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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius22 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius07/07/19 at 14:52Norbert: great coin & pedigree. Congrats
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/412 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.96g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: MVSA - Q.POMPONI; Melpomene, muse of tragedy, facing left and holding club and theatrical mask.

References: Crawford 410/4; Sydenham 816; BMCRR 3615-16; Pomponia 14.

Provenance: Ex Fay Beth Wedig Collection [CNG eSale 439 (6 Mar 2019) Lot 442]; NAC 11 (29 Apr 1998), Lot 253.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.

Melpomene, whose name actually means “songstress” was originally one of the muses of song, but her role changed to muse of tragic theater after the development of drama in classical Greece sometime in the sixth century BCE. She is generally depicted holding a club or knife and a tragic mask, which Greek actors wore on stage when performing dramatic plays.
2 commentsCarausius04/16/19 at 18:50Norbert: great and congrats
01.- A. Postumius Serrate Denarius (81 BC)11 viewsA. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (18.7 mm, 3.85 g.). Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Togate figure standing left on rock, holding aspergillum over head of ox standing right; lighted altar between them. VF, toned.
Purchased at Aureo & Calico auction in 2015.
1 commentsOscar D04/16/19 at 18:45Norbert: A nice coin and a good start for your republican g...
Sextus Pompey -- Pharos and Scylla66 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Pharos of Messana, Neptune on top standing r. with r. hand on a trident and l. hand on a rudder, resting l. foot on prow. Galley sailing l., aquila atop a tripod placed in prow and a scepter tied with a fillet in stern. Border of dots.
Rev: PRAEF⦁ORAE⦁MARIT⦁ET⦁CLAS⦁S⦁C [AEs and MAR ligatured]; Scylla attacking l. wielding a rudder in both hands, the torso of a nude woman with two fishtails and the foreparts of three dogs as the lower body. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.566g; Diameter: 19.8mm; Die axis: 225º; References, for example: BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 variant3, Sydenham 1349 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/4d; Sear CRI 335b.



1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.557 and Sear CRI, p. 203 suggest Messana as a possible mint location. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 124 hesitatingly suggests Mitylene (on the island of Lesbos).

2This is the date range suggested by Estiot 2006, p. 145, as she recommends going back to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.556 proposes 38 - 36 BC. Sydenham, p.211 follows Grueber. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 submits 35 BC.

3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 and Sydenham 1349 list MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is clearly MAR (ligatured) IT. Neither Grueber nor Sydenham record MAR (ligatured) IT as part of this reverse legend for this coin type. Crawford and Sear do.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins


Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello03/07/19 at 19:34Norbert: nice coin, congrats
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius - Crawford 538/120 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 37 BCE.

Obverse: IMP CAESAR-DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER R·P·C; Octavian’s bare head, bearded and facing right.

Reverse: COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG; Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; HCRI 312; BMCRR (Gaul) 116.

Provenance: Ex Ernst Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 41]; Peus 386 (26 Apr 2006), Lot 663; Astarte 5 (1999), Lot 703.

The obverse inscription records the renewal of the second triumvirate in 37 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius02/22/19 at 18:50Norbert: nice coin, nice pedigree. Congrats
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Plautius Plancus, AR Denarius56 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Plautius Plancus, 47 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: L·PLAVTIVS; Facing mask of Medusa with coiled snakes on each side.

Reverse: PLANCVS; Victory facing, leading four horses and holding palm.

References: Crawford 453/1a; HCRI 29; Sydenham 959; BMCRR 4006; Plautia 14.

Provenance: Ex The New York Sale Auction XXXII (8 Jan 2014) Lot 205; NAC 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 256.

Lucius Plautius Plancus was a brother of L. Munatius Plancus, who became Prefect of the City under Caesar. Lucius was adopted by L. Plautius. In 47 BCE, Lucius was a moneyer and produced this coin. Two styles of the obverse were produced, one with coiled snakes on either side of Medusa's head; the other without snakes.

In 43 BCE, Lucius was proscribed by the Second Triumvirate and executed. The same year of Lucius’ proscription and execution, his brother, L. Munatius Plancus, placed in the capitol a painting by the 4th century BCE, Greek artist, Nicomachus of Thebes in which Victory is driving a quadriga and holding a palm. David Sear, in “History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators” suggests that Lucius may have owned the Nicomachus painting in 47 BCE (it would have passed to his brother upon his execution) and that the reverse of this coin was inspired by the painting. Sear is not the first numismatist to have proposed this theory regarding the Nicomachus painting. Eckhel had an equally conjectural theory for this coin type that connected the devices to a story involving one of Lucius’ ancestors as the basis for an annual celebration in Rome where masks were worn.

Regardless of the true derivation and meaning of the type, the coin is a remarkably artistic design for the period, and surely the devices must have some connection to the moneyer’s natural or adopted family.
3 commentsCarausius07/15/18 at 19:00Norbert: A wonderful coin. In my eyes one of the most fasci...
Rome Republic 146 bc denarius19 views146 bc a good year to be a Roman. Not so good to be a Carthaginian or a Corinthian.1 commentsChance Vandal05/16/18 at 19:15Norbert: nice dog
Marc Antony and Octavian denarius portraits45 viewsMARK ANTONY and OCTAVIAN. Silver denarius. Moneyer: M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Ephesus, Spring-Summer 41 BC. Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P. Bare head of Mark Antony right. Rev: CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C. Bare head of Octavian right. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243. Weight: 3.91 g. Diameter: 13 mm.
This coin was struck to pay Antony's troops shortly after he and the young Octavian completed their defeat of Caesar's assassins. Several months later would come his first meeting with Cleopatra.
3 commentsOctavianus04/29/18 at 19:28Norbert: Great coin
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE44 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 21mm).
Sicilian mint.

Obv: [M]AG PIVS IMP [ITER]. Bust of Neptune facing right; trident over shoulder.

Rev: [PR]AEF CLAS ET OR[AE MAR IT EX S C]. Naval trophy.

References: Crawford 511/2; HCRI 333; Sydenham 1347 (R5).

Provenance: Ex Stack's Bowers August 2016 ANA (10 Aug 2016), Lot 20139; ex Nomos Obolos 4 (21 Feb 2016), Lot 522; ex RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 538]; privately purchased from SKA Zurich, July 1985.

Sextus Pompey was a son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts". Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius04/03/18 at 19:28Norbert: seen a number of these in recent auctions - and I ...
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Aes Grave Quadrans, c. 265 BCE - Crawford 21/449 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Quadrans (68.58g; 43mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Right hand; ●●● (mark-of-value = 3 unciae) on left.

Rev: Left hand; ●●● (mark-of-value) on right.

References: Vecchi, ICC 44; Haeberlin pp. 66-67, plts 27-28; Crawford 21/4.

Provenance: Ex Lord Colin Renfrew Collection [Baldwin's Auction 99 (4 May 2016), Lot 599]; purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons, Ltd., Dec 1959.
4 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 18:38Norbert: wonderful coin, congratulations
C. Mamilius Limetanus Denarius Serratus - Odysseus and his dog Argos (Crawf. 362/1)51 viewsAR Denarius Serratus
Rome, 82 BC

Obv: Draped bust of Mercury (R) wearing winged petasos hat, Caduceus behind. "A" control mark.

Rev: Odysseus walking right, holding staff and disguised as beggar, extends left hand to his dog Argos below.

Crawford 362/1, Mamilia 6, Sydenham 741

Ex Gorny & Mosch Auction 253, Lot 375
Ex Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel, Liste 546, August 1991, Nr. 44.
7 commentsKained but Able03/10/18 at 08:47Norbert: Just great, congratulations
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Overstruck "Anonymous" Corn Ear AE Quadrans - Crawford 42/2var23 viewsRome, The Republic.
Corn Ear Series (No Corn Ear), 214-212 BCE.
AE Quadrans (16.76g; 29mm).

Obv: Head of Hercules right in boarskin; three pellets (mark of value = 3 unciae) behind.

Rev: Bull leaping over snake; three pellets (mark of value) above; ROMA below.

Reference: Crawford 42/2var (no corn ear): See Russo, Essays Hersh (1998) p. 141.

Provenance: ex Agora Auction 70 (21 Nov 2017) Lot 194; ex RBW Collection duplicate (not in prior sales); ex P. Vecchi Auction 6 (14 Sep 1981) Lot 245.

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford recognized many silver “symbol” Republican series for which there were parallel “anonymous” types omitting the symbols. This coin is an anonymous version (missing symbol) of the Corn Ear Quadrans of the Crawford 42 series, produced in Sicily. It is identical in style to the Sicilian Corn Ear coins and only misses the symbol. Roberto Russo wrote about these anonymous coins in his article “Unpublished Roman Republican Bronze Coins” (Essays Hersh, 1998), where he notes that the parallel issue of anonymous silver coins to series with symbols applies equally to the bronze coins. Andrew McCabe takes this approach much further in his article “The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic” (Essays Russo, 2013) in which he links many of the anonymous Republican bronzes to symbol series based on precise style considerations. The takeaway from all this is that for many of the Roman Republican symbol series of the late Second Punic War and early 2nd Century BCE, there are parallel anonymous series identifiable by style. The rationale for these parallel issues is unclear, though possibly related to (a) governmental approvals for the issue or (b) mint control of the precious metal source from which the issue was struck or (c) workshop identification.

This particular example is overstruck, showing particular evidence of the under-type on the reverse. Based on that evidence and weight of the coin, I’ve concluded the under-type a Hieron II AE Obol imitative of Ptolemy II. The edge of the reverse shows the hairline of Zeus as depicted on this Hieron II issue.
1 commentsCarausius02/24/18 at 17:45Norbert: A special congratulations to this one
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Semi-incuse Early AR Denarius - Second Punic War - Crawford 44/540 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, ca. 212 BCE
Rome Mint
AR Denarius (4.48g)

Obv: Head of Roma in splayed-visor helmet, facing right; X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; two stars above; ROMA, semi-incused, below.

Reference: Crawford 44/5; Sydenham 167; RSC Anonymous 1a.

Provenance: ex NAC 84 Part II (21 May 2015), Lot 1622.

This example is among the earliest of the very first denarii issue by the Roman Republic, circa 212 BCE. From 218-212 BCE, the excessive cost of the war with Hannibal and Carthage had necessitated debasement of Rome's silver quadrigatus coinage and several weight standard reductions in the bronze coinage. It was possibly the sack of Syracuse in 212 BCE that provided the silver infusion that Rome needed to reform their debased currency and introduce the denarius system. The earliest denarii had a semi-incuse ROMA inscription on the reverse, as seen here, reminiscent of the fully-incuse and semi-incuse inscriptions on the earlier quadrigati coinage. This early-style inscription was soon replaced by a relief inscription within a linear frame.
2 commentsCarausius02/24/18 at 17:43Norbert: this is a nice one
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)49 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 12:19Norbert: An outstanding coin. Congratulations
Domitian RIC-444149 viewsAR Denarius, 2.92g
Rome mint, 86 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XII COS XII CENS P P P; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 444 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Ancient Treasures (eBay), April 2017.

Second known M1 specimen from the third issue of 86. This rare dating combination could not have been struck for very long after Domitian became TR P VI in mid September due to the the issue's extreme rarity. In fact, the final 'I' in the obverse legend appears to have been engraved over the tip of the bust, indicating it is a reworked TR P V die. Not long after this coin was struck (perhaps just a few days) word reached the mint of Domitian's thirteenth imperial acclamation, ending this issue's brief run.

Nicely toned with a very fine style portrait.
8 commentsDavid Atherton04/16/17 at 14:54Norbert: Congratulations on the catch of the day.
Q. Marcius Libo Denarius - Dioscuri Galloping (Syd 395)42 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 148 BC

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma R, behind, LIBO and below chin, X

Rev: The Dioscuri, Castor and Pollox, galloping R below horses,
Q·MARC and ROMA in partial tablet.

Sydenham 395. Crawford215/1. RBW 915

ex. Elvira Clain Stefanelli (1914-2001) collection, curator of the National Numismatics Collection at the Smithsonian
Stacks 1979 LOT 1113
Bequeathed to James Madison University after Sawhill's death and sold again by Stacks.
Stacks March 5/6 1971 LOT 409 sold to John A. Sawhill (1892-1976) of James Madison University.
ex. Massachusetts Historical Society
ex. Adams Presidential Family Numismatic Collection
4 commentsKained but Able01/12/17 at 16:26Norbert: Great coin
The Twelve Caesars in Black122 views8 commentsNemonater12/18/16 at 11:04Norbert: A great collection- congratulations
Roman Empire, Agrippa, Struck c.A.D.38 under Caligula.225 viewsAgrippa, 43–12 BC.
AE as, Roma mint, Struck c.A.D 38.
Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev. SC, Neptune standing half-left, arms draped, holding small dolphin and grounded trident.
RIC I : 58.
21,14g, 28mm.

Provenance: Numismatik Lanz, Auction 147, lot 254.
3 commentsapyatygin10/15/16 at 15:17Norbert: Just Great
Thrace, Kings, Macedonian, Lysimachos, (305-281 B.C.), SNG Cop 1153, AE-21, Lion leaping right,210 viewsThrace, Kings, Macedonian, Lysimachos, (305-281 B.C.), SNG Cop 1153, AE-21, Lion leaping right,
avers: Helmeted head of Athena right.
reverse: BAΣIΛEYΩΣ, ΛYΣIMAXOY in two lines above and beneath lion leaping right, caduceus, EM monogram, and spearhead below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:21mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, Macedonian, Lysimachos, date: 323 - 281 B.C.,
ref: SNG Cop 1153-4, Mueller-76,
3 commentsquadrans07/06/16 at 08:49Norbert: Nice coin, wonderful patina
RPC-2416-Vespasian93 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 12.72g
Alexandria mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., date LB before neck
Rev: Τ ΦΛΑΥΙ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΣ ΚΑΙΣ; laureate head of Titus, r.
RPC 2416 (7 spec.).
Ex CNG E377, 29 June 2016, The Hermanubis collection, lot 28.

From the beginning, Vespasian intended for Titus to succeed him. This was announced on the provincial coinage quite clearly in Cappadocia, Syria, and as seen here on this coin struck in Alexandria, regnal year 2. At the time, Vespasian was busy preparing for his arrival in Rome and Titus was put in command of the legions quelling the Jewish revolt in Judaea. This tetradrachm is a perfect illustration of the amount of trust Vespasian put in his eldest son and clearly shows his choice of successor. Titus' importance to Vespasian cannot be understated and the coinage bears this out. The type is fairly scarce for Alexandria year 2.

The coin comes from the Hermanubis collection. CNG notes the collection 'was assembled with a focus on both quality and rarity'. Judging from this piece, I cannot but agree. Darkly toned with very fine Alexandrian style portraits.
6 commentsDavid Atherton07/06/16 at 08:47Norbert: I have to agree - great portraits indeed
Anonymous Aes Grave As189 viewsAnonymous. Circa 225-217 BC. Æ Aes Grave As (63mm, 266.40 g, 12h). Libral standard. Rome mint. Head of bearded Janus; – (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; | (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; Thurlow & Vecchi 51; Haeberlin pl. 10, 1-16, 4; HN Italy 337; Sydenham 71; Kestner 111-5; BMCRR Rome (Aes Grave) 1-16.

Ex. CNG eAuction 163, lot 211 (2007)
Ex. Triton XVI, lot 753 (2013)
Ex. CNG Coin Shop (2013)
8 commentsMolinari07/02/16 at 04:40Norbert: Absolutely wonderful coin
1093 - L. Flaminius Chilo, Denarius 65 viewsRome mint, 109 or 108 BC
Helmeted head of Roma right, ROMA behind head and X below chin
L·FLAMINI/CILO in two lines at exergue. Victory in prancing biga right
19 mm, 3,83 gr
Ref : RCV # 179, RSC Flaminia # 1, Sydenham #540, RBW # 1144, Crawford # 302/1.
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection
3 commentsPotator II06/24/16 at 13:51Norbert: Love these horses. Congratulations on winnin...
Vespasian-RIC-1434125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Bust of woman, draped, wearing crown of towers, r.; EPHE in l. field
RIC 1434 (R). BMC 459 var. RSC 293 var. RPC 835 (14 spec.) var. BNC 356 var.
Acquired from Künker, June 2016. Ex Nudelman Numismatica Auction 10, 13 June 2011, lot 46.

RIC, alone among the major references, assigns a separate catalogue number to this rare variant with the mint mark behind the reverse bust. It's much more common to find the mint mark below bust. This variant seems to have been struck at a ratio of 1:10 compared with the common variety. A reverse type not struck at Rome.

Fantastic portraits in superb Ephesian style.
8 commentsDavid Atherton06/21/16 at 13:50Norbert: congratulations for securing this wonderful coin
Julius Caesar156 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (18.07 mm, 3.87 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan,
5 commentsNemonater04/23/16 at 06:46Norbert: congratulations
048 B.C., L.Hostilius Saserna, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing faceing,221 viewsL.Hostilius Saserna (48 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing,
avers: Head of Gallia right, Gallic trumpet (carnyx) behind.
reverse: L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.
exergue: - /-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,93g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, CRI 19, Hostilia 4,
8 commentsquadrans11/15/15 at 09:59Norbert: A really nice example
L Flaminius Chilo Denarius. 109-108 BC37 viewsOb. ROMA, helmeted head of Roma right; X before
Rev. L FLAMIN, Victory in biga right.
Ref. Crawford 302/1; Syd 540.

2 commentsBacchus10/25/15 at 16:04Norbert: nice coin ...
Octavian AR Denarius Prow & Quadriga, circa 30BCE50 viewsAR Denarius
Octavian, 27BCE - 14CE
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.52 grams, Die axis: 8h

Obverse: Anepigraphic, Victory standing on prow to right, holding palm branch over her left shoulder and extends laurel wreath in right hand.

Reverse: IMP. CAESAR
Octavian standing in triumphal quadriga to right, holds reigns in left hand and extends (olive or laurel) branch in right hand.

Mint: Either Brundisium or Rome.

- This historically fascinating denarius celebrates the Battle of Actium in which Agrippa and Octavian triumphed over Antony and Kleopatra. The obverse die is the first of the entire IMP CAESAR series of Octavian; the die is shared with the last of the CAESAR DIVI F denarii of the same design. The reverse may refer to Octavian’s entry into Alexandria following the battle of Actium (31/30 BCE), or the triple triumph subsequently awarded to him in Rome (29BCE) – the dating of the type is still not precisely known.
- After the great struggles between the triumvirs, many soldiers from the vast standing armies needed to be de-commissioned and paid. It is possible that this early type was minted using silver from the Ptolemaic treasury seized by Octavian following the Battle of Actium.
- Brundisium (modern day Brindisi) in southern Italy was Octavian’s naval base, which is where this type may have been minted to pay the soldiers. Alternatively the mint may have been Rome.
- Obverse and reverse die match to LHS Numismatik Auction 103, lot 333, 2008.

Ex Praefectus Coins 2015, Ex Nomos Obolos 2 lot 204, 2015

Thank you to Mr Curtis Clay for confirming the die link and providing the published reference to this fact: C.H.V. Sutherland, 1976, Octavian’s Gold and Silver Coinage from c. 32 to 27 B.C.
3 commentsPharsalos09/12/15 at 11:38Norbert: Congratulations for this most interesting coin :...
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Ti Claudius Ti.f. Ap. n. Nero136 viewsAR Denarius, Rome mint, 79 BC
Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder. S.C. before. Border of dots
Rev: Victory in biga right, holding palm branch and reins in left hand, and laurel wreath in right hand. Control-mark A.IIII above exergue. TI.CLAVD.TI.F/ APN in exergue. Border of dots.
Weight: 3.88g
Crawford 383/1 | Sear RCV I 310 | RSC Claudia 6
ex F Sternberg Auction VII, Zurich, November 1977, Lot 378
3 commentsnemesis06/29/15 at 17:45Norbert: just perfect
P. Licinius Nerva – Licinia-795 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR denarius P. Licinius Nerva. 113-112 BC. (3.78g), Rome. ROMA Helmeted bust of Roma to left, with spear and shield. Rev. P NERVA Voting scene Three citizens voting in the comitium. One voter casts his vote to right, to left another receives his from an attendant. Crawford 292/1, Sydenham 548, RSC 169, Licinia 75 commentsBud Stewart06/28/15 at 14:56Norbert: A wonderful example of this most intersting coin
L. Rubrius Dossenus - Rubria-1135 viewsL. Rubrius Dossenus. 87 BC. Denarius (3.67 gm., 18 mm). Laureate head of Jupiter right; sceptre behind / Quadrigal carpentum with small Victory right; LRVBRI in exergue. Crawford 348/1, Sydenham 705, RCV 2584 commentsBud Stewart06/28/15 at 14:54Norbert: excellent reverse
L. Lucretius Trio - Lucretia-3104 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC L. ROMAN REPUBLIC L. Lucretius Trio 76 BC AR denarius, Rome mint, (18.1 mm 3.825 gm die axis 180o), obverse laureate head of Neptune right, with trident over shoulder, ˄XT control number behind; reverse winged boy (Cupid?) riding dolphin right, L LVCRET TRIO below. SRCV 322, Sydenham 784, Crawford 390/2, RSC I Lucretia 36 commentsBud Stewart06/28/15 at 14:52Norbert: Great reverse
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. - Postumia-8128 viewsA. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Denarius (3.93 gm) 81 BC. HISPAN, veiled head of Hispania / A ALBIN S N, togate figure standing left between legionary eagle and fasces, POST A F in ex. Sydenham 746, Crawford 372/2, RCV 2974 commentsBud Stewart06/28/15 at 14:50Norbert: GREAT, just GREAT
049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo standing left,433 views049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left,
avers: Laureate head of Salus right, SALVTIS downward behind, border of dots.
revers: Valetudo ( as Salus) standing left, leaning on column and holding snake, MN•ACILIVS III•VIR•VALETV ( MN and TV ligate ) behind and before. border of dots.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 442/1b, Sydenham 922, RSC Acilia 8a,
3 commentsquadrans06/17/15 at 16:24Norbert: beautiful & full legend - great coin
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, Gens Caecilia48 viewsAnonymous series with elephant's head.
Denarius 128, AR 19mm., 3.72g.
Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, *. Rev. Goddess in biga r., holding sceptre and reins in l. hand and branch in r.; below horses, elephant's head with bell attached / ROMA.
Babelon Caecilia 38. Sydenham 496. Crawford 262/1.
3 commentselmele06/13/15 at 09:07Norbert: This elephant head is just beautiful
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous - Quadrigatus/Didrachm154 viewsAnonymous. Silver Didrachm (6.80g, 22.5mm), ca. 225-214 BC. Uncertain mint.

O: Laureate head of Janus (Dioscuri?), two annulets atop head.
R: ROMA incuse on solid tablet in exergue, Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory. - Described in listing as Cr. 29, 3 Syd. 65
6 commentsNemonater05/12/15 at 16:50Norbert: Wonderful coins
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