphal arch, showing front and left hand side; above, the Emperor in a quadriga escorted by Victory; arch is heavily ornamented and decorated with statues of Pax, Mars and two soldiers
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (circa 64 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.29g / 35.4mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 144
WCN 134
Provenances:
From the collection of a Texas Wine Doctor.
purchased from Paul Rynearson, 30 September 1991
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 427 #430

From Forvm:
The "Lost Arch of Nero" was decreed by the Senate in 58 A.D. to commemorate the eastern victory of Cn. Domitius Corduba. It was located on Capitoline Hill. It was demolished shortly after Nero's downfall. No trace remains today.

From CNG:
This monumental triumphal arch was erected by Nero to commemorate Roman military campaigns against the Parthians in Mesopotamia and Armenia. Although not particularly successful in a military sense, with Paetus losing almost his entire army at Randeia in Armenia, the war did end with a peace treaty favorable to Rome that was upheld for nearly fifty years. This coin type is vitally important for architectural historians, for the arch was dismantled after Nero's ignominious end in 68 AD, and is only known through its depiction on the coins.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero__A_D__54-68__AE_as_(23_01_mm,_6_87_g,_5_h).jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANIC - Radiate head of Nero right
PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P P - Nero, as Apollo Citharoedus, advancing right in billowing robes, playing lyre; mark of value I in ex.
Exergue: I



Mint: Rome (64 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 6.87g / 23.01mm / 5 h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 211
BMCRE 256.
WCN 272
Sear 1978
Provenances:
The D. Thomas Collection
Agora Auctions
Acquisition/Sale: Agora Auctions Internet Numismatic Sale #77

The I in the exergue is the mark of value.

Under Nero, the mint produced these brass asses on a weight standard of one half a dupondius. The letter I denotes one as, while II appears on dupondii equal to two asses and S appears on the semisses. This experiment with brass as was not continued by his successors, though some issued 3g brass semisses and Trajan and Hadrian produced brass 4g 1/3 dupondii and 8g 2/3 dupondii in the East.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Citharoedus Apollo. The Lyre-striking Apollo.-In this character Nero is represented on one of his first brass coins. "Another Apollo (as Suetonius observes), habited like the robed statues of the god, he appears walking, with the cithara in his left hand, and playing on it with his right.-Engraved in Dr. King's plates.




Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Roman_Bronze_Dupondi.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius4 viewsCONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R (With Agreement of the Senate, the Equestrian Order and the Roman People) - Statue of Caligula, laureate and togate, seated, left, on curule chair, holding branch in right hand and resting left hand against side
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C - Head of Augustus, radiate, left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 28mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 90
RIC 1 56
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay

CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R translates: "with the will of the Senate, the equestrian order, and the people of Rome"
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Germanicus_(Died_AD_19)_Struck_under_Gaius_(Caligula)__Æ_Dupondius_285.jpg
Germanicus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius 3 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR - Germanicus driving triumphal quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and reins
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM - Germanicus standing left, raising hand and holding aquila
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.65g / 29.57mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 57 (Gaius)
Cohen 7
BMC 93
Sear 1820
Provenances:
Marc R. Breitsprecher
the WRG Collection
Coin Galleries (22 August 1984), lot 243
CNG Auction 424/Lot 418 (unsold)
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet

Minted under Caligula.

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM translates:"standards recovered from the defeated Germans"

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (26 May 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans.” This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Germanicus__Caesar,_15_BC-AD_19__Æ_As_(28mm,_10_44_g,_6h)__Rome_mint_142_20.jpg
Germanicus (Caesar) Coin: Bronze AS 0 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head of Germanicus left.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.44g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 50 [Caligula]
Cohen 4
BMCRE 74 (Caligula)
Provenances:
From the collection of a Texas Wine Doctor.
Ex Classical Numismatic Group Auction 37 (20 March 1996), lot 1441.
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 428 #343

From Forvm:
Issued under Caligula in honor of his deceased father. Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor but died of an unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula obtain the throne after Tiberius died.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 3 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Gaius_Caligula_37-41.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•PON•M•TR•POT - Laureate head left
S•P•Q•R / P•P / OB•CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.74g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 37
Provenances:
WallinMynt (SE)
Acquisition/Sale: WallinMynt (SE) MA Shops-internet

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
40-41_AD_CALIGULA_AE.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 2 viewsCAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 54
Cohen 29
BMCRE 73
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

Per RIC: This late series, the final issue from 40-41 AD, is rated R in RIC. The other type from 39-40 AD with the same obverse legend is scarce, whilst the standard type from 37-39 AD is rated common. I find the 39-40 AD issues to be the rarest of them all.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Caligula_Large_27mm_AE_As_Vesta_42.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 2 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.40g / 27mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 47
Cohen 28
Acquisition/Sale: arkadyn Ebay

This is the second of three dated Caligula As issues. This one dates from 39-40 AD and is the scarcer of the three. The one dated 40-41 AD seems to be more available then the 39-40 AD issue where as the 37-38 AD issue is by far the most common.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
CALIGULA_AE_orichalc.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius0 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

his coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree2 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
Caligula_sestertius.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 9 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AD LOCVT - Gaius Caligula stg. l. on daïs, extending r. hand in gesture of address (ad locutio), a sella castrensis (camp stool) to r., before him stand five soldiers r., all helmeted, holding shields, and parazonia, four aquilae behind them, in ex. COH,
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.69g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 32
Sear'88 #612
Cohen 1
MIR 3, 6-4
BMCRE 33
Provenances:
Baldwin's of St. James's
Acquisition/Sale: Baldwin's of St. James's Internet 8/9-20-17 #31

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From CNG:
Before a battle or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops to inspire morale. This sestertius was issued on the occasion of a donative for the Praetorian Guard and was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type.

The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions or “cohorts” each of 500 – 1000 men. On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own[7]. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts.” Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”) which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage.

Highly unusual on this type is the lack of the letters S C, which designate a coin issued by decree of the Senate (Senatus Consulto). From Republican times, the formula had been used on both silver and bronze coinage, but under the Empire, the emperor took responsibility for the precious metal coinage and left only the base metal coins to be issued by the Senate and accordingly marked S C. Imperial bronze coinage without the formula is generally thought to have been issued under special circumstances and under an authority other than the Senate. The ADLOCVT(io) COH(ortium) sestertii are thought to have been a special distribution issue for the Praetorian Guard personally funded out of the emperor's own purse.
The lack of S C suggests that this interesting issue was undertaken and paid for by the emperor. Cassius Dio (59.2) writes “... in company with the senate, he inspected the Pretorians at drill and distributed to them the money that had been bequeathed them, amounting to a thousand sesterces apiece.”

From Jeff Starck, Coin World:
Many Roman coins bear the giant letters SC, shorthand for “senatus consulto” or “senatus consultum.” The fact that they are missing from this coin suggests that the coin was not issued with the approval of the Roman senate. This was an obvious statement of authority by the fairly new leader Caligula.

“There is no reason to believe its exclusion was accidental,” according to the catalog. “The inescapable message to the senate was that the emperor’s newfound authority was assured by his relationship with the [prateorean] guard.”

Tiberius died in 37 A.D., perhaps with the aid of Sertorius Macro, who had authority as a prefect in the prateorean guard; Macro then offered his support to Caligula, who received full authority from the state.

Tiberius’ will allocated 1,000 sestertii for each guard, an amount that Caligula doubled upon realizing that his power rested largely in the support of the guard.

These payments were handed out during a ceremony that is presumably pictured on the coin’s reverse, where Caligula is shown standing before the seat of the army chief, delivering a speech to five soldiers. The inscription ADLOCVT COH describes the image, the abbreviation identifying the adlocutio (speech from the emperor to his army).

The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of a throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as a friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
40_AD_NERO___DRUSUS_.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 3 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Statue of Nero and Drusus Caesar riding right cloaks flying
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend surrounding S C
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 34
BMCRE 44 (Caligula
BN 52 (Caligula)
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
39_AD_GAIUS_CALIGULA.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 2 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (39AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.63g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 39
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: London Ancient Coins Ebay

here were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD-This Coin
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
39-40_AD_Gaius_(Caligula,_37-.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 2 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, Pileus between S C - Pileus between S C
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT, around R C C - Inscription around R C C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.65g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 45
BMCRE 63
Cohen 6
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction 50 #32

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
40-41_AD_GAIUS_CALIG.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 3 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.30g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 52
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins

obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG (Gaius Caesar, emperor, great-granson of Divine Augustus)

reverse: PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT (high priest, holder of tribune power for 4 years, father of the country, consul for the third time)

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2Apr 03, 2019
com22.jpg
Commodus (177 - 192 A.D.)13 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: Μ Α ΚΟΜ ΑΝΤω СƐΒ ƐVСƐΒ, Laureate head right.
R:Commodus, togate, standing left, holding branch and sceptre, crowned by Alexandria, turreted, standing left behind him, holding corn ears. LK H to left. RY 28 (AD 187/8)
12.5g
25mm
Dattari (Savio) 3854; Emmett 2537.28

Pending Wildwinds Publishing!
4 commentsMatApr 03, 2019
31-Eadwig.jpg
31. Eadwig.2 viewsPenny, 955-959, possibly minted in York.
Obverse: +E-A-DǷIG REX / Small cross.
Reverse: HERIG / +++ / 'ER MO
Moneyer: Heriger.
1.40 gm., 21 mm.
North #724; Seaby #1122.

Provenance: Tetney Hoard, 1945.
E.J. Winstanley Collection.
1 commentsCallimachusApr 03, 2019
RIC_277_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0277 Domitianus43 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI, Laureate haed right with aegis
Rev: S C, Domitian standing left, sacrificing with patera over altar in frot of shrine containing cult statue of Minerva.
AE/Sestertius (35.22 mm 26.98 g 6h) Struck in Rome 85 A.D. (1st issue)
RIC 277 (C2), BMCRE 296, BNF 316
ex Aes Rude Auction 64 Lot 278
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianusApr 02, 2019
RIC_355_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0355 Domitianus39 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, Laureate haed right with aegis
Rev: S C, Domitian standing left, sacrificing with patera over altar in frot of shrine containing cult statue of Minerva.
AE/Sestertius (34.63 mm 26.83 g 6h) Struck in Rome 85 A.D. (2nd issue)
RIC 355 (C), BMCRE 332, BNF 356
ex Inasta Auction 35 Lot 703
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianusApr 02, 2019
RIC_467_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0467 Domitianus37 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right with aegis
Rev: S C, Domitian standing left, sacrificing with patera over altar in frot of shrine containing cult statue of Minerva.
AE/Sestertius (35.55 mm 22.47 g 6h) Struck in Rome 86 A.D.
RIC 467 (C), BMCRE 376, BNF 398
Purchased on Ebay from felicitas.perpetua
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianusApr 02, 2019
V1211aaa.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-121144 viewsÆ Dupondius, 13.42g
Lyon mint, 77-78 AD
RIC 1211 (R). BMC 831.
Obv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS VIII P P; Head of Vespasian, radiate, r.; globe at point of bust
Rev: FIDES PVBLICA; S C in field; Fides stg. l., with patera and cornucopiae
Ex eBay, 23 March 2019.

FIDES PVBLICA, the good faith of the state, was a common personification on Vespasian's coinage. The figure on the reverse is likely based on a cult statue of the goddess whose annual sacrifice occurred on 1 October. Important documents of state and treaties were store in her temple for safe keeping. The Fides type came into common imperial use during the Flavian era and was an important part of Vespasian's numismatic propaganda. This dupondius was struck at the Lyon mint in 77-78 in a fairly large issue that presumably addressed a shortage of bronze coinage in the Western provinces. Oddly enough, dupondii are more commonly encountered in this issue with a laureate bust instead of the usual radiate one as seen here.

Well centred with a fetching dark chocolate patina.
5 commentsDavid AthertonApr 02, 2019
1232.jpg
neapolis111-13 viewsElagabalus
Neapolis, Samaria

Obv: AY KAI MAP ANTΩNEINOC CEB. Laureate head right.
Rev: [ΦΛ NEAC ΠOΛEWC]. Tyche standing facing, looking left, holding cornucopia and rudder.
19 mm, 7.00 gms