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15104254196851502431492.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Rostrum Tridens Series, AE As - Crawford 114/25 viewsRome, The Republic.
Rostrum Tridens Series, 206-195 BCE.
AE As (30.7g; 34mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark-of-value) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; rostrum tridens and I (mark-of-value) above.

References: Crawford 114/2; Sydenham 245; BMCRR (Rome) 451-3.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Hans Neussel (d. 1993) Collection [Peus Auction 420/421 (1 Nov 2017) Lot 73]; purchased from Dr. Kurt Deppert Kunsthandlung, Frankfurt (July 1958).

Shortly after the introduction of the denarius coinage, the Romans began adding symbols and letters to their coins. In many cases both anonymous coins and coins with symbols/letters can be linked by identical styles, suggesting they were separate issues by the same mint. Symbols were frequently re-used on subsequent series; see, for example the three separate Anchor Series of coins produced in the late third century and second century BCE. This particular bronze As bears the symbol of a rostrum tridens – the bronze ramming prow of a Roman galley. This symbol had been previously used on an earlier issue of denarii (Crawford 62). The rostrum tridens was an important symbol to the Romans, representing both the strength of their navy, which had become a powerful force in the Western Mediterranean from its start in the First Punic War, and trophies of naval victories. Rostra were often taken from captured vessels. The Romans used six captured rostra to decorate the speaking platform, thereafter referred to as the Rostra, in the Comitium.
1 commentsCarausius12/14/19 at 11:39Jay GT4: Great looking coin. Wish the pic was bigger
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/129 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius12/11/19 at 22:23David Atherton: Superb!
3640169.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Censorinus, AE As - Crawford 346/4a8 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Censorinus, 88 BCE.
AE As (11.73g; 27mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: NVMA POMPILI ANCVS MARCI; Jugate heads of Pompilius and Ancus Marcius facing right.

Reverse: Prows of crossing ships; to right, a spiral column surmounted by statue of Victory; C.CENSO and ROMA in field.

References: Crawford 346/4a; RBW 1321; Sydenham 715; BMCRR 2415-2418; Marcia 21.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection [CNG e-Sale 364 (2 Dec 2015), Lot 169]; purchased privately from Frank Kovacs, 3/27/1992.

The moneyer, C. Marcius Censorinus, was a supporter of Marius in the struggle against Sulla. He was killed during the conflict circa 82 BCE. He was a member of the gens Marcia, who claimed descent from the early Roman kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius. The jugate heads of Pomplius and Marcius are used on much of Censorinus’ silver and bronze coinage. Numa Pompilius was the legendary 2nd king of Rome, who is crediting with establishment of Roman religion and religious institutions. Among these institutions were the sacred college of priests and the position of Pontifex Maximus. Ancus Marcius was the legendary 4th king of Rome. Ancus Marcius ordered the Pontifex Maximus to display some of Numa Pompilius’ religious commentaries to the people of Rome to facilitate proper religious observance.

The reverse of the coin may refer to a naval victory of one of the moneyer’s ancestors, though the precise victory is uncertain.

2 commentsCarausius12/09/19 at 06:09Enodia: Really interesting type!
3640169.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Censorinus, AE As - Crawford 346/4a8 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Censorinus, 88 BCE.
AE As (11.73g; 27mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: NVMA POMPILI ANCVS MARCI; Jugate heads of Pompilius and Ancus Marcius facing right.

Reverse: Prows of crossing ships; to right, a spiral column surmounted by statue of Victory; C.CENSO and ROMA in field.

References: Crawford 346/4a; RBW 1321; Sydenham 715; BMCRR 2415-2418; Marcia 21.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection [CNG e-Sale 364 (2 Dec 2015), Lot 169]; purchased privately from Frank Kovacs, 3/27/1992.

The moneyer, C. Marcius Censorinus, was a supporter of Marius in the struggle against Sulla. He was killed during the conflict circa 82 BCE. He was a member of the gens Marcia, who claimed descent from the early Roman kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius. The jugate heads of Pomplius and Marcius are used on much of Censorinus’ silver and bronze coinage. Numa Pompilius was the legendary 2nd king of Rome, who is crediting with establishment of Roman religion and religious institutions. Among these institutions were the sacred college of priests and the position of Pontifex Maximus. Ancus Marcius was the legendary 4th king of Rome. Ancus Marcius ordered the Pontifex Maximus to display some of Numa Pompilius’ religious commentaries to the people of Rome to facilitate proper religious observance.

The reverse of the coin may refer to a naval victory of one of the moneyer’s ancestors, though the precise victory is uncertain.

2 commentsCarausius12/08/19 at 20:49Jay GT4: Fantastic
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, A. Caecilius, AE Triens - Crawford 174/38 viewsRome, The Republic.
A Caecilius, 169-158 BCE.
AE Triens (6.88g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Minerva facing right; ●●●● (mark-of-value) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; ●●●● (mark-of-value) before; A·CAE above.

References: Crawford 174/3; Sydenham 355b; BMCRR 820; Caecilia 10.

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 276; RBW Collection [NAC Auction 61 (5-6 October 2011), Lot 735]; privately purchased from Kurt Spanier on 12 Dec 1990.

The moneyer may be the son of the A. Caecilius that is mentioned in Livy as an Aedile in 189 BCE. While asses of A. Caecilius are common (30 specimens in the Paris collection), trientes are scarce (only 4 examples in the Paris collection). This is the case with many second century Republican bronze series; the fractions are often considerably scarcer than the As of the same series, but are frequently overlooked by collectors in favor of the larger denomination.
1 commentsCarausius12/08/19 at 20:48Jay GT4: Very nice!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3210 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marc Antony and C. Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.78g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bare head of Antony with mourning beard, facing right.

Reverse: Fortuna facing left, holding Victory and cornucopia; flanked by C*VIBIVS - VARVS

References: Crawford 494/32; HCRI 149; Sydenham 1144; BMCRR 4293; Vibia 29; Antonia 26

Provenance: Ex JD Collection [NAC Auction 72 (16 May 2013), Lot 1265]; UBS Auction 78 (9 Sep 2008) Lot 1136; acquired from Hubert Herzfelder (d. Mar 1963).


This, one of the finest depictions of Antony on Roman coinage, depicts him with a beard of mourning for Julius Caesar. Antony and Octavian would wear such beards until the Liberators were defeated at Philippi later in 42 BCE. The moneyer, Varus, also struck similar coins for Octavian, though on a much smaller scale. Because of similar style on a later military mint issue by Antony, some scholars postulate that Antony so loved his portrait on the above coin type that he drafted the die engraver into his military mint.

The reverse alludes to the expectation of good fortune and victory for the Triumvirs over the Liberators.
1 commentsCarausius12/06/19 at 14:47Mat: Very nice coin!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, D. Junius Brutus Albinus, AR Denarius - Crawford 450/27 viewsRome, The Republic.
D. Junius Brutus Albinus, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Pietas facing right, her hair tied-up in a knot, wearing necklace and cruciform earing; PIETAS behind.

Reverse: Two hands clasping caduceus; ALBINVS·BRVTI·F, below.

References: Crawford 450/2; HCRI 26; Sydenham 942; BMCRR 3964; Postumia 10.

Provenance: Ex Goldberg 80 (3 Jun 2014), Lot 3067; Jacob K. Stein Collection [Gemini V (6 Jan 2009) Lot 246]; displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum, 1994-2008, no. 138.

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, not to be confused with his cousin, Marcus Brutus, lived on a similar trajectory to his cousin. He was first close with Julius Caesar, having served in the Gallic Wars and on Caesar’s side in the civil war against Pompey. Eventually, Albinus joined the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. After the assassination, the Senate gave him control of Cisalpine Gaul where he came under assault by Antony who wanted control of the province. Albinus was killed by Gauls while trying to escape to Macedonia to join the other Liberators. This coin type was struck during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey when Albinus sided with Caesar. The reverse type, with its symbols of concord, alludes to Caesar’s policy of reconciliation during the war.

This particular example was part of a 182-coin exhibit at the Cincinnati Art Museum from 1994-2008. The intense, rainbow toning on the reverse can perhaps be attributed to the reverse being the “display” side during that 14-year museum run.

1 commentsCarausius12/06/19 at 01:39Jay GT4: Great toning and provenance
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Memmius C.f., AR Denarius - Crawford 427/110 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Memmius, 56 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.98g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Ceres, facing right, her hair tied in knot, wearing grain-ear wreath and cruciform earing; C.MEMMI C.F, before.

Reverse: Bound captive kneels before trophy, his hands tied; flanked by IMPERATOR - C.MEMMIVS.

References: Crawford 427/1; Sydenham 920; BMCRR 3937; Memmia 10.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review 39 (Jul 2014); Heritage CICF Sale 3032 (10 Apr 2014), Lot 23847; Dix Noonan Webb (30 Sep 2013), Lot 3051; Clarence S. Bement Collection [Naville Ars Classica VIII (25-8 Jun 1924), Lot 246].

Ceres on the obverse relates to a second denarius type of Memmius, which claims that an Aedile named Memmius was the first to hold the games of Ceres (likely before 210 BCE). The reverse refers to a military success of another C. Memmius, which, based on the style of helmet and shield, Michael Harlan suggests may have occurred in Spain.
1 commentsCarausius11/29/19 at 22:24*Alex: Lovely coin.
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous Club Series, AE Double Litra - Crawford 27/37 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous Club Series, circa 230 BCE.
AE Double Litra (7.35g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Youthful head of Hercules in lion skin headdress, facing right; club below.

Reverse: Pegasus flying to right; club behind; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 27/3; Sydenham 7; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 51-2; Historia Numorum Italy 316.

Provenance: Ex CNG eSale 453 (2 Oct 2019) Lot 452; David Freedman Collection [CNG 61 (25 Sep 2002) Lot 4].

This is among the earlies struck Roman bronze coinage to be issued in concert with Roman silver coinage. Both the 27/1 Didrachm and this AE Double Litra (and its related Litra) share a common club symbol on obverse and reverse. The dating for this type has been in flux, with Crawford choosing a later date of 230-226 BCE while Burnett recently assigned a date just before 230 BCE.
1 commentsCarausius11/29/19 at 20:58PMah: Very nice, great weight. (This one caused a blood-...
BrutusLictorsCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/129 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius11/29/19 at 10:11gallienus1: excellent example!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/129 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius11/28/19 at 22:03Nemonater:
BrutusLictorsCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/129 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius11/28/19 at 21:31Jay GT4: Wonderful
BrutusLictorsCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/129 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius11/28/19 at 14:34Mat: A beautiful coin all around
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Sextans - Crawford 3914 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, 217-215 BCE.
AE Sextans (25.91g; 29mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: She-wolf facing right, head turned left, suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ●● (mark-of-value) below.

Reverse: Eagle facing right with flower in beak; ROMA to right; ●● (mark-of-value) behind.

References: Crawford 39/3; Sydenham 95; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 120-124; RBW 107.

Provenance: Ex Reinhold Faelton Collection [Stack's (20-2 Jan 1938) Lot 923]; Otto Helbing Auction (24 Oct 1927) Lot 3267.

The economic hardship imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. From 217-215, Rome produced two, contemporaneous series of struck bronzes on this new, semi-libral weight standard. From hoard evidence, we know the first of the two series was Crawford 38, consisting of “prow” types derived from the libral and semi-libral prow Aes Grave (Crawford 35 and 36) that preceded it. These "prow" coins were almost certainly produced in Rome and likely also in satellite military mints as needed. The second series of struck semi-libral bronzes was the enigmatic Crawford 39 series, with its unusual types, production of which commenced after the start of the 38 Series prow-types (hoards containing 39s almost always include 38s) and produced in much smaller numbers than the huge 38 Series.

The types on the Crawford 39 series are entirely pro-Roman, at a time that the Republic was in dire straits under threat of Hannibal’s invasion. This Sextans depicts the favorable founding of Rome, with the She-wolf suckling the City’s mythical founders, Romulus and Remus, on one side, and a powerful eagle bringing them additional nourishment or good omen on the other. This is the first depiction of the Wolf and Twins on a Roman bronze coin, the scene previously being depicted on a silver didrachm circa 269 BCE (Crawford 20/1).

Reinhold Faelton (1856 - 1949) was a musician, composer, the Dean and founder in 1897 of the Faelton Pianoforte School of Boston, Massachusetts, and a coin collector for over 50 years. His collection of ancient coins was sold by Stacks in January 1938. This Stack's catalogue was one of the earliest to feature photographs of actual ancient coins in the plates, rather than photos of plaster casts of the coins (which was the standard at the time). The resulting plates were mixed-quality but mostly poor, making it an arduous task to use this catalogue for provenance matching.
1 commentsCarausius11/25/19 at 18:51curtislclay: Nice coin, pedigree, and write-up!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius11/03/19 at 16:57Norbert: great coin & pedigree. Congrats
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Quadrans - Crawford 3911 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE.
AE Struck Quadrans (38.77g; 31mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: Youthful head of Hercules in boarskin headdress, facing right; three pellets (mark of value=3 unciae) behind.

Reverse: Bull leaping right, snake below; three pellets (mark of value = 3 unciae) above; ROMA below.

Reference: Crawford 39/2; Sydenham 94; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 116.

Provenance: Ex SKA/Credit Suisse (Bern) 7 (27-29 Apr 1987), Lot 656; Dr. Busso Peus Auction 300 (28 Oct 1980), Lot 206; Munz Zentrum Auktion XXX (21 Nov 1977) Lot 76; Signorelli Collection.

This coin is part of a short-lived, semi-libral series, struck collateral to the standard prow types (Crawford 38) in 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. The Series 39 types and their relationship to contemporaneous Second Punic War events are interesting to ponder. Hercules is an important figure, appearing on two of the 10 available sides of the series. Likely this is a paradigm of Roman strength and heroism during the War. While Crawford attributes this series to the Rome mint, I believe the types and fabric of the coins are inconsistent with the contemporaneous, Crawford 38 prow types which are also attributed to Rome.

Frequent visitors to my gallery may notice that this coin is a duplicate of a coin already in my collection. Indeed, I recently chose to upgrade my original specimen (viewable here: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-143993 ) with this companion. The type is difficult to find as well preserved as this specimen, so when I saw this coin, I snatched it up. For now, I’ll keep them both. The pair illustrates the general fabric of this series – well made, conical flans, likely produced in open moulds; flat fields (struck from flat-planed dies); and generally low relief.

1 commentsCarausius10/25/19 at 04:46Jay GT4: Great patina and fabulous coin
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anchor (Third) Series, AE As - Crawford 194/125 viewsRome. The Republic
Anchor (Third) Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (35.22g; 35mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; I (mark of value), above; anchor, before; ROMA, below.

References: Crawford 194/1; Sydenham 238; BMCRR 519; RBW 831.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Walter Neussel Jr. Collection [Peus Auction 420/421 (1 Nov 2017), Lot 72]; ex M&M Deutschland 9 (2001), Lot 338; Munz Zentrum Auktion XXX (21 Nov 1977) Lot 137.

The two series of Anchor bronzes are easily distinguishable by style and fabric. The first bronze anchor series (Cr 50) is of finer style and struck on good quality flans; the second bronze anchor series (actually the third anchor series overall) (Cr 194), exhibited here, is less refined, with upward gazing Janus and often poorly cast flans. In BMCRR, Grueber suggests a possible connection between coins with anchor symbol and the Quinctia gens, because anchor symbols also occur with the letter Q (see Crawford 86B).
1 commentsCarausius10/25/19 at 04:46Jay GT4: Very cool provenance
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/19/19 at 15:52Steve P: Wow, that coin is deadly! (congrats, my coin-frien...
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/12/19 at 20:44quadrans: Great piece ..I like it..
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/10/19 at 01:49Nemonater: Amazing!
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/09/19 at 23:08okidoki: Indeed xxxxx
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/09/19 at 17:48Jay GT4: Masterpiece!
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/09/19 at 16:39*Alex: Excellent. Nice addition to your gallery.
cascalongus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/238 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius10/09/19 at 16:05Tracy Aiello: Magnificent.
LepidusCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 495/2d54 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Italy.

Obverse: LEPIDVS· PONT· MAX· III· V· R· P· C; bare head of Lepidus facing right.

Reverse: C· CAESAR· IMP· III· VIR· R ·P· C; bare head of Octavian facing right.

References: Crawford 495/2d; HCRI 140a; Sydenham 1323var (rev legend); Aemilia 35var (rev legend); BMCRR (Africa) 29-31var (rev legend); Banti & Simonetti 7 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Leu Numismatik Auction 8 (30 Jun 2019) Lot 949; Bank Leu 7 (9 May 1973) Lot 317; Joseph Martini Collection [Baranowsky (25 Feb 1931) Lot 1273] and [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (24 Feb 1930) Lot 1334]; Rodolfo Ratto Fixed Price List (1927) Lot 629; Dr. Bonazzi Collection a/k/a Riche Collection [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (23 Jan 1924) Lot 1352].

This reverse die differs from most of this denarius issue in that the inscription begins with the initial “C” for Octavian's first name (Caius), while the remainder of the issue begins, simply, "CAESAR." The coins appear to celebrate the formation of the Second Triumvirate, although it is unclear why Lepidus did not also strike coins with Antony’s portrait.

This particular example appeared in a remarkable number of important Roman Republican coin sales between 1924-1931, including sales of the collections of Dr. Bonazzi and Joseph Martini.
4 commentsCarausius09/28/19 at 11:02David Atherton: Incredible coin!
AntonyAugurCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 533/218 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 18mm).
Military mint in Athens, Summer 38 BCE.

Obverse: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TER; Antony in the priestly robes of an augur, standing right and holding lituus.

Reverse: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT; Radiate head of Sol facing right.

References: Crawford 533/2; HCRI 267; Sydenham 1199; BMCRR (East) 141; Antonia 80.

Provenance: Ex Kentfield Coll. [Heritage Auction 3067 (9 Jun 2018) Lot 33340]; Michele Baranowski Auction (25 Feb 1931), Lot 1274.

In 50 BCE, Antony was appointed to the College of Augurs, an important group whose job was divining the will of the gods by interpreting auspices (birds and such) and providing advice based on these divinations. Antony was particularly proud of this appointment and referred to it frequently on his coinage, perhaps as a means of highlighting his traditional republican sensibilities. On this coin, he is depicted in full augur regalia. Sol on the reverse is a reference to The East, which Antony controlled per the renewal of the Second Triumvirate several months earlier. The inscriptions reference his augurship, second imperatorial acclamation, and designated second and third consulships. The coin was likely struck in Athens where Antony and Octavia were living after their marriage.
2 commentsCarausius09/28/19 at 11:01David Atherton: Stunning!
LepidusCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 495/2d54 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Italy.

Obverse: LEPIDVS· PONT· MAX· III· V· R· P· C; bare head of Lepidus facing right.

Reverse: C· CAESAR· IMP· III· VIR· R ·P· C; bare head of Octavian facing right.

References: Crawford 495/2d; HCRI 140a; Sydenham 1323var (rev legend); Aemilia 35var (rev legend); BMCRR (Africa) 29-31var (rev legend); Banti & Simonetti 7 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Leu Numismatik Auction 8 (30 Jun 2019) Lot 949; Bank Leu 7 (9 May 1973) Lot 317; Joseph Martini Collection [Baranowsky (25 Feb 1931) Lot 1273] and [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (24 Feb 1930) Lot 1334]; Rodolfo Ratto Fixed Price List (1927) Lot 629; Dr. Bonazzi Collection a/k/a Riche Collection [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (23 Jan 1924) Lot 1352].

This reverse die differs from most of this denarius issue in that the inscription begins with the initial “C” for Octavian's first name (Caius), while the remainder of the issue begins, simply, "CAESAR." The coins appear to celebrate the formation of the Second Triumvirate, although it is unclear why Lepidus did not also strike coins with Antony’s portrait.

This particular example appeared in a remarkable number of important Roman Republican coin sales between 1924-1931, including sales of the collections of Dr. Bonazzi and Joseph Martini.
4 commentsCarausius09/16/19 at 08:42antoninus1: Very nice Lepidus and an impressive provenance.
AntonyAugurCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 533/218 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 18mm).
Military mint in Athens, Summer 38 BCE.

Obverse: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TER; Antony in the priestly robes of an augur, standing right and holding lituus.

Reverse: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT; Radiate head of Sol facing right.

References: Crawford 533/2; HCRI 267; Sydenham 1199; BMCRR (East) 141; Antonia 80.

Provenance: Ex Kentfield Coll. [Heritage Auction 3067 (9 Jun 2018) Lot 33340]; Michele Baranowski Auction (25 Feb 1931), Lot 1274.

In 50 BCE, Antony was appointed to the College of Augurs, an important group whose job was divining the will of the gods by interpreting auspices (birds and such) and providing advice based on these divinations. Antony was particularly proud of this appointment and referred to it frequently on his coinage, perhaps as a means of highlighting his traditional republican sensibilities. On this coin, he is depicted in full augur regalia. Sol on the reverse is a reference to The East, which Antony controlled per the renewal of the Second Triumvirate several months earlier. The inscriptions reference his augurship, second imperatorial acclamation, and designated second and third consulships. The coin was likely struck in Athens where Antony and Octavia were living after their marriage.
2 commentsCarausius09/16/19 at 03:05Jay GT4: Wonderful!
catoquinariuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Porcius Cato, AR Quinarius - Crawford 343/2b21 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Porcius Cato, 89 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.08g; 14mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: M.CATO; Liber head facing right wearing ivy wreath; rudder (control mark) below.

Reverse: VICTRIX; Victory seated left, holding patera in outstretched hand and palm over left shoulder.

References: Crawford 343/2b; Sydenham 597c; BMCRR (Italy) 677-93var (symbol); Porcia 7.

Provenance: Ex Elsen 141 (15 Jun 2019) Lot 152; Elsen List 60 (Oct 1983), Lot 37.

The precise identity of the moneyer is uncertain. Crawford believes the obverse head of Liber alludes to the Porcian Laws which broadened the rights of Roman citizens with respect to punishments and appeals. This issue of quinarii was huge, with Crawford estimating 400 obverse and 444 reverse dies. The obverse appears in two varieties: one with control marks below the head, and one without. The control marks include Greek and Latin letters, numbers and symbols.
4 commentsCarausius08/28/19 at 05:19PMah: Very nice example.
catoquinariuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Porcius Cato, AR Quinarius - Crawford 343/2b21 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Porcius Cato, 89 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.08g; 14mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: M.CATO; Liber head facing right wearing ivy wreath; rudder (control mark) below.

Reverse: VICTRIX; Victory seated left, holding patera in outstretched hand and palm over left shoulder.

References: Crawford 343/2b; Sydenham 597c; BMCRR (Italy) 677-93var (symbol); Porcia 7.

Provenance: Ex Elsen 141 (15 Jun 2019) Lot 152; Elsen List 60 (Oct 1983), Lot 37.

The precise identity of the moneyer is uncertain. Crawford believes the obverse head of Liber alludes to the Porcian Laws which broadened the rights of Roman citizens with respect to punishments and appeals. This issue of quinarii was huge, with Crawford estimating 400 obverse and 444 reverse dies. The obverse appears in two varieties: one with control marks below the head, and one without. The control marks include Greek and Latin letters, numbers and symbols.
4 commentsCarausius08/27/19 at 20:34quadrans: Wow, nice piece...
catoquinariuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Porcius Cato, AR Quinarius - Crawford 343/2b21 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Porcius Cato, 89 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.08g; 14mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: M.CATO; Liber head facing right wearing ivy wreath; rudder (control mark) below.

Reverse: VICTRIX; Victory seated left, holding patera in outstretched hand and palm over left shoulder.

References: Crawford 343/2b; Sydenham 597c; BMCRR (Italy) 677-93var (symbol); Porcia 7.

Provenance: Ex Elsen 141 (15 Jun 2019) Lot 152; Elsen List 60 (Oct 1983), Lot 37.

The precise identity of the moneyer is uncertain. Crawford believes the obverse head of Liber alludes to the Porcian Laws which broadened the rights of Roman citizens with respect to punishments and appeals. This issue of quinarii was huge, with Crawford estimating 400 obverse and 444 reverse dies. The obverse appears in two varieties: one with control marks below the head, and one without. The control marks include Greek and Latin letters, numbers and symbols.
4 commentsCarausius08/27/19 at 16:26Steve P: Cool addition, coin-bro (congrats)
catoquinariuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Porcius Cato, AR Quinarius - Crawford 343/2b21 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Porcius Cato, 89 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.08g; 14mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: M.CATO; Liber head facing right wearing ivy wreath; rudder (control mark) below.

Reverse: VICTRIX; Victory seated left, holding patera in outstretched hand and palm over left shoulder.

References: Crawford 343/2b; Sydenham 597c; BMCRR (Italy) 677-93var (symbol); Porcia 7.

Provenance: Ex Elsen 141 (15 Jun 2019) Lot 152; Elsen List 60 (Oct 1983), Lot 37.

The precise identity of the moneyer is uncertain. Crawford believes the obverse head of Liber alludes to the Porcian Laws which broadened the rights of Roman citizens with respect to punishments and appeals. This issue of quinarii was huge, with Crawford estimating 400 obverse and 444 reverse dies. The obverse appears in two varieties: one with control marks below the head, and one without. The control marks include Greek and Latin letters, numbers and symbols.
4 commentsCarausius08/26/19 at 11:47okidoki: great looks
43767.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Julius, AR Denarius - Crawford 323/127 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Julius, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.0g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; corn ear behind

Reverse: Victory in biga galloping right; L.IVLI below.

References: Crawford 323/1; Sydenham 585; BMCRR 1676; Julia 3.

Provenance: Ex Collection of a World War II Veteran; acquired July 1963 from Richard M. Muniz.

The moneyer was likely not a Caesar, though a member of the same Julia gens. Comparatively, just a few years earlier, in 103 BCE, an L. Julius Caesar struck coins with a prominent “CAESAR” inscription. The corn ear on the obverse may refer to a corn distribution, the purchase of which might have been the purpose of the coins.
1 commentsCarausius07/28/19 at 05:23Steve B5: Difficult to imagine a more perfect example.
BullWheelSemis.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Roma/Wheel Series, Aes Grave Semis - Crawford 24/435 viewsRome, The Republic.
Roma/Wheel Series, c. 230 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Semis (103g; 49mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bull leaping to left; S (mark of value) below.

Reverse: Wheel with six spokes; S (mark of value) between two spokes.

References: Crawford 24/4; ICC 67; Sydenham 60.

Provenance: Ex H.D. Rauch Auction 95 (30 Sep 2014), Lot 272; Tkalec 2006, Lot 93.

The Roma/Wheel Series of aes grave is an interesting series for its types. This Semis depicts a leaping bull, a device that would be used on later Republican struck bronzes with a snake below the bull (see Crawford 39/2 and 42/2). The wheel on the reverse of this series is previously unseen on Roman coinage. There were several series of Etrurian aes grave bearing spoked wheels produced in the 3rd century BCE (see HN Italy 56-67; ICC 145-190). It is unclear whether these Etrurian aes grave were inspired by or inspiration for the Roman wheel series.

This example is on the light side of reported weights in Haeberlin; however, as museums and collectors tend to favor heavier examples of Aes Grave, Haeberlin’s reported weight range (based on museum and major private collections) is likely “overweight” in heavier specimens.
2 commentsCarausius07/21/19 at 12:19shanxi: nice
32887_4.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, "Anonymous" Staff and Club Series, AE Semis - Crawford 106var27 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous Staff and Club Series, 208 BCE.
AE Semis (16.22g; 28mm).
Etrurian Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Saturn, facing right; S (mark-of-value) behind

Reverse: Prow right; S (mark-of-value) above; ROMA below.

References: Crawford106/5 var (no symbol above prow); McCabe Group E1.

Provenance: Ex Naville 48 (7 Apr 2019) Lot 326; Otto Collection [Hess (Dec 1931), Lot 822]; Niklovitz Collection [L. Hamburger 76 (19 Oct 1925), Lot 240].

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford recognized many silver “symbol” Republican series for which there were parallel “anonymous” types omitting the symbols. In his article “Unpublished Roman Republican Bronze Coins” (Essays Hersh, 1998), Roberto Russo noted that the parallel issue of anonymous silver coins to series with symbols applies equally to the bronze coins. (Essays Hersh, 1998, p. 141). Andrew McCabe takes this approach much further in his article “The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic” (Essays Russo, 2013) in which he links many of the anonymous Republican bronzes to symbol series based on precise style considerations. The takeaway from all this is that for many of the Roman Republican symbol series of the late Second Punic War and early 2nd Century BCE, there are parallel anonymous series identifiable by style. The rationale for these parallel issues is unclear, though possibly related to (a) governmental approvals for the issue or (b) mint control of the metal source from which the issue was struck or (c) workshop identification.

This coin is an anonymous version (missing symbol) of the Staff and Club Semis of the Crawford 106 series, produced in Etruria. It is identical in style to the Etrurian Staff and Club coins and only misses the symbols. Not surprisingly, these coins are commonly misattributed as Crawford 56 anonymous bronzes.
1 commentsCarausius07/21/19 at 07:36quadrans: Nice piece..
BullWheelSemis.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Roma/Wheel Series, Aes Grave Semis - Crawford 24/435 viewsRome, The Republic.
Roma/Wheel Series, c. 230 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Semis (103g; 49mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bull leaping to left; S (mark of value) below.

Reverse: Wheel with six spokes; S (mark of value) between two spokes.

References: Crawford 24/4; ICC 67; Sydenham 60.

Provenance: Ex H.D. Rauch Auction 95 (30 Sep 2014), Lot 272; Tkalec 2006, Lot 93.

The Roma/Wheel Series of aes grave is an interesting series for its types. This Semis depicts a leaping bull, a device that would be used on later Republican struck bronzes with a snake below the bull (see Crawford 39/2 and 42/2). The wheel on the reverse of this series is previously unseen on Roman coinage. There were several series of Etrurian aes grave bearing spoked wheels produced in the 3rd century BCE (see HN Italy 56-67; ICC 145-190). It is unclear whether these Etrurian aes grave were inspired by or inspiration for the Roman wheel series.

This example is on the light side of reported weights in Haeberlin; however, as museums and collectors tend to favor heavier examples of Aes Grave, Haeberlin’s reported weight range (based on museum and major private collections) is likely “overweight” in heavier specimens.
2 commentsCarausius07/21/19 at 07:35quadrans: Great piece ..I like it..
AesGraveProwSemis.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave Semis - Crawford 35/224 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Semis (135.3g; 52mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Saturn, facing left; S (mark of value) below neck; all on raised disk.

Reverse: Prow facing right; S (mark of value) above; all on raised disk.

References: Crawford 35/2; ICC 76; Sydenham 73; BMCRR 23-29.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen GmbH, Auction 40 (4 Jun 2014), Lot 455; Auctiones AG Auction 13 (1983), Lot 505.

The prow series of libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included over 300 examples of the Semis in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War. Both obverse and reverse iconography from the various denominations of this series would continue through the Republican struck bronze coinage.
1 commentsCarausius07/21/19 at 07:34quadrans: Wow, great coin,
LepidusCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 495/2d54 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Italy.

Obverse: LEPIDVS· PONT· MAX· III· V· R· P· C; bare head of Lepidus facing right.

Reverse: C· CAESAR· IMP· III· VIR· R ·P· C; bare head of Octavian facing right.

References: Crawford 495/2d; HCRI 140a; Sydenham 1323var (rev legend); Aemilia 35var (rev legend); BMCRR (Africa) 29-31var (rev legend); Banti & Simonetti 7 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Leu Numismatik Auction 8 (30 Jun 2019) Lot 949; Bank Leu 7 (9 May 1973) Lot 317; Joseph Martini Collection [Baranowsky (25 Feb 1931) Lot 1273] and [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (24 Feb 1930) Lot 1334]; Rodolfo Ratto Fixed Price List (1927) Lot 629; Dr. Bonazzi Collection a/k/a Riche Collection [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (23 Jan 1924) Lot 1352].

This reverse die differs from most of this denarius issue in that the inscription begins with the initial “C” for Octavian's first name (Caius), while the remainder of the issue begins, simply, "CAESAR." The coins appear to celebrate the formation of the Second Triumvirate, although it is unclear why Lepidus did not also strike coins with Antony’s portrait.

This particular example appeared in a remarkable number of important Roman Republican coin sales between 1924-1931, including sales of the collections of Dr. Bonazzi and Joseph Martini.
4 commentsCarausius07/17/19 at 22:27quadrans: Nice piece..
LepidusCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 495/2d54 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Octavian, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Italy.

Obverse: LEPIDVS· PONT· MAX· III· V· R· P· C; bare head of Lepidus facing right.

Reverse: C· CAESAR· IMP· III· VIR· R ·P· C; bare head of Octavian facing right.

References: Crawford 495/2d; HCRI 140a; Sydenham 1323var (rev legend); Aemilia 35var (rev legend); BMCRR (Africa) 29-31var (rev legend); Banti & Simonetti 7 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Leu Numismatik Auction 8 (30 Jun 2019) Lot 949; Bank Leu 7 (9 May 1973) Lot 317; Joseph Martini Collection [Baranowsky (25 Feb 1931) Lot 1273] and [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (24 Feb 1930) Lot 1334]; Rodolfo Ratto Fixed Price List (1927) Lot 629; Dr. Bonazzi Collection a/k/a Riche Collection [Rodolfo Ratto Auction (23 Jan 1924) Lot 1352].

This reverse die differs from most of this denarius issue in that the inscription begins with the initial “C” for Octavian's first name (Caius), while the remainder of the issue begins, simply, "CAESAR." The coins appear to celebrate the formation of the Second Triumvirate, although it is unclear why Lepidus did not also strike coins with Antony’s portrait.

This particular example appeared in a remarkable number of important Roman Republican coin sales between 1924-1931, including sales of the collections of Dr. Bonazzi and Joseph Martini.
4 commentsCarausius07/15/19 at 04:55Jay GT4: Wonderful. Congrats
15609101840072427343326582000083.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous Post Semi-Libral AE Uncia - Crawford 41/1038 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Post Semi-libral Series), 215-212 BCE.
AE Uncia (7.87g; 24mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; pellet (mark-of-value) behind.

Reverse: Prow facing right; ROMA above; pellet (mark-of-value) below.

References: Crawford 41/10; McCabe Group A1; RBW 135.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 12.

This series is the second of the “prow” struck bronze series. It is most easily recognized by the left side of the prow device which has a clearly delineated edge, while on later series the left side of the prow appears to extend off the side of the coin. The series was issued during the Second Punic War and reflects the continued reduction in weight standard of the Roman bronze coinage during the conflict; this issue having occurred on the heels of the “semi-libral reduction” of 217-215 BCE. It would soon be followed by further weight reductions.
2 commentsCarausius07/13/19 at 08:30quadrans: Nice one
15609101840072427343326582000083.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous Post Semi-Libral AE Uncia - Crawford 41/1038 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Post Semi-libral Series), 215-212 BCE.
AE Uncia (7.87g; 24mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; pellet (mark-of-value) behind.

Reverse: Prow facing right; ROMA above; pellet (mark-of-value) below.

References: Crawford 41/10; McCabe Group A1; RBW 135.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 12.

This series is the second of the “prow” struck bronze series. It is most easily recognized by the left side of the prow device which has a clearly delineated edge, while on later series the left side of the prow appears to extend off the side of the coin. The series was issued during the Second Punic War and reflects the continued reduction in weight standard of the Roman bronze coinage during the conflict; this issue having occurred on the heels of the “semi-libral reduction” of 217-215 BCE. It would soon be followed by further weight reductions.
2 commentsCarausius07/12/19 at 13:23Jay GT4: I like that prow
15609102152135298521374562440152.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Marius, AE As - Crawford 148/126 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Marius, 189-180 BCE.
AE As (31.17g; 32mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Janus; I (mark of value) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; Q.MARI above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 148/1; Sydenham 367 (R7); BMCRR 822; Maria 1.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 22; Bombarda Collection; NAC 9 (16 Apr 1996) Lot 587.

This is a particularly fine example of this scarce type. Not much is known of the moneyer beyond his coins. He is likely NOT an ancestor of Gaius Marius who would later serve seven consulships and challenge Sulla.
1 commentsCarausius07/12/19 at 04:21Jay GT4: That's great!
AntCaesSchottCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 488/230 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.19g; 19mm).
Military mint in Cisalpine Gaul.

Obverse: M.A[NTON IMP RPC]; Antony's bare, bearded head facing right; lituus behind.

Reverse: CAESAR DIC; Laureate head of Julius Caesar facing right; jug behind.

References: Crawford 488/2; HCRI 123; Sydenham 1166; BMCRR (Gaul) 55; Antonia 5-6.

Provenance: Ex Roma E-Live Auction 1 (25-6 Jul 2018) Lot 531; Bernard Poindessault Collection [Oger-Blanchet (17 Nov 2017) Lot 148]; Edouard Schott Collection [E. Bourgey (21 Mar 1972) Lot 337].

This is one of Antony’s earliest issues following the creation of the Second Triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus. The titulature "RPC" (tip of "C" just barely visible beneath Antony’s portrait on this specimen) reflects the new status. Antony is depicted with a slight beard of mourning, as is Octavian on his coins until the defeat of the Tyrannicides at Philippi the following year. Both Antony and Caesar have symbols of the augurate behind their portraits, as both were members of the college of augurs, and this served to highlight their common bond. The somewhat comical portrait style is reflective of the military mint, with limited die engraver talent.
1 commentsCarausius07/07/19 at 18:49Jay GT4: Outstanding! Wish mine was this nice
AntonyLegV.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius07/07/19 at 15:52Norbert: great coin & pedigree. Congrats
AntonyLegV.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius07/07/19 at 13:00Jay GT4: Wow, that is a wonderful coin
1681141l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AE Half-Litra - Crawford 26/442 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous. 234-231 BCE.
AE Half Litra (1.58g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Roma in Phrygian helmet, facing right.

Reverse: Dog prancing toward right; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 26/4; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 44-48.

Provenance: Ex NAC 84 (20 May 2015), Lot 765; purchased privately from Or Gestion Numismatique (Paris) in 2009.
1 commentsCarausius06/22/19 at 20:00Pharsalos: Superb example!
ArriusSecundus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Arrius Secundus, AR Denarius - Crawford 513/251 viewsRome, The Imperators.
M. Arrius Secundus. 41 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.82g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: M. ARRIVS - SECVNDVS; bare head, with slight beard, facing right.

Reverse: Victory honors - wreath, spear and phalera.

References: Crawford 513/2; HCRI 319; Sydenham 1084; BMCRR 4210; Arria 2.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 134; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (5-6 Jun 1959) Lot 172; Munzhandlung Basel 10 (15 Mar 1938) Lot 486.

M. Arrius Secundus was likely son of Quintus Arrius, who had a victory in the Servile War against one of Spartacus’ lieutenants, but subsequently lost a battle to Spartacus himself. He was the only member of his gens to strike coins, and not much else is known about him.

The slightly-bearded, obverse portrait, while probably depicting the moneyer’s father, Quintus Arrius, also bears a striking resemblance to contemporaneous portraits of Octavian. However, without any inscription naming Caesar, a positive identification of the portrait remains debated by scholars. David Sear suggests that the portrait is deliberately ambiguous, as the political and military climate was very risky and the moneyer likely wanted plausible deniability that the portrait was Octavian. The reverse shows awards of victory granted to the moneyer’s father for his Servile War victory: a laurel wreath, golden spear and phalera (a military decoration attached to a harness and worn over a cuirass).
2 commentsCarausius06/22/19 at 19:59Pharsalos: Wonderful coin, beautiful tone.
OctavianCuriaRaw.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 30-29 BCE.

Obverse: Octavian’s bare head, facing right.

Reverse: Roman Senate House; IMP CAESAR on architrave.

References: RIC 266; HCRI 421; BMCRR 4358; Julia 161.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3063 (16 Jan 2018) Lot 33381; Spink Num. Circ. Vol LXXVIII, No. 6 (June 1970), inv. #6871, pl. 11.

The coin celebrates the dedication of the Curia Julia, a new meeting house for the Roman Senate, construction of which was commenced under Julius Caesar and completed by Octavian circa 29 BCE. Julius Caesar was assassinated at the Theater of Pompey where the Senate was meeting while construction of this new Senate house was underway. It is both ironic and politically astute that Octavian should commemorate this new Senate house on a coin, given that his hold on power made the Senate effectively irrelevant. The structure still stands today, having been restored through the imperial period and later converted to a church.
3 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 17:18kc: Wow, a great example!
4948493l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AE Litra - Crawford 16/1a42 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous. 275-270 BCE.
AE Litra (9.89g; 22mm).
Southern Italian Mint.

Obverse: Nymph’s head, facing right, wearing diadem.

Reverse: Lion walking right, head facing; ROMANO in exergue.

References: Crawford 16/1a; Syd 5; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 23-27; RBW 10; HN1 276.

Provenance: NAC 114 (7 May 2019) Lot 1241; Hoskier Collection [Hess (15 Feb 1934) Lot 543].

This is one of the larger issues of early Roman struck bronzes. Hoard evidence suggests a mint south of Rome. Fabric and style also support a South Italian mint, as the flan, which appears to have been cast with hemispheric molds that leave characteristic edge sprues, is typical of Neapolitan coins of similar age. The lion on the reverse is sometimes shown with a spear in its mouth and sometimes not. There is no spear evident on this coin. There does not seem to be any direct connection between this issue and contemporaneous silver issues. Connections to contemporaneous silver would be evidenced on later struck bronze coins by common devices and symbols (i.e. club and sickle series).
1 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 16:12Tracy Aiello: That lion's face and it's expression is pr...
CassiusTripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Cassius, AR Denarius - Crawford 500/133 viewsRome, The Imperators.
C. Cassius Longinus. 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.38g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Smyrna.

Obverse: C. CASSI – IMP; tripod with cauldron and laurel fillets.

Reverse: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/1; HCRI 219; Sydenham 1308; BMCRR (East) 79; Cassia 14.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 121; P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 168.

This coin was struck for Cassius, one of the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, when Brutus and Cassius met in Smyrna, circa early 42 BCE. The tripod obverse type was borrowed from a slightly earlier Aureus produced for Cassius by his legate, M. Aquinus. The tripod may reference Cassius’ membership in one of the sacred colleges. Cassius was elected to the augurate in 57 BCE, to which the implements on the reverse of this coin certainly allude. The coin was produced on Cassius’ behalf by P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, who also produced coins for Brutus at the same time. For more information on Spinther, see my example of his Brutus denarius at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-145289

Until the discovery of a large, mint-state, hoard in the early 2000’s, this was one of the rarest types in the Roman Republican series. While recent hoard examples of the type are scarce, old provenanced examples, like this, remain extremely rare.
2 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 13:30Tracy Aiello: wow, that is an outstanding coin.
CassiusTripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Cassius, AR Denarius - Crawford 500/133 viewsRome, The Imperators.
C. Cassius Longinus. 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.38g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Smyrna.

Obverse: C. CASSI – IMP; tripod with cauldron and laurel fillets.

Reverse: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/1; HCRI 219; Sydenham 1308; BMCRR (East) 79; Cassia 14.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 121; P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 168.

This coin was struck for Cassius, one of the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, when Brutus and Cassius met in Smyrna, circa early 42 BCE. The tripod obverse type was borrowed from a slightly earlier Aureus produced for Cassius by his legate, M. Aquinus. The tripod may reference Cassius’ membership in one of the sacred colleges. Cassius was elected to the augurate in 57 BCE, to which the implements on the reverse of this coin certainly allude. The coin was produced on Cassius’ behalf by P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, who also produced coins for Brutus at the same time. For more information on Spinther, see my example of his Brutus denarius at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-145289

Until the discovery of a large, mint-state, hoard in the early 2000’s, this was one of the rarest types in the Roman Republican series. While recent hoard examples of the type are scarce, old provenanced examples, like this, remain extremely rare.
2 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 05:34Jay GT4: Exceptional
ArriusSecundus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Arrius Secundus, AR Denarius - Crawford 513/251 viewsRome, The Imperators.
M. Arrius Secundus. 41 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.82g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: M. ARRIVS - SECVNDVS; bare head, with slight beard, facing right.

Reverse: Victory honors - wreath, spear and phalera.

References: Crawford 513/2; HCRI 319; Sydenham 1084; BMCRR 4210; Arria 2.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 134; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (5-6 Jun 1959) Lot 172; Munzhandlung Basel 10 (15 Mar 1938) Lot 486.

M. Arrius Secundus was likely son of Quintus Arrius, who had a victory in the Servile War against one of Spartacus’ lieutenants, but subsequently lost a battle to Spartacus himself. He was the only member of his gens to strike coins, and not much else is known about him.

The slightly-bearded, obverse portrait, while probably depicting the moneyer’s father, Quintus Arrius, also bears a striking resemblance to contemporaneous portraits of Octavian. However, without any inscription naming Caesar, a positive identification of the portrait remains debated by scholars. David Sear suggests that the portrait is deliberately ambiguous, as the political and military climate was very risky and the moneyer likely wanted plausible deniability that the portrait was Octavian. The reverse shows awards of victory granted to the moneyer’s father for his Servile War victory: a laurel wreath, golden spear and phalera (a military decoration attached to a harness and worn over a cuirass).
2 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 05:33Jay GT4: Lovely portrait
1879890l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L Series, AE As - Crawford 97/22a36 viewsRome, The Republic.
L Series. 211-208 BCE.
AE As (27.67g; 37mm).
Luceria Mint.

Obverse: Janus head; --- (mark of values) above; L below.

Reverse: Prow to right; ROMA below; I (mark of value) above.

References: Crawford 97/22a; RBW 417-419.

Provenance: Ex Ambrose Collection [Roma X (9 Sept 2015), Lot 659]; Bombarda Collection [Tkalec AG (8 Sept 2008), Lot 236].

Possibly over-struck, though the under-type is not attributable.

1 commentsCarausius06/14/19 at 05:33Jay GT4: That's a beauty
MusaClioCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/333 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.58g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; tied scroll behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Clio, muse of history, facing left and leaning on column, while reading open scroll.

References: Crawford 410/3; Sydenham 813; BMCRR 3610-11; Pomponia 11.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3072 (15 Jan 2019), Lot 35407; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 469]; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2490].

As the muse of history, Clio is typically depicted in ancient art with an open scroll or tablet.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius05/11/19 at 20:18paul1888: Beautiful coin with a nicely centered reverse.
32128.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, AR Quinarius, c. 212-211 BCE - Crawford 44/650 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 212-211 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.55g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right, with early, curved visor; V (mark-of-value=5 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears and stars above heads; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/6; Sydenham 141; BMCRR 9-12.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection [Agora 68 (15 Aug 2017), Lot 150]; ex CNG XXVII (29 Sep 1993).
2 commentsCarausius04/26/19 at 01:20Steve B5: Hammer $250 in the CNG sale in 1993. Significant ...
MusaClioCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/333 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.58g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; tied scroll behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Clio, muse of history, facing left and leaning on column, while reading open scroll.

References: Crawford 410/3; Sydenham 813; BMCRR 3610-11; Pomponia 11.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3072 (15 Jan 2019), Lot 35407; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 469]; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2490].

As the muse of history, Clio is typically depicted in ancient art with an open scroll or tablet.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius04/26/19 at 00:56Steve B5: Carausius, I admire your collection and visit it o...
4390442.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/416 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.96g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: MVSA - Q.POMPONI; Melpomene, muse of tragedy, facing left and holding club and theatrical mask.

References: Crawford 410/4; Sydenham 816; BMCRR 3615-16; Pomponia 14.

Provenance: Ex Fay Beth Wedig Collection [CNG eSale 439 (6 Mar 2019) Lot 442]; NAC 11 (29 Apr 1998), Lot 253.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.

Melpomene, whose name actually means “songstress” was originally one of the muses of song, but her role changed to muse of tragic theater after the development of drama in classical Greece sometime in the sixth century BCE. She is generally depicted holding a club or knife and a tragic mask, which Greek actors wore on stage when performing dramatic plays.
2 commentsCarausius04/16/19 at 19:50Norbert: great and congrats
MusaClioCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/333 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.58g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; tied scroll behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Clio, muse of history, facing left and leaning on column, while reading open scroll.

References: Crawford 410/3; Sydenham 813; BMCRR 3610-11; Pomponia 11.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3072 (15 Jan 2019), Lot 35407; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 469]; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2490].

As the muse of history, Clio is typically depicted in ancient art with an open scroll or tablet.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius03/31/19 at 05:10Jay GT4: Really nice. Congrats
4390442.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius - Crawford 410/416 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.96g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: MVSA - Q.POMPONI; Melpomene, muse of tragedy, facing left and holding club and theatrical mask.

References: Crawford 410/4; Sydenham 816; BMCRR 3615-16; Pomponia 14.

Provenance: Ex Fay Beth Wedig Collection [CNG eSale 439 (6 Mar 2019) Lot 442]; NAC 11 (29 Apr 1998), Lot 253.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules and Muse varieties. On the Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.

Melpomene, whose name actually means “songstress” was originally one of the muses of song, but her role changed to muse of tragic theater after the development of drama in classical Greece sometime in the sixth century BCE. She is generally depicted holding a club or knife and a tragic mask, which Greek actors wore on stage when performing dramatic plays.
2 commentsCarausius03/31/19 at 05:09Jay GT4: Wonderful
33158.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius - Crawford 340/118 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.78g; 19mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; N (control mark) below chin.

Rev: Horseman galloping to right, holding whip; dolphin above; L·PISO·FRVG and ROMA below.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 658a; Hersh Class IV, Series 20.

Provenance: Ex Spink & Son Ltd; Mario Ratto Fixed Price List (Feb 1966) Lot 297.

Apparently overstruck with remnants of undertype visible on reverse.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi’s coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi’s denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die. The earlier dies in the series which bear ROMA, either spelled-out (as on this coin) or in monogram, in the reverse exergue, are typically of finer style than the later dies without ROMA or monogram. For another fine-style example with ROMA in monogram form, see my gallery coin at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-146453

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi’s ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
2 commentsCarausius03/24/19 at 12:20Jay GT4: Beautiful
33158.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius - Crawford 340/118 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.78g; 19mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; N (control mark) below chin.

Rev: Horseman galloping to right, holding whip; dolphin above; L·PISO·FRVG and ROMA below.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 658a; Hersh Class IV, Series 20.

Provenance: Ex Spink & Son Ltd; Mario Ratto Fixed Price List (Feb 1966) Lot 297.

Apparently overstruck with remnants of undertype visible on reverse.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi’s coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi’s denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die. The earlier dies in the series which bear ROMA, either spelled-out (as on this coin) or in monogram, in the reverse exergue, are typically of finer style than the later dies without ROMA or monogram. For another fine-style example with ROMA in monogram form, see my gallery coin at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-146453

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi’s ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
2 commentsCarausius03/23/19 at 22:34okidoki: wonderful obverse and toning
Acisculuscombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Valerius Acisculus, AR Denarius - Crawford 474/1b - SEAR PLATE COIN!13 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Valerius Acisculus, 45 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.17g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Filleted head of Apollo facing right; star above; pick-axe and ACISCVLVS behind; all within a wreath border.

Reverse: Europa riding bull to right with billowing veil; L VALERIVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 474/1b; HCRI 90a; Sydenham 998a; BMCRR 4102; Sear RCV I 469/2 (this coin illustrated); Banti 35/2 (this coin illustrated); Valeria 16.

Provenance: Ex Student and his Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (2015) Lot 442]; Credit de la Bourse (1995) Lot 1146; Munzen und Medaillen Liste 412 (1979), Lot 43; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2800].

L. Valerius Acisculus issued an interesting series of types in 45 BCE. Not much is known about the moneyer except that he was also a Tribune of the Plebs. The pick-axe on obverse of these types is a punning allusion to the moneyer’s name, as the Latin word for pick-axe is “acisculus”. Scholars have long debated the meanings of the other devices, some going to great lengths to argue connections to the moneyer’s family. However, more recently, Crawford and Sear both concluded that the types, including the laurel wreath border on the obverse of this coin, likely allude to Julius Caesar’s military successes against Pompey and in the East.
2 commentsCarausius03/03/19 at 15:02Marsman: Beautiful
Acisculuscombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Valerius Acisculus, AR Denarius - Crawford 474/1b - SEAR PLATE COIN!13 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Valerius Acisculus, 45 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.17g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Filleted head of Apollo facing right; star above; pick-axe and ACISCVLVS behind; all within a wreath border.

Reverse: Europa riding bull to right with billowing veil; L VALERIVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 474/1b; HCRI 90a; Sydenham 998a; BMCRR 4102; Sear RCV I 469/2 (this coin illustrated); Banti 35/2 (this coin illustrated); Valeria 16.

Provenance: Ex Student and his Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (2015) Lot 442]; Credit de la Bourse (1995) Lot 1146; Munzen und Medaillen Liste 412 (1979), Lot 43; E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 2800].

L. Valerius Acisculus issued an interesting series of types in 45 BCE. Not much is known about the moneyer except that he was also a Tribune of the Plebs. The pick-axe on obverse of these types is a punning allusion to the moneyer’s name, as the Latin word for pick-axe is “acisculus”. Scholars have long debated the meanings of the other devices, some going to great lengths to argue connections to the moneyer’s family. However, more recently, Crawford and Sear both concluded that the types, including the laurel wreath border on the obverse of this coin, likely allude to Julius Caesar’s military successes against Pompey and in the East.
2 commentsCarausius03/03/19 at 07:41quadrans: Nice one
3365112l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius - Crawford 538/120 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 37 BCE.

Obverse: IMP CAESAR-DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER R·P·C; Octavian’s bare head, bearded and facing right.

Reverse: COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG; Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; HCRI 312; BMCRR (Gaul) 116.

Provenance: Ex Ernst Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 41]; Peus 386 (26 Apr 2006), Lot 663; Astarte 5 (1999), Lot 703.

The obverse inscription records the renewal of the second triumvirate in 37 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius02/22/19 at 19:50Norbert: nice coin, nice pedigree. Congrats
brutustripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 502/214 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Brutus, 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 17mm).
Military Mint, Spring-Summer 42 BCE.

Obverse: L·SESTI - PRO·Q; Veiled and draped bust of Libertas, facing right.

Reverse: Q·CAEPIO·BRVTVS·PRO·COS; Tripod with axe on left and simpulum on right.

References: Crawford 502/2; HCRI 201; Syd 1290; BMCRR East 41; Junia 37; Sestia 2.

Provenance: Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection [Triton XXII (9 Jan 2019), Lot 951]; Kunker 288 (13 Mar 2017) Lot 314; Theodor Prowe Collection [Hess (20 May 1912) Lot 933].

Marcus Junius Brutus was posthumously adopted by his maternal uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Afterward, Brutus sometimes used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, which both honored his uncle and advertised his maternal descent from Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala. Ahala was a Roman Republican hero who had killed someone with regal aspirations. In his early political career, Brutus issued coins with the portrait of Ahala on one side (see Crawford 433/2; http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144687). Following the assassination of Caesar, Brutus resurrected his use of the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, as on this coin, again alluding to this Servilian connection in his family tree. Combined with the bust of Liberty on the obverse of this coin, the message is clear: that the assassins were liberators from monarchy in the old Republican tradition of their ancestors. The reverse shows the symbols of Brutus’ membership in the college of priests.

This example comes from the collection of Theodor Prowe of Moscow, one of the great collections of the early 20th century, which was auctioned in three separate 1912 sales by Bruder Egger (Greek) and Hess (Roman).
2 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 20:43Enodia: Beautiful coin with a very pretty Libertas.
Didrachm25-1.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Didrachm - Crawford 25/127 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 241-235 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.62g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of beardless Mars with crested Corinthian helmet decorated with gryphon, facing right.

Reverse: Bridled horse head facing right; sickle to left; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 25/1; Sydenham 24; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 57.

Provenance: Ex Ed Waddell inventory #7484 (c. 1985).

This didrachm series is the first Roman silver coinage to bear the inscription ROMA, a change from the earlier ROMANO inscriptions. The early ROMANO inscriptions may have been either an abbreviation of the genitive plural ROMANORVM (“of the Romans”) or dative ROMANO (“by the Romans”) either of which would be similar grammar to Greek coin inscriptions. The move to the nominative case ROMA, may have been a simple shift to Roman/Latin usage consistent with the coinage taking on a more “Roman” character, as minting activity had moved from southern Italy to Rome many years before. The sickle symbol on the reverse, as well as common devices across denominations, links this didrachm issue to contemporaneous Roman bronze coinage also bearing the sickle. This marks the first time in the emerging Roman coinage that a clear-intentioned, bi-metallic series emission can be established.
3 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 14:05maridvnvm: Great!
OctavianCuriaRaw.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 30-29 BCE.

Obverse: Octavian’s bare head, facing right.

Reverse: Roman Senate House; IMP CAESAR on architrave.

References: RIC 266; HCRI 421; BMCRR 4358; Julia 161.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3063 (16 Jan 2018) Lot 33381; Spink Num. Circ. Vol LXXVIII, No. 6 (June 1970), inv. #6871, pl. 11.

The coin celebrates the dedication of the Curia Julia, a new meeting house for the Roman Senate, construction of which was commenced under Julius Caesar and completed by Octavian circa 29 BCE. Julius Caesar was assassinated at the Theater of Pompey where the Senate was meeting while construction of this new Senate house was underway. It is both ironic and politically astute that Octavian should commemorate this new Senate house on a coin, given that his hold on power made the Senate effectively irrelevant. The structure still stands today, having been restored through the imperial period and later converted to a church.
3 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 14:04maridvnvm: Gorgeous
3365112l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius - Crawford 538/120 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 37 BCE.

Obverse: IMP CAESAR-DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER R·P·C; Octavian’s bare head, bearded and facing right.

Reverse: COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG; Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; HCRI 312; BMCRR (Gaul) 116.

Provenance: Ex Ernst Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 41]; Peus 386 (26 Apr 2006), Lot 663; Astarte 5 (1999), Lot 703.

The obverse inscription records the renewal of the second triumvirate in 37 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 14:04maridvnvm: Very attractive
IMG-20190114-WA0021.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Prawn Series, AR Denarius - Crawford 156/120 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous Prawn Series, 179-169 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; behind, X.

Reverse: Luna in biga galloping right; prawn below horses; in exergue, ROMA in linear frame.

References: Crawford 156/1; Sydenham 343; BMCRR 585.

Provenance: Ex Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's, 3-4 May 1978, Lot 97].
2 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 12:40Steve P: Sweet prawn ... I love it!
Didrachm25-1.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Didrachm - Crawford 25/127 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 241-235 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.62g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of beardless Mars with crested Corinthian helmet decorated with gryphon, facing right.

Reverse: Bridled horse head facing right; sickle to left; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 25/1; Sydenham 24; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 57.

Provenance: Ex Ed Waddell inventory #7484 (c. 1985).

This didrachm series is the first Roman silver coinage to bear the inscription ROMA, a change from the earlier ROMANO inscriptions. The early ROMANO inscriptions may have been either an abbreviation of the genitive plural ROMANORVM (“of the Romans”) or dative ROMANO (“by the Romans”) either of which would be similar grammar to Greek coin inscriptions. The move to the nominative case ROMA, may have been a simple shift to Roman/Latin usage consistent with the coinage taking on a more “Roman” character, as minting activity had moved from southern Italy to Rome many years before. The sickle symbol on the reverse, as well as common devices across denominations, links this didrachm issue to contemporaneous Roman bronze coinage also bearing the sickle. This marks the first time in the emerging Roman coinage that a clear-intentioned, bi-metallic series emission can be established.
3 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 08:48quadrans: Great coin , and details,
OctavianCuriaRaw.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius29 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 30-29 BCE.

Obverse: Octavian’s bare head, facing right.

Reverse: Roman Senate House; IMP CAESAR on architrave.

References: RIC 266; HCRI 421; BMCRR 4358; Julia 161.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Auction 3063 (16 Jan 2018) Lot 33381; Spink Num. Circ. Vol LXXVIII, No. 6 (June 1970), inv. #6871, pl. 11.

The coin celebrates the dedication of the Curia Julia, a new meeting house for the Roman Senate, construction of which was commenced under Julius Caesar and completed by Octavian circa 29 BCE. Julius Caesar was assassinated at the Theater of Pompey where the Senate was meeting while construction of this new Senate house was underway. It is both ironic and politically astute that Octavian should commemorate this new Senate house on a coin, given that his hold on power made the Senate effectively irrelevant. The structure still stands today, having been restored through the imperial period and later converted to a church.
3 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 08:48quadrans: Another nice piece
3365112l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius - Crawford 538/120 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 37 BCE.

Obverse: IMP CAESAR-DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER R·P·C; Octavian’s bare head, bearded and facing right.

Reverse: COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG; Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; HCRI 312; BMCRR (Gaul) 116.

Provenance: Ex Ernst Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 41]; Peus 386 (26 Apr 2006), Lot 663; Astarte 5 (1999), Lot 703.

The obverse inscription records the renewal of the second triumvirate in 37 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 08:47quadrans: Great piece ..I like it..
3365112l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius - Crawford 538/120 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian, 44-27 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Italian Mint, Summer 37 BCE.

Obverse: IMP CAESAR-DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER R·P·C; Octavian’s bare head, bearded and facing right.

Reverse: COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG; Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 538/1; Sydenham 1334; HCRI 312; BMCRR (Gaul) 116.

Provenance: Ex Ernst Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 41]; Peus 386 (26 Apr 2006), Lot 663; Astarte 5 (1999), Lot 703.

The obverse inscription records the renewal of the second triumvirate in 37 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 05:56Jay GT4: I wonder if Octavian could even grow a beard. Gr...
brutustripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 502/214 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Brutus, 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 17mm).
Military Mint, Spring-Summer 42 BCE.

Obverse: L·SESTI - PRO·Q; Veiled and draped bust of Libertas, facing right.

Reverse: Q·CAEPIO·BRVTVS·PRO·COS; Tripod with axe on left and simpulum on right.

References: Crawford 502/2; HCRI 201; Syd 1290; BMCRR East 41; Junia 37; Sestia 2.

Provenance: Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection [Triton XXII (9 Jan 2019), Lot 951]; Kunker 288 (13 Mar 2017) Lot 314; Theodor Prowe Collection [Hess (20 May 1912) Lot 933].

Marcus Junius Brutus was posthumously adopted by his maternal uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Afterward, Brutus sometimes used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, which both honored his uncle and advertised his maternal descent from Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala. Ahala was a Roman Republican hero who had killed someone with regal aspirations. In his early political career, Brutus issued coins with the portrait of Ahala on one side (see Crawford 433/2; http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144687). Following the assassination of Caesar, Brutus resurrected his use of the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, as on this coin, again alluding to this Servilian connection in his family tree. Combined with the bust of Liberty on the obverse of this coin, the message is clear: that the assassins were liberators from monarchy in the old Republican tradition of their ancestors. The reverse shows the symbols of Brutus’ membership in the college of priests.

This example comes from the collection of Theodor Prowe of Moscow, one of the great collections of the early 20th century, which was auctioned in three separate 1912 sales by Bruder Egger (Greek) and Hess (Roman).
2 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 05:54Jay GT4: Great provenance. Even better coin!
Didrachm25-1.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Didrachm - Crawford 25/127 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 241-235 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.62g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of beardless Mars with crested Corinthian helmet decorated with gryphon, facing right.

Reverse: Bridled horse head facing right; sickle to left; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 25/1; Sydenham 24; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 57.

Provenance: Ex Ed Waddell inventory #7484 (c. 1985).

This didrachm series is the first Roman silver coinage to bear the inscription ROMA, a change from the earlier ROMANO inscriptions. The early ROMANO inscriptions may have been either an abbreviation of the genitive plural ROMANORVM (“of the Romans”) or dative ROMANO (“by the Romans”) either of which would be similar grammar to Greek coin inscriptions. The move to the nominative case ROMA, may have been a simple shift to Roman/Latin usage consistent with the coinage taking on a more “Roman” character, as minting activity had moved from southern Italy to Rome many years before. The sickle symbol on the reverse, as well as common devices across denominations, links this didrachm issue to contemporaneous Roman bronze coinage also bearing the sickle. This marks the first time in the emerging Roman coinage that a clear-intentioned, bi-metallic series emission can be established.
3 commentsCarausius02/17/19 at 05:54Jay GT4: Stunning!
1521044195142126439108.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, 32 BCE60 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 32 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.72g; 18mm).
Athens Mint.

Obv: ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III III V R P C. Bare head of Antony facing right.

Rev: ANTONIVS AVG IMP III, in two lines.

References: Crawford 542/2; HCRI 347; Sydenham 1209.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG eSale 385 (26 Oct 2016) Lot 470]; CNG 49 (17 Mar 1999), Lot 1316; Reinhold Faelten Collection [Stack's (20 Jan 1938) Lot 1495].

On the obverse, behind Antony’s ear, a small letter P, likely an engraver’s signature, is hidden within the hair line. This coin was struck in Athens in 32 BCE, while Antony and Cleopatra lived extravagantly among the Greeks. The coin’s inscription refers to a designated third consulship that Antony was supposed to share with Octavian in 31 BCE. Around the time this coin was minted, Antony notified his wife, Octavia (Octavian’s sister), in Rome that he was divorcing her. Octavian was outraged. Cleopatra’s growing influence over Antony was soon used by Octavian as progaganda to unite Italy and the West against Antony. Thus, the designated third consulship referenced on this coin never occurred, as the designated consuls went to war instead, ending with Antony’s naval defeat at Actium in September 31 BCE.
5 commentsCarausius02/07/19 at 18:22orfew: A lovely example
AntonyLeg2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion II Denarius19 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.64g; 17mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG II; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/14; Sydenham 1216; HCRI 349; BMCRR East 190-92; Antonia 105.

Provenance: Ex Pat Coyle Coll. [Goldberg Auction 69 (29 May 2012) Lot 3471]; NAC 40 (16 May 2007), Lot 624.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Forty examples of the LEG II variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series.

The Legio II was likely a legion that was disbanded after Actium.
2 commentsCarausius02/05/19 at 21:42quadrans: Great piece ..
AntonyLeg2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion II Denarius19 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.64g; 17mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG II; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/14; Sydenham 1216; HCRI 349; BMCRR East 190-92; Antonia 105.

Provenance: Ex Pat Coyle Coll. [Goldberg Auction 69 (29 May 2012) Lot 3471]; NAC 40 (16 May 2007), Lot 624.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Forty examples of the LEG II variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series.

The Legio II was likely a legion that was disbanded after Actium.
2 commentsCarausius02/05/19 at 12:45Jay GT4: Wonderful legionary eagle.
IMG-20190114-WA0021.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Prawn Series, AR Denarius - Crawford 156/120 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous Prawn Series, 179-169 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; behind, X.

Reverse: Luna in biga galloping right; prawn below horses; in exergue, ROMA in linear frame.

References: Crawford 156/1; Sydenham 343; BMCRR 585.

Provenance: Ex Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's, 3-4 May 1978, Lot 97].
2 commentsCarausius02/04/19 at 18:00Jay GT4: Beautiful
4407514l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Marcius, AR Denarius - Crawford 245/116 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Marcius, 134 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; modius behind; * below chin.

Reverse: Victory in biga galloping right; two wheat ears and M-MAR-C below; RO-MA in exergue.

References: Crawford 245/1; Sydenham 500; BMCRR 1008-13; Marcia 8.

One of the moneyer’s ancestors was an aedile in charge grain distribution to the Roman people, and the modius and wheat ears refer to this family connection.
1 commentsCarausius02/04/19 at 17:58Jay GT4: Never seen the wheat ears on the reverse like that...
4483748l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Cassius Longinus, AR Denarius - Crawford 428/328 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Cassius Longinus, 55 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bonus Eventus or Genius of the Roman People head facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: Eagle on thunderbolt, facing right; lituus to left; jug to right; Q CASSIVS below.

References: Crawford 428/3; Sydenham 916; BMCRR 3868; Cassia 7.

Provenance: Ex Fernandez Collection [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 227].

The identity of the head on the obverse is in doubt. Crawford interprets the obverse as Genius of the Roman People and the reverse an allusion to imperium. Michael Harlan theorizes that the head is Bonus Eventus and that it ties to symbols of the augurate on the reverse. Augurs, after all, want to predict good outcomes. Harlan's interpretation doesn’t fully explain the scepter on the obverse, which is not a typical characteristic of Bonus Eventus.
3 commentsCarausius01/07/19 at 20:47quadrans: Great coin , and details,
4483748l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Cassius Longinus, AR Denarius - Crawford 428/328 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Cassius Longinus, 55 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bonus Eventus or Genius of the Roman People head facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: Eagle on thunderbolt, facing right; lituus to left; jug to right; Q CASSIVS below.

References: Crawford 428/3; Sydenham 916; BMCRR 3868; Cassia 7.

Provenance: Ex Fernandez Collection [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 227].

The identity of the head on the obverse is in doubt. Crawford interprets the obverse as Genius of the Roman People and the reverse an allusion to imperium. Michael Harlan theorizes that the head is Bonus Eventus and that it ties to symbols of the augurate on the reverse. Augurs, after all, want to predict good outcomes. Harlan's interpretation doesn’t fully explain the scepter on the obverse, which is not a typical characteristic of Bonus Eventus.
3 commentsCarausius01/07/19 at 08:18shanxi: another very nice coin
4483748l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Cassius Longinus, AR Denarius - Crawford 428/328 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Cassius Longinus, 55 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bonus Eventus or Genius of the Roman People head facing right; scepter behind.

Reverse: Eagle on thunderbolt, facing right; lituus to left; jug to right; Q CASSIVS below.

References: Crawford 428/3; Sydenham 916; BMCRR 3868; Cassia 7.

Provenance: Ex Fernandez Collection [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 227].

The identity of the head on the obverse is in doubt. Crawford interprets the obverse as Genius of the Roman People and the reverse an allusion to imperium. Michael Harlan theorizes that the head is Bonus Eventus and that it ties to symbols of the augurate on the reverse. Augurs, after all, want to predict good outcomes. Harlan's interpretation doesn’t fully explain the scepter on the obverse, which is not a typical characteristic of Bonus Eventus.
3 commentsCarausius01/07/19 at 06:50Britanikus: Very Nice
SullaCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Cornelius Sulla, AR Denarius - Crawford 359/214 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Cornelius Sulla, 84-83 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military Mint.

Obverse: L·SVLLA; diademed head of Venus facing right; before, Cupid holding palm to left.

Reverse: IMPER – ITERV; two trophies with jug and lituus between them.

References: Crawford 359/2; Sydenham 761a; BMCRR East 3; Cornelia 30.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 76.

These coins were struck in the east, just before Sulla’s march on Rome. The fabric and style of these coins are certainly different from other Roman Republican denarii of the era, more eastern than Roman. Perhaps not obvious from my photo, the obverse is struck in very high relief and the reverse has pronounced cupping (from a convex reverse die, which more efficiently drives the metal into the high relief obverse die). The obverse honors Venus, whom Sulla considered his protectress. The jug and lituus on the reverse are suggestive of the office of Augur, but Crawford did not think Sulla was an Augur at the time these coins were produced. The implements may refer to an ancestor of Sulla that was an Augur, or, as Crawford surmises, to Sulla’s imperium. The trophies on the reverse refer to Sulla’s victories in the east against Mithradates. Two trophies were also used by Sulla in an issue of tetradrachms in the Athenian “New Style” form.

Sulla’s seizure of dictatorial power following his march on Rome (leading an army that was loyal to him, rather than to the state) became a paradigm for Roman political struggles thereafter. Julius Caesar would initiate similar consequences when he crossed the Rubicon at the head of his army 30+ years later. Unlike Sulla, Caesar showed no interest in resigning his power. Also unlike Sulla, Caesar would strike coins bearing his own likeness. Sulla’s portrait did not appear on a Roman coin until 25 years after Sulla’s death (See, Crawford 434/1).
1 commentsCarausius01/07/19 at 06:47Britanikus: Nice
AntonyXVIIClassicaeCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion XVII Classicae Denarius18 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.41g; 20mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG LLL VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG XVII CLASSICAE; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/10; Sydenham 1238; HCRI 373; BMCRR East 223; Antonia 128

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 214.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Only 8 examples of the LEG XVII Classicae type appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii.

The Legio XVII Classicae was likely a legion of marines formed by Antony and disbanded after Actium. They were not the Legio XVII destroyed at Tuetoburg Forest under Varus in 9 CE.
2 commentsCarausius01/05/19 at 20:08Jay GT4: Great coin
AntonyXVIIClassicaeCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion XVII Classicae Denarius18 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.41g; 20mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG LLL VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG XVII CLASSICAE; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/10; Sydenham 1238; HCRI 373; BMCRR East 223; Antonia 128

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 214.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Only 8 examples of the LEG XVII Classicae type appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii.

The Legio XVII Classicae was likely a legion of marines formed by Antony and disbanded after Actium. They were not the Legio XVII destroyed at Tuetoburg Forest under Varus in 9 CE.
2 commentsCarausius01/05/19 at 15:24Jordan Montgomery: Fantastic example! It's not often you see such...
4425066l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Appuleius Saturninus, AR Denarius - Crawford 317/218 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Appuleius Saturninus, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ROMA in exergue.

Reverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ·V below; L·SATVRN in exergue.

References: Crawford 317/2; Sydenham 580 (R6); BMCRR 1561-3; Appuleia 3.

Provenance: Ex P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 150.

The type is one of an interesting series of three types by Saturninus, two of which depict Saturn as a naming pun. The first of the three types is a standard Roma head/quadriga; the second has Roma heads on both sides of the coin; the third (this coin) has quadrigae on both sides of the coin. The letter control marks on this double-quadriga type are unique to each die.  Crawford attributed Saturninus' coinage to 104 BCE; but H.B. Mattingly, in Essays Hersh (1998), argues for a slightly later date based on a consensus that Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE. 

Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE and Tribune of the Plebs in 103 and 100 BCE. He was a supporter of Marius and as Tribune he engaged in a series of aggressive political maneuvers including introducing land grants for Marius’ veterans. During an election, he arranged the brutal murder of the political rival of one of his allies, and this proved to be his downfall. Cornered and captured by a militia assembled by Marius himself, Saturninus and his conspirators were ultimately killed by a lynch mob.
1 commentsCarausius01/01/19 at 14:00*Alex: 👍 Nice
4483606l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 419/1c19 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Lepidus, 61 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.97g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate and diademed female head, facing right; palm branch behind.

Reverse: Horseman advancing toward right with trophy over l shoulder; AN. XV. P.H.O.C.S. around; M.LEPIDVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 419/1c; Sydenham 830a; BMCRR 3644; Aemilia 22.

Provenance: Ex Fernandez Coll. [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 85]; Leo Benz Collection [Lanz 88 (23 Nov 1988) Lot 118]; Künst und Münzen 18 (June 1978), Lot 250.

This coin was produced by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, later triumvir with Octavian and Antony, during his early political career. The reverse celebrates the Second Punic War heroism of his ancestor, also named M. Aemilius Lepidus, who killed an enemy and saved a citizen at the age of 15 and in whose honor a statue was erected in Rome. That statue may be depicted on this coin. The reverse inscription abbreviates “AN[norum] XV PR[ogressus] H[ostem] O[ccidit], C[ivem] S[ervavit]” (Aged 15, he killed an enemy and saved a citizen.)
2 commentsCarausius01/01/19 at 05:51Carausius: Thanks Jay. There are several varieties, some with...
4483606l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, AR Denarius - Crawford 419/1c19 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Lepidus, 61 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.97g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate and diademed female head, facing right; palm branch behind.

Reverse: Horseman advancing toward right with trophy over l shoulder; AN. XV. P.H.O.C.S. around; M.LEPIDVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 419/1c; Sydenham 830a; BMCRR 3644; Aemilia 22.

Provenance: Ex Fernandez Coll. [Aureo & Calico Alba Longa Auction (7 Nov 2018) Lot 85]; Leo Benz Collection [Lanz 88 (23 Nov 1988) Lot 118]; Künst und Münzen 18 (June 1978), Lot 250.

This coin was produced by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, later triumvir with Octavian and Antony, during his early political career. The reverse celebrates the Second Punic War heroism of his ancestor, also named M. Aemilius Lepidus, who killed an enemy and saved a citizen at the age of 15 and in whose honor a statue was erected in Rome. That statue may be depicted on this coin. The reverse inscription abbreviates “AN[norum] XV PR[ogressus] H[ostem] O[ccidit], C[ivem] S[ervavit]” (Aged 15, he killed an enemy and saved a citizen.)
2 commentsCarausius01/01/19 at 05:08Jay GT4: Great type and nice strike. Mine doesn't have...
SergisilusCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Sergius Silus, AR Denarius - Crawford 286/121 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Sergius Silus, 116-115 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Roma in winged helmet, facing right; ROMA and * (mark of value) behind; EX S C before.

Reverse: Horseman galloping left, holding severed head and sword in extended left hand; Q and M SERGI below horse; SILVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 286/1; Sydenham 544; BMCRR (Italy) 512; Sergia 1.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 165.

M. Sergius Silus struck this coin as quaestor by special decree of the Senate. The coin celebrates the deeds of the quaestor’s ancestor, also named M. Sergius Silus, the great grandfather of Cataline (the infamous conspirator prosecuted by Cicero). During the Second Punic War, he lost his right hand in battle, and fitted a prosthesis that allowed him to hold a shield. Thus, he is depicted holding both his sword and the severed head of a foe in his LEFT hand.
1 commentsCarausius01/01/19 at 05:04Jay GT4: Nice severed head
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/27/18 at 14:13okidoki: excellent great patina
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/25/18 at 13:36paul1888: A beautiful coin!
38sextans.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, AE Sextans - Crawford 38/541 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, 217-215 BCE.
AE Sextans (24.25g; 31mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Mercury facing right wearing petasus; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), behind.

Reverse: Prow right; ROMA above; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), below.

References: Crawford. 38/5; Sydenham 85; BMCRR 59.

Provenance: Ex Burgan Numismatique Auction (17 Nov 2017), Lot 102; ex Etienne Page Auction, Hotel Drouot (1972).

The economic hardship imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. From 217-215, Rome produced two, contemporaneous series of struck bronzes on this new, semi-libral weight standard. From hoard evidence, we know the first of the two series was Crawford 38, consisting of “prow” types derived from the libral and semi-libral prow Aes Grave (Crawford 35 and 36) that preceded it. These coins were almost certainly produced in Rome and likely also in satellite military mints as needed. The second series of struck semi-libral bronzes was the enigmatic Crawford 39 series, with its unusual types (see them in this gallery), production of which commenced after the start of the 38 Series prow-types (hoards containing 39s almost always include 38s) and produced in much smaller numbers than the huge 38 Series. The Crawford 38 series of struck bronzes, to which the above coin belongs, consisted of only four denominations: sextans, uncia, semuncia and quartuncia. In addition, Aes Grave production continued on a semi-libral basis for the As, Semis, Triens and Quadrans. Those Aes Grave denominations would later be replaced with struck coins when the weight standard reduced even further.
3 commentsCarausius12/20/18 at 15:41Steve B5: Really exceptional style and definition
38sextans.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, AE Sextans - Crawford 38/541 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, 217-215 BCE.
AE Sextans (24.25g; 31mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Mercury facing right wearing petasus; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), behind.

Reverse: Prow right; ROMA above; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), below.

References: Crawford. 38/5; Sydenham 85; BMCRR 59.

Provenance: Ex Burgan Numismatique Auction (17 Nov 2017), Lot 102; ex Etienne Page Auction, Hotel Drouot (1972).

The economic hardship imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. From 217-215, Rome produced two, contemporaneous series of struck bronzes on this new, semi-libral weight standard. From hoard evidence, we know the first of the two series was Crawford 38, consisting of “prow” types derived from the libral and semi-libral prow Aes Grave (Crawford 35 and 36) that preceded it. These coins were almost certainly produced in Rome and likely also in satellite military mints as needed. The second series of struck semi-libral bronzes was the enigmatic Crawford 39 series, with its unusual types (see them in this gallery), production of which commenced after the start of the 38 Series prow-types (hoards containing 39s almost always include 38s) and produced in much smaller numbers than the huge 38 Series. The Crawford 38 series of struck bronzes, to which the above coin belongs, consisted of only four denominations: sextans, uncia, semuncia and quartuncia. In addition, Aes Grave production continued on a semi-libral basis for the As, Semis, Triens and Quadrans. Those Aes Grave denominations would later be replaced with struck coins when the weight standard reduced even further.
3 commentsCarausius12/19/18 at 23:02okidoki: wonderful, must be one of you best coin
2297137l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Lentulus and C. Marcellus, AR Denarius - Crawford 445/226 viewsRome, The Imperators.
L. Lentulus, C. Marcellus, 49 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.89g; 18mm).
Apollonia in Illyricum Mint.

Obverse: Head of Apollo facing right; L·LENT·C MARC COS surrounding.

Reverse: Jupiter facing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle; to right, alter decorated with garland; to left, * Q.

References: Crawford 445/2; HCRI 5; Sydenham 1030 (R3); BMCRR East 21; Cornelia 65.

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1866; Vico 120 (2009), Lot 173; Argenor Numismatique Auction 4 (27 Apr 2001), Lot 94.

The dating for this type is firm because it was struck for the consuls, Lentulus and Marcellus, who shared the office in 49 BCE. Both consuls were Pompey supporters who fled Rome when Caesar marched on the City. Lentulus was later killed in Egypt, where he fled with Pompey following the defeat at Pharsalus. Little further is known of Marcellus and he likely died during the wars.

The head of Apollo on this type was chosen because the coins were struck in Apollonia, where Apollo was prominent on the coinage.

The Quaestor that produced these coins was T. Antistius. Antistius was already Quaestor in Macedonia when the Pompeians arrived in flight from Caesar. Cicero reports that Antistius was reluctant to assist the Pompeians who forced him to produce their coins. Antistius’ ambivalence is evidenced by his desire to remain anonymous, choosing only to identiy his office by the letter Q. He was pardoned by Caesar following Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus.
3 commentsCarausius12/19/18 at 14:02Jay GT4: Beauty
38sextans.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, AE Sextans - Crawford 38/541 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, 217-215 BCE.
AE Sextans (24.25g; 31mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Mercury facing right wearing petasus; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), behind.

Reverse: Prow right; ROMA above; ●● (mark-of-value=2 unciae), below.

References: Crawford. 38/5; Sydenham 85; BMCRR 59.

Provenance: Ex Burgan Numismatique Auction (17 Nov 2017), Lot 102; ex Etienne Page Auction, Hotel Drouot (1972).

The economic hardship imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. From 217-215, Rome produced two, contemporaneous series of struck bronzes on this new, semi-libral weight standard. From hoard evidence, we know the first of the two series was Crawford 38, consisting of “prow” types derived from the libral and semi-libral prow Aes Grave (Crawford 35 and 36) that preceded it. These coins were almost certainly produced in Rome and likely also in satellite military mints as needed. The second series of struck semi-libral bronzes was the enigmatic Crawford 39 series, with its unusual types (see them in this gallery), production of which commenced after the start of the 38 Series prow-types (hoards containing 39s almost always include 38s) and produced in much smaller numbers than the huge 38 Series. The Crawford 38 series of struck bronzes, to which the above coin belongs, consisted of only four denominations: sextans, uncia, semuncia and quartuncia. In addition, Aes Grave production continued on a semi-libral basis for the As, Semis, Triens and Quadrans. Those Aes Grave denominations would later be replaced with struck coins when the weight standard reduced even further.
3 commentsCarausius12/19/18 at 14:01Jay GT4: Great coin
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 18:06Enodia: Nice style and beautiful toning!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Lentulus and C. Marcellus, AR Denarius - Crawford 445/226 viewsRome, The Imperators.
L. Lentulus, C. Marcellus, 49 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.89g; 18mm).
Apollonia in Illyricum Mint.

Obverse: Head of Apollo facing right; L·LENT·C MARC COS surrounding.

Reverse: Jupiter facing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle; to right, alter decorated with garland; to left, * Q.

References: Crawford 445/2; HCRI 5; Sydenham 1030 (R3); BMCRR East 21; Cornelia 65.

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1866; Vico 120 (2009), Lot 173; Argenor Numismatique Auction 4 (27 Apr 2001), Lot 94.

The dating for this type is firm because it was struck for the consuls, Lentulus and Marcellus, who shared the office in 49 BCE. Both consuls were Pompey supporters who fled Rome when Caesar marched on the City. Lentulus was later killed in Egypt, where he fled with Pompey following the defeat at Pharsalus. Little further is known of Marcellus and he likely died during the wars.

The head of Apollo on this type was chosen because the coins were struck in Apollonia, where Apollo was prominent on the coinage.

The Quaestor that produced these coins was T. Antistius. Antistius was already Quaestor in Macedonia when the Pompeians arrived in flight from Caesar. Cicero reports that Antistius was reluctant to assist the Pompeians who forced him to produce their coins. Antistius’ ambivalence is evidenced by his desire to remain anonymous, choosing only to identiy his office by the letter Q. He was pardoned by Caesar following Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus.
3 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 18:02Enodia: Lovely coin.
1681183l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P. Plautius Hypsaeus, AR Denarius - Crawford 420/2a30 viewsRome, The Republic.
P. Plautius Hypsaeus, 57 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.96g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Leuconoe facing right; dolphin behind; P.YPSAE·S·C before.

Reverse: Jupiter driving quadriga left; C·YPSAE·COS / PRIV – CEPIT in exergue and behind.

References: Crawford 420/2a; RBW 1515 (this coin); Sydenham 911; Plautia 12.

Provenance: Ex NAC 84 (20 May 2015), Lot 807; RBW Collection [NAC 63 (2012), Lot 291]; Crédit de la Bourse (April 1995), Lot 1068; NAC 6 (11 Mar 1993), Lot 285.

This coin is a special issue by Senatorial decree (S.C.) for reasons unknown to history. The moneyer, P. Plautius Hypsaeus, struck coins individually, as moneyer, and jointly with M. Aemilius Scaurus as Curule Aedile. On both series, he used this reverse type, referring to the capture of the Volscian town of Privernum by his ancestor, C. Plautius Decianus, consul in 329 BCE. The obverse refers to the mythical descent of the Plautia gens from Leuconoe, the daughter of Neptune.

Crawford thought Hypsaeus’ individual series preceded his joint series as Curule Aedile with Scaurus; however, the individual coins were absent from the Mesagne Hoard, suggesting it must have post-dated the 58 BCE terminus of that large hoard. Accordingly, Hersh and Walker redated Hypsaeus’ individual series to 57 BCE.
2 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 14:53Steve B5: Lovely coin with fantastic provenance, and great b...
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 06:22quadrans: Nice piece..
1680732l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P. Sulpicius Galba, AR Denarius - Crawford 406/120 viewsRome, The Republic.
P. Sulpicius Galba, 69 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g;18mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Veiled head of Vesta facing right; S.C. behind.

Rev: Priestly implements, i.e. knife, culullus and axe; P GALB in exergue; AE-CVR in fields.

References: Crawford 406/1; Sydenham 839; BMCRR 3517-8; Sulpicia 7.

Provenance: Ex Student and Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 356]; ex Münzen und Medaillen Auction 52 (19-20 June 1975), Lot 378.

Galba issued these coins by special Senatorial decree while he held the office of Curule Aedile. The type selection suggests that he was also a Pontifex at this time, as the reverse depicts the priestly implements used in ritual sacrifice and often included on coins struck by members of the priestly college. The Senatorial decree, represented by “S.C.” on the obverse may have been related to grain distribution, though this is conjectural. Among other duties, Curule Aediles were responsible for maintenance and distribution of the public grain supply.
1 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 06:19quadrans: Interesting piece..
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Procilius, AR Serrate Denarius - Crawford 379/216 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Procilius, 80 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.77g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goatskin, facing right; S.C. behind.

Rev: Juno Sospita, holding shield and spear, in biga galloping right; snake below horses; L. PROCILI F in exergue.

References: Crawford 379/2; Sydenham 772; BMCRR 3150; Procilia 2.

Provenance: Ex Student and Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 339]; privately purchased in 1968.

The letters S.C. on the obverse indicate that this coinage was a special issue, by decree of the Roman Senate, for an unknown purpose. Like the coins of Papius and Roscius Fabatus, the images of Juno Sospita on this coin suggests that Procilius was native of Lanuvium which was home of a cult to Juno Sospita. The snake on the reverse, alludes to the snake in the grotto of Juno Sospita’s Lanuvium temple. Each year, a girl was sent to the grotto to feed the sacred snake, and only a virtuous girl would survive the ordeal.

The reason for serrating the edge of certain Roman Republic denarius issues remains uncertain. Some moneyers issued both serrate and plain edged coins. The practice ended with the serrate issue by Roscius Fabatus in 59 BCE. Possible reasons for the serrations include:
• Proof that the coins were not plated.
• Confounding forgers.
• Making the coins look painful to swallow (reducing theft by mint workers).
• Artistic preference.

1 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 06:18quadrans: Another nice piece
2297137l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, L. Lentulus and C. Marcellus, AR Denarius - Crawford 445/226 viewsRome, The Imperators.
L. Lentulus, C. Marcellus, 49 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.89g; 18mm).
Apollonia in Illyricum Mint.

Obverse: Head of Apollo facing right; L·LENT·C MARC COS surrounding.

Reverse: Jupiter facing right, holding thunderbolt and eagle; to right, alter decorated with garland; to left, * Q.

References: Crawford 445/2; HCRI 5; Sydenham 1030 (R3); BMCRR East 21; Cornelia 65.

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1866; Vico 120 (2009), Lot 173; Argenor Numismatique Auction 4 (27 Apr 2001), Lot 94.

The dating for this type is firm because it was struck for the consuls, Lentulus and Marcellus, who shared the office in 49 BCE. Both consuls were Pompey supporters who fled Rome when Caesar marched on the City. Lentulus was later killed in Egypt, where he fled with Pompey following the defeat at Pharsalus. Little further is known of Marcellus and he likely died during the wars.

The head of Apollo on this type was chosen because the coins were struck in Apollonia, where Apollo was prominent on the coinage.

The Quaestor that produced these coins was T. Antistius. Antistius was already Quaestor in Macedonia when the Pompeians arrived in flight from Caesar. Cicero reports that Antistius was reluctant to assist the Pompeians who forced him to produce their coins. Antistius’ ambivalence is evidenced by his desire to remain anonymous, choosing only to identiy his office by the letter Q. He was pardoned by Caesar following Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus.
3 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 06:17quadrans: Nice piece..
1681183l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P. Plautius Hypsaeus, AR Denarius - Crawford 420/2a30 viewsRome, The Republic.
P. Plautius Hypsaeus, 57 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.96g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Leuconoe facing right; dolphin behind; P.YPSAE·S·C before.

Reverse: Jupiter driving quadriga left; C·YPSAE·COS / PRIV – CEPIT in exergue and behind.

References: Crawford 420/2a; RBW 1515 (this coin); Sydenham 911; Plautia 12.

Provenance: Ex NAC 84 (20 May 2015), Lot 807; RBW Collection [NAC 63 (2012), Lot 291]; Crédit de la Bourse (April 1995), Lot 1068; NAC 6 (11 Mar 1993), Lot 285.

This coin is a special issue by Senatorial decree (S.C.) for reasons unknown to history. The moneyer, P. Plautius Hypsaeus, struck coins individually, as moneyer, and jointly with M. Aemilius Scaurus as Curule Aedile. On both series, he used this reverse type, referring to the capture of the Volscian town of Privernum by his ancestor, C. Plautius Decianus, consul in 329 BCE. The obverse refers to the mythical descent of the Plautia gens from Leuconoe, the daughter of Neptune.

Crawford thought Hypsaeus’ individual series preceded his joint series as Curule Aedile with Scaurus; however, the individual coins were absent from the Mesagne Hoard, suggesting it must have post-dated the 58 BCE terminus of that large hoard. Accordingly, Hersh and Walker redated Hypsaeus’ individual series to 57 BCE.
2 commentsCarausius12/18/18 at 06:16quadrans: Great coin , and details,
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/17/18 at 13:17Jay GT4: Amazing
xF6AZcQ9M3dWKf27k4EC8Dtni2TngN.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, C. Vibius Varus, AR Denarius - Crawford 494/3847 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Caius Vibius Varus, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.56; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Bust of Minerva wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, facing right.

Reverse: Hercules standing front, head left, holding lion skin, hand resting on club.

References: Crawford 494/38; HCRI 194; Sydenham 1140; BMCRR 4303-5; Banti 67/10 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Künker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 396; ex Peus Auction 328 (1990), Lot 507; ex Kunst und Münzen (June 1977), Lot 209.

There is little known about any of the four moneyers of 42 BCE besides their coins. Grueber notes that there is equally little known connection between the Vibia gens and the devices on this coin. Sear suggests that the type represents the strength of the triumvirs in their impending fight with the republican forces.

6 commentsCarausius12/17/18 at 08:11shanxi: nice details and colour
1680723l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Postumius, AR Denarius - Crawford 394/1a17 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Postumius, 74-73 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.

Rev: Hound running to right; spear below; C. POSTVMI and AT or TA (ligate) in exergue.

References: Crawford 394/1a; Sydenham 785; BMCRR 3238; Postumia 9.

Provenance: Ex Student and Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 347]; ex Frank Sternberg Auction VII (24-5 Nov 1977), Lot 390.

They moneyer may have been the Caius Postumius that prosecuted Lucius Licinius Murena for election fraud in 63 BCE. It is uncertain what the ligate letters AT (or TA) denote on the reverse, and there is another variety of this issue without the monogram. Diana is a popular deity on coinage produced by the Postumia gens, and the hound and spear on the reverse are also attributes of Diana, the huntress. Diana appears so frequently on Postumian coins because on the eve of the battle of Lake Regillus (c. 496 BCE), during a sacrifice to Diana, the augurs foretold the domination of Rome over Latium. A. Postumius Albinus led the troops at this decisive battle. Thus, the gens subsequently claimed responsibility for fulfilling the prophecy of Diana.

Crawford dated this issue to 74 BCE, but Hersh and Walker in Mesagne down-dated the issue to 73 BCE. Michael Harlan suggests an even later date of 71 BCE.
1 commentsCarausius12/16/18 at 03:32Jay GT4: Great dog!
ScriboniaWellCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scribonius Libo, AR Denarius - Crawford 416/1c25 viewsRome, The Republic.
Lucius Scribonius Libo, 62 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: LIBO - BON EVENT; diademed head of Bonus Eventus facing right.

Rev: Scribonian well head, decorated with garland and two lyres; anvil symbol on top step; [P]VTEAL above; SCRIBON below.

References: Crawford 416/1c; Sydenham 928; BMCRR 3381; Scribonia 8.

This type was produced with at least four different reverse symbols on the top step of the well head: hammer, tongs, cap and anvil. The hammer is extremely common, tongs scarce, and the anvil and cap are the rarest of the four reverse symbols on the type. Previous authors, including Crawford and Michael Harlan, have not recognized the cap variety which is distinct from the anvil by its domed top. The anvil is squared, as on this coin.

The moneyer may have been Lucius Scribonius Libo, who was the father-in-law of Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey the Great. He took the side of the tyrannicides in the Civil War after Caesar’s death. He later deserted Sextus Pompey and was elected consul in 34 BCE. It’s also possible that the moneyer was the father of this later consul.

The Scribonian well head was in the Roman Forum and designated a sacred spot that had been struck by lightning. Grueber and Crawford suggest that the reverse symbols, of which they only recognized three (see above), were actual decorative devices on the four-sided wellhead, and that they allude to Vulcan, whose thunderbolt had struck the spot. The added cap symbol confirms their analysis and is also consistent with the Vulcan theme.
3 commentsCarausius12/11/18 at 01:16Steve B5: Carausius, My first ancient coin was a denarius o...
OctavAntonQuinar2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian and Antony, AR Quinarius - Crawford 529/4b15 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Antony and Octavian, 39 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.60g; 14mm).
Military mint moving with Octavian.

Obverse: III ·VIR - R·P·C; veiled and diademed head of Concordia facing right.

Rev: M·ANTON - C·CAESAR; two hands clasped around caduceus.
References: Crawford 529/4b; HCRI 304; BMCRR (East) 128.

The coin likely celebrates the reconciliation of Octavian and Antony, memorialized by the pact at Brundisium in October of 40 BCE. Sear suggests that Octavian may have issued this type in Gaul, a former Antony stronghold and a big user of quinarii.
1 commentsCarausius12/08/18 at 06:35EB: Interesting
ScriboniaWellCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scribonius Libo, AR Denarius - Crawford 416/1c25 viewsRome, The Republic.
Lucius Scribonius Libo, 62 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: LIBO - BON EVENT; diademed head of Bonus Eventus facing right.

Rev: Scribonian well head, decorated with garland and two lyres; anvil symbol on top step; [P]VTEAL above; SCRIBON below.

References: Crawford 416/1c; Sydenham 928; BMCRR 3381; Scribonia 8.

This type was produced with at least four different reverse symbols on the top step of the well head: hammer, tongs, cap and anvil. The hammer is extremely common, tongs scarce, and the anvil and cap are the rarest of the four reverse symbols on the type. Previous authors, including Crawford and Michael Harlan, have not recognized the cap variety which is distinct from the anvil by its domed top. The anvil is squared, as on this coin.

The moneyer may have been Lucius Scribonius Libo, who was the father-in-law of Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey the Great. He took the side of the tyrannicides in the Civil War after Caesar’s death. He later deserted Sextus Pompey and was elected consul in 34 BCE. It’s also possible that the moneyer was the father of this later consul.

The Scribonian well head was in the Roman Forum and designated a sacred spot that had been struck by lightning. Grueber and Crawford suggest that the reverse symbols, of which they only recognized three (see above), were actual decorative devices on the four-sided wellhead, and that they allude to Vulcan, whose thunderbolt had struck the spot. The added cap symbol confirms their analysis and is also consistent with the Vulcan theme.
3 commentsCarausius12/07/18 at 20:57Jay GT4: Nice one
4875234.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Atilius Saranus, AR Denarius - Crawford 214/1b23 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Atilius Saranus, 148 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; SARAN behind; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses) before.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; M·ATILI, below; ROMA in linear frame in exergue.

References: Crawford 214/1b; Sydenham 398; BMCRR 679-682; Atilia 9.

Provenance: Ex Varesi (4 Jul 2018), Lot 142.

This is one of the first denarii to include the moneyer’s praenomen, nomen and cognomen, an important development in the evolution of the coinage as a means of advertising young politicians. The obverse mark-of-value is moved from behind Roma’s head to under her chin to make room for the cognomen.
1 commentsCarausius12/07/18 at 17:33Steve B5: Really lovely high grade example. I wasn't aw...
ScriboniaWellCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scribonius Libo, AR Denarius - Crawford 416/1c25 viewsRome, The Republic.
Lucius Scribonius Libo, 62 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: LIBO - BON EVENT; diademed head of Bonus Eventus facing right.

Rev: Scribonian well head, decorated with garland and two lyres; anvil symbol on top step; [P]VTEAL above; SCRIBON below.

References: Crawford 416/1c; Sydenham 928; BMCRR 3381; Scribonia 8.

This type was produced with at least four different reverse symbols on the top step of the well head: hammer, tongs, cap and anvil. The hammer is extremely common, tongs scarce, and the anvil and cap are the rarest of the four reverse symbols on the type. Previous authors, including Crawford and Michael Harlan, have not recognized the cap variety which is distinct from the anvil by its domed top. The anvil is squared, as on this coin.

The moneyer may have been Lucius Scribonius Libo, who was the father-in-law of Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey the Great. He took the side of the tyrannicides in the Civil War after Caesar’s death. He later deserted Sextus Pompey and was elected consul in 34 BCE. It’s also possible that the moneyer was the father of this later consul.

The Scribonian well head was in the Roman Forum and designated a sacred spot that had been struck by lightning. Grueber and Crawford suggest that the reverse symbols, of which they only recognized three (see above), were actual decorative devices on the four-sided wellhead, and that they allude to Vulcan, whose thunderbolt had struck the spot. The added cap symbol confirms their analysis and is also consistent with the Vulcan theme.
3 commentsCarausius12/07/18 at 15:06shanxi: Lovely coin
00278q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Triens - Crawford 3938 viewsRome. The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE
Æ Triens (54 grams; 37 mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno (?) right, wearing double-crested diadem, her hair tied in three ringlets down neck; scepter or sword over left shoulder (?); ●●●● (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Hercules, naked but for lion skin, grasping centaur by hair and preparing to strike him with club; ●●●● (mark of value) before; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 39/1; Sydenham 93 (R6); BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 113-115.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen 47 (1972), Lot 74.

Crawford dates his 39 series of collateral, semilibral struck bronzes to the early years of the Second Punic War, 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. Crawford deduces that Hannibal’s defeat of Rome at Trasimene in 217 B.C. likely tipped the financial scales to the semilibral reduction. He notes that Capua overstruck Roman coinage of the late semi-libral period when Capua joined with Hannibal in 216-215. Further, in Roman Republican Coin Hoards, Crawford reports that hoard #56, found at Capua in 1909, contained three trientes and four sextantes of the “collateral” series; thus the series must have circulated in Capua for a time before the town switched sides to Hannibal in 216-215. It appears that the standard, prow-type semilibral coins (Crawford 38) came first, because hoards containing the Crawford 39 coins almost always contain semilibral prow types as well.

The obverse of this Triens is particularly enigmatic. Both before, during and after production of this series, the goddess depicted on trientes was typically Minerva. In Roman iconography, Minerva’s attributes are the Corinthian helmet, aegis and spear. The goddess on this triens lacks the Corinthian helmet that was used to depict Minerva in previous Aes Grave series of libral and semilibral weight standard (See Crawford 35 and 38 Aes Grave) and on the subsequent, prow-type, struck trientes (Crawford 41 and 56). Some authors are non-committal as to the goddess’ identity (Crawford, for one, in his catalogue; though elsewhere in his text he refers to “Juno”); others attribute the goddess as Juno who, as Jupiter’s consort, is typically rendered with a diadem crown and scepter; and others believe the goddess is Bellona, a war goddess who is typically rendered with helmet and weapon. Firm identification depends, in part, on proper understanding of the headgear. I think attempts to call the headgear a “helmet” or “partial helmet” are misguided efforts to explain the crest. In my opinion, the headgear is a crested diadem. The odd crest attached to the end of the diadem is possibly a misinterpreted element borrowed from portraits of Tanit on Punic coinage, which always show Tanit with a stylized wheat leaf in this location (Tanit’s depiction was likely borrowed by the Carthaginians from Syracusan tetradrachms). There is also some confusion as to what the goddess holds over her left shoulder. Condition issues and poor strikes on some examples often eliminate this aspect of the design. Fortunately, my example is quite clear and one can see the shadowy image on the left shoulder which extends in straight-line behind the left side of the goddess’ head ending in a visible, rounded point above her head. Crawford may have thought the lower part of this element represented the goddess’ far-side curls (“hair falls in tight rolls onto BOTH shoulders” emphasis added), but this interpretation does not explain the point above her head. The point is not likely to represent the opposite crest, as the crest on the visible side does not extend above head-top level. A more plausible theory, proposed by both Grueber and Sydenham, is that the goddess is holding a scepter over her left shoulder, which is consistent with Juno’s attributes. Other possibilities are that she bears a spear, which is an attribute of Minerva, or a sword, which is an attribute of Bellona.

The Series 39 types and their relationship to contemporaneous Second Punic War events are interesting to ponder. Hercules is an important figure, appearing on two of the 10 available sides of the series. Likely this is a paradigm of Roman heroism during the War. In the myth depicted on this Triens, Hercules kills a centaur for assaulting his wife – is this an allegorical reference to Hannibal’s assault on Italy (and the likely response from Rome)?

Despite its beauty, this type would never again be repeated on a Roman coin. However, related imagery can be found on quincunxes of Capua and quadrantes of Larinum, Apulia, immediately following the defection of those towns to Hannibal’s side of the Second Punic War.
3 commentsCarausius11/29/18 at 07:56quadrans: Great coin , and details,
4303550l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, AR Denarius30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42-36 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.49g; 20mm).
Sicilian mint, 42-40 BCE.

Obverse: MAG PIVS IMP ITER; Pharos of Messina with two windows and a balcony, surmounted by statue of Neptune wearing helmet and holding trident and resting foot on prow; galley with aquila passing before.

Rev: PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C; the monster, Scylla, her body terminating in two fish-tails and the foreparts of three dogs, facing left and wielding a rudder with two hands.

References: Crawford 511/4a; HCRI 335; Sydenham 1348; BMCRR (Sicily) 18-19; Banti 8/3 (this coin illustrated); Pompeia 22.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 312 (8 Oct 2018), Lot 2712; Walter Niggeler (d. 1964) Collection [Leu/Muenzen und Medaillen (21-22 Oct 1966), Lot 964].

Sextus Pompey was younger son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts" (Praefectus classis et orae maritimae). Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE. In 42 BCE, Octavian sent Salvidienus Rufus to dislodge Sextus, but Rufus was defeated. It was likely between this defeat of Rufus and the Pact of Misenum with the Triumvirs (39 BCE) that Sextus struck much of his coinage, including this type. The rough seas around Sicily were beneficial to Sextus and particularly rough on his enemies, thus Neptune and the marine monster Scylla, destroyer of ships, are prominently displayed on this coin.
3 commentsCarausius11/29/18 at 07:55quadrans: Another nice piece
00278q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Triens - Crawford 3938 viewsRome. The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE
Æ Triens (54 grams; 37 mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno (?) right, wearing double-crested diadem, her hair tied in three ringlets down neck; scepter or sword over left shoulder (?); ●●●● (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Hercules, naked but for lion skin, grasping centaur by hair and preparing to strike him with club; ●●●● (mark of value) before; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 39/1; Sydenham 93 (R6); BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 113-115.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen 47 (1972), Lot 74.

Crawford dates his 39 series of collateral, semilibral struck bronzes to the early years of the Second Punic War, 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. Crawford deduces that Hannibal’s defeat of Rome at Trasimene in 217 B.C. likely tipped the financial scales to the semilibral reduction. He notes that Capua overstruck Roman coinage of the late semi-libral period when Capua joined with Hannibal in 216-215. Further, in Roman Republican Coin Hoards, Crawford reports that hoard #56, found at Capua in 1909, contained three trientes and four sextantes of the “collateral” series; thus the series must have circulated in Capua for a time before the town switched sides to Hannibal in 216-215. It appears that the standard, prow-type semilibral coins (Crawford 38) came first, because hoards containing the Crawford 39 coins almost always contain semilibral prow types as well.

The obverse of this Triens is particularly enigmatic. Both before, during and after production of this series, the goddess depicted on trientes was typically Minerva. In Roman iconography, Minerva’s attributes are the Corinthian helmet, aegis and spear. The goddess on this triens lacks the Corinthian helmet that was used to depict Minerva in previous Aes Grave series of libral and semilibral weight standard (See Crawford 35 and 38 Aes Grave) and on the subsequent, prow-type, struck trientes (Crawford 41 and 56). Some authors are non-committal as to the goddess’ identity (Crawford, for one, in his catalogue; though elsewhere in his text he refers to “Juno”); others attribute the goddess as Juno who, as Jupiter’s consort, is typically rendered with a diadem crown and scepter; and others believe the goddess is Bellona, a war goddess who is typically rendered with helmet and weapon. Firm identification depends, in part, on proper understanding of the headgear. I think attempts to call the headgear a “helmet” or “partial helmet” are misguided efforts to explain the crest. In my opinion, the headgear is a crested diadem. The odd crest attached to the end of the diadem is possibly a misinterpreted element borrowed from portraits of Tanit on Punic coinage, which always show Tanit with a stylized wheat leaf in this location (Tanit’s depiction was likely borrowed by the Carthaginians from Syracusan tetradrachms). There is also some confusion as to what the goddess holds over her left shoulder. Condition issues and poor strikes on some examples often eliminate this aspect of the design. Fortunately, my example is quite clear and one can see the shadowy image on the left shoulder which extends in straight-line behind the left side of the goddess’ head ending in a visible, rounded point above her head. Crawford may have thought the lower part of this element represented the goddess’ far-side curls (“hair falls in tight rolls onto BOTH shoulders” emphasis added), but this interpretation does not explain the point above her head. The point is not likely to represent the opposite crest, as the crest on the visible side does not extend above head-top level. A more plausible theory, proposed by both Grueber and Sydenham, is that the goddess is holding a scepter over her left shoulder, which is consistent with Juno’s attributes. Other possibilities are that she bears a spear, which is an attribute of Minerva, or a sword, which is an attribute of Bellona.

The Series 39 types and their relationship to contemporaneous Second Punic War events are interesting to ponder. Hercules is an important figure, appearing on two of the 10 available sides of the series. Likely this is a paradigm of Roman heroism during the War. In the myth depicted on this Triens, Hercules kills a centaur for assaulting his wife – is this an allegorical reference to Hannibal’s assault on Italy (and the likely response from Rome)?

Despite its beauty, this type would never again be repeated on a Roman coin. However, related imagery can be found on quincunxes of Capua and quadrantes of Larinum, Apulia, immediately following the defection of those towns to Hannibal’s side of the Second Punic War.
3 commentsCarausius11/28/18 at 09:03Pharsalos: Wow, spectacular.
4303550l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, AR Denarius30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42-36 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.49g; 20mm).
Sicilian mint, 42-40 BCE.

Obverse: MAG PIVS IMP ITER; Pharos of Messina with two windows and a balcony, surmounted by statue of Neptune wearing helmet and holding trident and resting foot on prow; galley with aquila passing before.

Rev: PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C; the monster, Scylla, her body terminating in two fish-tails and the foreparts of three dogs, facing left and wielding a rudder with two hands.

References: Crawford 511/4a; HCRI 335; Sydenham 1348; BMCRR (Sicily) 18-19; Banti 8/3 (this coin illustrated); Pompeia 22.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 312 (8 Oct 2018), Lot 2712; Walter Niggeler (d. 1964) Collection [Leu/Muenzen und Medaillen (21-22 Oct 1966), Lot 964].

Sextus Pompey was younger son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts" (Praefectus classis et orae maritimae). Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE. In 42 BCE, Octavian sent Salvidienus Rufus to dislodge Sextus, but Rufus was defeated. It was likely between this defeat of Rufus and the Pact of Misenum with the Triumvirs (39 BCE) that Sextus struck much of his coinage, including this type. The rough seas around Sicily were beneficial to Sextus and particularly rough on his enemies, thus Neptune and the marine monster Scylla, destroyer of ships, are prominently displayed on this coin.
3 commentsCarausius11/26/18 at 16:04shanxi: very interesting coin
4303550l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, AR Denarius30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42-36 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.49g; 20mm).
Sicilian mint, 42-40 BCE.

Obverse: MAG PIVS IMP ITER; Pharos of Messina with two windows and a balcony, surmounted by statue of Neptune wearing helmet and holding trident and resting foot on prow; galley with aquila passing before.

Rev: PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C; the monster, Scylla, her body terminating in two fish-tails and the foreparts of three dogs, facing left and wielding a rudder with two hands.

References: Crawford 511/4a; HCRI 335; Sydenham 1348; BMCRR (Sicily) 18-19; Banti 8/3 (this coin illustrated); Pompeia 22.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 312 (8 Oct 2018), Lot 2712; Walter Niggeler (d. 1964) Collection [Leu/Muenzen und Medaillen (21-22 Oct 1966), Lot 964].

Sextus Pompey was younger son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts" (Praefectus classis et orae maritimae). Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE. In 42 BCE, Octavian sent Salvidienus Rufus to dislodge Sextus, but Rufus was defeated. It was likely between this defeat of Rufus and the Pact of Misenum with the Triumvirs (39 BCE) that Sextus struck much of his coinage, including this type. The rough seas around Sicily were beneficial to Sextus and particularly rough on his enemies, thus Neptune and the marine monster Scylla, destroyer of ships, are prominently displayed on this coin.
3 commentsCarausius11/26/18 at 04:09Jay GT4: Great coin and provenance
00278q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Triens - Crawford 3938 viewsRome. The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE
Æ Triens (54 grams; 37 mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno (?) right, wearing double-crested diadem, her hair tied in three ringlets down neck; scepter or sword over left shoulder (?); ●●●● (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Hercules, naked but for lion skin, grasping centaur by hair and preparing to strike him with club; ●●●● (mark of value) before; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 39/1; Sydenham 93 (R6); BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 113-115.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen 47 (1972), Lot 74.

Crawford dates his 39 series of collateral, semilibral struck bronzes to the early years of the Second Punic War, 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. Crawford deduces that Hannibal’s defeat of Rome at Trasimene in 217 B.C. likely tipped the financial scales to the semilibral reduction. He notes that Capua overstruck Roman coinage of the late semi-libral period when Capua joined with Hannibal in 216-215. Further, in Roman Republican Coin Hoards, Crawford reports that hoard #56, found at Capua in 1909, contained three trientes and four sextantes of the “collateral” series; thus the series must have circulated in Capua for a time before the town switched sides to Hannibal in 216-215. It appears that the standard, prow-type semilibral coins (Crawford 38) came first, because hoards containing the Crawford 39 coins almost always contain semilibral prow types as well.

The obverse of this Triens is particularly enigmatic. Both before, during and after production of this series, the goddess depicted on trientes was typically Minerva. In Roman iconography, Minerva’s attributes are the Corinthian helmet, aegis and spear. The goddess on this triens lacks the Corinthian helmet that was used to depict Minerva in previous Aes Grave series of libral and semilibral weight standard (See Crawford 35 and 38 Aes Grave) and on the subsequent, prow-type, struck trientes (Crawford 41 and 56). Some authors are non-committal as to the goddess’ identity (Crawford, for one, in his catalogue; though elsewhere in his text he refers to “Juno”); others attribute the goddess as Juno who, as Jupiter’s consort, is typically rendered with a diadem crown and scepter; and others believe the goddess is Bellona, a war goddess who is typically rendered with helmet and weapon. Firm identification depends, in part, on proper understanding of the headgear. I think attempts to call the headgear a “helmet” or “partial helmet” are misguided efforts to explain the crest. In my opinion, the headgear is a crested diadem. The odd crest attached to the end of the diadem is possibly a misinterpreted element borrowed from portraits of Tanit on Punic coinage, which always show Tanit with a stylized wheat leaf in this location (Tanit’s depiction was likely borrowed by the Carthaginians from Syracusan tetradrachms). There is also some confusion as to what the goddess holds over her left shoulder. Condition issues and poor strikes on some examples often eliminate this aspect of the design. Fortunately, my example is quite clear and one can see the shadowy image on the left shoulder which extends in straight-line behind the left side of the goddess’ head ending in a visible, rounded point above her head. Crawford may have thought the lower part of this element represented the goddess’ far-side curls (“hair falls in tight rolls onto BOTH shoulders” emphasis added), but this interpretation does not explain the point above her head. The point is not likely to represent the opposite crest, as the crest on the visible side does not extend above head-top level. A more plausible theory, proposed by both Grueber and Sydenham, is that the goddess is holding a scepter over her left shoulder, which is consistent with Juno’s attributes. Other possibilities are that she bears a spear, which is an attribute of Minerva, or a sword, which is an attribute of Bellona.

The Series 39 types and their relationship to contemporaneous Second Punic War events are interesting to ponder. Hercules is an important figure, appearing on two of the 10 available sides of the series. Likely this is a paradigm of Roman heroism during the War. In the myth depicted on this Triens, Hercules kills a centaur for assaulting his wife – is this an allegorical reference to Hannibal’s assault on Italy (and the likely response from Rome)?

Despite its beauty, this type would never again be repeated on a Roman coin. However, related imagery can be found on quincunxes of Capua and quadrantes of Larinum, Apulia, immediately following the defection of those towns to Hannibal’s side of the Second Punic War.
3 commentsCarausius11/25/18 at 05:30Jay GT4: Outstanding
4320276.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Octavian, AR Denarius13 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Octavian and Lucius Cornelius Balbus, 41 BCE
AR Denarius (3.36 grams; 18mm).
Military mint in Italy.

Obverse: C•CAESAR • III • VIR R•P•C; Bare head of Octavian, facing right.

Reverse: Club; BALBVS above, PRO • PR below

References: Crawford 518/1; HCRI 298; Sydenham 1325a; BMCRR (Gaul) 83-5; Julia 91.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG Esale 432 (14 Nov 2018) Lot 276]; ex American Numismatic Society Collection 1001.1.12863 [CNG 96 (14 May 2014) Lot 732]; ex Archer M. Huntington (d. 1955) Collection.

This scarce type was produced by Octavian’s legate, Lucius Cornelius Balbus, as propraetor. Balbus was a native of Gades (Cadiz) in Spain where there was a temple to Hercules, to which the Club reverse alludes. Balbus was favored and honored by both Pompey and Caesar. Upon Caesar’s assassination, he allied with Octavian who appointed him praetor urbanus and ultimately, in 40 BCE, he received the consulship (the first foreign-born citizen to do so). He was extremely wealthy and bequeathed 25 denarii to every Roman citizen in his will!
1 commentsCarausius11/25/18 at 04:50Jay GT4: Great piece! Not one you see every day
355.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius32 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.98g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; star behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Urania, muse of astronomy, facing left, holding wand over globe on tripod.

References: Crawford 410/8; Sydenham 823; Pomponia 22.

Provenance: Ex William C. Boyd (d. 1906) Collection [Baldwin's 42 (26 Sep 2005), Lot 64]; bought from Spink in 1900.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius10/13/18 at 19:48okidoki: excellent and stylistic
355.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius32 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.98g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; star behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Urania, muse of astronomy, facing left, holding wand over globe on tripod.

References: Crawford 410/8; Sydenham 823; Pomponia 22.

Provenance: Ex William C. Boyd (d. 1906) Collection [Baldwin's 42 (26 Sep 2005), Lot 64]; bought from Spink in 1900.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius10/12/18 at 13:59Pharsalos: Magnificent example with a provenance to match.
RosciaCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Roscius Fabatus, AR Serrate Denarius20 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Roscius Fabatus, 59 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goat skin headdress tied at neck, facing right; L•ROSCI, below; control symbol (two-handled cup or bowl) behind.

Reverse: Female figure feeding serpent from fold of cloak; control symbol (pileus/cap?) behind; FABATI in exergue.

References: Crawford 412/1 (Symbols 199?); Sydenham 915; BMCRR 3394 -3510; Roscia 2.

Provenance: Ex John Barton Collection; Aes Rude Chiasso 4 (6 Apr 1979), Lot 240.

Crawford dated the issue to 64 BCE, but Hersh and Walker brought that date down to 59 BCE based on their analysis of the Mesagne hoard. Harlan picks a median date of 62 BCE based on some prosopographic assumptions.

The moneyer would go on to serve as lieutenant for Caesar in Gaul in 54 BCE. In 49 BCE, he was elected praetor and intermediated between Pompey and Caesar. He was killed at Mutina in 43 BCE.

Juno Sospita was a deity who’s temple was in Lanuvium, a Latin town 32 kilometers southeast of Rome, and it’s likely that both Roscius and L. Papius, whose 79 BCE coinage is a model for Roscius’ issue, came from that town. The reverse depicts an annual rite of the Juno Sospita cult in which a girl is sent into the grotto beneath the temple to feed the sacred snake. Only chaste girls could survive the ordeal.

Like Papius’s coins, these denarii are struck on serrated flans – the last of the Roman Republic to be produced with this fabric. Like Papius’s coins, Roscius’ denarii have obverse and reverse control symbols that are paired, with no pair of symbols appearing on more than one pair of dies. On both Roscius’ and Papius’s coins, the paired control symbols have some loose relationship to one another. Roscius re-used many of Papius’s symbol pairs, but reversed their locations on the coins.

The symbol pair on my coin is very rare. As of 10/1/18, there are no matching examples on Acsearch, Coinarchives or CNG’s website database. The pair is unlisted in Babelon, Sydenham, BMCRR and Banti. It resembles symbol pair 199 in Crawford, although some differences are evident. In his manuscript on Roman Republican series marks, Charles Hersh includes a hand drawn entry AI within the section of previously unpublished Roscia symbol pairs that is a precise match for the symbols on this coin. He cites the Vienna Museum (38465) and Vatican Museum (5158) for that entry.
2 commentsCarausius10/04/18 at 14:14laney: Fabulous coin.
RosciaCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Roscius Fabatus, AR Serrate Denarius20 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Roscius Fabatus, 59 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goat skin headdress tied at neck, facing right; L•ROSCI, below; control symbol (two-handled cup or bowl) behind.

Reverse: Female figure feeding serpent from fold of cloak; control symbol (pileus/cap?) behind; FABATI in exergue.

References: Crawford 412/1 (Symbols 199?); Sydenham 915; BMCRR 3394 -3510; Roscia 2.

Provenance: Ex John Barton Collection; Aes Rude Chiasso 4 (6 Apr 1979), Lot 240.

Crawford dated the issue to 64 BCE, but Hersh and Walker brought that date down to 59 BCE based on their analysis of the Mesagne hoard. Harlan picks a median date of 62 BCE based on some prosopographic assumptions.

The moneyer would go on to serve as lieutenant for Caesar in Gaul in 54 BCE. In 49 BCE, he was elected praetor and intermediated between Pompey and Caesar. He was killed at Mutina in 43 BCE.

Juno Sospita was a deity who’s temple was in Lanuvium, a Latin town 32 kilometers southeast of Rome, and it’s likely that both Roscius and L. Papius, whose 79 BCE coinage is a model for Roscius’ issue, came from that town. The reverse depicts an annual rite of the Juno Sospita cult in which a girl is sent into the grotto beneath the temple to feed the sacred snake. Only chaste girls could survive the ordeal.

Like Papius’s coins, these denarii are struck on serrated flans – the last of the Roman Republic to be produced with this fabric. Like Papius’s coins, Roscius’ denarii have obverse and reverse control symbols that are paired, with no pair of symbols appearing on more than one pair of dies. On both Roscius’ and Papius’s coins, the paired control symbols have some loose relationship to one another. Roscius re-used many of Papius’s symbol pairs, but reversed their locations on the coins.

The symbol pair on my coin is very rare. As of 10/1/18, there are no matching examples on Acsearch, Coinarchives or CNG’s website database. The pair is unlisted in Babelon, Sydenham, BMCRR and Banti. It resembles symbol pair 199 in Crawford, although some differences are evident. In his manuscript on Roman Republican series marks, Charles Hersh includes a hand drawn entry AI within the section of previously unpublished Roscia symbol pairs that is a precise match for the symbols on this coin. He cites the Vienna Museum (38465) and Vatican Museum (5158) for that entry.
2 commentsCarausius10/04/18 at 12:40Jay GT4: Bold!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Papius, AR Serrate Denarius13 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Papius, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.82g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goat skin headdress tied at neck, facing right; control symbol (aplustre) behind.

Reverse: Griffon leaping right; control symbol (prow stem), below; L•PAPI in exergue.

References: Crawford 384/1 (symbol pair 134); Sydenham 773; BMCRR 2981 (symbol pair 5); Papia 1 (symbol pair 47).

Provenance: Ex Herbert & Aphrodite Rubin Collection [Goldberg 96 (14 Feb 2017) Lot 1963]; bought from Ariadne Galleries in 1980’s; The Numismatic Auction Ltd. (Tradart) 1 (13 Dec 1982) Lot 203.

Papius is only known through his coins. Juno Sospita was a deity who’s temple was in Lanuvium, a Latin town 32 kilometers southeast of Rome, and it’s likely that Papius came from that town.

These denarii have paired obverse and reverse control symbols, with almost all symbol pairs appearing on only one set of dies (N.B.: I'm aware of at least one pair that appears on multiple dies). Crawford counts 211 die pairs. The paired control symbols have some loose relationship to one another, i.e. the bow and stern of a galley on this coin. Sydenham argued that the symbols were propaganda for popularist trade guilds. However, because of the breadth and variety of symbol material, Crawford rules-out any intended meaning. This same control system of paired symbols would be re-used 20 years later by another Lanuvian, L. Roscius Fabatus.
1 commentsCarausius10/04/18 at 12:39Jay GT4: Great coin. I regret selling all of mine
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Uncia - Crawford 3917 viewsRome, The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BC.
AE Struck Uncia (10.88g; 24mm).
Uncertain Mint.

Obverse: Facing draped bust of Sol; pellet (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: Crescent, two stars and pellet (mark of value) above; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 39/4; Sydenham 96; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 125-135.

Provenance: Triskeles 5 (27 June 2013), Lot 95; ex RBW Collection (not in prior sales); purchased privately from Ed Waddell in 1994.

This coin is part of a short-lived, collateral series struck contemporaneously with the standard prow types (Crawford 38) in 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins.

In attributing the 39 series to the Rome mint, Crawford relied on the earlier analysis of Rudy Thomsen in “Early Roman Coins”. However, Thomsen’s analysis of the hoard evidence was flawed, in my opinion, because he included temple deposits north of Rome which deceptively widened the apparent circulation dispersal of this collateral series. Eliminating these temple deposits shows a clearer circulation focus south of Rome, in Campania. Also, the types and fabric of the coins are inconsistent with the contemporaneous, Crawford 38 prow types which are similarly attributed to Rome (and which do have Roman prototypes in the prow series Aes Grave). However, some of the unusual collateral types are copied by Campanian towns after their defection to Hannibal. Further study is needed.
1 commentsCarausius10/04/18 at 12:38Jay GT4: Nice
TorquatusCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Manlius Torquatus, AR Denarius23 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Manlius Torquatus, 59-58 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Sibyl facing right, wearing ivy wreath; SIBVLLA below; all within laurel border.

Reverse: L•TORQVAT - III•VIR; Amphora on tripod flanked by stars; torque border.

References: Crawford 411/1a; Sydenham 837a; BMCRR 3512; Manlia 11.

Provenance: Ex Baldwins Auction 100 (27 Sep 2016), Lot 505; Künker Auktion 216 (8 Oct 2012), Lot 642; Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 232; Spink Num. Circ. March 1989, No. 948.


There are two obverse varieties of this denarius: one with a laurel border (as this coin); the other with a border of dots. The torque border on the reverse is more than just a naming pun; it refers to an ancestor’s defeat of a Gallic warrior in a one-on-one challenge, following which the Manlia ancestor removed the bloody torque from the dead Gaul and wore it – earning the cognomen Torquatus. The remaining devices allude to the position of either the moneyer or an ancestor on the 15-member (quindecemviri) religious college who guarded the Sibylline Books.

With its very high obverse relief and deep reverse cupping, this coin shares similar fabric with those of C. Calpurnius Piso Frugi. Crawford dates their issues two years apart (67 for Frugi and 65 for Torquatus). However, in their analysis of the Mesagne hoard, Hersh and Walker downdated Frugi to 61 and Torquatus to 58. In “Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins” (2nd ed.), Michael Harlan dates both Frugi and Torquatus to 59 BCE, based on their common fabric, prosopography and because Torquatus’ small output could not have been the sole issue in his year. Indeed, Crawford estimates fewer than 10 obverse dies and fewer than 11 reverse dies for both varieties of Torquatus’ denarii which suggests a very small issue.
1 commentsCarausius09/29/18 at 17:54Steve B5: This issue is one of the most delicate and stylist...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Pomponius Musa, AR Denarius32 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, mid-50s BCE
AR Denarius (3.98g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo(?), hair tied-up, facing right; star behind.

Reverse: Q. POMPONI – MVSA; Urania, muse of astronomy, facing left, holding wand over globe on tripod.

References: Crawford 410/8; Sydenham 823; Pomponia 22.

Provenance: Ex William C. Boyd (d. 1906) Collection [Baldwin's 42 (26 Sep 2005), Lot 64]; bought from Spink in 1900.

Q. Pomponius Musa, who punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins, is unknown except for his coins, which makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. Michael Harlan, retracting his reticence with the Mesagne dating, later proposed a date of 52 BCE.

There are two varieties of Musa denarii: the first depicts Apollo/Hercules Musarum (see my gallery example); the second, of which there are nine sub-varieties, depict Apollo and a Muse. The above coin is of the second variety.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on both varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On Hercules variety, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the above Muse variety is considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads do not represent Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius09/29/18 at 08:11shanxi: WOW
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius16 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.79g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; O control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

Provenance: Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Collection [Triton I (2-3 Dec 1997), Lot 2313 (part)], acquired before 1968.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards. 

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.

The coin was formerly part of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts collection. In 1997, the MFA deaccessioned a group of 890 coins which had been acquired by the MFA between 1872 and 1968. 
1 commentsCarausius09/18/18 at 01:11Ajax: Fantastic coin!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 30/1)62 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.29 g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Janiform head with irregular neck truncaction.

Reverse: Jupiter and Victory in fast quadriga, galloping right; ROMA incuse on trapezoidal tablet below.

Reference: Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; BMCRR 95; Gentilehomme I.E.3-4.

Provenance: From an American collection; privately purchased from Tom McKenna in 1980's.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 30 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, have a distinct obverse style, notably a thick, single sideburn between the janiform heads with various neck truncation styles ranging from straight – wavy – convex. On the reverse, Victory stands further back, on the backboard of the chariot with more of her garment visible. ROMA legend is always incuse on this series, though tablets range from square to trapezoidal.
5 commentsCarausius09/11/18 at 01:01Steve B5: I bought my first ancient coin . (L. Scribonius Li...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Caius Junius, AR Denarius - Crawford 210/126 viewsRome. The Republic.
Caius Junius C.f., 149 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses), behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; C·IVNI· C· F, below; ROMA in linear frame in exergue.

References: Crawford 210/1; BMCRR 660-3; Sydenham 392; Junia 1.

Provenance: Roma Numismatics Auction VIII (28 Sep 2014), lot 832; Roma Numismatics Auction V (23 Mar 2013), Lot 504; NAC Auction 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 166.

This moneyer is unknown except for his coins. His coins have the distinction of being the first in the Republican series to bear patronymic initials, specifically identifying the moneyer versus other family members. In this case, the letters “C· F” represent Caii Filius (son of Caius). Thus, the moneyer is clearly identified as Caius Junius, the son of Caius Junius. In the later decades of the second century, this practice of individual identification, combined with type selections that highlighted ancestral deeds, was employed for political messaging campaigns by young moneyers on the path to consulship. The practice appears to have accelerated following the adoption of secret ballots circa 139 BCE (See, H.B. Mattingly, “Roman Republican Coinage c. 150-90 BC”: Essays Hersh, 1998).

1 commentsCarausius09/11/18 at 00:52Steve B5: Beautiful example. Complete and of good style.
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius21 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.94g; 17mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; D control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards.

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.
1 commentsCarausius09/10/18 at 14:49okidoki: Congrats very nice
411607.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Tiberius Claudius Nero, AR Serrate Denarius24 viewsRome. The Republic.
Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (4.13g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S.C, before.

Reverse: Victory driving biga galloping right; A.LXXXVIII below; TI CLAVD TI F AP N, in exergue.

References: Crawford 383/1; Sydenham 770a; BMCRR ;Claudia 5.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Fall 2015), Lot 411607; CNG Inventory 735603 (August 2003); Numismatica Ars Classica N (26 June 2003), lot 1540; Eton College Collection [Sotheby’s (1 December 1976), lot 195].

The moneyer is Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius ("TI F") and grandson of Appius ("AP N"). He served under Pompey in the war against the pirates in 67 BCE, and was the grandfather of the Roman emperor Tiberius. There are two series of control marks for the reverse: one, marked from I to CLXV; the second marked with letter A and I to CLXXXII. Each reverse control mark has only one die. The letters S.C on the obverse mean that this coin was struck by special Senatorial decree, as opposed to routine coinage which was still authorized by the Senate but not specially marked. The reason for the special decree is not certain in this case. The obverse of the coin may refer to the introduction of the worship of Diana by the Sabines from whom the Claudii originated, though Crawford disputes this reading. The reverse may refer to the Second Punic War victories of C. Claudius Nero.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes.
2 commentsCarausius09/10/18 at 02:36Britanikus: Nice sharp Coin
411607.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Tiberius Claudius Nero, AR Serrate Denarius24 viewsRome. The Republic.
Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (4.13g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S.C, before.

Reverse: Victory driving biga galloping right; A.LXXXVIII below; TI CLAVD TI F AP N, in exergue.

References: Crawford 383/1; Sydenham 770a; BMCRR ;Claudia 5.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Fall 2015), Lot 411607; CNG Inventory 735603 (August 2003); Numismatica Ars Classica N (26 June 2003), lot 1540; Eton College Collection [Sotheby’s (1 December 1976), lot 195].

The moneyer is Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius ("TI F") and grandson of Appius ("AP N"). He served under Pompey in the war against the pirates in 67 BCE, and was the grandfather of the Roman emperor Tiberius. There are two series of control marks for the reverse: one, marked from I to CLXV; the second marked with letter A and I to CLXXXII. Each reverse control mark has only one die. The letters S.C on the obverse mean that this coin was struck by special Senatorial decree, as opposed to routine coinage which was still authorized by the Senate but not specially marked. The reason for the special decree is not certain in this case. The obverse of the coin may refer to the introduction of the worship of Diana by the Sabines from whom the Claudii originated, though Crawford disputes this reading. The reverse may refer to the Second Punic War victories of C. Claudius Nero.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes.
2 commentsCarausius09/09/18 at 23:00Jay GT4: Wonderful
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius48 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 47-6 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 18mm).
Military Mint in North Africa.

Obverse: Diademed head of Venus facing right, wearing necklace.

Reverse: Aeneas walking left, carrying his aged father, Anchises on his shoulder and the palladium in his right hand; CAESAR in right field.

References: Crawford 458/1; HCRI 55; BMCRR (East) 31-5; Julia 10.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 275]; ex E. J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933), Lot 2663].

Struck in Africa near the end of Caesar’s civil war struggle with Pompey, the coin advertises the mythical roots of the Julia gens descent from Venus and Anchises. The obverse depicts the goddess, Venus, while the reverse shows Aeneas carrying his aged father, Anchises, from Troy. Sear thought that among Caesar’s coinage, this issue was second in size only to the "elephant" coinage, and Crawford estimated 390 obverse dies and 433 reverse dies.
4 commentsCarausius09/04/18 at 14:48okidoki: 5 stars
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius48 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 47-6 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 18mm).
Military Mint in North Africa.

Obverse: Diademed head of Venus facing right, wearing necklace.

Reverse: Aeneas walking left, carrying his aged father, Anchises on his shoulder and the palladium in his right hand; CAESAR in right field.

References: Crawford 458/1; HCRI 55; BMCRR (East) 31-5; Julia 10.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 275]; ex E. J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933), Lot 2663].

Struck in Africa near the end of Caesar’s civil war struggle with Pompey, the coin advertises the mythical roots of the Julia gens descent from Venus and Anchises. The obverse depicts the goddess, Venus, while the reverse shows Aeneas carrying his aged father, Anchises, from Troy. Sear thought that among Caesar’s coinage, this issue was second in size only to the "elephant" coinage, and Crawford estimated 390 obverse dies and 433 reverse dies.
4 commentsCarausius09/04/18 at 09:47shanxi: WOW, the father realy looks like an old man
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Piso Frugi, AE As19 viewsRome. The Republic
L. Piso Frugi, 90 BCE
AE As (11.3g; 27mm)
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Janus; I (mark of value = 1 As) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; Victory on prow; L PISO, above prow; [FRVGI] in exergue.

References: Crawford 340/4; BMCRR Rome 2179; Sydenham 677 (R2).

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1626.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi's coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series.

In addition to a copious silver coin production, Piso also struck a full complement of bronze coinage. The appearance of Victory on the prow of Piso’s asses, together with some naval imagery on his quadrantes, may either refer to a past naval victory of an ancestor or to the progress of the Social War.

Bronze coins of this era of the Republic often have pronounced casting sprues from the flan production phase of the minting process. This coin has two sprues at 1h and 7h obverse, and at 3h and 9h reverse. These are an expected part of the fabric of Roman Republican bronze coins of the Social War era.

1 commentsCarausius09/04/18 at 04:25PMah: The casting sprue on these coins are so pronounced...
image00275.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius48 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 47-6 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 18mm).
Military Mint in North Africa.

Obverse: Diademed head of Venus facing right, wearing necklace.

Reverse: Aeneas walking left, carrying his aged father, Anchises on his shoulder and the palladium in his right hand; CAESAR in right field.

References: Crawford 458/1; HCRI 55; BMCRR (East) 31-5; Julia 10.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 275]; ex E. J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933), Lot 2663].

Struck in Africa near the end of Caesar’s civil war struggle with Pompey, the coin advertises the mythical roots of the Julia gens descent from Venus and Anchises. The obverse depicts the goddess, Venus, while the reverse shows Aeneas carrying his aged father, Anchises, from Troy. Sear thought that among Caesar’s coinage, this issue was second in size only to the "elephant" coinage, and Crawford estimated 390 obverse dies and 433 reverse dies.
4 commentsCarausius09/04/18 at 04:04Jay GT4: Amazing!
image00275.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius48 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 47-6 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 18mm).
Military Mint in North Africa.

Obverse: Diademed head of Venus facing right, wearing necklace.

Reverse: Aeneas walking left, carrying his aged father, Anchises on his shoulder and the palladium in his right hand; CAESAR in right field.

References: Crawford 458/1; HCRI 55; BMCRR (East) 31-5; Julia 10.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 275]; ex E. J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933), Lot 2663].

Struck in Africa near the end of Caesar’s civil war struggle with Pompey, the coin advertises the mythical roots of the Julia gens descent from Venus and Anchises. The obverse depicts the goddess, Venus, while the reverse shows Aeneas carrying his aged father, Anchises, from Troy. Sear thought that among Caesar’s coinage, this issue was second in size only to the "elephant" coinage, and Crawford estimated 390 obverse dies and 433 reverse dies.
4 commentsCarausius09/03/18 at 23:52RomaVictor: .......Wow, what a beauty! Fabulous coin!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE - Crawford 311/1a33 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing left; R● (control mark) behind.

Rev: Jupiter in quadriga galloping right, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter; L●SCIP●ASIAG in exergue.

References: Crawford 311/1a; Sydenham 576; BMCRR 1372; Cornelia 24

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 287; HJB 163 (25 March 2009), lot 224; ex A.K. Collection [Triton XII (6 Jan 2009), lot 462 (part)]; Münzhandlung E. Button Auction 101 (28-29 October 1959), Lot 149.

Each control mark in this series is a single die. The reverse recalls the moneyer's ancestor, L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Africanus), who had a victory against the Syrians in 190 BCE and took the name Asiagenus. The moneyer was likely the L. Cornelius Asiaticus that became consul in 83 BCE. He served in the Social War and was allied with Marius at the time of his consulship. He was imprisoned by Sulla and released. However he was later proscribed by Sulla and fled Rome.
3 commentsCarausius08/28/18 at 04:44Steve B5: Not to mention the fine style obverse and detail o...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Cn. Baebius Tampilus, 194-190 BCE - Crawford 133/2b38 viewsRome, The Republic.
Cn. Baebius Tampilus, 194-190 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.02g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; X value mark behind.

Rev: Dioscuri riding right with couched spears; TAMP monogram above; ROMA in linear frame below.

References: Crawford 133/2b; Sydenham 334; Banti 1/2 (this coin illustrated); BMCRR 557-8; Baebia 1.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 220]; ex E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 345].

The identity of the moneyer is not entirely clear, as there are several family member possibilities, based on prosopographical evidence. There are two sub-varieties of this denarius, one with the monogram above the Dioscuri as this coin, and the other with the monogram below the horses. Both types are scarce.
1 commentsCarausius08/28/18 at 04:40Steve B5: Excellent coin
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Roman Republic - Anonymous Denarius - Crawford 19843 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 157-156 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.18 g; 18 mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right with peaked visor and earring of long, single drop; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses), behind.

Reverse: The Dioscuri galloping right holding spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 198/1; BMCRR (Italy) 390; Brinkman 43.

Provenance: Acquired with an Italian export permit.

This is the last variety of fully anonymous denarii struck by the Roman Republic, and it is often mistaken for the earlier and more common Crawford 53/2. Both types depict Roma in a peaked-visor helmet. The most obvious differences are that the rider's cape on Cr. 198 is longer at the top than the bottom - looking almost wing-like - and the horse's tail extends straight-out on Cr. 198. The variety is rarely so well centered as this specimen which clearly shows that the ROMA legend is within a three-sided frame (most examples showing only two sides of the frame).
2 commentsCarausius08/28/18 at 04:38Steve B5: Correct attribution and probably the best I've...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Vibius Pansa Denarius43 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Vibius Pansa, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g).

Obv: PANSA; mask of Pan, facing right.

Rev: C. VIBIV[S C F]; mask of Silenus, facing right.

Reference: Crawford 342/2; Sydenham 688 (R6); BMCRR Rome 2309

Provenance: ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli (d. 2001) Collection [NAC 92 (23 May 2016), Lot 308]; ex Munzen und Medaillen 61 (7-8 Oct 1982), Lot 266; ex Auctiones 7 (1977), Lot 554.

Naming puns on ancient coins became popular early with the Greeks (i.e. celery plant on coins of Selinos) and continued with the Romans. C. Vibius Pansa liked to joke about his name by depicting Pan on his coins. This denarius is a rare variety with the names beneath the portraits, rather than behind. Silenus’ portrait has a characteristic die break in the eye socket that nearly all coins struck from this die share - see Crawford's plate coin and RBW's coin for other examples of this die break. Either the die failed early, or most extant specimens were struck late.
3 commentsCarausius08/28/18 at 04:36Steve B5: Really exceptional
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AR Denarius - Crawford 53/229 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, ca. 209-208 BCE
Uncertain Italian Mint
AR Denarius (4.64g; 19mm)

Obv: Head of Roma in peaked-visor helmet, facing right; X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; two stars above; ROMA, within full trapezoidal frame, below.

Reference: Crawford 53/2.

Provenance: Ex Hess Divo 331 (1 Dec 2016), Lot 75; ex Giesseener Munzhandlung Dieter Gorny Auktion 44 (1989), Lot 525.
1 commentsCarausius08/25/18 at 19:32Steve B5: I think I was under-bidder on this marvelous coin....
CaesarBuca.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius33 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Buca, 44 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.77g; 21mm).
Rome Mint, Feb-Mar 44 BCE.

Obverse: CAESAR DICT- PERPETVO; wreathed head of Julius Caesar facing right.

Reverse: Fasces and winged caduceus in saltire; axe, globe, clasped hands and L BVCA in angles.

References: Crawford 480/6; HCRI 103; Sydenham 1063; BMCRR 4157-9; Julia 37; Alföldi, Type XIII, Plate XCVIII, No. 78.

Provenance: Ex Goldberg Auction #104 (12 Jun 2018) Lot 3248.

Caesar was granted the title of Dictator for Life in mid-February, 44 BCE, thus all coins bearing DICT PERPETVO inscriptions can be firmly dated to the final month of Caesar’s life. This was a period of massive coinage output because Caesar was preparing for a campaign against the Parthians for which a substantial war chest would be needed. To meet the production needs, the college of moneyers was expanded from 3 to 4 moneyers. Nevertheless, manufacturing stress is evident by the frequent poor strikes and off-struck coins that survive today from these final Caesar portrait issues.

The moneyer Lucius Aemilius Buca may have been a relative of Sulla. He does not appear to have struck coins after Caesar’s assassination. With its symbolism, the reverse of this coin suggests Caesar’s growing grasp on religious, military and political power.
2 commentsCarausius08/23/18 at 22:14Vincent: Real nice, great historical coin!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AR Sestertius - Crawford 44/773 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 212-208 BCE
AR Sestertius (1.0g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; IIS (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/7; Sydenham 142; BMCRR 13-18.

Provenance: Ex Volteia Collection [CNG 102 (18 May 2016), Lot 777]; ex August Voirol Collection [Munzen und Medaillen 38 (6-7 Dec 1968), Lot 105].

The IIS mark of value denotes that the coin is worth 2 asses + a semis, or 2.5 asses. This quarter-denarius denomination was part of the introduction of the denarius coinage following the Roman sack of Syracuse. The subsequent reduction in the weight standard and size of the bronze coinage eliminated the need for this tiny silver denomination, and it was soon discontinued. However, the denomination would be resurrected for short times during the Social War and Imperatorial eras.
4 commentsCarausius08/23/18 at 01:18Steve B5: One of the best I've seen of this variety with...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Semi-incuse Early AR Denarius - Second Punic War - Crawford 44/542 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, ca. 212 BCE
Rome Mint
AR Denarius (4.48g)

Obv: Head of Roma in splayed-visor helmet, facing right; X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; two stars above; ROMA, semi-incused, below.

Reference: Crawford 44/5; Sydenham 167; RSC Anonymous 1a.

Provenance: ex NAC 84 Part II (21 May 2015), Lot 1622.

This example is among the earliest of the very first denarii issue by the Roman Republic, circa 212 BCE. From 218-212 BCE, the excessive cost of the war with Hannibal and Carthage had necessitated debasement of Rome's silver quadrigatus coinage and several weight standard reductions in the bronze coinage. It was possibly the sack of Syracuse in 212 BCE that provided the silver infusion that Rome needed to reform their debased currency and introduce the denarius system. The earliest denarii had a semi-incuse ROMA inscription on the reverse, as seen here, reminiscent of the fully-incuse and semi-incuse inscriptions on the earlier quadrigati coinage. This early-style inscription was soon replaced by a relief inscription within a linear frame.
2 commentsCarausius08/23/18 at 01:17Steve B5: Lovely well-centered example - This is a prototypi...
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius24 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar and P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 20mm).
Rome Mint, Feb-Mar 44 BCE.

Obverse: CAESAR - DICT PERPETVO; wreathed head of Julius Caesar facing right.

Reverse: P SEPVLLIVS – MACER; Venus facing left, holding Victory and staff; shield at feet.

References: Crawford 480/10; HCRI 107a; Sydenham 1073: Julia 48; Alföldi, Plate LXVI, No. 2 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; privately purchased from Ritter 2010; ex Rauch Auction 85 (26 Nov 2009) Lot 323; ex Professor L. Fontana Collection (bef. 1974).

Caesar was granted the title of Dictator for Life in mid-February, 44 BCE, thus all coins bearing DICT PERPETVO inscriptions can be firmly dated to the final month of Caesar’s life. This was a period of massive coinage output because Caesar was preparing for a campaign against the Parthians for which a substantial war chest would be needed. To meet the production needs, the college of moneyers was expanded from 3 to 4 moneyers. Nevertheless, manufacturing stress is evident by the frequent poor strikes and off-struck coins that survive today from these final Caesar portrait issues.

The moneyer P. Sepullius Macer struck coins during and after Caesar’s lifetime, including one type for M. Antony that also appears in my gallery. His output of coins was particularly high compared to the other three moneyers of 44 BCE. This reverse type, common among the four moneyers, alludes to the descent of the Julia gens from Venus and Anchises.
1 commentsCarausius08/20/18 at 19:09okidoki: excellent and stylistic
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AR Sestertius - Crawford 44/773 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 212-208 BCE
AR Sestertius (1.0g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; IIS (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/7; Sydenham 142; BMCRR 13-18.

Provenance: Ex Volteia Collection [CNG 102 (18 May 2016), Lot 777]; ex August Voirol Collection [Munzen und Medaillen 38 (6-7 Dec 1968), Lot 105].

The IIS mark of value denotes that the coin is worth 2 asses + a semis, or 2.5 asses. This quarter-denarius denomination was part of the introduction of the denarius coinage following the Roman sack of Syracuse. The subsequent reduction in the weight standard and size of the bronze coinage eliminated the need for this tiny silver denomination, and it was soon discontinued. However, the denomination would be resurrected for short times during the Social War and Imperatorial eras.
4 commentsCarausius08/20/18 at 16:25Enodia: Neat coin!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 49-44 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.93 g; 19mm).
Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BCE.

Obverse: Elephant walking right, trampling serpent; CAESAR in exergue.

Reverse: Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex.

References: Crawford 443/1: HCRI 9; Sydenham 1006; Julia 9.

Provenance: Ex Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 10]; privately purchased December 1980.

Caesar’s “elephant” issue was massive, with Crawford estimating 750 obverse and 833 reverse dies. Stylistic variations range from elephants depicted accurately to elephants with pig-like characteristics. The CAESAR inscriptions on the well-executed elephant varieties typically have letters with serifs; while inscriptions on the piggish varieties have letters without serifs. Woytek believes the series was struck in Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania Citerior in circa 49BC during Caesar’s campaign against Pompey loyalists in Spain. Other scholars, like Crawford and Sear, believe the issue was commenced shortly after Caesar invaded Italy in 49 and continued until the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BCE. What’s clear is that Caesar struck these coins without authority, as he did not hold the office of moneyer or legate. As for interpretation of this coin type, many scholars, including Crawford and Sear, interpret the obverse (elephant trampling the serpent) as representing good (Caesar) triumphing over evil. Michael Harlan interprets the obverse as blaming the civil war on Pompey’s faction; the elephant representing Pompey’s supporter, Metellus Pius Scipio (whose family badge, frequently seen on Metellan coins, is an elephant), trampling the snake symbol of Salus, the health and safety of Rome. The reverse clearly depicts the emblems of the priesthood and alludes to Caesar’s office of pontifex maximus.
1 commentsCarausius08/20/18 at 10:18quadrans: Great coin , and details,
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius33 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar and Lucius Aemilius Buca, 44 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.77g; 21mm).
Rome Mint, Feb-Mar 44 BCE.

Obverse: CAESAR DICT- PERPETVO; wreathed head of Julius Caesar facing right.

Reverse: Fasces and winged caduceus in saltire; axe, globe, clasped hands and L BVCA in angles.

References: Crawford 480/6; HCRI 103; Sydenham 1063; BMCRR 4157-9; Julia 37; Alföldi, Type XIII, Plate XCVIII, No. 78.

Provenance: Ex Goldberg Auction #104 (12 Jun 2018) Lot 3248.

Caesar was granted the title of Dictator for Life in mid-February, 44 BCE, thus all coins bearing DICT PERPETVO inscriptions can be firmly dated to the final month of Caesar’s life. This was a period of massive coinage output because Caesar was preparing for a campaign against the Parthians for which a substantial war chest would be needed. To meet the production needs, the college of moneyers was expanded from 3 to 4 moneyers. Nevertheless, manufacturing stress is evident by the frequent poor strikes and off-struck coins that survive today from these final Caesar portrait issues.

The moneyer Lucius Aemilius Buca may have been a relative of Sulla. He does not appear to have struck coins after Caesar’s assassination. With its symbolism, the reverse of this coin suggests Caesar’s growing grasp on religious, military and political power.
2 commentsCarausius08/20/18 at 10:17quadrans: Great piece ..I like it..
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AR Sestertius - Crawford 44/773 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 212-208 BCE
AR Sestertius (1.0g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; IIS (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/7; Sydenham 142; BMCRR 13-18.

Provenance: Ex Volteia Collection [CNG 102 (18 May 2016), Lot 777]; ex August Voirol Collection [Munzen und Medaillen 38 (6-7 Dec 1968), Lot 105].

The IIS mark of value denotes that the coin is worth 2 asses + a semis, or 2.5 asses. This quarter-denarius denomination was part of the introduction of the denarius coinage following the Roman sack of Syracuse. The subsequent reduction in the weight standard and size of the bronze coinage eliminated the need for this tiny silver denomination, and it was soon discontinued. However, the denomination would be resurrected for short times during the Social War and Imperatorial eras.
4 commentsCarausius08/03/18 at 04:32Jay GT4: great
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous, AR Sestertius - Crawford 44/773 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 212-208 BCE
AR Sestertius (1.0g; 12mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; IIS (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/7; Sydenham 142; BMCRR 13-18.

Provenance: Ex Volteia Collection [CNG 102 (18 May 2016), Lot 777]; ex August Voirol Collection [Munzen und Medaillen 38 (6-7 Dec 1968), Lot 105].

The IIS mark of value denotes that the coin is worth 2 asses + a semis, or 2.5 asses. This quarter-denarius denomination was part of the introduction of the denarius coinage following the Roman sack of Syracuse. The subsequent reduction in the weight standard and size of the bronze coinage eliminated the need for this tiny silver denomination, and it was soon discontinued. However, the denomination would be resurrected for short times during the Social War and Imperatorial eras.
4 commentsCarausius08/02/18 at 22:39Molinari:
PlautiusDenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Plautius Plancus, AR Denarius61 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Plautius Plancus, 47 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: L·PLAVTIVS; Facing mask of Medusa with coiled snakes on each side.

Reverse: PLANCVS; Victory facing, leading four horses and holding palm.

References: Crawford 453/1a; HCRI 29; Sydenham 959; BMCRR 4006; Plautia 14.

Provenance: Ex The New York Sale Auction XXXII (8 Jan 2014) Lot 205; NAC 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 256.

Lucius Plautius Plancus was a brother of L. Munatius Plancus, who became Prefect of the City under Caesar. Lucius was adopted by L. Plautius. In 47 BCE, Lucius was a moneyer and produced this coin. Two styles of the obverse were produced, one with coiled snakes on either side of Medusa's head; the other without snakes.

In 43 BCE, Lucius was proscribed by the Second Triumvirate and executed. The same year of Lucius’ proscription and execution, his brother, L. Munatius Plancus, placed in the capitol a painting by the 4th century BCE, Greek artist, Nicomachus of Thebes in which Victory is driving a quadriga and holding a palm. David Sear, in “History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators” suggests that Lucius may have owned the Nicomachus painting in 47 BCE (it would have passed to his brother upon his execution) and that the reverse of this coin was inspired by the painting. Sear is not the first numismatist to have proposed this theory regarding the Nicomachus painting. Eckhel had an equally conjectural theory for this coin type that connected the devices to a story involving one of Lucius’ ancestors as the basis for an annual celebration in Rome where masks were worn.

Regardless of the true derivation and meaning of the type, the coin is a remarkably artistic design for the period, and surely the devices must have some connection to the moneyer’s natural or adopted family.
3 commentsCarausius07/15/18 at 20:00Norbert: A wonderful coin. In my eyes one of the most fasci...
AntonySolDen.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marc Antony, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 18mm).
Military mint travelling with Antony, 42BCE.

Obverse: Antony's bearded head right; M ANTONI - IMP (ligate).

Reverse: Facing bust of Sol within distyle temple; III - VIR - R·P·C, around.

References: Crawford 496/1; HCRI 128; Sydenham 1168; BMCRR (Gaul) 62; Antonia 34.

Provenance: Italian export permit No. 13168 of 2018; ex Nomisma 32 (2006), Lot 129.

This coin was likely struck shortly after Brutus’s and Cassius’s defeat at Philippi in 42 BCE. Antony is still shown with his beard of mourning (he and Octavian would not shave until Caesar’s assassination was avenged), and it’s likely that the die engravers had not yet been instructed to remove the beard following Philippi. This is the last bearded image of Antony to appear on his coinage. There were two versions of this coin type: one with IMP spelled the standard way; the other with IMP ligate, as on this example. The ligate version is the scarcer version of the two. The reverse type emphasizing Sol was a common theme on Antony’s eastern coinage, perhaps reflecting his growing enchantment with eastern Hellenistic culture.
2 commentsCarausius07/09/18 at 09:38shanxi: OH, I'm getting jealous
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius21 viewsRome. The Republic.
Caius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 61-59 BCE
AR Denarius (3.96g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; wheel with four spokes (control mark), behind.

Reverse: Horse with rider carrying palm, galloping right; II or П above; C PISO L F FRVG, below.

References: Crawford 408/1a (O17/R31); Sydenham 850f; Hersh O-17/R-1023; Banti 245/2 (this coin illustrated); Calpurnia 24.

Provenance: Ex Naville Numismatics 39 (29 Apr 2018), Lot 472; Munzen und Medaillen XVII (2-4 Dec 1957), Lot 185.

Caius Piso Frugi, was the son of Lucius Piso Frugi who produced a huge coinage during the Social War in 90 BCE. Caius was son-in-law to Cicero, marrying Cicero’s daughter Tullia in 63 BCE. He was quaestor in 58 BCE, during which time he fought hard for repeal of Cicero’s exile. He died in 57 BCE, just before Cicero returned to Rome. Cicero thought very highly of him.

Crawford dated Caius’ coinage to 67 BCE, the year of his engagement to Tullia. The near mint state condition of Caius’ coins in the Mesagne Hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of Caius’ mint magistracy toward the close of the hoard material, circa 61 BCE. In “Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins” (2nd ed.), Michael Harlan suggests a slightly later date of 59 BCE, which would be the latest possible date for the series given the hard dates of Caius’ quaestorship in 58 and death in 57.

With his coinage, Caius reissued the coin types of his father which allude to the celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi's ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.

While his father’s 90 BCE coinage was hurriedly and sloppily produced due to wartime exigency (dies were often used to the brink of destruction), Caius’ coinage was considerably well made – struck in high relief and good style. Reverse dies were convex – resulting in characteristic “cupped” reverses – to fully-strike the high relief obverses. Obverses are in two varieties: the first, with Apollo’s hair bound with a fillet or taenia; the second with his hair laureate. Hersh (1976) knew of 204 obverse dies. Laureate dies are considerably fewer than fillet/taenia dies. The reverses are quite varied, depicting the horsemen wearing various caps or capless and carrying whip, torch, palm or nothing. Hersh knew of 232 reverse dies. Obverse and reverse dies bear a series of control marks consisting of symbols, letters, Greek and Roman numbers and fractional signs. The obverse/reverse die links in the series are very random within the estimated three workshops, and are considered evidence for the “die box” method of die management by the mint officials.
1 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 23:49David Atherton: Beautiful coin!
AntonySolDen.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marc Antony, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 18mm).
Military mint travelling with Antony, 42BCE.

Obverse: Antony's bearded head right; M ANTONI - IMP (ligate).

Reverse: Facing bust of Sol within distyle temple; III - VIR - R·P·C, around.

References: Crawford 496/1; HCRI 128; Sydenham 1168; BMCRR (Gaul) 62; Antonia 34.

Provenance: Italian export permit No. 13168 of 2018; ex Nomisma 32 (2006), Lot 129.

This coin was likely struck shortly after Brutus’s and Cassius’s defeat at Philippi in 42 BCE. Antony is still shown with his beard of mourning (he and Octavian would not shave until Caesar’s assassination was avenged), and it’s likely that the die engravers had not yet been instructed to remove the beard following Philippi. This is the last bearded image of Antony to appear on his coinage. There were two versions of this coin type: one with IMP spelled the standard way; the other with IMP ligate, as on this example. The ligate version is the scarcer version of the two. The reverse type emphasizing Sol was a common theme on Antony’s eastern coinage, perhaps reflecting his growing enchantment with eastern Hellenistic culture.
2 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 16:21Jay GT4: Great bearded portrait!
L_Victoriatus_Combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L Series Victoriatus - Crawford 97/1b48 viewsRome. The Republic.
L Series, 211-208 BCE
AR Victoriatus (3.13g; 18mm).
Luceria mint

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right; bead-and-reel border.

Reverse: Victory crowns trophy; L between; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 97/1b; RBW 395; Sydenham 121; BMCRR (Italy) 157-8.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; ex RBW Collection (not in prior sales); private purchase from H.J. Berk 15 May 1994.

About 212 BCE, when the Romans introduced the denarius system, they also introduced a collateral denomination of silver coin, the victoriatus. As evidenced by its different weight standard, debased metal, iconography and missing denominational mark, the victoriatus was not integral to the denarius system but was produced for a special purpose. While the denarius and its fractions, the quinarius and sestertius, all depicted Roma and the Dioscuri, victoriati depicted Jupiter and Victory crowning a trophy. Further, while denarii were produced from nearly pure silver, victoriati were made from debased silver of about 70% purity. Based on the weight standard of Magna Graecia drachms, victoriati were likely designed specifically for payments to Greek cities of southern Italy and hoard evidence supports circulation largely in southern Italy.

Like the LT Series victoriati that were also struck in Luceria, Crawford notes that the L Series Victoriati went through three obverse phases: the first, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with scraggly hair; the second, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with neat ringlets; and the last, with dot border. This coin clearly belongs to the second phase.

Rome ceased issuing victoriati circa 170 BCE. Perhaps because of their debased metal (which discouraged hoarding), victoriati continued to circulate in Gaul for many years until they functioned as de facto quinarii due to metal loss from wear. Their continued popularity caused Rome to later issue quinarii bearing the same devices (Jupiter/Victory and trophy).
3 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:39*Alex: Excellent.
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL - Julius Caesar - AR Denarius66 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.71g; 20mm).

Obverse: Head of Venus facing right; LII behind.

Reverse: Trophy with Gallic shield, carnyx and axe; CAESAR below.

References: Crawford 452/2; Sydenham 1009; HCRI 11; RSC 18.

Provenance: Ex Student/Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (15 May 2015) Lot 407]; ex Glendining's October 1965, Lot 22.

The Roman numeral LII behind the goddess' head on the obverse of this coin is accepted as a reference to Caesar's age at the time of the issue. There is some disagreement on the identity of the obverse goddess. Crawford identifies her as Venus, who is often depicted on Caesar's coins. Sear, in History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, suggests Clementia (clemency) as the goddess, and a reference to Caesar's fairness to his countrymen following the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus.
4 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:38*Alex: Nice one.
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion III Denarius27 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Mark Antony, 31 BCE.
Mint travelling with Antony.
AR Denarius (3.69g; 18mm).

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG III; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/15; HCRI 350; Syd 1217; Viereck, Die Römische Flotte (1975), p. 292 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Jul 2017); ex Triton IV (5 Dec 2000), Lot 432; ex Sternberg XII (18 Nov 1982), Lot 512; ex H.D.L. Viereck Collection (bef. 1975).

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.
2 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:37*Alex:
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Antestius, 146 BCE - Crawford 219/1e32 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Antestius, 146 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; C ANTESTI behind; X (mark-of-value) below chin.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; puppy below, with front feet raised; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 219/1e; Sydenham 411; BMCRR 860; Antestia 1.

Provenance: Ex Artemide Auction 2 (1996), Lot 411.

The moneyer is unknown. Grueber suggests he may have been the son of C. Antestius Labeo, who was a Senator and ambassador to Macedonia circa 167 BCE. Crawford disputes this assertion.
1 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:35*Alex: Great details. I love the dog . Very nice ind...
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE - Crawford 311/1a33 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing left; R● (control mark) behind.

Rev: Jupiter in quadriga galloping right, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter; L●SCIP●ASIAG in exergue.

References: Crawford 311/1a; Sydenham 576; BMCRR 1372; Cornelia 24

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 287; HJB 163 (25 March 2009), lot 224; ex A.K. Collection [Triton XII (6 Jan 2009), lot 462 (part)]; Münzhandlung E. Button Auction 101 (28-29 October 1959), Lot 149.

Each control mark in this series is a single die. The reverse recalls the moneyer's ancestor, L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Africanus), who had a victory against the Syrians in 190 BCE and took the name Asiagenus. The moneyer was likely the L. Cornelius Asiaticus that became consul in 83 BCE. He served in the Social War and was allied with Marius at the time of his consulship. He was imprisoned by Sulla and released. However he was later proscribed by Sulla and fled Rome.
3 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:33*Alex: Superb. Great strike, great tone, great coin.
quadrigatus30combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 30/1)62 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.29 g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Janiform head with irregular neck truncaction.

Reverse: Jupiter and Victory in fast quadriga, galloping right; ROMA incuse on trapezoidal tablet below.

Reference: Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; BMCRR 95; Gentilehomme I.E.3-4.

Provenance: From an American collection; privately purchased from Tom McKenna in 1980's.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 30 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, have a distinct obverse style, notably a thick, single sideburn between the janiform heads with various neck truncation styles ranging from straight – wavy – convex. On the reverse, Victory stands further back, on the backboard of the chariot with more of her garment visible. ROMA legend is always incuse on this series, though tablets range from square to trapezoidal.
5 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:30*Alex: Lovely tone.
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ROMAN REPUBLIC - AR Didrachm - Crawford 26/170 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 234-231 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.74g; 20mm).

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: Horse rearing left; ROMA above.

Reference: Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker (25 Sep 2017) Lot 508; ex Bernhard Terletzkli Collection; ex Dr. Hagen Tronnier Collection; ex Kunker Auction 94 (2004), Lot 1650; ex Auctiones 10 (1979), Lot 303.
4 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:28*Alex: Nice!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC - Didrachm - Crawford 20/149 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 269-266 BCE.
AR Didrachm (7.28g; 21mm).
Uncertain mint.

Obv: Diademed head of youthful Hercules facing right, with lion skin and club over shoulder.

Rev: She-Wolf suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ROMANO in exergue.

References: Crawford 20/1; Sydenham 6; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 28-33.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Walter F. Stoeklin Collection [Nomos AG eSale 9 (25 Mar 2018) Lot 2]; Adolph Hess Auction (19 Dec 1933), Lot 3.

The earliest Roman Didrachm coinage commenced in the late fourth century BCE. While earliest didrachms bore the inscription ROMANO, they were not struck in Rome and didn’t really circulate in Rome! The earliest didrachms were likely produced in Naples or some other nearby mint. Kenneth Harl, in "Coinage in the Roman Economy" theorizes that Roman didrachms were likely valued at 10 asses and were possibly called “denarii” in their day.

This coin is from the large, third issue of didrachms produced around the time of the Pyrrhic War, circa 269 BCE. In "Natural History", Pliny wrote that the Romans first struck silver coins “in the 485th year of the city, when Q. Ogulnius and C. Fabius were consuls, five years before the First Punic War [=269 BC].” (NH 33.42-44) Some surmise that Pliny’s now infamous text refers to the above coin type. Pliny’s text confounded for generations the determination by Roman numismatists of the introduction date for the denarius, with many scholars interpreting his statement as evidence for an early introduction; that “literal” theory having been disproven by Thomsen’s analysis in “Early Roman Coinage” and the indisputable evidence of the destruction level finds at Morgantina.

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford assigned this type to the Rome mint, but Crawford turned non-committal regarding the mint in his later book, Coinage and Money Under the Roman Republic. Previous scholars (Babelon, Grueber, Sydenham) had attributed this series to Campania. The reverse bears the first depiction of the she-wolf and suckling twins on a Roman coin, representing the mythical founding of Rome. The emblematic nature of this scene likely influenced the mint assignment by some researchers. Indeed, subsequent coins bearing this scene have similarly been assigned to Rome by some authors, perhaps without justification, based on the “Roman” character of the scene – notably the Eagle/Wolf and Twins AE Sextans (Crawford 39/3) of the semi-libral reduction in 217-215 BCE, which I believe is likely a Campanian product. There would be countless more such depictions of the wolf and twins on Roman coins during the ensuing centuries [Crawford 183; Crawford 235/1; Antoninus Pius; Maxentius; Constantine “commemoratives”, etc.]. According to Pliny, Q. Ogulnius was a consul when this coin was likely first produced, and the reverse may allude to the wolf and twins statue erected in Rome by Ogulnius’ grandfather and great uncle, the brothers Quintus and Gnaeus Ogulnius, in 296 BCE.
2 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:28*Alex: Great coin all round.
NACsextans.png
ROMAN REPUBLIC - AE Aes Grave Sextans - Crawford 21/522 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, circa 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Sextans (43.28g; 35mm).

Obverse: Scallop shell seen from outside; two pellets (mark-of-value=two unciae) below.

Reverse: Scallop shell seen from inside.

References: Crawford 21/5; Vecchi, ICC 45.

Provenanc: Numismatica Ars Classica 40 (2007), Lot 365.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that they were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. At least three separate series of Roman Aes Grave use shells as types on sextantes (see Crawford 14/5 sextans in this gallery). This is likely a traditional nod to the shell shaped Aes Formatum that were used for monetary exchange prior to the adoption of Aes Grave by Rome. The old Aes Formatum astragaloi (knuckle bones) are similarly re-used on Aes Grave Unciae which depict both sides of a knuckle bone (See Crawford 14/6, 21/6 and 25/9).
1 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 11:27*Alex: Nice shell.
CM_Victoriatus_combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C/M Series Victoriatus - Crawford 71/1a22 viewsRome. The Republic.
C/M Series, 211-208 BCE
AR Victoriatus (3.26g; 18mm).
Sicilian mint (?)

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right; C behind.

Reverse: Victory crowns trophy; M between; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 71/1a; RBW 300; Sydenham 112; BMCRR (Italy) 252.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; Vecchi 7 (6 Oct 1997) Lot 571; NAC 1 (29 Mar 1989) Lot 561.

About 212 BCE, when the Romans introduced the denarius system, they also introduced a collateral denomination of silver coin, the victoriatus. As evidenced by its different weight standard, debased metal, iconography and missing denominational mark, the victoriatus was not integral to the denarius system but was produced for a special purpose. While the denarius and its fractions, the quinarius and sestertius, all depicted Roma and the Dioscuri, victoriati depicted Jupiter and Victory crowning a trophy. Further, while denarii were produced from nearly pure silver, victoriati were made from debased silver of about 70% purity. Based on the weight standard of Magna Graecia drachms, victoriati were likely designed specifically for payments to Greek cities of southern Italy and hoard evidence supports circulation largely in southern Italy.

Crawford’s attribution of the C/M Series victoriati to a Sicilian mint is uncertain and partly based on style.

Rome ceased issuing victoriati circa 170 BCE. Perhaps because of their debased metal (which discouraged hoarding), victoriati continued to circulate in Gaul for many years until they functioned as de facto quinarii due to metal loss from wear. Their continued popularity caused Rome to later issue quinarii bearing the same devices (Jupiter/Victory and trophy).
1 commentsCarausius07/08/18 at 02:53PMah: Jupiter obv is fantastic; details of Victory unusu...
PlautiusDenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Plautius Plancus, AR Denarius61 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Plautius Plancus, 47 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: L·PLAVTIVS; Facing mask of Medusa with coiled snakes on each side.

Reverse: PLANCVS; Victory facing, leading four horses and holding palm.

References: Crawford 453/1a; HCRI 29; Sydenham 959; BMCRR 4006; Plautia 14.

Provenance: Ex The New York Sale Auction XXXII (8 Jan 2014) Lot 205; NAC 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 256.

Lucius Plautius Plancus was a brother of L. Munatius Plancus, who became Prefect of the City under Caesar. Lucius was adopted by L. Plautius. In 47 BCE, Lucius was a moneyer and produced this coin. Two styles of the obverse were produced, one with coiled snakes on either side of Medusa's head; the other without snakes.

In 43 BCE, Lucius was proscribed by the Second Triumvirate and executed. The same year of Lucius’ proscription and execution, his brother, L. Munatius Plancus, placed in the capitol a painting by the 4th century BCE, Greek artist, Nicomachus of Thebes in which Victory is driving a quadriga and holding a palm. David Sear, in “History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators” suggests that Lucius may have owned the Nicomachus painting in 47 BCE (it would have passed to his brother upon his execution) and that the reverse of this coin was inspired by the painting. Sear is not the first numismatist to have proposed this theory regarding the Nicomachus painting. Eckhel had an equally conjectural theory for this coin type that connected the devices to a story involving one of Lucius’ ancestors as the basis for an annual celebration in Rome where masks were worn.

Regardless of the true derivation and meaning of the type, the coin is a remarkably artistic design for the period, and surely the devices must have some connection to the moneyer’s natural or adopted family.
3 commentsCarausius07/04/18 at 22:31PMah: Superb example! A complex coin that almost always...
PlautiusDenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Plautius Plancus, AR Denarius61 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Plautius Plancus, 47 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: L·PLAVTIVS; Facing mask of Medusa with coiled snakes on each side.

Reverse: PLANCVS; Victory facing, leading four horses and holding palm.

References: Crawford 453/1a; HCRI 29; Sydenham 959; BMCRR 4006; Plautia 14.

Provenance: Ex The New York Sale Auction XXXII (8 Jan 2014) Lot 205; NAC 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 256.

Lucius Plautius Plancus was a brother of L. Munatius Plancus, who became Prefect of the City under Caesar. Lucius was adopted by L. Plautius. In 47 BCE, Lucius was a moneyer and produced this coin. Two styles of the obverse were produced, one with coiled snakes on either side of Medusa's head; the other without snakes.

In 43 BCE, Lucius was proscribed by the Second Triumvirate and executed. The same year of Lucius’ proscription and execution, his brother, L. Munatius Plancus, placed in the capitol a painting by the 4th century BCE, Greek artist, Nicomachus of Thebes in which Victory is driving a quadriga and holding a palm. David Sear, in “History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators” suggests that Lucius may have owned the Nicomachus painting in 47 BCE (it would have passed to his brother upon his execution) and that the reverse of this coin was inspired by the painting. Sear is not the first numismatist to have proposed this theory regarding the Nicomachus painting. Eckhel had an equally conjectural theory for this coin type that connected the devices to a story involving one of Lucius’ ancestors as the basis for an annual celebration in Rome where masks were worn.

Regardless of the true derivation and meaning of the type, the coin is a remarkably artistic design for the period, and surely the devices must have some connection to the moneyer’s natural or adopted family.
3 commentsCarausius07/02/18 at 14:42laney: That's an extremely interesting coin. Gorgeou...
Combined_LT_Victoriatus.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, LT Series Victoriatus - Crawford 98A/1b20 viewsRome. The Republic.
LT Series, 211-210 BCE
AR Victoriatus (3.06g; 18mm).
Luceria mint

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right.

Reverse: Victory crowns trophy; LT ligate between; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 98A/1b; RBW 429; Sydenham 137; BMCRR (Italy) 178-80.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; private purchase in 2012 from CNG #910522; ex CNG 88 (14 Sep 2011) Lot 1130.

About 212 BCE, when the Romans introduced the denarius system, they also introduced a collateral denomination of silver coin, the victoriatus. As evidenced by its different weight standard, debased metal, iconography and missing denominational mark, the victoriatus was not integral to the denarius system but was produced for a special purpose. While the denarius and its fractions, the quinarius and sestertius, all depicted Roma and the Dioscuri, victoriati depicted Jupiter and Victory crowning a trophy. Further, while denarii were produced from nearly pure silver, victoriati were made from debased silver of about 70% purity. Based on the weight standard of Magna Graecia drachms, victoriati were likely designed specifically for payments to Greek cities of southern Italy and hoard evidence supports circulation largely in southern Italy.

Like the L Series victoriati which were also struck in Luceria, Crawford notes three phases of the LT Series victoriati: the first, with a small head and mint/control letters split between obverse and reverse; the second, with larger head and monogram LT on reverse; the last, with careless, spread devices and mint/control marks again split between obverse and reverse. This coin belongs to the second phase of the series’ development. While the L almost certainly represent Luceria, the meaning of the additional letter T is uncertain. Crawford suggests it may be a magistrates initial or indicate the purpose of the expenditure.

Rome ceased issuing victoriati circa 170 BCE. Perhaps because of their debased metal (which discouraged hoarding), victoriati continued to circulate in Gaul for many years until they functioned as de facto quinarii due to metal loss from wear. Their continued popularity caused Rome to later issue quinarii bearing the same devices (Jupiter/Victory and trophy).
1 commentsCarausius06/22/18 at 23:31Jay GT4: Nice coin, great provenance
L_Victoriatus_Combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L Series Victoriatus - Crawford 97/1b48 viewsRome. The Republic.
L Series, 211-208 BCE
AR Victoriatus (3.13g; 18mm).
Luceria mint

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right; bead-and-reel border.

Reverse: Victory crowns trophy; L between; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 97/1b; RBW 395; Sydenham 121; BMCRR (Italy) 157-8.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; ex RBW Collection (not in prior sales); private purchase from H.J. Berk 15 May 1994.

About 212 BCE, when the Romans introduced the denarius system, they also introduced a collateral denomination of silver coin, the victoriatus. As evidenced by its different weight standard, debased metal, iconography and missing denominational mark, the victoriatus was not integral to the denarius system but was produced for a special purpose. While the denarius and its fractions, the quinarius and sestertius, all depicted Roma and the Dioscuri, victoriati depicted Jupiter and Victory crowning a trophy. Further, while denarii were produced from nearly pure silver, victoriati were made from debased silver of about 70% purity. Based on the weight standard of Magna Graecia drachms, victoriati were likely designed specifically for payments to Greek cities of southern Italy and hoard evidence supports circulation largely in southern Italy.

Like the LT Series victoriati that were also struck in Luceria, Crawford notes that the L Series Victoriati went through three obverse phases: the first, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with scraggly hair; the second, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with neat ringlets; and the last, with dot border. This coin clearly belongs to the second phase.

Rome ceased issuing victoriati circa 170 BCE. Perhaps because of their debased metal (which discouraged hoarding), victoriati continued to circulate in Gaul for many years until they functioned as de facto quinarii due to metal loss from wear. Their continued popularity caused Rome to later issue quinarii bearing the same devices (Jupiter/Victory and trophy).
3 commentsCarausius06/22/18 at 20:03quadrans: Nice piece..
L_Victoriatus_Combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L Series Victoriatus - Crawford 97/1b48 viewsRome. The Republic.
L Series, 211-208 BCE
AR Victoriatus (3.13g; 18mm).
Luceria mint

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right; bead-and-reel border.

Reverse: Victory crowns trophy; L between; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 97/1b; RBW 395; Sydenham 121; BMCRR (Italy) 157-8.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection; ex RBW Collection (not in prior sales); private purchase from H.J. Berk 15 May 1994.

About 212 BCE, when the Romans introduced the denarius system, they also introduced a collateral denomination of silver coin, the victoriatus. As evidenced by its different weight standard, debased metal, iconography and missing denominational mark, the victoriatus was not integral to the denarius system but was produced for a special purpose. While the denarius and its fractions, the quinarius and sestertius, all depicted Roma and the Dioscuri, victoriati depicted Jupiter and Victory crowning a trophy. Further, while denarii were produced from nearly pure silver, victoriati were made from debased silver of about 70% purity. Based on the weight standard of Magna Graecia drachms, victoriati were likely designed specifically for payments to Greek cities of southern Italy and hoard evidence supports circulation largely in southern Italy.

Like the LT Series victoriati that were also struck in Luceria, Crawford notes that the L Series Victoriati went through three obverse phases: the first, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with scraggly hair; the second, with bead-and-reel border and Jupiter with neat ringlets; and the last, with dot border. This coin clearly belongs to the second phase.

Rome ceased issuing victoriati circa 170 BCE. Perhaps because of their debased metal (which discouraged hoarding), victoriati continued to circulate in Gaul for many years until they functioned as de facto quinarii due to metal loss from wear. Their continued popularity caused Rome to later issue quinarii bearing the same devices (Jupiter/Victory and trophy).
3 commentsCarausius06/22/18 at 12:25okidoki: great example,
quadrigatus30combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 30/1)62 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.29 g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Janiform head with irregular neck truncaction.

Reverse: Jupiter and Victory in fast quadriga, galloping right; ROMA incuse on trapezoidal tablet below.

Reference: Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; BMCRR 95; Gentilehomme I.E.3-4.

Provenance: From an American collection; privately purchased from Tom McKenna in 1980's.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 30 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, have a distinct obverse style, notably a thick, single sideburn between the janiform heads with various neck truncation styles ranging from straight – wavy – convex. On the reverse, Victory stands further back, on the backboard of the chariot with more of her garment visible. ROMA legend is always incuse on this series, though tablets range from square to trapezoidal.
5 commentsCarausius06/21/18 at 04:03Jay GT4: Amazing artistic piece
quadrigatus30combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 30/1)62 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.29 g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Janiform head with irregular neck truncaction.

Reverse: Jupiter and Victory in fast quadriga, galloping right; ROMA incuse on trapezoidal tablet below.

Reference: Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; BMCRR 95; Gentilehomme I.E.3-4.

Provenance: From an American collection; privately purchased from Tom McKenna in 1980's.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 30 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, have a distinct obverse style, notably a thick, single sideburn between the janiform heads with various neck truncation styles ranging from straight – wavy – convex. On the reverse, Victory stands further back, on the backboard of the chariot with more of her garment visible. ROMA legend is always incuse on this series, though tablets range from square to trapezoidal.
5 commentsCarausius06/21/18 at 03:49ickster: Fantastic! The toning compliments the coin well.
Craw198Den.jpg
Roman Republic - Anonymous Denarius - Crawford 19843 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 157-156 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.18 g; 18 mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right with peaked visor and earring of long, single drop; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses), behind.

Reverse: The Dioscuri galloping right holding spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 198/1; BMCRR (Italy) 390; Brinkman 43.

Provenance: Acquired with an Italian export permit.

This is the last variety of fully anonymous denarii struck by the Roman Republic, and it is often mistaken for the earlier and more common Crawford 53/2. Both types depict Roma in a peaked-visor helmet. The most obvious differences are that the rider's cape on Cr. 198 is longer at the top than the bottom - looking almost wing-like - and the horse's tail extends straight-out on Cr. 198. The variety is rarely so well centered as this specimen which clearly shows that the ROMA legend is within a three-sided frame (most examples showing only two sides of the frame).
2 commentsCarausius06/20/18 at 16:25David Atherton: Lovely piece.
quadrigatus30combined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 30/1)62 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.29 g; 21mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Janiform head with irregular neck truncaction.

Reverse: Jupiter and Victory in fast quadriga, galloping right; ROMA incuse on trapezoidal tablet below.

Reference: Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64b; BMCRR 95; Gentilehomme I.E.3-4.

Provenance: From an American collection; privately purchased from Tom McKenna in 1980's.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 30 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, have a distinct obverse style, notably a thick, single sideburn between the janiform heads with various neck truncation styles ranging from straight – wavy – convex. On the reverse, Victory stands further back, on the backboard of the chariot with more of her garment visible. ROMA legend is always incuse on this series, though tablets range from square to trapezoidal.
5 commentsCarausius06/20/18 at 16:23David Atherton: Absolutely stunning!
1521044195142126439108.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, 32 BCE60 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 32 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.72g; 18mm).
Athens Mint.

Obv: ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III III V R P C. Bare head of Antony facing right.

Rev: ANTONIVS AVG IMP III, in two lines.

References: Crawford 542/2; HCRI 347; Sydenham 1209.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG eSale 385 (26 Oct 2016) Lot 470]; CNG 49 (17 Mar 1999), Lot 1316; Reinhold Faelten Collection [Stack's (20 Jan 1938) Lot 1495].

On the obverse, behind Antony’s ear, a small letter P, likely an engraver’s signature, is hidden within the hair line. This coin was struck in Athens in 32 BCE, while Antony and Cleopatra lived extravagantly among the Greeks. The coin’s inscription refers to a designated third consulship that Antony was supposed to share with Octavian in 31 BCE. Around the time this coin was minted, Antony notified his wife, Octavia (Octavian’s sister), in Rome that he was divorcing her. Octavian was outraged. Cleopatra’s growing influence over Antony was soon used by Octavian as progaganda to unite Italy and the West against Antony. Thus, the designated third consulship referenced on this coin never occurred, as the designated consuls went to war instead, ending with Antony’s naval defeat at Actium in September 31 BCE.
5 commentsCarausius05/27/18 at 04:56Jay GT4: A must have portrait for any Antony collector
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion III Denarius27 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Mark Antony, 31 BCE.
Mint travelling with Antony.
AR Denarius (3.69g; 18mm).

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG III; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/15; HCRI 350; Syd 1217; Viereck, Die Römische Flotte (1975), p. 292 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Jul 2017); ex Triton IV (5 Dec 2000), Lot 432; ex Sternberg XII (18 Nov 1982), Lot 512; ex H.D.L. Viereck Collection (bef. 1975).

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.
2 commentsCarausius05/27/18 at 04:56Jay GT4: This is exceptional
IMG-20161218-WA0003.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion VI Denarius38 viewsRome, The Imperators
Mint traveling with Antony, ca. 31 BC
AR Denarius

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG VI; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/19; HCRI 356

Provenance: ex CNG 103 (Sep 2016) Lot 664; ex Kirk Davis FPL 37 (Jan 2002), No. 45.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.

2 commentsCarausius05/27/18 at 04:55Jay GT4: Outstanding
00315q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius05/26/18 at 14:52PMah: Thanks for Posting this coin!
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius05/26/18 at 14:48PMah:
3108816_m.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Musa - AR Denarius41 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, 56-52 BCE
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Q•POMPONI – MVSA; Head of Apollo facing right, hair tied with band.

Rev: HERCVLES – MVSARVM; Hercules facing right, wearing lion skin and playing lyre.

References: Crawford 410/1; Sydenham 810; Pomponia 8.

Provenance: Ex Collection of an English Amateur Scholar [NAC 92 (May 2016) Lot 1669]; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (Jun 1959) Lot 98; L. Hamburger 95 (1932} Lot 238; Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon (d. 1894) Collection [E. Bourgey (Nov 1913) Lot 526].

Q. Pomponius Musa punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins. Musa’s coins have long been favorites of Roman Republican collectors both for their high-style and because they form a mini-series within the larger series of Republican moneyer coins. Basically, they're fun-to-collect tray candy.

Musa is unknown except for his coins, which, combined with scant hoard evidence, makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. In "Roman Moneyers and Their Coins" (2nd ed), Michael Harlan suggested a later date of 52 BCE due to the large number of moneyers attributed from 57-54.

This example of Musa's series does not depict a Muse at all, but Hercules Musarum – Hercules as patron of the Muses. In 187 BCE, Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, celebrating victories in Greece, dedicated a Temple of Hercules Musarum in Rome, near the Circus Flaminius. This round temple contained statues of Hercules and the nine Muses. It is possible that the reverses of Musa’s coins depict the actual statues contained within this temple, which were likely brought back to Rome as spoils from Greece. Over 100 years after this temple was consecrated, Cicero praised Nobilior for honoring poetry and the arts in his victory over the Greeks.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on all varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On the above coin, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the Muse varieties of this series are considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads are not Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius05/26/18 at 14:46PMah: Very nice. Exceptional condition.
Lsemisuncia.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Luceria - AE Semuncia - Crawford 97/825 viewsRome, The Republic.
L Series, circa 211-208 BCE.
AE Semuncia (3.52g; 18mm).

Obverse: Mercury head facing right, wearing winged petasus.

Reverse: Prow r; above ε; be ROMA; before L; above, ε (mark-of-value).

References: Crawford 97/8; Sydenham 178g (R5); Kestner-Hannover 1090; BMCRR (Italy) ----.

Provenance: Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 24 (22 Jun 2016), Lot 371.

There are only four examples of this rare semuncia of Luceria in the Paris collection. There were no examples in the British Museum collection at the 1910 publication of BMCRR.
1 commentsCarausius05/23/18 at 06:40quadrans: Nice piece..
image00301.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE53 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 20mm).
Military Mint (Smyrna?).

Obv: BRVTVS; axe, simpulum and knife.

Rev: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/7; HCRI 198; Sydenham 1310; BMCRR East 80-1; Junia 41.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos14 (17 May 2017) Lot 301]; ex Munzhandlung Basel 6 (18 Mar 1936), Lot 1483; ex Trau Collection [Gilhoffer & Ranschburg & Hess (22 May 1935), Lot 37].

The sacrificial implements on the obverse refer to Brutus' membership in the college of Pontifs. The implements on the reverse refer to Spinther's membership in the augurate since 57 BCE.

Spinther was the son of P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that his father clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. His father was an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, who was liked by Julius Caesar and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, his father was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, both Spinthers sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther senior would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck coins for both Brutus and Cassius.
3 commentsCarausius05/23/18 at 06:39quadrans: I like this..
image00236.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L. Piso Frugi - AR Denarius27 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.01g; 18mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; VII (control mark) behind.

Rev: Rider with palm on horse galloping right; VII (control mark) above; L PISO FRVG below; Roma monogram in exergue.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 661; Banti 44/1 (this coin illustrated); BMCRR 1900; Calpurnia 11.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 236; ex Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 1184].

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi’s coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi’s denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die.

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi’s ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
1 commentsCarausius05/23/18 at 06:38quadrans: Great coin , and details,
3108816_m.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Musa - AR Denarius41 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, 56-52 BCE
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Q•POMPONI – MVSA; Head of Apollo facing right, hair tied with band.

Rev: HERCVLES – MVSARVM; Hercules facing right, wearing lion skin and playing lyre.

References: Crawford 410/1; Sydenham 810; Pomponia 8.

Provenance: Ex Collection of an English Amateur Scholar [NAC 92 (May 2016) Lot 1669]; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (Jun 1959) Lot 98; L. Hamburger 95 (1932} Lot 238; Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon (d. 1894) Collection [E. Bourgey (Nov 1913) Lot 526].

Q. Pomponius Musa punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins. Musa’s coins have long been favorites of Roman Republican collectors both for their high-style and because they form a mini-series within the larger series of Republican moneyer coins. Basically, they're fun-to-collect tray candy.

Musa is unknown except for his coins, which, combined with scant hoard evidence, makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. In "Roman Moneyers and Their Coins" (2nd ed), Michael Harlan suggested a later date of 52 BCE due to the large number of moneyers attributed from 57-54.

This example of Musa's series does not depict a Muse at all, but Hercules Musarum – Hercules as patron of the Muses. In 187 BCE, Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, celebrating victories in Greece, dedicated a Temple of Hercules Musarum in Rome, near the Circus Flaminius. This round temple contained statues of Hercules and the nine Muses. It is possible that the reverses of Musa’s coins depict the actual statues contained within this temple, which were likely brought back to Rome as spoils from Greece. Over 100 years after this temple was consecrated, Cicero praised Nobilior for honoring poetry and the arts in his victory over the Greeks.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on all varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On the above coin, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the Muse varieties of this series are considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads are not Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius05/21/18 at 10:55Pharsalos: Stunning coin and very interesting.
1521986941692724409721.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Didrachm - Crawford 20/149 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 269-266 BCE.
AR Didrachm (7.28g; 21mm).
Uncertain mint.

Obv: Diademed head of youthful Hercules facing right, with lion skin and club over shoulder.

Rev: She-Wolf suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ROMANO in exergue.

References: Crawford 20/1; Sydenham 6; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 28-33.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Walter F. Stoeklin Collection [Nomos AG eSale 9 (25 Mar 2018) Lot 2]; Adolph Hess Auction (19 Dec 1933), Lot 3.

The earliest Roman Didrachm coinage commenced in the late fourth century BCE. While earliest didrachms bore the inscription ROMANO, they were not struck in Rome and didn’t really circulate in Rome! The earliest didrachms were likely produced in Naples or some other nearby mint. Kenneth Harl, in "Coinage in the Roman Economy" theorizes that Roman didrachms were likely valued at 10 asses and were possibly called “denarii” in their day.

This coin is from the large, third issue of didrachms produced around the time of the Pyrrhic War, circa 269 BCE. In "Natural History", Pliny wrote that the Romans first struck silver coins “in the 485th year of the city, when Q. Ogulnius and C. Fabius were consuls, five years before the First Punic War [=269 BC].” (NH 33.42-44) Some surmise that Pliny’s now infamous text refers to the above coin type. Pliny’s text confounded for generations the determination by Roman numismatists of the introduction date for the denarius, with many scholars interpreting his statement as evidence for an early introduction; that “literal” theory having been disproven by Thomsen’s analysis in “Early Roman Coinage” and the indisputable evidence of the destruction level finds at Morgantina.

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford assigned this type to the Rome mint, but Crawford turned non-committal regarding the mint in his later book, Coinage and Money Under the Roman Republic. Previous scholars (Babelon, Grueber, Sydenham) had attributed this series to Campania. The reverse bears the first depiction of the she-wolf and suckling twins on a Roman coin, representing the mythical founding of Rome. The emblematic nature of this scene likely influenced the mint assignment by some researchers. Indeed, subsequent coins bearing this scene have similarly been assigned to Rome by some authors, perhaps without justification, based on the “Roman” character of the scene – notably the Eagle/Wolf and Twins AE Sextans (Crawford 39/3) of the semi-libral reduction in 217-215 BCE, which I believe is likely a Campanian product. There would be countless more such depictions of the wolf and twins on Roman coins during the ensuing centuries [Crawford 183; Crawford 235/1; Antoninus Pius; Maxentius; Constantine “commemoratives”, etc.]. According to Pliny, Q. Ogulnius was a consul when this coin was likely first produced, and the reverse may allude to the wolf and twins statue erected in Rome by Ogulnius’ grandfather and great uncle, the brothers Quintus and Gnaeus Ogulnius, in 296 BCE.
2 commentsCarausius05/20/18 at 16:51Jay GT4: Great reverse
3108816_m.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Musa - AR Denarius41 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Pomponius Musa, 56-52 BCE
AR Denarius (3.76g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Q•POMPONI – MVSA; Head of Apollo facing right, hair tied with band.

Rev: HERCVLES – MVSARVM; Hercules facing right, wearing lion skin and playing lyre.

References: Crawford 410/1; Sydenham 810; Pomponia 8.

Provenance: Ex Collection of an English Amateur Scholar [NAC 92 (May 2016) Lot 1669]; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (Jun 1959) Lot 98; L. Hamburger 95 (1932} Lot 238; Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon (d. 1894) Collection [E. Bourgey (Nov 1913) Lot 526].

Q. Pomponius Musa punned his name by depicting the Muses on a series of coins. Musa’s coins have long been favorites of Roman Republican collectors both for their high-style and because they form a mini-series within the larger series of Republican moneyer coins. Basically, they're fun-to-collect tray candy.

Musa is unknown except for his coins, which, combined with scant hoard evidence, makes precise dating of the series difficult. For many years, scholars (including Crawford) dated the series to 66 BCE. However, the absence of any examples of the series in the large Mesagne hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of the series to 56 BCE. In "Roman Moneyers and Their Coins" (2nd ed), Michael Harlan suggested a later date of 52 BCE due to the large number of moneyers attributed from 57-54.

This example of Musa's series does not depict a Muse at all, but Hercules Musarum – Hercules as patron of the Muses. In 187 BCE, Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, celebrating victories in Greece, dedicated a Temple of Hercules Musarum in Rome, near the Circus Flaminius. This round temple contained statues of Hercules and the nine Muses. It is possible that the reverses of Musa’s coins depict the actual statues contained within this temple, which were likely brought back to Rome as spoils from Greece. Over 100 years after this temple was consecrated, Cicero praised Nobilior for honoring poetry and the arts in his victory over the Greeks.

Apollo is often depicted androgynously on ancient coins. The standard references consistently attribute the obverse heads on all varieties of Musa’s coins as Apollo; but the depictions are notably different between the Hercules Musarum variety and the nine Muse varieties. On the above coin, the deity’s hair is down and tied, and generally consistent with many depictions of Apollo on other Roman Republican coins (see, e.g., denarii of L. Calpurnius Piso and C. Calpurnius Piso). Comparatively, the head on the Muse varieties of this series are considerably more feminine in appearance and laureate, though lacking earrings, necklaces or other feminine accents. Admittedly, this more feminine type head has also been attributed by scholars as Apollo on other coin types (see, e.g., denarii of P. Clodius and C. Considius). However, within the same series the different styled heads appear to depict different deities. Given the Muse emblems behind each head on the nine Muse types, it’s possible that the feminine heads are not Apollo, but the Muses themselves. Michael Harlan agrees with this interpretation in both editions of "Roman Republican Moneyers and their Coins." More research on this issue is needed.
3 commentsCarausius05/20/18 at 06:09shanxi: beautiful
1521044195142126439108.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, 32 BCE60 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 32 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.72g; 18mm).
Athens Mint.

Obv: ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III III V R P C. Bare head of Antony facing right.

Rev: ANTONIVS AVG IMP III, in two lines.

References: Crawford 542/2; HCRI 347; Sydenham 1209.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG eSale 385 (26 Oct 2016) Lot 470]; CNG 49 (17 Mar 1999), Lot 1316; Reinhold Faelten Collection [Stack's (20 Jan 1938) Lot 1495].

On the obverse, behind Antony’s ear, a small letter P, likely an engraver’s signature, is hidden within the hair line. This coin was struck in Athens in 32 BCE, while Antony and Cleopatra lived extravagantly among the Greeks. The coin’s inscription refers to a designated third consulship that Antony was supposed to share with Octavian in 31 BCE. Around the time this coin was minted, Antony notified his wife, Octavia (Octavian’s sister), in Rome that he was divorcing her. Octavian was outraged. Cleopatra’s growing influence over Antony was soon used by Octavian as progaganda to unite Italy and the West against Antony. Thus, the designated third consulship referenced on this coin never occurred, as the designated consuls went to war instead, ending with Antony’s naval defeat at Actium in September 31 BCE.
5 commentsCarausius04/18/18 at 16:58Mat:
1521044195142126439108.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, 32 BCE60 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 32 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.72g; 18mm).
Athens Mint.

Obv: ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III III V R P C. Bare head of Antony facing right.

Rev: ANTONIVS AVG IMP III, in two lines.

References: Crawford 542/2; HCRI 347; Sydenham 1209.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG eSale 385 (26 Oct 2016) Lot 470]; CNG 49 (17 Mar 1999), Lot 1316; Reinhold Faelten Collection [Stack's (20 Jan 1938) Lot 1495].

On the obverse, behind Antony’s ear, a small letter P, likely an engraver’s signature, is hidden within the hair line. This coin was struck in Athens in 32 BCE, while Antony and Cleopatra lived extravagantly among the Greeks. The coin’s inscription refers to a designated third consulship that Antony was supposed to share with Octavian in 31 BCE. Around the time this coin was minted, Antony notified his wife, Octavia (Octavian’s sister), in Rome that he was divorcing her. Octavian was outraged. Cleopatra’s growing influence over Antony was soon used by Octavian as progaganda to unite Italy and the West against Antony. Thus, the designated third consulship referenced on this coin never occurred, as the designated consuls went to war instead, ending with Antony’s naval defeat at Actium in September 31 BCE.
5 commentsCarausius04/18/18 at 14:36Canaan: Great addition with great provenance congrats
1521044195142126439108.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, 32 BCE60 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 32 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.72g; 18mm).
Athens Mint.

Obv: ANTON AVG IMP III COS DES III III V R P C. Bare head of Antony facing right.

Rev: ANTONIVS AVG IMP III, in two lines.

References: Crawford 542/2; HCRI 347; Sydenham 1209.

Provenance: Ex Andrew McCabe Collection [CNG eSale 385 (26 Oct 2016) Lot 470]; CNG 49 (17 Mar 1999), Lot 1316; Reinhold Faelten Collection [Stack's (20 Jan 1938) Lot 1495].

On the obverse, behind Antony’s ear, a small letter P, likely an engraver’s signature, is hidden within the hair line. This coin was struck in Athens in 32 BCE, while Antony and Cleopatra lived extravagantly among the Greeks. The coin’s inscription refers to a designated third consulship that Antony was supposed to share with Octavian in 31 BCE. Around the time this coin was minted, Antony notified his wife, Octavia (Octavian’s sister), in Rome that he was divorcing her. Octavian was outraged. Cleopatra’s growing influence over Antony was soon used by Octavian as progaganda to unite Italy and the West against Antony. Thus, the designated third consulship referenced on this coin never occurred, as the designated consuls went to war instead, ending with Antony’s naval defeat at Actium in September 31 BCE.
5 commentsCarausius04/18/18 at 13:55David Atherton: Wonderful!
image00301.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE53 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 20mm).
Military Mint (Smyrna?).

Obv: BRVTVS; axe, simpulum and knife.

Rev: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/7; HCRI 198; Sydenham 1310; BMCRR East 80-1; Junia 41.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos14 (17 May 2017) Lot 301]; ex Munzhandlung Basel 6 (18 Mar 1936), Lot 1483; ex Trau Collection [Gilhoffer & Ranschburg & Hess (22 May 1935), Lot 37].

The sacrificial implements on the obverse refer to Brutus' membership in the college of Pontifs. The implements on the reverse refer to Spinther's membership in the augurate since 57 BCE.

Spinther was the son of P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that his father clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. His father was an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, who was liked by Julius Caesar and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, his father was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, both Spinthers sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther senior would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck coins for both Brutus and Cassius.
3 commentsCarausius04/04/18 at 17:24Nemonater:
2951797.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE45 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 21mm).
Sicilian mint.

Obv: [M]AG PIVS IMP [ITER]. Bust of Neptune facing right; trident over shoulder.

Rev: [PR]AEF CLAS ET OR[AE MAR IT EX S C]. Naval trophy.

References: Crawford 511/2; HCRI 333; Sydenham 1347 (R5).

Provenance: Ex Stack's Bowers August 2016 ANA (10 Aug 2016), Lot 20139; ex Nomos Obolos 4 (21 Feb 2016), Lot 522; ex RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 538]; privately purchased from SKA Zurich, July 1985.

Sextus Pompey was a son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts". Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius04/03/18 at 20:44okidoki: great and sharp
2951797.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE45 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 21mm).
Sicilian mint.

Obv: [M]AG PIVS IMP [ITER]. Bust of Neptune facing right; trident over shoulder.

Rev: [PR]AEF CLAS ET OR[AE MAR IT EX S C]. Naval trophy.

References: Crawford 511/2; HCRI 333; Sydenham 1347 (R5).

Provenance: Ex Stack's Bowers August 2016 ANA (10 Aug 2016), Lot 20139; ex Nomos Obolos 4 (21 Feb 2016), Lot 522; ex RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 538]; privately purchased from SKA Zurich, July 1985.

Sextus Pompey was a son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts". Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius04/03/18 at 20:28Norbert: seen a number of these in recent auctions - and I ...
2951797.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE45 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 21mm).
Sicilian mint.

Obv: [M]AG PIVS IMP [ITER]. Bust of Neptune facing right; trident over shoulder.

Rev: [PR]AEF CLAS ET OR[AE MAR IT EX S C]. Naval trophy.

References: Crawford 511/2; HCRI 333; Sydenham 1347 (R5).

Provenance: Ex Stack's Bowers August 2016 ANA (10 Aug 2016), Lot 20139; ex Nomos Obolos 4 (21 Feb 2016), Lot 522; ex RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 538]; privately purchased from SKA Zurich, July 1985.

Sextus Pompey was a son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts". Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 19:41shanxi: WOW
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE53 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 20mm).
Military Mint (Smyrna?).

Obv: BRVTVS; axe, simpulum and knife.

Rev: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/7; HCRI 198; Sydenham 1310; BMCRR East 80-1; Junia 41.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos14 (17 May 2017) Lot 301]; ex Munzhandlung Basel 6 (18 Mar 1936), Lot 1483; ex Trau Collection [Gilhoffer & Ranschburg & Hess (22 May 1935), Lot 37].

The sacrificial implements on the obverse refer to Brutus' membership in the college of Pontifs. The implements on the reverse refer to Spinther's membership in the augurate since 57 BCE.

Spinther was the son of P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that his father clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. His father was an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, who was liked by Julius Caesar and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, his father was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, both Spinthers sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther senior would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck coins for both Brutus and Cassius.
3 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 12:54Jay GT4: On my list! A must have. Great example and prove...
2951797.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE45 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 21mm).
Sicilian mint.

Obv: [M]AG PIVS IMP [ITER]. Bust of Neptune facing right; trident over shoulder.

Rev: [PR]AEF CLAS ET OR[AE MAR IT EX S C]. Naval trophy.

References: Crawford 511/2; HCRI 333; Sydenham 1347 (R5).

Provenance: Ex Stack's Bowers August 2016 ANA (10 Aug 2016), Lot 20139; ex Nomos Obolos 4 (21 Feb 2016), Lot 522; ex RBW Collection [NAC 63 (17 May 2012), Lot 538]; privately purchased from SKA Zurich, July 1985.

Sextus Pompey was a son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts". Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE.
4 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 12:53Jay GT4:
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, 43-42 BCE30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus, 43-2 BC
AR Denarius (3.76 g; 21 mm)
Mint traveling with Brutus

Obv: LEIBERTAS. Liberty head facing right.

Rev: CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Lyre with quiver and filleted olive branch.

References: Crawford 501/1; HCRI 199; Smyth (1856) IX/11(this coin described).

Provenance: Ex NAC 84 (2015), Lot 859; NAC 9 (16 Apr 1996), Lot 758; NAC 4 (27 Feb 1991), Lot 289; NAC 2 (21 Feb 1990), Lot 481; Duke of Northumberland Collection [Sotheby's, 4 Nov 1982, Lot 475], acquired before 1856.

Liberty is a common theme on coins of the tyranicides who claimed to have liberated The Republic from the regal aspirations of Julius Caesar; so it's no surprise to find Libertas prominent on this coin of Brutus. Sear points out that the reverese is likely derived from the frequent depiction of lyres, quivers and fillteted branches on Lycian Leage coins. This issue was iikely struck in Lycia.

This coin holds the oldest, verifiable provenance in my collection. It is from the Duke of Northumberland Collection, catalogued by Admiral William Smyth in his 1856 book, "Descriptive Catalogue of A Cabinet of Roman Family Coins Belonging to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland," and subsequently sold by Sotheby’s in 1982. The Smyth book has no plates (line drawn or otherwise), but it does contain detailed descriptions of the collection coins with weights in grains. This coin is among those described in Smyth’s book, therefore it must have been acquired by the Duke’s family before 1856. Smyth described the collection as being in the Duke’s family for many years, so the ownership history conceivably dates to the 18th century.
1 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 12:53Jay GT4: Great historical piece
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous AR Quinarius - Crawford 45/249 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 211 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.22g; 15mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; V (mark-of-value=5 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; ROMA in frame below; ** above.

References: Crawford 45/2; SRCV 42

Provenance: Ex NAC 73 (18 Nov 2013), Lot 19; ex NAC sale 8 (1995), Lot 464.
1 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 12:52Jay GT4: Outstanding
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, AR Quinarius, c. 212-211 BCE - Crawford 44/650 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 212-211 BCE.
AR Quinarius (2.55g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right, with early, curved visor; V (mark-of-value=5 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears and stars above heads; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 44/6; Sydenham 141; BMCRR 9-12.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection [Agora 68 (15 Aug 2017), Lot 150]; ex CNG XXVII (29 Sep 1993).
2 commentsCarausius04/02/18 at 12:51Jay GT4: Great coin
p63B2jD9r8bT4Q4rwj7N6YLyGea59X.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Antony, 44 BCE36 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, Apr-May 44 BCE
AR Denarius (4.09g; 19mm)
Rome Mint.

Obv: Antony's bearded, veiled head facing right; jug behind; lituus before.

Rev: P.SEPVLLIVS//MACER. Desultor on horseback, holding whip, galloping right with second horse; wreath and palm behind.

References: Crawford 480/22; HCRI 142; Antonia 2.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker 262 (13 Mar 2015), Lot 7819; ex Gorny & Mosch 141 (10 Oct 2005), Lot 238; Gorny & Mosch 133 (11 Oct 2004), Lot 378.

Minted in 44 BCE, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar, this denarius depicts Antony in mourning - veiled and unshaven - likely as he appeared in the Forum when he gave his famous funeral oration. It is probably the first depiction of Antony on a coin. The reverse shows a desultor with two horses, and likely refers to games held in 44 BCE which were largely dedicated to Caesar's memory. The type can be found in better condition, but rarely this complete.

Desultors appear on several Republican coin types, including Crawford 297/1, 346/1 and 480/21. Desultors rode multiple horses and likely changed horses through some sort of fancy leap or dismount maneuver. The practice, with four horses rather than two, is referenced in the Illiad (II.15.680), so likely dates to Homeric times or earlier. As depicted on Republican coins, a Roman desultor rode two horses, bare-back which he managed by reins and whip, and he wore a pileus (felt cap) typically associated with the Dioscuri. The pileus raises the possibility thst the practice had religious connotations rather than a mere circus trick.
2 commentsCarausius03/31/18 at 19:08Jay GT4: Outstanding bearded Antony!
p63B2jD9r8bT4Q4rwj7N6YLyGea59X.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Antony, 44 BCE36 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, Apr-May 44 BCE
AR Denarius (4.09g; 19mm)
Rome Mint.

Obv: Antony's bearded, veiled head facing right; jug behind; lituus before.

Rev: P.SEPVLLIVS//MACER. Desultor on horseback, holding whip, galloping right with second horse; wreath and palm behind.

References: Crawford 480/22; HCRI 142; Antonia 2.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker 262 (13 Mar 2015), Lot 7819; ex Gorny & Mosch 141 (10 Oct 2005), Lot 238; Gorny & Mosch 133 (11 Oct 2004), Lot 378.

Minted in 44 BCE, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar, this denarius depicts Antony in mourning - veiled and unshaven - likely as he appeared in the Forum when he gave his famous funeral oration. It is probably the first depiction of Antony on a coin. The reverse shows a desultor with two horses, and likely refers to games held in 44 BCE which were largely dedicated to Caesar's memory. The type can be found in better condition, but rarely this complete.

Desultors appear on several Republican coin types, including Crawford 297/1, 346/1 and 480/21. Desultors rode multiple horses and likely changed horses through some sort of fancy leap or dismount maneuver. The practice, with four horses rather than two, is referenced in the Illiad (II.15.680), so likely dates to Homeric times or earlier. As depicted on Republican coins, a Roman desultor rode two horses, bare-back which he managed by reins and whip, and he wore a pileus (felt cap) typically associated with the Dioscuri. The pileus raises the possibility thst the practice had religious connotations rather than a mere circus trick.
2 commentsCarausius03/31/18 at 07:07Canaan: Great coin!!!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL - Julius Caesar - AR Denarius66 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.71g; 20mm).

Obverse: Head of Venus facing right; LII behind.

Reverse: Trophy with Gallic shield, carnyx and axe; CAESAR below.

References: Crawford 452/2; Sydenham 1009; HCRI 11; RSC 18.

Provenance: Ex Student/Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (15 May 2015) Lot 407]; ex Glendining's October 1965, Lot 22.

The Roman numeral LII behind the goddess' head on the obverse of this coin is accepted as a reference to Caesar's age at the time of the issue. There is some disagreement on the identity of the obverse goddess. Crawford identifies her as Venus, who is often depicted on Caesar's coins. Sear, in History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, suggests Clementia (clemency) as the goddess, and a reference to Caesar's fairness to his countrymen following the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus.
4 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 23:57Simon: wow!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 22:32Molinari: Great coin.
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Restio AR Denarius34 viewsRome, The Republic
C. Antius Restiio, 47 BC
Rome Mint

Obv: RESTIO; Head of Restio right.

Rev: C ANTIVS C F; Hercules advancing right with club and trophy.

Reference: Crawford 455/1b; HCRI 34; Sydenham 970 var (no cloak over arm); Banti Antia 1/2 (this coin illustrated)

Provenance: ex Student & Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 411]; ex F. Sternberg VII (1977), Lot 448; ex Carlo Crippa List 3 (1967), Lot 394.

This is a rare variety of Restio denarius, on which Hercules bears no cloak over his left arm. Banti's corpus contains only three examples of this variety, one of which is this coin.
2 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 21:18Canaan: A great coin!!!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC - AR Didrachm - Crawford 26/170 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 234-231 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.74g; 20mm).

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: Horse rearing left; ROMA above.

Reference: Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker (25 Sep 2017) Lot 508; ex Bernhard Terletzkli Collection; ex Dr. Hagen Tronnier Collection; ex Kunker Auction 94 (2004), Lot 1650; ex Auctiones 10 (1979), Lot 303.
4 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 21:17Molinari: A very special coin. I love it.
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 21:17Canaan: A great piece of art, never seen like it
brutusdenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - M. Junius Brutus - AR Denarius52 viewsRome, The Republic.
Rome Mint.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 19mm).

Obverse: BRVTVS; head of L. Junius Brutus facing right.

Reverse: AHALA; head of C. Servillius Ahala facing right.

References: Crawford 433/2; Sydenham 907; BMCRR 3864; Junia 30.

Provenance: Ex Barry Feirstein Collection [NAC 45 (2008) Lot 14]; ex NAC 11 (1998), Lot 279.

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. The coin depicts Brutus' illustrious ancestors on both sides of his family. The Brutus side is Lucius Junius Brutus, who expelled the Tarquin kings from Rome and became consul in 509 BCE. The Ahala side is C. Servilius Ahala who was celebrated by Cicero for having slain a traitor. At this point in his political career, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny.
3 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 21:15Canaan: Amazing!!!
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL - Julius Caesar - AR Denarius66 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.71g; 20mm).

Obverse: Head of Venus facing right; LII behind.

Reverse: Trophy with Gallic shield, carnyx and axe; CAESAR below.

References: Crawford 452/2; Sydenham 1009; HCRI 11; RSC 18.

Provenance: Ex Student/Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (15 May 2015) Lot 407]; ex Glendining's October 1965, Lot 22.

The Roman numeral LII behind the goddess' head on the obverse of this coin is accepted as a reference to Caesar's age at the time of the issue. There is some disagreement on the identity of the obverse goddess. Crawford identifies her as Venus, who is often depicted on Caesar's coins. Sear, in History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, suggests Clementia (clemency) as the goddess, and a reference to Caesar's fairness to his countrymen following the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus.
4 commentsCarausius03/30/18 at 21:14Canaan: Great coin, details and tone i love it!!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Aes Grave Quadrans, c. 265 BCE - Crawford 21/451 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Quadrans (68.58g; 43mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Right hand; ●●● (mark-of-value = 3 unciae) on left.

Rev: Left hand; ●●● (mark-of-value) on right.

References: Vecchi, ICC 44; Haeberlin pp. 66-67, plts 27-28; Crawford 21/4.

Provenance: Ex Lord Colin Renfrew Collection [Baldwin's Auction 99 (4 May 2016), Lot 599]; purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons, Ltd., Dec 1959.
4 commentsCarausius03/24/18 at 23:07okidoki: Congrats very nice
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, AE Litra, 235 BCE - Crawford 26/324 viewsRome, The Republic
Anonymous, c. 235 BCE.
AE Litra (2.36g; 14mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: Horse rearing left; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 70-74.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review XLII.3 (2017), Lot 460942; ex RBW Collection (not in prior sales); Aes Rude (19 Sep 1987), Lot 86.

By about 240 BCE, the inscription on struck Roman Republican coins had changed from ROMANO to ROMA. This coin is part of the second series to include the ROMA legend.
1 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 22:47Jay GT4: That's a lovely horse
2245339l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Aes Grave Quadrans, c. 265 BCE - Crawford 21/451 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Quadrans (68.58g; 43mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Right hand; ●●● (mark-of-value = 3 unciae) on left.

Rev: Left hand; ●●● (mark-of-value) on right.

References: Vecchi, ICC 44; Haeberlin pp. 66-67, plts 27-28; Crawford 21/4.

Provenance: Ex Lord Colin Renfrew Collection [Baldwin's Auction 99 (4 May 2016), Lot 599]; purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons, Ltd., Dec 1959.
4 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 19:38Norbert: wonderful coin, congratulations
2245339l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Aes Grave Quadrans, c. 265 BCE - Crawford 21/451 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Quadrans (68.58g; 43mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Right hand; ●●● (mark-of-value = 3 unciae) on left.

Rev: Left hand; ●●● (mark-of-value) on right.

References: Vecchi, ICC 44; Haeberlin pp. 66-67, plts 27-28; Crawford 21/4.

Provenance: Ex Lord Colin Renfrew Collection [Baldwin's Auction 99 (4 May 2016), Lot 599]; purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons, Ltd., Dec 1959.
4 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 13:59Jay GT4: Sweet
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE - Crawford 311/1a33 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing left; R● (control mark) behind.

Rev: Jupiter in quadriga galloping right, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter; L●SCIP●ASIAG in exergue.

References: Crawford 311/1a; Sydenham 576; BMCRR 1372; Cornelia 24

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 287; HJB 163 (25 March 2009), lot 224; ex A.K. Collection [Triton XII (6 Jan 2009), lot 462 (part)]; Münzhandlung E. Button Auction 101 (28-29 October 1959), Lot 149.

Each control mark in this series is a single die. The reverse recalls the moneyer's ancestor, L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Africanus), who had a victory against the Syrians in 190 BCE and took the name Asiagenus. The moneyer was likely the L. Cornelius Asiaticus that became consul in 83 BCE. He served in the Social War and was allied with Marius at the time of his consulship. He was imprisoned by Sulla and released. However he was later proscribed by Sulla and fled Rome.
3 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 13:58Jay GT4: Amazing
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, D. Silanus, 91 BCE25 viewsRome, The Republic.
D. Silanus, 91 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.06g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Roma head, wearing winged helmet ornamented with gryphon head, facing right; N behind.

Rev: Victory in biga galloping right; VII above; D SILANVS L F//ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 337/3; Syd 646; BMCRR 1772; Junia 15.

Provenance: Ex NAC 100 (30 May 2017), Lot 1447.

This moneyer is unkown except from his coins. The control marks on these coins may have several dies. The issue must have been huge, as Crawford estimates near 600 obverse and 663 reverse dies.
1 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 13:57Jay GT4: Really great coin
2245339l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Aes Grave Quadrans, c. 265 BCE - Crawford 21/451 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, c. 265 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Quadrans (68.58g; 43mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Right hand; ●●● (mark-of-value = 3 unciae) on left.

Rev: Left hand; ●●● (mark-of-value) on right.

References: Vecchi, ICC 44; Haeberlin pp. 66-67, plts 27-28; Crawford 21/4.

Provenance: Ex Lord Colin Renfrew Collection [Baldwin's Auction 99 (4 May 2016), Lot 599]; purchased from A.H. Baldwin & Sons, Ltd., Dec 1959.
4 commentsCarausius03/22/18 at 12:33ecoli: Nice!
brutusdenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - M. Junius Brutus - AR Denarius52 viewsRome, The Republic.
Rome Mint.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 19mm).

Obverse: BRVTVS; head of L. Junius Brutus facing right.

Reverse: AHALA; head of C. Servillius Ahala facing right.

References: Crawford 433/2; Sydenham 907; BMCRR 3864; Junia 30.

Provenance: Ex Barry Feirstein Collection [NAC 45 (2008) Lot 14]; ex NAC 11 (1998), Lot 279.

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. The coin depicts Brutus' illustrious ancestors on both sides of his family. The Brutus side is Lucius Junius Brutus, who expelled the Tarquin kings from Rome and became consul in 509 BCE. The Ahala side is C. Servilius Ahala who was celebrated by Cicero for having slain a traitor. At this point in his political career, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny.
3 commentsCarausius03/14/18 at 15:43quadrans: Great coin
brutusdenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - M. Junius Brutus - AR Denarius52 viewsRome, The Republic.
Rome Mint.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 19mm).

Obverse: BRVTVS; head of L. Junius Brutus facing right.

Reverse: AHALA; head of C. Servillius Ahala facing right.

References: Crawford 433/2; Sydenham 907; BMCRR 3864; Junia 30.

Provenance: Ex Barry Feirstein Collection [NAC 45 (2008) Lot 14]; ex NAC 11 (1998), Lot 279.

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. The coin depicts Brutus' illustrious ancestors on both sides of his family. The Brutus side is Lucius Junius Brutus, who expelled the Tarquin kings from Rome and became consul in 509 BCE. The Ahala side is C. Servilius Ahala who was celebrated by Cicero for having slain a traitor. At this point in his political career, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny.
3 commentsCarausius03/14/18 at 13:23Jay GT4: Outstanding
caesardenarius.png
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL - Julius Caesar - AR Denarius66 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.71g; 20mm).

Obverse: Head of Venus facing right; LII behind.

Reverse: Trophy with Gallic shield, carnyx and axe; CAESAR below.

References: Crawford 452/2; Sydenham 1009; HCRI 11; RSC 18.

Provenance: Ex Student/Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (15 May 2015) Lot 407]; ex Glendining's October 1965, Lot 22.

The Roman numeral LII behind the goddess' head on the obverse of this coin is accepted as a reference to Caesar's age at the time of the issue. There is some disagreement on the identity of the obverse goddess. Crawford identifies her as Venus, who is often depicted on Caesar's coins. Sear, in History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, suggests Clementia (clemency) as the goddess, and a reference to Caesar's fairness to his countrymen following the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus.
4 commentsCarausius03/14/18 at 13:22Jay GT4: A beauty!
00315q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius03/10/18 at 22:52Noviomagus: These are magnificent coins.
00508q00-630x_.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - AR Didrachm - Crawford 26/170 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 234-231 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.74g; 20mm).

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: Horse rearing left; ROMA above.

Reference: Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker (25 Sep 2017) Lot 508; ex Bernhard Terletzkli Collection; ex Dr. Hagen Tronnier Collection; ex Kunker Auction 94 (2004), Lot 1650; ex Auctiones 10 (1979), Lot 303.
4 commentsCarausius03/08/18 at 07:06Jay GT4: This is great
Large_Aes_Rude.jpg
Roman Republic - Aes Rude - Before 300 BCE26 viewsCENTRAL ITALY (Rome?)
8th-3rd Century BCE
Aes Rude (221.1g; circa 60mm long)
Rough cast bronze; as made.

Reference: Vecchi, ICC 1; BMCRR (Aes Rude) 1-11; Thurlow-Vecchi p. 15. pl. 2.

Provenance: Ex Jencek Historical Enterprises, acquired privately 14 Feb 2011 from Frank Kovacs; ex David Hendin (acquired mid-1980's from Italo Vecchi).

The relative abundance of copper in Italy made bronze a natural means of exchange among the people of central Italy. The initial medium was rough lumps of unmarked bronze which, lacking any governmental imprimatur or denomination, were weighed for each transaction.
1 commentsCarausius03/07/18 at 17:01Jay GT4: Nice provenance on this one too
2295786l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Roma/Wheel Series, Aes Grave Sextans - Crawford 24/719 viewsRome, The Republic
Roma/Wheel Series, circa 230 BCE.
Rome Mint.
AE Aes Grave Sextans (39.25 g).

Obv: Tortoise with segmented shell.

Rev: Wheel with six spokes.

Reference: Crawford 24/7; Vecchi ICC 71.

Provenance: Ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli (d. 2001) Collection [NAC 92 (23 May 2016), Lot 248.
1 commentsCarausius03/07/18 at 17:00Jay GT4: Great coin and provenance
00315q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius03/07/18 at 17:00Jay GT4: Really nice
00315q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Janus/Prow Series, Aes Grave As - Crawford 35/162 viewsRome, The Republic.
Janus/Prow Series, circa 225-217 BCE.
AE Aes Grave As (256.29g; 64mm).

Obv: Head of Janus; - (value mark) below neck.

Rev: Prow right; I (value mark) above.

Reference: Crawford 35/1; Vecchi, ICC 74; Sydenham 71.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 280 (26 Sep 2016), Lot 315; ex Hannelore Scheiner Collection; acquired 1966 from Martin Nading of Fort Wayne, IN.

Aes Grave were a significant departure from the previous Roman bronze money in that Aes Grave were denominated with marks of value, and thus did not require weighing. The prow series of Libral Aes Grave was a very large issue. E.J. Haeberlin included nearly 1,200 examples of the As in the weight analysis within his monumental "Aes Grave". The Prow series Aes Grave was initially based on an As of about 270 grams. The iconography likely refers to the role of Rome's new and powerful navy in the victory over Carthage in the First Punic War and to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in recognition of the peace. This same iconography subsequently became emblamatic of the As for several centuries of Roman struck bronze coinage.
5 commentsCarausius03/07/18 at 13:31ecoli: Nice!
00508q00-630x_.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - AR Didrachm - Crawford 26/170 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 234-231 BCE.
AR Didrachm (6.74g; 20mm).

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: Horse rearing left; ROMA above.

Reference: Crawford 26/1; Sydenham 27.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker (25 Sep 2017) Lot 508; ex Bernhard Terletzkli Collection; ex Dr. Hagen Tronnier Collection; ex Kunker Auction 94 (2004), Lot 1650; ex Auctiones 10 (1979), Lot 303.
4 commentsCarausius03/07/18 at 11:41Pharsalos: Beautiful coin.
33103.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Overstruck "Anonymous" Corn Ear AE Quadrans - Crawford 42/2var23 viewsRome, The Republic.
Corn Ear Series (No Corn Ear), 214-212 BCE.
AE Quadrans (16.76g; 29mm).

Obv: Head of Hercules right in boarskin; three pellets (mark of value = 3 unciae) behind.

Rev: Bull leaping over snake; three pellets (mark of value) above; ROMA below.

Reference: Crawford 42/2var (no corn ear): See Russo, Essays Hersh (1998) p. 141.

Provenance: ex Agora Auction 70 (21 Nov 2017) Lot 194; ex RBW Collection duplicate (not in prior sales); ex P. Vecchi Auction 6 (14 Sep 1981) Lot 245.

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford recognized many silver “symbol” Republican series for which there were parallel “anonymous” types omitting the symbols. This coin is an anonymous version (missing symbol) of the Corn Ear Quadrans of the Crawford 42 series, produced in Sicily. It is identical in style to the Sicilian Corn Ear coins and only misses the symbol. Roberto Russo wrote about these anonymous coins in his article “Unpublished Roman Republican Bronze Coins” (Essays Hersh, 1998), where he notes that the parallel issue of anonymous silver coins to series with symbols applies equally to the bronze coins. Andrew McCabe takes this approach much further in his article “The Anonymous Struck Bronze Coinage of the Roman Republic” (Essays Russo, 2013) in which he links many of the anonymous Republican bronzes to symbol series based on precise style considerations. The takeaway from all this is that for many of the Roman Republican symbol series of the late Second Punic War and early 2nd Century BCE, there are parallel anonymous series identifiable by style. The rationale for these parallel issues is unclear, though possibly related to (a) governmental approvals for the issue or (b) mint control of the precious metal source from which the issue was struck or (c) workshop identification.

This particular example is overstruck, showing particular evidence of the under-type on the reverse. Based on that evidence and weight of the coin, I’ve concluded the under-type a Hieron II AE Obol imitative of Ptolemy II. The edge of the reverse shows the hairline of Zeus as depicted on this Hieron II issue.
1 commentsCarausius02/24/18 at 18:45Norbert: A special congratulations to this one
1681997l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Semi-incuse Early AR Denarius - Second Punic War - Crawford 44/542 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, ca. 212 BCE
Rome Mint
AR Denarius (4.48g)

Obv: Head of Roma in splayed-visor helmet, facing right; X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; two stars above; ROMA, semi-incused, below.

Reference: Crawford 44/5; Sydenham 167; RSC Anonymous 1a.

Provenance: ex NAC 84 Part II (21 May 2015), Lot 1622.

This example is among the earliest of the very first denarii issue by the Roman Republic, circa 212 BCE. From 218-212 BCE, the excessive cost of the war with Hannibal and Carthage had necessitated debasement of Rome's silver quadrigatus coinage and several weight standard reductions in the bronze coinage. It was possibly the sack of Syracuse in 212 BCE that provided the silver infusion that Rome needed to reform their debased currency and introduce the denarius system. The earliest denarii had a semi-incuse ROMA inscription on the reverse, as seen here, reminiscent of the fully-incuse and semi-incuse inscriptions on the earlier quadrigati coinage. This early-style inscription was soon replaced by a relief inscription within a linear frame.
2 commentsCarausius02/24/18 at 18:43Norbert: this is a nice one
2295846l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Vibius Pansa Denarius43 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Vibius Pansa, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g).

Obv: PANSA; mask of Pan, facing right.

Rev: C. VIBIV[S C F]; mask of Silenus, facing right.

Reference: Crawford 342/2; Sydenham 688 (R6); BMCRR Rome 2309

Provenance: ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli (d. 2001) Collection [NAC 92 (23 May 2016), Lot 308]; ex Munzen und Medaillen 61 (7-8 Oct 1982), Lot 266; ex Auctiones 7 (1977), Lot 554.

Naming puns on ancient coins became popular early with the Greeks (i.e. celery plant on coins of Selinos) and continued with the Romans. C. Vibius Pansa liked to joke about his name by depicting Pan on his coins. This denarius is a rare variety with the names beneath the portraits, rather than behind. Silenus’ portrait has a characteristic die break in the eye socket that nearly all coins struck from this die share - see Crawford's plate coin and RBW's coin for other examples of this die break. Either the die failed early, or most extant specimens were struck late.
3 commentsCarausius02/21/18 at 18:17okidoki: very nice
2295846l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Vibius Pansa Denarius43 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Vibius Pansa, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g).

Obv: PANSA; mask of Pan, facing right.

Rev: C. VIBIV[S C F]; mask of Silenus, facing right.

Reference: Crawford 342/2; Sydenham 688 (R6); BMCRR Rome 2309

Provenance: ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli (d. 2001) Collection [NAC 92 (23 May 2016), Lot 308]; ex Munzen und Medaillen 61 (7-8 Oct 1982), Lot 266; ex Auctiones 7 (1977), Lot 554.

Naming puns on ancient coins became popular early with the Greeks (i.e. celery plant on coins of Selinos) and continued with the Romans. C. Vibius Pansa liked to joke about his name by depicting Pan on his coins. This denarius is a rare variety with the names beneath the portraits, rather than behind. Silenus’ portrait has a characteristic die break in the eye socket that nearly all coins struck from this die share - see Crawford's plate coin and RBW's coin for other examples of this die break. Either the die failed early, or most extant specimens were struck late.
3 commentsCarausius02/20/18 at 09:57Pharsalos: Magnificent Pan, amazing coin.
2641502l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)50 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 13:19Norbert: An outstanding coin. Congratulations
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 07:24okidoki: great example, never seen reverse
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 01:38Jay GT4: Unbelievable! Amazing coin
2641502l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)50 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 01:37Jay GT4: Work of art!
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 28/3)21 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (7.25 g; 21mm).
Apulian Mint.

Obv: Janiform head with straight neck truncaction.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory on fast quadriga, right; ROMA in relief within linear frame below.

Reference: Crawford 28/3; Sydenham 65; BMCRR 101; Gentilehomme II.B.1.

Provenance: Ex NAC 92 (24 May 2016), Lot 1517.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

The Crawford 28 series of quadrigati, to which this example belongs, really should be split into two separate series. The first (early) series of 28s are almost certainly the earliest of the quadrigatus coinage - struck in good silver and of fine style in high relief with ROMA incuse in a rectangular tablet. The second (later) series of 28s, shown here, is of lower quality style and fabric; the neck truncation is wide and straight; ROMA is in relief in a linear frame. Like other Apulian coins, they typically show tabs or other signs of cast flan production, visible here at 2h reverse.
1 commentsCarausius02/17/18 at 01:36Jay GT4: Beautiful
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 20:11Sam: WoW ! Superb addition .
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)50 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 20:09Sam: WoW ! What a gorgeous coin !
WWy6n82S2LfKKm3s5BenTk4Pq9No7A.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Restio AR Denarius34 viewsRome, The Republic
C. Antius Restiio, 47 BC
Rome Mint

Obv: RESTIO; Head of Restio right.

Rev: C ANTIVS C F; Hercules advancing right with club and trophy.

Reference: Crawford 455/1b; HCRI 34; Sydenham 970 var (no cloak over arm); Banti Antia 1/2 (this coin illustrated)

Provenance: ex Student & Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 411]; ex F. Sternberg VII (1977), Lot 448; ex Carlo Crippa List 3 (1967), Lot 394.

This is a rare variety of Restio denarius, on which Hercules bears no cloak over his left arm. Banti's corpus contains only three examples of this variety, one of which is this coin.
2 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 20:08Pharsalos: Amazing coin, the obverse bust is breathtaking.
2641502l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)50 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 20:04Pharsalos: Superb style!
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 20:01Pharsalos: Truly stunning example of this rare and beautiful ...
2641502l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm - Quadrigatus (Crawford 29/3)50 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.91g; 22mm).

Obv: Janiform head.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA in relief on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 29/3; Sydenham 64d

Provenance: ex Numismatik Lanz 163 (7 Dec 2016), Lot 154; Gorny & Mosch 69 (1994), Lot 493.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

This example is from the Crawford 29 series, recognizable by the "V" neck truncation on the Janiform head, and the ROMA inscription in relief on a trapezoidal tablet. Crawford also recognized an incuse variety of this series, again with a fully-trapezoidal tablet. Crawford 29 series flans are generally well made.
5 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 07:15shanxi: very nice, especially the little Victory
IMG-20161218-WA0003.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion VI Denarius38 viewsRome, The Imperators
Mint traveling with Antony, ca. 31 BC
AR Denarius

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG VI; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/19; HCRI 356

Provenance: ex CNG 103 (Sep 2016) Lot 664; ex Kirk Davis FPL 37 (Jan 2002), No. 45.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.

2 commentsCarausius02/16/18 at 00:49Stkp: Nice
     
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