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Craw198Den.jpg
Roman Republic - Anonymous Denarius - Crawford 19842 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous, 157-156 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.18 g; 18 mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right with peaked visor and earring of long, single drop; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses), behind.

Reverse: The Dioscuri galloping right holding spears; two stars above; ROMA below in linear frame.

References: Crawford 198/1; BMCRR (Italy) 390; Brinkman 43.

Provenance: Acquired with an Italian export permit.

This is the last variety of fully anonymous denarii struck by the Roman Republic, and it is often mistaken for the earlier and more common Crawford 53/2. Both types depict Roma in a peaked-visor helmet. The most obvious differences are that the rider's cape on Cr. 198 is longer at the top than the bottom - looking almost wing-like - and the horse's tail extends straight-out on Cr. 198. The variety is rarely so well centered as this specimen which clearly shows that the ROMA legend is within a three-sided frame (most examples showing only two sides of the frame).
2 commentsCarausius
1510425407301307804186.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anchor (Third) Series, AE As - Crawford 194/121 viewsRome. The Republic
Anchor (Third) Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (35.22g; 35mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; I (mark of value), above; anchor, before; ROMA, below.

References: Crawford 194/1; Sydenham 238; BMCRR 519; RBW 831.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Walter Neussel Jr. Collection [Peus Auction 420/421 (1 Nov 2017), Lot 72]; ex M&M Deutschland 9 (2001), Lot 338; Munz Zentrum Auktion XXX (21 Nov 1977) Lot 137.

The two series of Anchor bronzes are easily distinguishable by style and fabric. The first bronze anchor series (Cr 50) is of finer style and struck on good quality flans; the second bronze anchor series (actually the third anchor series overall) (Cr 194), exhibited here, is less refined, with upward gazing Janus and often poorly cast flans. In BMCRR, Grueber suggests a possible connection between coins with anchor symbol and the Quinctia gens, because anchor symbols also occur with the letter Q (see Crawford 86B).
1 commentsCarausius
105791.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Ass Series, AE As - Crawford 195/116 viewsAss Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (27.59g; 30mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; ass, above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 195/1; Sydenham 298; BMCRR I 520-4; RBW 837.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection duplicates [Triskeles vAuctions 320 (16 Sep 2016), Lot 414]; purchased privately from Kurt Spanier, 17 Jan 2003.

Towards the middle of the second century BCE, the Rome mint produced several series consisting only of bronze coins. The Ass Series is one of them. The demand for bronze coins may have increased as Rome phased-out production of small-change silver coins - victoriati and sestertii. The production of bronze peaked at the middle of this century and then dropped considerably until the Social War in 90 BCE. This drop in bronze production is partly related to the re-tariffing of the denarius in 145 BCE from 10 to 16 asses. As a result these mid-second century asses and the large bronzes that preceded them would circulate for many years.
Carausius
m53680-1.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Antestius, 146 BCE - Crawford 219/1e31 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Antestius, 146 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; C ANTESTI behind; X (mark-of-value) below chin.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; puppy below, with front feet raised; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 219/1e; Sydenham 411; BMCRR 860; Antestia 1.

Provenance: Ex Artemide Auction 2 (1996), Lot 411.

The moneyer is unknown. Grueber suggests he may have been the son of C. Antestius Labeo, who was a Senator and ambassador to Macedonia circa 167 BCE. Crawford disputes this assertion.
1 commentsCarausius
4425110l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus, AR Denarius - Crawford 322/1a13 viewsRome. The Republic.
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus, 102 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.99g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Veiled and turreted head of Cybele, facing right; Є behind.

Reverse: Victory in fast biga galloping right; heron/stork below; C· FABI· C· F in exergue.

References: Crawford 322/1a; Sydenham 589; BMCRR 1581; Fabia 15.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 93.

This is the second variety of Fabius’ denarii, without the obverse inscription referencing public silver [EX· A· PV] behind the head of Cybele. For more on the public silver inscription variety and an explanation of the heron/stork on Fabius’ coinage, see my other gallery entry here: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-149699

Carausius
Hadrianuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Fabius C.f. Hadrianus, AR Denarius - Crawford 322/1b16 viewsRome. The Republic.
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus, 102 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.01g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Veiled and turreted head of Cybele, facing right; EX· A· PV, behind.

Reverse: Victory in fast biga galloping right; A· and heron/stork below; C· FABI· C· F in exergue.

References: Crawford 322/1b; Sydenham 590; BMCRR 1592; Fabia 14.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Europe Auction 44 (26 Nov 2014), Lot 35.


While not certain, the moneyer may be Caius Fabius Hadrianus, who was praetor in 84 BCE, propraetor in 83–82 BCE and who was burned alive in his official residence during a Sullan uprising in 82. He struck two distinct series of this denarius: one, without an obverse inscription but with Greek letter control marks behind the obverse head; the other with Latin letter control marks on the reverse and the EX· A· PV obverse inscription. The obverse inscription is an abbreviation for EX A[RGENTO] PV[BLICO] meaning “from the public silver”. Only eight issues of Roman Republican coins reference the public silver, and it is not abundantly clear why this reference is needed since official silver coinage should always be struck from state silver. Fabius’s issue is the first of four issues struck circa 102-100 to bear a “public silver” inscription, which Crawford attributes as a sign of the populist times. Given that Hadrianus may have been killed in 82 by Sulla supporters because of his populist sympathies, Crawford’s attribution of the inscription as a populist message may be correct.

The bird on the reverse of the coin deserves some comment. According to Pliny, some members of the Fabia gens took the cognomen Buteones (a Buteo is a type of hawk or bird), after a bird settled on a Fabian’s ship and was taken as a good omen in advance of a victory. Both Grueber and Crawford interpret the heron/stork on the reverse of this coin as further evidence of Pliny’s story, and as likely proof that Pliny got the type of bird wrong in his retelling of the story. The bird is certainly important to the moneyer, as he also included the symbol on his AE Asses.
Carausius
15209144594721567856390.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Caius Junius, AR Denarius - Crawford 210/125 viewsRome. The Republic.
Caius Junius C.f., 149 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.70g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses), behind.

Reverse: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; C·IVNI· C· F, below; ROMA in linear frame in exergue.

References: Crawford 210/1; BMCRR 660-3; Sydenham 392; Junia 1.

Provenance: Roma Numismatics Auction VIII (28 Sep 2014), lot 832; Roma Numismatics Auction V (23 Mar 2013), Lot 504; NAC Auction 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 166.

This moneyer is unknown except for his coins. His coins have the distinction of being the first in the Republican series to bear patronymic initials, specifically identifying the moneyer versus other family members. In this case, the letters “C· F” represent Caii Filius (son of Caius). Thus, the moneyer is clearly identified as Caius Junius, the son of Caius Junius. In the later decades of the second century, this practice of individual identification, combined with type selections that highlighted ancestral deeds, was employed for political messaging campaigns by young moneyers on the path to consulship. The practice appears to have accelerated following the adoption of secret ballots circa 139 BCE (See, H.B. Mattingly, “Roman Republican Coinage c. 150-90 BC”: Essays Hersh, 1998).

1 commentsCarausius
image00220.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Cn. Baebius Tampilus, 194-190 BCE - Crawford 133/2b37 viewsRome, The Republic.
Cn. Baebius Tampilus, 194-190 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.02g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; X value mark behind.

Rev: Dioscuri riding right with couched spears; TAMP monogram above; ROMA in linear frame below.

References: Crawford 133/2b; Sydenham 334; Banti 1/2 (this coin illustrated); BMCRR 557-8; Baebia 1.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 220]; ex E.J. Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 345].

The identity of the moneyer is not entirely clear, as there are several family member possibilities, based on prosopographical evidence. There are two sub-varieties of this denarius, one with the monogram above the Dioscuri as this coin, and the other with the monogram below the horses. Both types are scarce.
1 commentsCarausius
Antes_Gragulus.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Antestius Gragulus, AE Quadrans - Crawford 238/3e12 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Antestius Gragulus, 136 BCE
AE Quadrans (3.87g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of young Hercules wearing lionskin headdress, facing right; ●●● (mark of value), behind.

Reverse: Prow right; ●●● (mark of value), before; LANTES (NTE ligate) above; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 238/3e; RBW 983 (this coin illustrated); Sydenham 452d; BMCRR 981var (see note 1); SRCV-I 1142.

Provenance: Ex FORVM Ancient Coins; Andrew McCabe Collection; RBW Collection [NAC 61 (Oct 2011) Lot 979]; Goodman Collection [CNG 45 (1998) Lot 1536].

The moneyer is not known except for his coins. He may have been the son of C. Antestius who was moneyer in 146 BCE. Some of his quadrantes depict a jackdaw on the prow which was likely a pun on his name Gragulus. These quadrantes are quite rare, with Crawford reporting only 9 total examples in Paris of 5 different varieties.
Carausius
4425066l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Appuleius Saturninus, AR Denarius - Crawford 317/215 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Appuleius Saturninus, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ROMA in exergue.

Reverse: Saturn driving fast quadriga right, holding harpa; ·V below; L·SATVRN in exergue.

References: Crawford 317/2; Sydenham 580 (R6); BMCRR 1561-3; Appuleia 3.

Provenance: Ex P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 150.

The type is one of an interesting series of three types by Saturninus, two of which depict Saturn as a naming pun. The first of the three types is a standard Roma head/quadriga; the second has Roma heads on both sides of the coin; the third (this coin) has quadrigae on both sides of the coin. The letter control marks on this double-quadriga type are unique to each die.  Crawford attributed Saturninus' coinage to 104 BCE; but H.B. Mattingly, in Essays Hersh (1998), argues for a slightly later date based on a consensus that Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE. 

Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE and Tribune of the Plebs in 103 and 100 BCE. He was a supporter of Marius and as Tribune he engaged in a series of aggressive political maneuvers including introducing land grants for Marius’ veterans. During an election, he arranged the brutal murder of the political rival of one of his allies, and this proved to be his downfall. Cornered and captured by a militia assembled by Marius himself, Saturninus and his conspirators were ultimately killed by a lynch mob.
1 commentsCarausius
3854366_m.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Appuleius Saturninus, AR Denarius - Crawford 317/3a9 viewsRome. The Repubic.
L. Appuleius Saturninus, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing left.

Reverse: Saturn holding harpa in fast quadriga galloping right; pellet and sideways E, above; L·SATVRN below.

References: Crawford 317/3a; Sydenham 578; BMCRR 1533 var (dot to left of control letter); Appuleia 1.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Family Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 229].

The moneyer was L. Appuleius Saturninus, who was Quaestor and twice Tribune near the close of the second century BCE. Crawford attributed the coinage to 104 BCE; but H.B. Mattingly, in Essays Hersh (1998), argues for a slightly later date based on a consensus that Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE. This was a large issue with Crawford estimating 370 obverse dies and 462 reverse dies. No reverse control mark has more than one die. Given the large number of reverse dies, the control marks get somewhat convoluted, with letters in various orientations and combined with one or more pellets. The type, bearing Saturn, is certainly a pun on the moneyer’s name (Saturninus); a common practice among both Greek and Roman coin producers (see, e.g., Greek coins of Selinos bearing celery plants and Roman coins of Q. Pomponius Musa bearing the Muses).
Carausius
43767.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Julius, AR Denarius - Crawford 323/123 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Julius, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.0g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing right; corn ear behind

Reverse: Victory in biga galloping right; L.IVLI below.

References: Crawford 323/1; Sydenham 585; BMCRR 1676; Julia 3.

Provenance: Ex Collection of a World War II Veteran; acquired July 1963 from Richard M. Muniz.

The moneyer was likely not a Caesar, though a member of the same Julia gens. Comparatively, just a few years earlier, in 103 BCE, an L. Julius Caesar struck coins with a prominent “CAESAR” inscription. The corn ear on the obverse may refer to a corn distribution, the purchase of which might have been the purpose of the coins.
1 commentsCarausius
15209134281481306291510.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE - Crawford 311/1a32 viewsRome, The Republic.
L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing left; R● (control mark) behind.

Rev: Jupiter in quadriga galloping right, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter; L●SCIP●ASIAG in exergue.

References: Crawford 311/1a; Sydenham 576; BMCRR 1372; Cornelia 24

Provenance: Ex Gemini XII (11 Jan 2015), Lot 287; HJB 163 (25 March 2009), lot 224; ex A.K. Collection [Triton XII (6 Jan 2009), lot 462 (part)]; Münzhandlung E. Button Auction 101 (28-29 October 1959), Lot 149.

Each control mark in this series is a single die. The reverse recalls the moneyer's ancestor, L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Africanus), who had a victory against the Syrians in 190 BCE and took the name Asiagenus. The moneyer was likely the L. Cornelius Asiaticus that became consul in 83 BCE. He served in the Social War and was allied with Marius at the time of his consulship. He was imprisoned by Sulla and released. However he was later proscribed by Sulla and fled Rome.
3 commentsCarausius
1501000808527688724636.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, AE As - Crawford 178/117 viewsRome, The Republic.
Lucius Cornelius Cinna, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (32.53g).
Rome Mint.

Obv: Laureate, bearded head of Janus.

Rev: Prow facing right; CINA above; [ROMA] below; I (mark-of-value) before.

References: Crawford 178/1; BMCRR 804-6; Sydenham 368; RBW 752 (this coin illustrated); Cornelia 11.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker eLive Auction 46 (25 Jul 2017) Lot 53; ex RBW Collection [NAC 61 (2011), Lot 748]; ex Aes Rude 56 (1994), Lot 150.

Crawford surmises that the moneyer is L. Cornelius Cinna who become consul in 127 BCE. The significant passage of time from his moneyership when this coin was struck and consulship 27 years later is attributed to him being the first in his family to reach the office, and thus he failed to get elected to the intervening, required office at the earliest possible time. These prescribed political offices, their order and timing, are referred to as the "Cursus Honorum." When considered with available prosopographical evidence, the Cursus Honorum is a critical clue for dating and attributing Roman Republican coins.
Carausius
4875234.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Atilius Saranus, AR Denarius - Crawford 214/1b19 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Atilius Saranus, 148 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; SARAN behind; X (mark-of-value = 10 asses) before.

Rev: Dioscuri galloping right with couched spears; M·ATILI, below; ROMA in linear frame in exergue.

References: Crawford 214/1b; Sydenham 398; BMCRR 679-682; Atilia 9.

Provenance: Ex Varesi (4 Jul 2018), Lot 142.

This is one of the first denarii to include the moneyer’s praenomen, nomen and cognomen, an important development in the evolution of the coinage as a means of advertising young politicians. The obverse mark-of-value is moved from behind Roma’s head to under her chin to make room for the cognomen.
1 commentsCarausius
4407514l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Marcius, AR Denarius - Crawford 245/112 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Marcius, 134 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; modius behind; * below chin.

Reverse: Victory in biga galloping right; two wheat ears and M-MAR-C below; RO-MA in exergue.

References: Crawford 245/1; Sydenham 500; BMCRR 1008-13; Marcia 8.

One of the moneyer’s ancestors was an aedile in charge grain distribution to the Roman people, and the modius and wheat ears refer to this family connection.
1 commentsCarausius
SergisilusCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Sergius Silus, AR Denarius - Crawford 286/117 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Sergius Silus, 116-115 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Roma in winged helmet, facing right; ROMA and * (mark of value) behind; EX S C before.

Reverse: Horseman galloping left, holding severed head and sword in extended left hand; Q and M SERGI below horse; SILVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 286/1; Sydenham 544; BMCRR (Italy) 512; Sergia 1.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 165.

M. Sergius Silus struck this coin as quaestor by special decree of the Senate. The coin celebrates the deeds of the quaestor’s ancestor, also named M. Sergius Silus, the great grandfather of Cataline (the infamous conspirator prosecuted by Cicero). During the Second Punic War, he lost his right hand in battle, and fitted a prosthesis that allowed him to hold a shield. Thus, he is depicted holding both his sword and the severed head of a foe in his LEFT hand.
1 commentsCarausius
PMaentCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P. Maenius Antias, AR Denarius - Crawford 249/19 viewsRome, The Republic.
P. Maenius M.f. Antias, 132 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; * behind.

Reverse: Victory in quadriga galloping right; P. MAE ANT below; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 249/1; Sydenham 492; BMCRR 988-90; Maenia 7.

Provenance: Ex Stack's Auction, 14-15 June 1971, Lot 109.

The reverse refers to the moneyer’s ancestor, C. Maenius, consul in 338 BCE, who had a victory over the Latins near Antium and received the surname Antias or Antiaticus. Antium was a Volscian city that was in revolt at the time. The rams of the ships of Antium were taken by Rome and used to adorn the Rostrum in the Roman Forum.

Carausius
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Prawn Series, AR Denarius - Crawford 156/117 viewsRome. The Republic.
Anonymous Prawn Series, 179-169 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.87g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; behind, X.

Reverse: Luna in biga galloping right; prawn below horses; in exergue, ROMA in linear frame.

References: Crawford 156/1; Sydenham 343; BMCRR 585.

Provenance: Ex Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's, 3-4 May 1978, Lot 97].
2 commentsCarausius
15609102152135298521374562440152.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Marius, AE As - Crawford 148/122 viewsRome, The Republic.
Q. Marius, 189-180 BCE.
AE As (31.17g; 32mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Janus; I (mark of value) above.

Reverse: Prow facing right; Q.MARI above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 148/1; Sydenham 367 (R7); BMCRR 822; Maria 1.

Provenance: Ex Nomisma E-Live Auction 10 (18 Jun 2019) Lot 22; Bombarda Collection; NAC 9 (16 Apr 1996) Lot 587.

This is a particularly fine example of this scarce type. Not much is known of the moneyer beyond his coins. He is likely NOT an ancestor of Gaius Marius who would later serve seven consulships and challenge Sulla.
1 commentsCarausius
1509654743357358228591.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Wolf and Twins Series, AE As - Crawford 183/114 viewsRome. The Republic
Wolf and Twins Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (26.42g; 35mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 183/1; Sydenham 297; BMCRR 514-6; RBW 775.

Provenance: Ex SteveX6 Collection; ex CNG eSale 307, Lot 269; ex RBW duplicates (not in prior sales); purchased from Bank Leu (Jan 1985).

Apparently RBW purchased more than one Wolf and Twins As from Bank Leu in January 1985, as the specimen in the NAC auction shares the same Bank Leu origin and date. I have the original RBW ticket for this coin and so I’m confident that the provenance information is correct.
Carausius
     
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