Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Home > Members' Coin Collection Galleries > Nap > England - Northumbria

TITLE  +   - 
FILE NAME  +   - 
DATE  +   - 
POSITION  +   - 
aldfrith-2b.jpg
S.846 Aldfrith30 viewsSceat of Aldfrith, king of Northumbria 685-705
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S.846
N. 176
Abramson 69-10
O: +ALdFRIduS
R: Fantastic animal left

Aldfrith was the first king of Northumbria to issue coins in his name, and the second English monarch to put his name on coinage (after Eadbald of Kent). His coins depict an animal of crude style, probably is supposed to be a dragon. It is different than the animals on mid 8th century Northumbrian coins of Eadberht, Alchred, Æthelred I, and Ælfwald I.

Due to this difference, for a while the coins were attributed to a king of Lindsey of the same name, who flourished in the late 8th century. However the archaeologic evidence, coin composition, and distribution of metal detecting finds argues against this idea. Most experts consider this coin struck for Northumbria's Aldfrith.

Venerable Bede speaks highly of Aldfrith as a wise ruler. For whatever reason, Northumbrian inscribed coinage would stop after Aldfrith's reign and not start again for another 50 years until Eadberht.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aldfrith-3.jpg
S.846 Aldfrith23 viewsSceat of Aldfrith, king of Northumbria 685-705
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S.846
N. 176
Abramson 69-10
O: +ALdFRIduS
R: Fantastic animal left

Ex- Charles Wood, CNG
Nap
eadberht-2.jpg
S.847B Eadberht74 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847B
Booth type B
Abramson 70-50
Chapman A3
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ex- Keith Chapman
Nap
eadberht-3.jpg
S.847B Eadberht51 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847B
Booth type B
Abramson 70-50
Chapman A3
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Die match to Beowulf 105 (not the same coin)

Ex- eBay
Nap
eadberht-6b.jpg
S.847B Eadberht24 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847B
Booth type B
Chapman D4
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 1a/fantastic animal

Variety with a number of pellets below the fantastic creature

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
eadberht-4.jpg
S.847C Eadberht51 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847C
Booth type C
Abramson 70-100
Chapman B2
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 3h/fantastic animal

Unusual variety, with a 3-armed cross on the obverse, with the reverse being a creature with a pellet next to its head.

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eadberht1.jpg
S.847D Eadberht51 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unkown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847D
Booth type D
Abramson 70-120
Chapman A6
O: EOTBEREhTVſ
R: Fantastic animal facing left, triquetra below, cross under tail
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eadberht-8.jpg
S.847D Eadberht44 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unkown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847D
Booth type D
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing left, triquetra below, cross under tail
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ex- eBay
2 commentsNap
eadberht-7a.jpg
S.847E Eadberht11 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847E
Booth type E
Chapman A5
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: Fantastic animal facing right, cross under tail, triquetra below, circle of pellets under foreleg
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ex- eBay
Nap
eadberht-5.jpg
S.847F Eadberht63 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847F
Booth type Fxi
Abramson 70-280
Chapman I2
O: EOTBERHTVS:, mustached face in center
R: Fantastic animal facing right, triqueta below, cross under tail
Motif: face/fantastic animal

The mustached face is an interesting and quite unusual central motif, known from just a few specimens. I can trace 3 other specimens, two from the same dies as this example. The face could represent Eadberht himself, or perhaps was a pagan symbol that was kept on the nominally Christian coinage. I've heard it described as a representation of Odin/Wodan. However, the picture looks wrong for that, as most depictions of the old god show him with a beard. The face is not likely Christ, who is also typically shown bearded. However, mustaches were worn by Anglo-Saxons; following their conversion to Christianity many abandoned the long beards. A long handlebar style mustache is famously worn by Harold Godwinson on the Bayeaux Tapestry, and may have been stylish back to the 8th century.

Eadberht also issued coinage with his brother Ecgberht the Archbishop of York, which depicts a full length person holding crosses, presumably Ecgberht himself.

If the face is Eadberht's, it could represent one of the earliest depiction of a the face of a known king on English coinage, preceding the coinage of Offa by a few decades (aside from the possible 7th century coins of Eadbald of Kent).

Ex- Silbury Coins, EMC 2015.0297
Nap
eadberht-9.jpg
S.847G Eadberht11 viewsSceat of Eadberht, king of Northumbria 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 847G
Booth type G
O: +EOTBEREhTVſ
R: Fantastic animal facing right, rosettes in field
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ex- S.Hall
Nap
alchred-1a~0.jpg
S.849 Alchred35 viewsSceat of Alchred, king of Northumbria 765-774
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 849
Booth type B
Abramson 71-15
O: +AΓCHRED
R: Fantastic animal facing right, cross below
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Alchred, or Alhred is a little known monarch of Northumbria. He was probably related, either directly or through marriage to King Eadberht, who was tonsured in 758. Alchred succeeded Æthelwald Moll, who took power after killing Eadberht's son Oswulf. According to the chronicle, he was deposed in 774 and succeeded by Æthelwald's son, Æthelred I.

Ex- Keith Chapman
Nap
aethelred-i-1.jpg
S.850 Æthelred I60 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, first reign (774-779)
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 850
Abramson 72-20
Chapman A1
O: EDILRED
R: Fantastic animal facing right, triquetra below, cross under tail
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Rare "animal type" from Æthelred's first reign. During his second reign, he changed to the moneyer name type. The animal would last be used under his successor Ælfwald.

Ex- R.Charlton
2 commentsNap
aelfwald-i-1.jpg
S.851 Ælfwald I72 viewsSceat of Ælfwald I, king of Northumbria 779-788
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 851
Booth type A
Abramson 73-10
Chapman C1
O: +AΓEFDLAV (to be read 'AΓEF VALD', partly retrograde)
R: Fantastic animal facing left
Motif: 1/fantastic animal

Ælfwald I was a little-known king of Northumbria during the turbulent late 8th century. He was descended directly from Eadberht, and probably had a greater claim to the throne than his predecessor, Æthelred I. Æthelred, of the house of Moll, he (or perhaps his regent) was recorded as being harsh, and was deposed in 779; he was probably a child during his first reign and was exiled rather than put to death. Ælfwald was king for nearly a decade, though nearly nothing is known about him. He met his end through assassination, as did many of the rulers of his time. His sons were later put to death by Æthelred after his restoration.

Despite a relatively long reign, coins of Ælfwald are quite rare, they seem to be more so than Alchred, though slightly less rare than the animal type of Æthelred's first reign. His name is spelled in various ways on his coins, sometimes with a few runic letters (but not all in runic). They can be found with the beast facing left or right.

This coin appears to be from the same dies as EMC 1004.0183 and EMC 2008.0086.

Ex- Keith Chapman
Nap
ecgberht-eadberht-3a.jpg
S.852 Eadberht with Archbishop Ecgberht34 viewsSceat of Ecgberht, archbishop of York with Eadberht, king of Northumbria, 737-758
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 852
Abramson 74-20
O: EOTBEREhTVſ.
R: EGBERhT AR
Motif: 1/standing figure

Ex- eBay, Celeste Jones Mining, CNG Triton XIX, Andrew Wayne, DNW 79
Nap
aethelwald-ecgberht-1.jpg
S.853 Æthelwald Moll with Archbishop Ecgberht60 viewsSceat of Æthelwald Moll, king of Northumbria 759-765 with Ecgberht, Archbishop of York
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 853
N. 192.5
Abramson 76-10
O: +EDILhpLd
R: ECGBERhT A[R]
Motif: 1/1

Æthelwald, also called Moll, was a nobleman who ascended the throne after the murder of King Oswulf, which he may have orchestrated. He was deposed after some years, and went to a monastery. His son Æthelred I would later become king in Northumbria.

Despite a rule of 6 years, coins in Æthelwald's name are excessively rare. Until quite recently, this coin was the only one known. It depicts the name of Æthelwald, with the archbishop's name on the reverse. Due to the odd spelling of Æthelwald's name, there
has been some controversy as to whether the name is supposed to be a variant of Alchred, Æthelwald's successor who also struck coins with Archbishop Ecgberht. Most experts (including Abramson, Booth, Lyon, and Stewart) now accept this as belonging to the former monarch.

There are 5 coins of Æthelwald Moll known. Two others, like this one, were struck with Archbishop Ecgberht. The other two are inscribed with Æthelwald and his son Æthelred. The ancient chip makes the coin easily identifiable.

It is not totally clear why coins of this monarch are so very rare, given his reign of at least 6 years, but the "Continuation" of Venerable Bede's Ecclesiastical History, pressumably written by one of his students after Bede's death, gives a clue. It notes that early in Æthelwald's reign a pestilence came over the kingdom, and the populace suffered for years with what was described as "dysentery." One might suppose that this illness upset the order of the kindgom, and led to disruption in economics and possibly the day-to-day running of the state. Perhaps this explains the lack of coinage.

This particular coin carries a long provenance, and has been depicted in multiple publications on Northumbrian coins, dating back to the 1840s. It is pictured in Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 3 (1841), Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 9 (1869), Sceattas in England and the Continent (1984), and Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 151 (1991).

Ex- Spink Auction 16019 (lot 58), Lord Stewartby, Spink Auction 1 1978 (lot 89), C.J. Firth, Glendining January 27-28 1944 (lot 798), Lord Grantley, Sotheby June 28-July 1 1909 (lot 131), E.W. Rashleigh, J.C.S. Rashleigh, Sotheby July 1858 (lot 85[part]), T.F. Dymock
Nap
alchred-ecgberht-2a.jpg
S.854 Alchred with Archbishop Ecgberht29 viewsSceat of Alchred, king of Northumbria 765-774 with Ecgberht, archbishop of York
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 854
Abramson 75-10
O: +AL.hHRDh (retrograde)
R: EGBERhT AR

A rare coin produced in the last year of Ecgberht's life. Ecgberht produced coins with Eadberht, Æthelwald Moll, and Alchred. He was a contemporary of Venerable Bede.

Ex- Silbury Coins, EMC 2014.0360
Nap
aethelred-i-eanbald-1.jpg
S.855 Æthelred I with Archbishop Eanbald I57 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria 774-780 and 789-796, with Eanbald I, archbishop of York 780-796
Moneyer: unknown (or Eanbald)
Mint: York (presumably)
S.855
Abramson 78-10
O: +AEDILRED
R: EANBALD
Motif: 5/1

This rare sceat is believed to have been a joint issue, although there is no title for either Æthelred or Eanbald. It is also possible that Eanbald was a moneyer. The type is thought to have been issued in the first part of Æthelred's reign, though this cannot be proven and there is a lack of hoard evidence. Mostly this is presumed because these coins are notably absent from later hoards such as Hexham.

Eanbald's name is often found retrograde on these coins. The king's name similarly has no title. Stylistically the coins resemble the work of Æthelred's second reign moneyer Ceolbald.

This coin is made from the same reverse die as EMC 2009.0361 and EMC 2012.0038, recognizable from a die line/crack extending from the bottom of the cross to the L in Eanbald.

Ex- eBay, UKDFD 49725
Nap
aethelred-i-ceolbald-3a.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Ceolbald)23 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Ceolbald
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Phase Ia
O: +AEDILRED ℞
R: +CEOLBĀLD
Motif: 7/5

Ceolbald was Æthelred I's most prolific moneyer. His coins feature some interesting designs in the central motifs, like the ℞ on this issue.
The central ℞ motif (for "Rex") is also seen on Kentish coins of Ecgberht II (765-779). The symbol is also seen on pennies of Pepin the Short (751-768) and I would suspect both Æthelred and Ecgberht were copying the Pepin coins.

Ceolbald is not known to have coined for Æthelred's successors and it is believed that after his services were no longer needed in Northumbria, he packed up and moved to Mercia, where he coined for Coenwulf. Ceolbald is a known moneyer for Coenwulf and it is not beyond the realm of possibility that this was indeed the same person.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
aethelred-i-ceolbald-2.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Ceolbald)41 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Ceolbald
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
O: +AEDILRED
R: +CEOLBALD
Motif: 5/5

This coin depicts Ceolbald's most common design, that of a boss inside a pellet circle. Similar to Pirie 19 (?same dies). Appears to be from the same dies as EMC 2005.0125 (not the same coin)

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-i-cutheard.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Cutheard)56 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth var i
Abramson 83-10
O: +AEDILRED R
R: +CVDHEARD
Motif: 1/1

Cutheard minted coins for Æthelred I, Eardwulf, Ælfwald II, and Eanred. Coins of Eardwulf are extremely rare, at current there are about 9 known of this monarch, and coins of Ælfwald II are also quite rare.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-i-cutheard-2a.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Cutheard)20 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth var i
Abramson 83-20
O: +AEDILRERD
R: +CVDHEARD
Motif: 1/2a

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-1-cutheard-3.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Cutheard)18 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Phase Ia
O: +AEDILRED R (retrograde)
R: +CVDHE.AR.D
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay, A Hunt
Nap
aethelred-i-hnifula.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Hnifula)65 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Hnifula
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth var i
Abramson 84-10
O: +EDILRED
R: +HNIFVLA
Motif: 1/1a

Hnifula is the rarest of Æthelred's five/six moneyers (depending on whether one considers Eanbald a moneyer or the Archbishop).

The name Hnifula is a little obscure in its origin; it certainly is not a common Anglo-Saxon name. It sounds similar to Hunlaf, a later moneyer, but is probably not the same individual. The name might be related to the Old English word 'hnifol', a word that means forehead.

There are two coins of Hnifula documented in the EMC, a third in the Hermitage museum in St. Petersburg (SCBI 50: 35), a fourth worn example in the Norwich Castle Museum, two in the British Museum, from the Hexham hoard (BMC 429 and 430), and one pictured on Tony Abramson's website. This example is not one of those seven. It is from the same dies as BMC 429, the Norwich Castle specimen, the Abramson coin, and the Hermitage specimen. The other three specimens are from a different set of dies. With only two dies known for these eight examples, it suggests Hnifula's coinage for this issue was probably quite small.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
aethelred-i-tidwulf-2a.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Tidwulf)45 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Tidwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Phase Ia
O: +EDILRED
R: +TIDVVLFD
Motif: 1/1a

Ex- TimeLine Auctions
2 commentsNap
aethelred-i-tidwulf.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Tidwulf)63 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Tidwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth unlisted
Abramson 82-50
O: +AEDILRED Π
R: +TIDVVLF
Motif: 1a/1a

Tidwulf was a rare moneyer for Æthelred I. He is not known to have struck coins for any other rulers, although his name is sometimes imitated on the later irregular stycas.

I haven't been able to find a die match for either obverse or reverse, although it appears similar to (and may be from the same dies as) EMC 1997.0412. This coin seems to be a later more worn/rusty die set.

Ex- Davissons Auction 34 (lot 94), Dr. Cedric S. Raine
Nap
aethelred-i-aethelred-1.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Æthelred)27 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: unknown (or Æthelred, or Eotberht)
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Phase Ia
O: +AEDILRED R
R: +AEDILRED

An unusual "double obverse" coin of Aethelred I. Several of these exist and they have similar die pairs. They could represent a mule of two obverses, or Aethelred could be a moneyer who is fairly poorly represented. The other possibility is another moneyer by the name of Eotberht, who is known from a single unique coin in the Lyon collection, but whose obverse, while not a die match to this coin, is very similar.

Ex- CNG
Nap
aethelred-i-cuthgils-1b.jpg
S.857 Æthelred I (Cuthgils)38 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796 (?)
Moneyer: Cuthgils
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 857
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Abramson 85-10
O: +ED+Γ.RED
R: +CVD CLS
Motif: 1/shrine

Cuthgils (or Cudcils?) is a rare moneyer for Æthelred I. He also coined for Ælfwald (I or II). His coins, of crude design compared with others of Æthelred's second reign, suggest these coins might be an earlier issue, but since there is no hoard evidence there is no way to know. Cuthgils' coins depict a triangular design with a cross above. This has been called a "shrine" or "church roof" though the simplicity of the design prevents further interpretation. It has been suggested that this was an ecclesiastic issue, though there is no specific indication of this.

Lord Grantley believed the reverse of the coin was a tribute to St. Cuthberht, and misinterpreted the reverse as stating "SCT CVD" There were only 2-3 known at the time, and the discovery of more specimens with clearer legends showed that the legend is clearly "CVD CLS". The final nail that put he matter to rest was the discovery of coins of Ælfwald by the same moneyer Cuthgils. These are extremely rare and do not depict a 'shrine' or other fancy design.

Whether the shrine design on otherwise featureless coins had any specific meaning, such as being struck under the auspices of a clergyman, has been lost to history. Presumably the idea for the shrine image itself was copied from contemporary Merovingian or early Carolingian coins.

The Yorkshire museum does have a Cuthgils sceat (Pirie 22) but it is from different dies. I have not been able to trace an obverse die match, but the reverse matches coin 46 on Patrick Finn's Memorial List 'A' (in "Studies in Early Medieval Coinage vol 1", T. Abramson ed). The reverse is distinct and recognizable by the presence of most of the letters in the legend being recut on the die. While this issue is not as rare as it was 100 years ago when Grantley wrote about it, it still remains quite rare. There are only 5 listed in the EMC and a handful of others in private collections.

Ex- Mike Vosper
Nap
aelfwald-ii-cutheard-1.jpg
S.859 Ælfwald II (Cutheard)50 viewsSceat of Ælfwald II, king of Northumbria 806-808
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 859
Phase Ia
Abramson 79-10
O: +FΓEVAΓDVS
R: CVDhEART
Motif: 1/1

This rare coin, in the name of "Ælfwald" (with the Æ runic) most likely belongs to the short and poorly documented reign of Ælfwald II, who gets a short passage in Roger of Wendover's "Flores Historiarum" and a few other semi-contemporary pieces. He succeeded Eardwulf, and only reigned 2 years. Eardwulf may have had a second reign following this, or the throne may have passed to Eardwulf's son Eanred.

There has been some debate as to whether this rare issue belongs to the first (779-788) or second king (806-808) named Ælfwald. The most conclusive evidence seems to be the style of the name of the moneyer Cutheard. Cutheard coined for Æthelred I, Eardwulf, and Eanred. On coins of Æthelred, his name is spelled "CVDHEARD", on Eardwulf it is spelled "CVDHEARD" or "CVDhEART", and on Eanred it is spelled "CVDHARD". On all coins of Ælfwald, the name is spelled "CVDhEART". This supports that the coins are more likely to be semi-contemporary to coins of Eardwulf, during whose reign the spelling seems to have changed. This fits better with an assignment to the second Ælfwald. For more info, see Blackburn & Gillis, "A second coin of Eardwulf and the attribution of the moneyer coins of King Ælfwald" in BNJ 67.

Coins of Ælfwald II are very rare, with 11 documented on the Early Medieval Corpus, and a handful of others which have not been listed, such as this one. Besides Cutheard, there are 2 coins of Ælfwald by the moneyer Cuthgils, who also coined for Æthelred I, although these are probably more appropriately assigned to the earlier Ælfwald I.

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanred-alfheard-1.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Alfheard?)40 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Alfheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie 95
Phase Ib
O: +EAHRED R
R: ALFHEARD
Motif: 1/1

Alfheard is a possible moneyer for Eanred. It is not clear if Alfheard is a distinct moneyer or whether it is an aberrant spelling of Wulfheard (frequently written as 'VVLFHEARD' or 'VVLFHRRD'. It is also possible that the name is Heardwulf. There are coins that depict a reverse of '+ALFHEARD' which raises the suspicion that Alfheard is a distinct individual. However, the style of their dies are quite similar.

Pirie lists this variety as a coin of Heardwulf.

Regardless, 'Alfheard' coins are fairly rare

Ex- Halls Hammered Coins, eBay
Nap
eanred-cutheard-1a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Cutheard)20 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Phase Ia
O: +EANRED R
R: +CVDHARD
Motif: 1/1

Cutheard coined for Aethelred I, Eardwulf, Aelfwald II, and Eanred. This issue comes at the end of his career.

Ex- CNG eAuction 409 (lot 937)
Nap
eanred-cutheard-2.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Cutheard)21 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Cutheard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Phase Ia
O: +EANRED R
R: +CVDHARD
Motif: 1/1

Ex- Wessex Coins
Nap
eanred-cynwulf-1.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Cynwulf)53 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Cynwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
O: EAIRED REX (retrograde)
R: CYNVALF
Motif: 4/4

Cynwulf was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers, and his coins are silver sceats. They are fairly scarce. He is also known to coin for Archbishop Eanbald II.

This particular coin was struck from dies not listed in Pirie. This is not so surprising, as the source collections of York and Leeds are relatively weak in early silver sceat varieties, especially compared with their strength in the copper stycas from the later period of Eanred's reign to the end of Osberht's. I cannot track a die match through the Early Medieval Corpus either, though it is similar to several coins listed. I did note though that the coin seems to be a die match to one of the sceats found at Hexham (Eanred:24) in the Adamson plates, reproduced by Pirie in 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'. The coins from Hexham form the backbone of the British Museum's Northumbrian collection, which as yet has not been illustrated in a Sylloge.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
eanred-daegberct-1a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Daegberct)29 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Daegberct
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ib
O: EANRED REX
R: DAEGBERCT
Motif: 1/1

Daegberct was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers. His coins are scarce, and mostly a silver billon composition, as is this one. He is not known to have coined for Eanred's predecessors or successors.

Ex- Roman Lode Coins
Nap
eanred-daegberct-3.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Daegberct)29 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Daegberct
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Phase Ib
O: +EANRED REX
R: +DAEGBERCT
Motif: 1/1

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-eadwine-1a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Eadwine)36 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Eadwine
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ib
O: +EAИRED REX
R: +EADVI.ИI
Motif: 1a/1

Eadwine, or Eadvini, was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers, and his coins are usually made of good silver. Early moneyers of Eanred are somewhat more scarce than the later ones. Eadwine is not known to have coined for Eanred's predecessors or successors, but he did coin for Archbishop Eanbald II. Blundered versions of his name also appear on some irregular stycas of the later c.850 period.

This coin is unlisted in Pirie, but is struck with the same reverse die as Pirie 76-77.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 618), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-eadwine-3a.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Eadwine)10 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Eadwine
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Phase Ib
O: +ЄɅNɅED ɅЄX
R: +EADVIИI
Motif: 5/5

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanred-herred.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Herreth)34 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie 103
Phase Ib
O: +EAИRED REX
R: +HERRED X
Motif: 1/1

Herreth was an early moneyer for Eanred. He is not known to have coined for Eanred predecessors or successors. His names, usually blundered, appears somewhat frequently on irregular stycas of c.850.

Ex- Leodis Hammered Coins, PAS: SWYOR-11C9F2
Nap
eanred-herreth-3.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Herreth)6 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
O: +EANRED DEX
R: +HERRED

Ex- eBay, Spink
Nap
eanred-herreth-2.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Herreth)14 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
O: X EANREd (retrograde)
R: X HERRED

Ex- RP Coins
Nap
eanred-hwaetred-2.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Hwaetred)28 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Hwaetred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
O: +EANRED REX
R: +HVAETRED
Motif: 1/1

Hwaetred was an early moneyer for Eanred. He is not known to have coined for Eanred's predecessors or successors. Hwaetred is a fairly scarce moneyer, and his coinage is usually of good silver quality. Hwaetred was responsible for one of the most controversial stycas, the so-called "Hoaud" coin. Stycas exist which pair an obverse die reading +HOAVD RE with a reverse of +HVAETRD. For a time, these were thought to be coins of an otherwise unknown King Hoaud. This theory was more or less debunked by D. C. Axe in BAR 180, which showed that this was most likely a marriage of two reverse dies both reading a blundered version of HWAETRED. This explanation is accepted by the majority of numismatists, but "Hoaud" coins still sell for a pretty premium.

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-tidwine-2b.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Tidwine)13 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Tidwine
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
O: +EANRED REX
R: TIDVNI
Motif: 5/1b

Tidwine is a rare moneyer who coined for Eanred early in his reign. His coins are silver sceats. He is not known to have coined for any other monarchs.

Ex- Spink, Lord Stewartby
Nap
eanred-wilheah-2.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Wilheah)27 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wilheah
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
O: +EANRED REX
R: +VILHEAH
Motif: 6/6

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanred-edilech-1.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Æthelheah)30 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Æthelheah
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
O: +EANRED RE
R: +EDILECH
Motif: 5/5

Æthelheah, considered the normalized name of "Edilech", was an early moneyer for Eanred. His career seems to have been quite short, as his coins are the rarest of all moneyers in the styca series. He has some connection to Cynwulf, another early moneyer of Eanred, as coins exist that share an obverse die.

Ex- Spink Auction 16019 (lot 64), Lord Stewartby, Spink
Nap
eanbald-ii-cynwulf-1.jpg
S.861 Eanbald II (Cynwulf)17 viewsSceat of Eanbald II, archbishop of York 796-c.830
Moneyer: Cynwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 861
O: .ENDALD AER
R: +EVANVLF

Cynwulf struck coins for king Eanred as well.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
eanbald-ii-eadwulf-2.jpg
S.861 Eanbald II (Eadwulf)12 viewsSceat of Eanbald II, archbishop of York 796-c.830
Moneyer: Eadwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 861
Pirie unlisted
O: +ANEBAD (retrograde)
R: +EAOVVLF
Motif: 1/1

A somewhat blundered coin of Eanbald II by the moneyer Eadwulf. This was the earliest coin in the Ripon Hoard of 1695, which mostly consisted of coins of Æthelred II.

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 10 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
eanbald-ii-eodwulf-1.jpg
S.861 Eanbald II (Eadwulf)13 viewsSceat of Eanbald II, archbishop of York 796-c.830
Moneyer: Eadwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 861
Pirie unlisted
O: +EANBALD
R: +EODVVLF
Motif: 1a/4

Eadwulf is only known to have struck coins for Archbishop Eanbald II.

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanbald-ii-aethelweard-2a.jpg
S.861 Eanbald II (Æthelweard)10 viewsSceat of Eanbald II, archbishop of York 796-c.830
Moneyer: Æthelweard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 861
Pirie 114
Phase Ib
O: +EANBALD
R: +EDILVEARD
Motif: 1/1

Eanbald II succeeded Eanbald I as archbishop of York. He was the first York church leader to mint coins in his own name, rather than jointly with the king. The exact length of his reign is unknown, but numismatic evidence suggest it lasted until the 820s or 830s. The moneyer Æthelweard also struck coins for Eanbald II's successor, Wigmund.

Ex- Heritage Jan 14-16 2014 (lot 3197), Eric P. Newman
Nap
eanred-aldates-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Aldates)29 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Aldates
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie 485
Phase II, Group B
O: +EANRED RE
R: +ALDATES
Motif: 1/1

Aldates is possibly a variation of the moneyer 'Gadutels' or even 'Badigils'. Or they may have all been separate moneyers. Aldates is not known to have coined for any other rulers.

Ex- eBay
Nap
eanred-badigils-1a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Badigils)10 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Badigils
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie unlisted, Phase II Group Ciii
Abramson 2(unlisted obverse)/3
O: ƎɅ++NREⱭ R (retrograde)
R: +BADIGILS
Motif: 1/6

Badigils is a rare moneyer of Eanred. There is speculation that the name Badigils is related to other names seen on coins of Eanred: namely Aldates and Gadutels. They may even all be the same person. If this is not the case, Badigils was an unrelated moneyer whos name is probably Beadugils. Only a few coins of this moneyer have been found.

This coin is unlisted in Pirie, but mentioned as extant in section Phase II, Group Ciii. The coin itself seems to be a die match to a coin found at Hexham, illustrated by Adamson (Eanred:188). It is not the same coin. Adamson's plates were reproduced by Pirie for 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'.

Known coins of Eanred/Badigils include 4 in the British museum (from Hexham hoard), 1 in the Yorkshire museum, 1 in another Northern Museum (SCBI 48: 265, from Bolton Percy), two coins listed in E. J. E. Pirie's "Early Northumbrian coins at auction, 1981" (one of which I believe is the aforementioned SCBI 48: 265, the other one I believe is the present coin), and supposedly 2 others in private collections traced by Abramson. There are four examples drawn on Adamson's plates of the Hexham hoard, which are probably the 4 in the British Museum.

Ex- York Coins, CNG eAuction 324 (lot 755 [part]), Peter Moffat, ?Stanley Gibbons. Probably ex- Charles Winn, William Fennell, Bolton Percy. I think this coin is plated in BNJ 51: Early Northumbrian Coins at Auction, 1981, coin #4 (However due to poor quality of the image I can't be 100% certain)
Nap
eanred-brother-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Brother)37 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX
R: +BRODER
Motif: 1/1

Brother is one of the most prolific of moneyers. He coined for Eanred, Aethelred II, and Redwulf

Ex- eBay
Nap
eanred-brother-3.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Brother)15 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX
R: +BRODR

Ex- Leodis Hammered Coins, York Hoard (1841)
Nap
eanred-brother-2a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Brother)14 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX (retrograde)
R: +BRODR

One of only two coins of Eanred in the Ripon Hoard of 1695.

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 10 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
eanred-daegberct-2a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Daegberct)29 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Daegberct
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie unlisted, Phase Ib
O: +EANRED REX
R: +DAEGBERCT
Motif: 1/1

Daegberct was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers. His coins are scarce, and mostly a silver billon composition. This particular coin however is a copper styca, suggesting that Daegberct may have coined for some time. He is not known to have coined for Eanred's predecessors or successors.

This coin is very similar to Pirie 65-66, it looks like it was struck with the same obverse die, but the reverse is different than either of those coins.

Ex- York Coins, CNG eAuction 324 (lot 755 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-fordred.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Forthred)42 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Forthred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +ERANRED EX (retrograde)
R: +FORDRED
Motif: 1/1

Forthred, was a prolific moneyer of Eanred, Aethelred II, and Redwulf.

Ex- York Coins, CNG Auction 90 (lot 2354 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-fulcnoth-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Fulcnoth)12 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Fulcnoth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX
R: +FVLCNOD
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
eanred-fulcnoth-2a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Fulcnoth)15 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Fulcnoth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX (retrograde)
R: +FOLCNOD M (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

One of only two coins of Eanred in the Ripon Hoard of 1695.

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 10 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
eanred-gadutels-1a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Gadutels)24 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Gadutels
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie 676
Phase II, Group Ci
O: +EANRED RE
R: +GADVJEIS
Motif: 1/1

The moneyer Gadutels was not known to have coined for any other monarch. It has been suggested that the names 'Aldates' and 'Gadutels' or 'Ladutels' are variants of the same name. It has also been suggested that 'Badigils' is also a variant of this name, but this is not universally accepted.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
eanred-monne.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Monne)37 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +ƎANЯED REX
R: +MONNE
Motif: 1/1

Monne is one of the most prolific moneyers of stycas. Monne coined for Eanred, Aethelred II, Redwulf, and Osberht. Due to the considerable time period that encompasses (late 830s to early 860s), it would not be unreasonable to consider that there was more than one 'Monne,' perhaps even a father and son. The name Monne is also found in blundered form on many of the irregular stycas c.850.

Ex- TimeLine Originals
Nap
eanred-odilo-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Odilo)21 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Odilo
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX
R: +ODILO MON
Motif: 1/6

Odilo was a moneyer for Eanred and Aethelred II. His coins are overall quite rare. They are frequently inscribed with 'Odilo Mon' with the 'mon' short for monetarius. The name Odilo does not sound Anglo-Saxon and is probably a Germanic or Frisian name. Coins in Odilo's name are also known for Redwulf, but these are probably descendant issues.

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
eanred-wihtred-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wihtred)40 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wihtred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED REX
R: +DIHTRR (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-wihtred-2.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wihtred)30 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wihtred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie 160
Phase II, Group A
O: +EANRED REX
R: +ǷINTRMᛞ
Motif: 1/1

Rare styca of Eanred with moneyer's name in runic letters. Only used on this single reverse die. The Yorkshire museum has an impressive six specimens of this coin, there was one in the Mack collection (EMC 1020.0404), 3 other individual metal detecting finds recorded in the Early Medieval Corpus (EMC 2000.0372, EMC 2001.0304, EMC 2008.0098), one in UKDFD (5444), two on Adamson's plates from Hexham hoard (presumably are in British Museum) and two in the Peter Moffat collection (one is this coin). There are certainly other unrecorded specimens out there.

Besides what appears to be a high rate of survival from this die pair, the obverse die was also used to strike coins from 7 other reverse dies of Wihtred, and 5 reverse dies of the moneyer Monne. This is quite unusual for a single die to produce that quantity of coins.

Ex- eBay, Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
eanred-wulfheard-2.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wulfheard)6 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wulfheard (or Heardwulf)
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANHED HEX
R: +VVLFEHRRD
Motif: 1/1

Wulfheard (or Heardwulf) is a somewhat scarce moneyer for Eanred

Ex- eBay
Nap
eanred-wulfred-1.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wulfred)33 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
O: +EANRED RE
R: +VVLFRED
Motif: 1/1

Wulfred is a prolific moneyer who coined for kings Eanred, Aethelred II, Osberht, and Archbishop Wulfhere. There are no significant die links that interweave these kings' coinage, and this coinage extends over a fairly lengthy period, so it is possible that there was more than one Wulfred.

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-alghere.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Alghere)44 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Alghere
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +ĀEDILRED ℞
R: +ĀLGHE'RE
Motif: 1/1

Alghere, sometimes referred to as Ealhere, coined for Aethelred II and Redwulf. This variety has the symbol '℞' on the obverse, something also found on Ceolbald's coinage of Aethelred I of Northumbria, and also on coins of Ecgberht of Kent.

Ex- York Coins, CNG Auction 90 (lot 2361 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-brother-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Brother)23 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +BRODER
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-brother-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Brother)12 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +BRODER
Motif: 1/1

Ex- CNG eAuction 417 (lot 554), Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 11 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
aethelred-ii-coenred-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Coenred)18 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Coenred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED E (retrograde)
R: +COENRED (retrograde)

Coenred was mainly an episcopal moneyer who coined for Archbishop Wigmund, but also struck coins for Kings Aethelred II and Redwulf.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-cynemund-2a.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Cynemund)30 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Cynemund
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDIΓRED REX
R: +CVИEMVᚾD
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay, Carpe Diem Numismatics, Sotheby's April 22-23 1999 (lot 225 [part]), L.R. Stack, Spink Auction 56 (lot 752 [part]), E.M. Norweb, C.W. Peck, EMC 1016.0076/1030.0120
1 commentsNap
aethelred-ii-cynemund-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Cynemund)15 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Cynemund
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +CVNEMVXD
Motif: 1/1

Cynemund was a rare moneyer for Aethelred II. He did not strike coins for any other monarch. Coins in his name have the letter 'N' in runic style

Ex- Ancient Imports
Nap
aethelred-ii-double-obverse-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (double obverse)16 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Unknown
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED RE
R: +EDILRED RE
Motif: 5/5

A coin of Aethelred II, which features a double obverse.

Double reverse coins are uncommon in the styca series, but do occasionally pop up. On the other hand, double obverse coins are relatively rare. This particular coin is of good style, meaning it was probably made from official dies rather than belonging to the chaotic irregular coins of the late 850s.

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
aethelred-ii-eanred-3.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Eanred)13 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Eanred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +EANRED
Motif: 1/1

Variety with a pellet in one quadrant of the obverse central cross. Similar pellet-in-single-cross-qudrant is sometimes encountered on later Saxon coinage and may indicate a certain ecclesiastical mark, but it is rarely found on stycas.

Ex- CNG
Nap
aethelred-ii-eanred-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Eanred)33 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Eanred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +EANRED
Motif: 1/6

Eanred is one of Aethelred's more prolific moneyers. He also coined for Redwulf. He is not to be confused with King Eanred, who was Aethelred's father and predecessor.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gills
Nap
aethelred-ii-eanred-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Eanred)34 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Eanred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie 550
O: +AEILRED R
R: +EANRED
Motif: 4/6f

Same dies as Pirie 550. The reverse has a pellet within the ring, the pellet seems to have a very small pellet next to it, almost looks like a moon orbiting a planet, Abramson has called this the "planetary" motif, otherwise designated 6f. This motif may be unique to this particular die.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-fordred.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Forthred)29 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Forthred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +FORDRED
Motif: 3b(var)/1

Unusual obverse central motif, with a pellet-in-annulet with 4 pellets surrounding.
Nap
aethelred-ii-fordred-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Forthred)13 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Forthred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED RI
R: +FORDRED
Motif: 1/1

Ex- CNG eAuction 417 (lot 557), Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 11 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-8.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)27 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie 1487
Phase II, Group Cii
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 5d/5d

Ex- eBay, Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-1a.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)25 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie 231, Phase II Group Ai
O: +EDELRED R
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 1/6b

Ah, Leothegn, the most creative of the Northumbrian moneyers. He minted coin in great number, and was the most prolific moneyer of Aethelred II's first reign. He is not known to have coined for any other monarchs. Leofthegn is known for his "special motifs," select obverse and reverse designs that differ from the standard plain cross or group of pellets. Presumably he was given some artistic freedom by the king, which other moneyers seemed not to have. His various special designs include alpha, omega, saltire, swastika, bullseye circles, asterisk, and a remarkable design featuring a dismally drawn "hound" creature on the reverse. The hound, though not beautiful by the art standard of any generation, was nonetheless the first animal design to be found on Northumbrian coins since the time of Alchred almost a century earlier.

This coin is one of Leofthegn's more "boring" designs, featuring a bullseye of concentric circles on the reverse.

Ex- York Coins, CNG Auction 90 (lot 2361 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-6.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)34 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie 204, Phase II Group A
O: +EDELRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 1b(var)/1

The obverse die from this coin was also used to strike coins by the moneyers Monne and Odilo.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-2a.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)31 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie 236, Phase II Group A
O: +EDELRED R
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 1/6c

Leofthegn is a very common moneyer of Aethelred II, behind only Eardwulf, Monne, Eanred, and possibly Forthred in terms of number of known specimens. His use of unusual central motifs make him stand out amongst the other coiners of his time.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 640), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-10.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)5 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 2/2

Ex- English Coin Auctions 2015 (lot 182)
Nap
aethelred-ii-monne-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Monne)27 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED
R: +MONNE
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay, Old Coin Gallery of Melbourne
Nap
aethelred-ii-monne-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Monne)23 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED X
R: +MONNE
Motif: 1a/5

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-monne-3.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Monne)8 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
Pirie unlisted
O: +EDELRED REX
R: +MONNE
Motif: S1/3b

Unlisted in Pirie but from the same obverse die as Pirie 241-244 and from a reverse die similar to Pirie 244.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-wendelberht-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wendelberht)30 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wendelberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED RE
R: +VENDELBERHT
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-wendelberht-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wendelberht)35 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wendelberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +VENDELBERHT
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-wendelberht-3.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wendelberht)11 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wendelberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED RE
R: +VENDELBERHT
Motif: 1/1

Ex- Noble Numismatics Auction 119 (lot 1935), M. Rich, York Coins
Nap
aethelred-ii-wihtred-1a.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wihtred)25 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wihtred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +VIHTRED
Motif: 1/1

Wihtred is a less common moneyer for Aethelred II. He also minted coins for Eanred. Wihtred's reverses are occasionally known to have his name spelled out in runic letters.

Ex- York Coins, CNG Auction 90 (lot 2361 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-wulfred-1.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wulfred)37 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED X
R: +VVLFRED
Motif: 4/4

Wulfred coined for Aethelred's predecessor Eanred and successor Osberht, as well as for the Archbishop Wulfhere. He did not coin for Redwulf, who usurped power during Aethelred's reign, was killed by Vikings, and whose death led to the restoration of Aethelred II. Most likely Wulfred's loyalty to Aethelred II saved his career (and probably his life), as the other moneyers who coined for Redwulf (with the lone exception of Monne) do not appear to be in business after Aethelred's restoration.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-wulfred-2.jpg
S.865 Aethelred II (Wulfred)16 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +VVLFRED
Motif: 1/1

Ex- English Coin Auctions 2015 (lot 180), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-eanred-4.jpg
S.865 Eanred and Aethelred II8 viewsPossible joint issue between Eanred and Aethelred II. king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: unknown (or Eanred)
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 865
O: +AEILRED R
R: +EANRED R
Motif: 5/5

Possible joint issue between Eanred and Aethelred II, father and son, though it could also be a coin of Aethelred II by moneyer Eanred with the die cutter just putting a "R" on both sides.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-3.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)44 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 182
Leofthegn's "Special" motif: Omega in center of obverse
O: +EDELRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: S3a/1b

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 632), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-9.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)22 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 176
O: +EDELRED RE
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: 3b/S1c

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-5b.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)36 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie unlisted
Leofthegn's "Special" motif: Large 'A' in center of obverse
O: +EDELRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: Alpha/1b

Pirie's 'Coins of the Kingdom of Northumbria' does not specifically list this die variety, however she does recognize its existence in a footnote, stating that it is a pairing of two depicted dies, the obverse of Pirie 178-181 and the reverse of Pirie 182 and 197. Pirie also lists a styca of the same dies as this coin as being in the Charles Winn collection (and probably dating back to the Bolton Percy Hoard) but this coin does not appear to be the same specimen.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 631), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-7.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)29 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 192
O: +EDELRED REX
R: +LEOFDEJN
Motif: S1b/2b

Another of Leofthegn's "special designs." This coin features a hammer cross with staff.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-11b.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)29 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Leofthegn's "Special" motif: hound on reverse
O: +EDILRED REX
R: LEOF DEG И
Motif: 1a/fantastic animal, triquetra

The most impressive imagery to find itself on a styca. Despite a nearly universal preference for "plain-ness" and simplicity on the styca coins, a certain moneyer called Leofthegn (literally "beloved retainer") produced a small and remarkable series of coins with "special designs." These include the letters Alpha and Omega, and a variety of different types of crosses. But by far the most impressive is this one, featuring a creature looking backwards with the moneyer's name in three rows. This creature may be meant to be something of a revival of the "fantastic animal" design of the earlier 8th century coins of Aldfrith, Eadberht, Alchred, Aethelred I, and Aelfwald. Unfortunately, the artistic inclinations shown by this Leofthegn were not copied by his contemporaries, and the coin remains unique therefore in the styca series.

Only one die is known for this coin, and it is quite rare.

Ex- CNG Triton XXI, Dr. JDR, SNC 2/1993, Spink Auction 1, RC Lockett, T Bliss
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-12.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)7 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 225
O: +AEdELREd REX
R: +LEOFdEJN+
Motif: S1a/5c

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-13.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)7 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 173
O: +EDELREd REX
R: +LEOFDEƧN mONET
Motif: 3d/3c

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-leofthegn-14.jpg
S.866 Aethelred II (Leofthegn)8 viewsStyca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Leofthegn
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 866
Pirie 225
O: +AEdELREd REX
R: +LEOFdEJN+
Motif: S1a/5c

Ex- eBay
Nap
redwulf-alghere-2.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Alghere)40 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Alghere
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O:+REDVLF RX
R: +ALGHERE
Motif: 1/1

Alghere also coined for Aethelred II

Ex- DNW, M Lessen, BA Seaby, Glendinings, HA Parsons
1 commentsNap
redwulf-brother-1.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Brother)30 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Brother
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O: +REDVLF RE
R: +BRODER
Motif: 1/1

Brother also coined for Eanred and Aethelred II. Like Redwulf's other moneyers, his career seems to have come to an end after he coined for the usurper, as he is not known to have coined for Aethelred's successor.

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
redwulf-coenred-2.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Coenred)25 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Coenred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Abramson 4-10/5f
O: +REDVVLF REX
R: +COENED
Motif: 5d/1

Coenred was an episcopal moneyer who struck coins for Wigmund, archbishop of York, as well as for Kings Aethelred II and Redwulf.

Ex- Mike Vosper
Nap
redwulf-cuthbert-1a.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Cuthberht)36 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Cuthberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Abramson 4-20/6
O: +REDVLF REX
R: +CVDBEREhT
Motif: 1/1

Cuthberht is a rare moneyer who only struck coins for Redwulf. His design is unusual for the lower case 'h' in the spelling of his name, one of the few lower case letters to be found on any Northumbrian inscriptions.

Ex- eBay
Nap
redwulf-cuthberht-2.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Cuthberht)5 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Cuthberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O: +REDVLF REX
R: +CVDBEREhT
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
redwulf-forthred-2.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Forthred)16 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Forthred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O: +REDVLF RF (retrograde)
R: +EORDRED

Forthred coined for Eanred, Aethelred II, and Redwulf. His name is frequently misspelled as "Eordred" on coins of Redwulf (and occasionally Aethelred II), leading prior generations of numismatists to speak of two different moneyers, but it is fairly well accepted now that they are one and the same.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
Nap
redwulf-hwaetnoth-2.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Hwaetnoth)31 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Hwaetnoth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O:+REDVVLF REX
R: +HVAETNDD
Motif: 1/1

Hwaetnoth is a rare moneyer for Redwulf. He is not known to have struck coins for any other monarchs.

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
redwulf-monne-1a.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Monne)40 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
O: +REDVLF RE (retrograde)
R: +MONNE (retrograde)
Motif: 1/3

Monne is one of the most prolific moneyers of stycas. Monne coined for Eanred, Aethelred II, Redwulf, and Osberht. Due to the considerable time period that encompasses (late 830s to early 860s), it would not be unreasonable to consider that there was more than one 'Monne,' perhaps even a father and son. The name Monne is also found in blundered form on many of the irregular stycas c.850.

Ex- History In Coins, UKDFD: 22280
Nap
redwulf-odilo.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Odilo)85 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Odilo
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Pirie 1705
Phase II, Group Ciii
Abramson 4-20/27f
O: +REDVLF RE
R: +ODI.LO (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

This coin may be a derivative or descendant issue, made during the irregular period of civil war c.850, years after Redwulf's brief reign (844). Metallurgical studies (Gilmore and Pirie, BAR: 180) of a sister coin to this one (same dies) show a significant difference in the composition of coin compared to other coins from Redwulf's reign. Interestingly, this coin's obverse die is known to have been paired with reverses of the moneyers Brother, Forthred, and Monne, along with somewhat blundered reverses in the names of Alghere, Herreth, and Coenred, as well as Odilo.

Three other coins inscribed Redwulf/Odilo can be traced: two in the Yorkshire museum (YM1628 and YM 1628a) and one in Denmark's Royal Collection in Copenhagen (SCBI 4: 368). The two in the Yorkshire collection are from the same die pair as this coin, the one in Copenhagen is from a different reverse die, not retrograde.

This particular coin appears to be identical to the specimen illustrated in the first volume of the British Numismatic Journal in 1903. I am not sure whether it belonged to the author, Major Creeke, or to Nathan Heywood, whom Major Creeke credits with lending some specimens for his research. In "Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society" vol XV (1897), Heywood lists a styca of Redwulf/Odilo as being in his collection, and being absent from the British Museum's collection.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 643), Peter Moffat, Major A. B. Creeke (or Nathan Heywood), plated in BNJ 1: The regal sceatta and styca series of Northumbria, 1903
1 commentsNap
redwulf-wendleberht.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Wendelberht)37 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Wendelberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Pirie 1485
Abramson 4-10/30b
O: +REDVVLF REX
R: +VENDELBER.HT
Motif: 1/1

Wendelberht coined for Redwulf as well as for Aethelred II. His coins of Aethelred II are scarce, and his coins of Redwulf are rare.

This particular reverse die was also used to strike coins for Aethelred II.

Besides this coin, and another in the Moffat collection, the few Redwulf/Wendelberht coins that I can track down are: 5 in the Yorkshire museum, 1 in Leeds University, 2 in SCBI 30: American collections, 1 in the Bolton Percy hoard of 1847, 1 sold by Baldwin's in Sept 2005 (ex- B. Lowsley), and 1 in an American collection that has been published on the web.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 644), Peter Moffat
Nap
aethelred-ii-eanwulf-1.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eanwulf)14 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-849
Moneyer: Eanwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: +EDILRE R (retrograde)
R: +EANNLF

Eanwulf struck coins for Æthelred II and Osberht. Presumably the coins for Æthelred were struck during his second reign

Ex- English Coin Auctions 2015 (lot 36)
Nap
aethelred-ii-eardwulf.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eardwulf)32 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-850
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +EARDVVLF
Motif: 1a/5*

Eardwulf was the most prolific moneyer of Æthelred II's second reign. Presumably the moneyers who went to work for the usurper Redwulf were all fired (and given the brutal times they lived, perhaps executed!), which is why we see no more coins of Brother, Forthred, Eanred, Alghere, or Wendleberht after 844. Eardwulf became the main minter after 844, and his coins have survived in great number. His designs are fairly conventional (unlike Æthelred II's previous main minter Leofthegn), but he does show some variation. This coin has a asterisk-like star in the reverse, a design that was frequently used.

Ex- Status International Auction 301 (lot 7247), Noble Numismatics Sale 102 (lot 1784), Noble Numismatics Sale 72 (lot 955)
Nap
aethelred-ii-eardwulf-2.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eardwulf)24 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-849
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: EDILRED ER
R: EARDVVLF
Motif: 3/2

For a long time, numismatists thought some of the many coins of moneyer Eardwulf were actually coins of King Eardwulf of the early 9th century. This is made doubly complex by the fact that Eardwulf's name appears on many of the irregular c.850 stycas, often in blundered form, often with something that appears like REX after the name. It is now well accepted that King Eardwulf did not mint stycas; the few coins of his known are all silver sceats, similar in composition to Æthelred I's and Eanred's early coins, and are all made by the moneyer Cutheard.

Ex- TimeLine Originals
Nap
aethelred-ii-eardwulf-3.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eardwulf)24 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-850
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +EARDVVLF (retrodrade)

Ex-eBay, PAS: NCL-BF01A2
Nap
aethelred-ii-eardwulf-5.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eardwulf)14 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-850
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: +EDILRED RX (retrograde)
R: +EARDVVLF

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 13 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
Nap
aethelred-ii-eardwulf-4c.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Eardwulf)38 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-850
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +EARDVVLF

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 13 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
1 commentsNap
aethelred-ii-wulfsige-1.jpg
S.868 Æthelred II (Wulfsige)37 viewsStyca of Æthelred II, king of Northumbria (second reign) 844-849
Moneyer: Wulfsige
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 868
Pirie unlisted
Phase II, Group Ciii
O: +EDLIRED RE
R: +VVI.FSIC

Wulfsige was a later moneyer for Æthelred II. He is probably the same person as Osberht's moneyer "Wulfsixt". This coin has the same obverse as Pirie 1720-1721, and the reverse is very similar to Pirie 1720 but it is not identical.

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
osberht-aethelhelm-1.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Aethelhelm)30 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Aethelhelm
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869
O: +OSBRCHT
R: +EDELHELM
Motif: 1/1

Aethelhelm also struck coins for Archbishop Wigmund.

Ex- eBay, UKDFD 47634
Nap
osberht-eanwulf-1.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Eanwulf)39 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Eanwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869

Ex- Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
Nap
osberht-monne-1.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Monne)13 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Monne
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869
O: OSBERCHT EX
R: +MO.NNE (retrograde)

Presuming he was a single person, Monne is the only moneyer to have struck stycas for Eanred, Aethelred II, Redwulf, and Osberht. If he started around the end of Eanred's reign, then this might represent a period of some 15 years. This is longer than any of the other moneyers seemed to work, and it must be considered that there might have been more than one 'Monne'.

Ex- RP Coins
Nap
osberht-winiberht-2.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Winiberht)20 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Winiberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869
O: OSBERCHT RE
R: VINIBERHT
Motif: 1b/2

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
osberht-winiberht-1.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Winiberht)25 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Winiberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869
Pirie 1241
O: OSBERCHT RE
R: VINIBERHT
Motif: 2/2

Winiberht is a rare moneyer who only struck coins for Osberht.

Ex- eBay
Nap
osberht-wulfsixt.jpg
S.869 Osberht (Wulfsige)44 viewsStyca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Wulfsige
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 869
Pirie 445
O: BOSBEBHT
R: +VVLFSIXT
Motif: 3/1

Wulfsixt is believed to be the same moneyer as Wulfsige, who also minted coins for Aethelred II. The letter "X" is runic for the modern letter "G"

Ex- ABC Coins
Nap
wigmund-aethelhelm-1.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Aethelhelm)30 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Aethelhelm
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVND
R: +EDELHELM
Motif: 1/5d

Aethelhelm struck coins for Archbishop Wigmund as well as King Osberht. His name is also found in various butchered forms on the later irregular stycas.

Ex- eBay
Nap
wigmund-aethelhelm-2.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Aethelhelm)31 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Aethelhelm
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVND
R: +EDELHELM
Motif: 1/1

Ex- eBay
Nap
wigmund-aethelweard.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Aethelweard)31 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Aethelweard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVND IREP
R: +EDILVEARD (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

Archbishop Wigmund had four moneyers who struck coins: Aethelweard, Aethelhelm, Coenred, and Hunlaf. All are similarly common. Aethelweard also struck coins for Wigmund's predecessor Eanbald II.

Ex- Mauseus Coins
Nap
wigmund-aethelweard-2.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Aethelweard)16 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Aethelweard
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVNP APEP
R: +EPILVEARD (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

Ex- Silbury Coins
Nap
wigmund-coenred.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Coenred)26 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Coenred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVND AREP
R: +COENRED
Motif: 1/1

Coenred also struck coins for king Redwulf.

Ex- Keith Chapman
Nap
wigmund-coenred-2.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Coenred)31 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Coenred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
O: +VIGMVND IREP
R: +COE.NRED
Motif: 1/1

Particularly nice example of this episcopal styca. Coenred also struck coins for Aethelred II and Redwulf.

Ex- Charles Wood, DNW 18 March 2015 (lot 519 [part]), Derek Tidmarsh
Nap
wigmund-hunlaf-1.jpg
S.870 Wigmund (Hunlaf)31 viewsStyca of Wigmund, archbishop of York 837-854
Moneyer: Hunlaf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 870
Pirie 933, Phase II Group Ci
O: +VIGMVD IPER
R: +HVNLAF
Motif: 1/1

Hunlaf also struck coins for Kings Aethelred II and Redwulf, although those specimens are quite rare, while stycas in the name of Wigmund are quite common.

Ex- eBay
Nap
wulfhere-wulfred-1.jpg
S.871 Wulfhere (Wulfred)65 viewsStyca of Wulfhere, archbishop of York 854-900
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 871
Pirie unlisted
Abramson C-40/34c
O: +VLFHERE ABED (retrograde)
R: +VVLFRED (retrograde)
Motif: 1a/1

Die pairing is unlisted in Pirie, appears to have the same obverse as Pirie 1276-1277 but a different reverse. Pirie does note that other reverses are known for this die obverse.

Ex- History In Coins
Nap
wulfhere-wulfred-2.jpg
S.871 Wulfhere (Wulfred)42 viewsStyca of Wulfhere, archbishop of York 854-900
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 871
Pirie unlisted
Abramson C-40/34c
O: VVLFHFR AREP (retrograde)
R: +VVL.FRED (retrograde)
Motif: 1/3

Unlisted reverse die in Pirie's 'Coins of the Kingdom of Northumbria', but I believe the obverse die is the same as Pirie 1290.

Ex- eBay
Nap
aethelred-ii-cunemund.jpg
S.872 Aethelred II (Cynemund?)23 viewsIrregular styca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Cynemund
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: +EDILRED RE (retrograde)
R: +CVNIMVND (blundered)
Motif: 1/3

Not sure whether to call this a coin of Cynemund or a blundered irregular styca of the c.850 period. It may be a combination of a serviceable Aethelred II obverse die with a nonsensical blundered reverse die.

Ex- Roman Lode Coins
Nap
aethelred-ii-erwinne-1.jpg
S.872 Aethelred II (Erwinne?)13 viewsIrregular styca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Erwinne?
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: +EDILRED REX
R: +ERPINNE

Erwinne is a possible moneyer for Eanred and Aethelred II. While fairly legible stycas are known of both monarchs, Erwinne is considered an irregular moneyer. CSS Lyon, in his "Reappraisal of the Sceatta and Styca coinage of Northumbria", suggests the name is an irregular form of Wihtred, a statement that is a little difficult to accept.

I suspect that Erwinne was probably a moneyer who was active from around the end of Eanred's reign to early in Aethelred's, and who had a fairly limited production of coins.

Ex- English Coin Auctions 2015
Nap
eadwine-herreth-1a.jpg
S.872 Eadwine (Herreth)11 viewsIrregular styca in the name of two moneyers- Eadwine and Herreth
Most likely struck during the time of King Eanred
Moneyer: Eadwine and Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: +EADVINI
R: +HERRD
Motif: 5d/5d

A styca combining reverses for two of Eanred's moneyers, Eadwine and Herreth. Unlike the later irregular stycas which probably originated in the chaotic times of Aethelred II and Osberht in the 850s, this coin is probably earlier since it is of good style and imitates two moneyers which were known to be active in the earlier part of the 9th century. It most likely dates toward the end of Eanred's reign, probably in the 830s.

Ex- eBay
Nap
herred-1.jpg
S.872 Herreth (Herreth)22 viewsIrregular styca in the name of "Herreth"
Most likely struck during the time of King Eanred
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: X HERREÐ
R: X HERREÐ

A double reverse Northumbrian styca of King Eanred's moneyer Herreth

Northumbrian stycas are well known for being crude and, especially in later years, having nonsensical legends. In fact, Spink/Seaby #S.872 is given to all of those coins fitting into the "irregular series."

But this is not a 'typical' blundered styca. In fact it is a mule and presumable deliberately produced "double reverse" coin, depicting the moneyer on both sides, of good style, and from an earlier period than the later civil wartime irregular stycas. This is suggested given that there were finds of this issue at Hexham, which was stashed during the reign of Redwulf or slightly thereafter, and does not include stycas from the later blundered period.

Double reverse coins are not common in the styca series. There are five pairings described:
1) Double reverse of Herreth
2) Double reverse of Aethelweard
3) Double reverse of Eadwine
4) Mule of Herreth/Alfheard
5) Mule of Herreth/Daegberct

Despite the crudeness of Northumbrian coinage, these are really the only major double-reverse mules known for the series, besides later heavily blundered types.

The manufacture of coins was presumably a structured process, given the many thousands of coins produced. The lower die is presumed to have been mounted on some solid piece of wood or anvil, thought to perhaps be via a spike that could be driven into the wood, holding it fast in place. The obverse die would be held with one hand, the hammer with the other. It's not known for sure if this is how manufacture took place, but it is a reasonable assumption that both dies would not be loose and subject to considerable movement during striking.

So for a double-reverse pairing to take place, a reverse die would have been mistakenly manufactured as an obverse die (without the spike), then paired with a normal reverse for striking. This makes some sense, as double obverse pairings are exceedingly uncommon in the styca series, and quite rare overall in medieval and ancient coins. Or this could have been a deliberate act of manufacture by a moneyer who believed the king held no authority over him. Certainly the true meaning will never be known.

There are several coins with the double reverse of Herreth known. They share the reverse with the 1st (left) one of my coin (the side with the D distant from the X). This reverse is also used to strike coins in the name of Eanred. The other known Herreth coins (such as EMC 1997.8609) have a different 2nd reverse, which is known to be paired with an obverse die of Eanred. So both dies were certainly used as reverse dies for regular Eanred coins (something that was unclear when Metcalf and Northover were writing about these coins in 1987).

The 2nd reverse on this coin is different than the other coins described. I haven't seen this die previously used on coins, but presumably it was also made as a reverse for Eanred's coins.

For further discussion of this issue, see "Herreth" in "Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria" by D.M. Metcalf, 1987

Ex- eBay
Nap
hoaud-hwaetred-1.jpg
S.872 Hoaud? (Hwætred)37 viewsIrregular styca in the name of "Hoaud"
Moneyer: Hwætred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: [+HO]AVD RE
R: +HVAET[RD] (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

A slightly chipped coin of King Hoaud, the king that most likely never was. This is an irregular styca which for many years was thought to be of an otherwise unknown king, Hoaud or Huath or some variation. The name itself does not seem to be Anglo-Saxon. Most likely this is a contemporary imitation of coins minted in the 850s, which does not, by die analysis, fit into the main body of die-linked coins of Osberht. Perhaps it was produced outside of the main minting center (presumably York)

D.C. Axe, in his article "Dating the so-called Hoaud stycas", determines that these coins are consistent with the metallic composition of coins made in the 850s, probably during the civil war between Osberht and Ælla, which ended with the attack of the Viking "Great Heathen Army," an event (probably 867) that closed the chapter on Northumbrian independence and styca coinage. There is no figure named "Hoaud" and the lettering is probably nonsensical, as are many of the coins produced at this time. However, during the 19th century, numismatists ran with the idea that 'Hoaud' was one of the kings of this early petty kingdom, and his stycas were evidence of this.

The moneyer, Hwætred, coined for Eanred early in his reign, which was a good 40 years before this coin was produced. Hwætred did not strike coins for any of Eanred's successors, suggesting he was no longer in the coining business by 850. Hwætred's coins are all good silver, unlike this issue which has negligible silver content. So the moneyer was imitative, as was the obverse, making the existence of King Hoaud quite unlikely.

Still, because of the history, this issue is quite collectible. Including museum specimens, there are probably less than 20 of these coins in existence, and when they sell, as with two specimens sold through CNG, they sell for far more than other irregular stycas of the same period.

Ex- eBay
Nap
osberht-eardwulf-1.jpg
S.872 Osberht (Eardwulf)37 viewsIrregular styca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
Pirie 2215
Phase II, Group Dii
O: BOSBCRH (retrograde)
R: +EARDVVLF
Motif: 4/1

Most likely an irregular coin circa 855, which depicts a blundered spelling of Osberht, along with the name of a prolific moneyer (Eardwulf) from the reign of Æthelred II. Die match to Pirie 2215. The obverse is also used to strike stycas in the name of Æthelhelm, Wulfred, and other nonsensical letter combinations.

Ex- eBay, UKDFD 19244
Nap
osberht-nonsense-1.jpg
S.872 Osberht (Æthelhelm?)37 viewsIrregular styca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Æthelhelm?
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
Pirie 2219
Phase II, Group Dii
O: BOSBCRH (retrograde)
R: +EDVLHV (retrograde)
Motif: 4/5d

Nonsense reverse legend. Probably a blundered form of Æthelhelm. Same die as Pirie 2219, also shares obverse die with my coin of Osberht, with the moneyer Eardwulf

A die match can be found in Museum Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

Ex- eBay
Nap
redwulf-herreth-1.jpg
S.872 Redwulf? (Herreth)39 viewsIrregular styca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Herreth
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
Pirie unlisted
Phase II, Group A
O: +REV+HLV
R: +HERRED

Has same obverse as Pirie 468, with a different reverse. Both coins depict the moneyer Herreth.

Ex- eBay
Nap
wulfred-eardwulf-1.jpg
S.872 Wulfred (Eardwulf)18 viewsIrregular styca in the name of two moneyers- Wulfred and Eardwulf
Most likely struck during the time of King Æthelred II or Osberht
Moneyer: Wulfred and Eardwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: +VVLFRED
R: +EARDVVLF
Motif: 1/3

A styca combining the reverses of two of the Northumbrian moneyers. Wulfred coined for Eanred and Æthelred II. Eardwulf was the major moneyer during Aethelred's second reign. Coins exist in the name of Osberht with reverses in the name of Eardwulf and Wulfred but these are probably irregular issues.

Double reverse stycas are unusual; they also known for moneyers Herreth, Æthelweard, Eadwine, Wulfheard, and Dægberct. They are presumably evidence of chaotic political events when the money was not under some central authority's scrutiny.

Ex- English Coin Auctions 2015 (lot 48)
Nap
aethelred-ii-wulfred-3.jpg
S.872 Æthelred II (Wulfred)23 viewsIrregular styca of Aethelred II, king of Northumbria (first reign) 841-844
Moneyer: Wulfred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: +EDILREAD X (retrograde)
R: VVLFRED

Ex- Morton & Eden Auction 91 (lot 10 [part]), Archbishop John Sharp, Ripon Hoard (1695)
1 commentsNap
     
141 files on 1 page(s)