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lorica_buckle.jpg
Armour Buckle and Articulated Plate244 viewsUnique buckle and plate used on Roman lorica segmentata armour. Circa second half of 1st century AD. This buckle was used to attach the upper two breast or back plates of Corbridge type lorica segmentata armour as well as to attach the abdomen girth hoops to the breast and back plates. It was thus a predecessor to the turn keys described elsewhere on this gallery. Parallels can be found in Lorica Segmentata volume 1 by M.C. Bishop, figure 5.6 #1 from Vindonissa Switzerland and volume 2 by M.D. Thompson figure 5, # 1, 4 and 7. This example matches type Aiii with finds at Vindonissa, Cirnchester and, in an almost exact match, Kaiseraugst Germany (dated to 50 AD). otlichnik
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Barbarian or East Roman (Byzantine) Buckles88 viewsUPDATE: I have finally definitively identified these buckles. They are Sucidava type buckles associated with the Byzantine military circa AD 550 - 600. They are named after a Byzantine fort site on the Danube river. They are sometimes found in early Avar and Slav contexts but were imported by them from Byzantium or were booty taken from the Byzantine legions. Type 1 is the "cross and crescent type" at the top which shows a Christian context. Type two is the anthropomorphic face type" at the middle and bottom.otlichnik
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Buckle Plate for Belt 3rd century AD.65 viewsThis belt plate was likely attached, to the right of a buckle. A similar item is found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, figure 38, #79-81, circa 200-250 AD, with others cited from Sarmizegethusa Romania, Schirendorf Germany and South Shields UK.otlichnik
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Cavalry Harness Decoration - obverse60 viewsThis large harness decoration, circa early- to mid-1st century AD has extensive incised decorations which were likely filled with niello. It is often called a phalera though differes from the phalera worn on soldiers armour or belts. Exact parallels can be seen in the Romisches Museum Germany from Vindonissa and Colchester (believed to have belonged to Ala I Thracia attached to Legio XX); and in Feugere, figure 187, #2 from Hod Hill UK dating to the Neronian era. The centre hole was for a lost attachment - possibly a silver medallion.otlichnik
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Cavalry Harness Decoration - reverse58 viewsThe reverse of this early- to mid-1st century AD harness decoration shows the arrangement of loops and hinges. The four small extensions forming a rough square in the middle of the back are likely the broken remnants of two long narrow vertical loops through which the leather harness passed, like a belt, horizontaly. The two loops at the top are for attaching two leather straps via strap fasteners or junction loops. This likely indicates that two cross straps met the main harness at this location. At the bottom is a hinge with some metal still attached. This was likely where a pendant, or hanger, hung below the phalera.otlichnik
roman_spurs_2.jpg
Cavalry Spur, front view83 viewsFront view of a Roman cavalry hackenspur, circa 1st century AD. The bronze spur had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top gave the type its name and was used to help attached it over a boot. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
roman_spurs_1.jpg
Cavalry Spurs, top views84 viewsTop view of two Roman cavalry spurs, circa 1st century AD. The upper spur has knob terminals, which would have buttoned into slits in leather straps to go over the boots. It also has a hole (not visible in this image) for a separate iron prick. An example in the Romisches Museum Germany is from Sirmium. The lower spur is a hackenspur which also had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top and at the ends of the termilas gave the type its name and were used to help attached it to leather boot straps. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
Belt_7.jpg
Decorative Belt Plate 2nd century AD. 58 viewsThis so-called "celtic" or "trumpet" style belt plate is Roman military circa mid- to late-2nd century AD. Parallels are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 88, #5, Antonine era, from Curle Newstead UK; and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach.otlichnik
Misc_Roman_3.jpg
Drawer Handles62 viewsI had originally labelled this as a possible helmet handle based on a few vendors and websites. It is now clear that these are handles for drawers or small chests. The coter pin went through a hole in the wood and was then bent wide inside the drawer or chest. Often the inside of the drawer or chest was protected/strengthened with a flat square of bronze with a hole in the middle. A full handle with both coter pins and the square bronze plates is displayed in the Archeologial Museum of Roman Poetovia in Ptuj, Slovenia. Circa 1st to 2nd century AD. These handles are designed as two dolphins facing, each with three pronged tails. Reports that these are often found at Roman military sites (including Poetovio), as well as civiliain sites, may indicate that the handle was used on small portable chests used by the military as well as civlian items but this is just a guess.otlichnik
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Equestrian Harness Hanger 1st century AD.73 viewsThis large thin bronze hanger is for an equestrian harness, circa 1st century AD. A parallel is found at the Romische Museum in Germany with finds from Vinonissa and Rheingonheim. The Dura Europos report, volume 7, shows and example on page 92, #230 and 272 and cites another from South Shields. This example is from near Sirmium.otlichnik
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Germanic Spear Head25 viewsThis iron spear head has the rounded leaf form and high central ridge of a Germanic piece. It dates to the Marcomannic wars and was found in Slovakia. It was thus likely a Marcomanni weapon. It is 32 cm long (almost 13"), 5.2 cm at its widest, and has a shaft that held a 21 mm diameter wooden haft. It had some of its edging restored (nicks were filled in with a black epoxy) by a previous owner, reportedly in the mid-20th century.otlichnik
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Girth Hoop Tie Rings for Armour57 viewsFour different rings. These rings were used to fasten Roman lorica segmentata armour similar to the armour turn keys illustrated in this same gallery. However, the rings were used for the girth hoops, the narrow bands that protected the abdomen, not the chest plates. The rings were mounted to one side of the girth hoop and passed through a rectangular slot on the other side of the girth hoop. Unlike the keys they were not turned after being passed through the slot but instead tied with leather cords. Each set of lorica segmentata used 12 to 20 rings. They can be seen in Bishop's Lorica Segmentata volume1, figures 6.1 and 6.12 and were used on the Newstead type of lorica segmentata circa 125 to 225 AD. These four examples match type Ii in volume 2 of Lorica Segmentata, by M.D. Thompson. Parallels were found at Carnuntum, Caerleon, Chester, Gloucester and South Shields. These examples come from near Carnuntum.otlichnik
lorica_keys_1.jpg
Girth Hoop Tie Rings for Armour.47 viewsThree more rings for Newstead type lorica segmentata armour. (See other entry in this gallery.) However, these are type Iiii according to Volume 2 of Lorica Segmentata by M.D. Thomspon. Paralelles found in Carnuntum, Komano Bulgaria, Aldborough, Caerleon, Chichester, Dalton Parlows, and South Shields.otlichnik
Casserole_Handle.jpg
Handle for Military Casserole Dish49 viewsThis handle from a bronze casserole dish has the ring-handle design (kasserollen mit kreisrunem loch) used circa 50 to 80 AD. Parallels can be found in Fibeln und ronzegefasse von Kempten-Cambodunum, table 25, #14-15 from Cambodunum, Germany. The form is known as type Eggers 142/143; Petrovszky V 2,3; and Radnoti 15. It was likely mass-made in state factories (fabricae) the Capua area of Italy for the Legions and Cavalry Alae. This example came from near Carnuntum in Austria and may have belonged the Legio XV Apollonaris which was stationed at Carnuntum for much of the time during which this item was in use. otlichnik
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Horse Harness Junction Ring66 viewsThis ring links two straps allowing both to swing freely. Examples are known with three or four straps. Circa early- to mid-1st century AD. Parallels are known from the British Museum and the Romisches Museum Germany from Sirmium, Holtern and Vindonissa. Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 70, shows two examples from Rhingonheim and Kempten (UK).otlichnik
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Horse Harness Strap Spliters41 viewsThese bronze items are part of Roman cavalry harness and are used to split one strap into three or to hang three straps from under one horizontal strap. I do not know the era.otlichnik
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Large Cavalry Harness Hanger 1st century AD.49 viewsThis large harness hanger is made from bronze sheet and hung from the side of a cavalry horse harness, circa 1st century AD.otlichnik
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Large Shield-shaped Belt Plate55 viewsI have not been able to identify this heavy bronze plate. It was fastened with four rivets, three of which remain. The shape is similar to that of a 1st to 2nd century Germanic shield.otlichnik
roman_buckles_2.jpg
Late Roman Buckles72 viewsTwo buckles circa late 4th to early 5th century AD. The left hand example, with its decorated hinged plate is likely late 4th century. An exact parallel is found in Soupault, page 141, #6 from Callatis, Romania and is known as type 1, variant I2a. The right hand example, missing its hinged plate, dates from mid-4th to early 5th century AD. It is known as Soupault type II, variant II2a or Somner type ICb and is found across the Roman empire. Despite use by barbarian soldiers both are considered Roman types.otlichnik
Belt_2a.jpg
Legionnarie's Apron Strap Plate 1st century AD.66 viewsThis narrow plate contains the remains of neillo inlay and silvering. It would have been attached to a narrow vertically hanging strap below the armour. A similar items can be seen in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62, #2 from Rheingonheim Germany.otlichnik
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Legionnaries Apron Strap Terminals122 viewsThese small pendants hung at the end of the straps found below the legionnaries armour. Parallels for the small examples can be found in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 88, #11-12, circa 2nd century, from Hadrian's Wall; and the Dura Europos report, volume 7, page 86, #156. They have been found across the Roman empire. The large example, with a concave back, is similar to a 1st century example from the Rhein at Mainz in Roman Military Equipment, 1st edition, figure 99, #1 but is quite large and may instead be a brass drawer handle from post-medieval furniture. otlichnik
Harness_4.jpg
Lunula Equestrian Harness Hanger 1st century AD.57 viewsA similar design is found in the Romisches Museum in Germany. These hung from the leather harness straps on Roman horses.otlichnik
Belt_4.jpg
Openwork Sword Belt Plates 2nd century AD.90 viewsThe small plate on the left served as a hanger - a pouch or knife was attached to the loop, while the larger was a standard decorative plate. Circa 2nd to early 3r century AD. Similar items can been seen in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 88, #2-4 from Strageath on Hadrian's Wall; and the Dura Europos report, volume 7, #87 which cites paralleles from Richborough, Zugmantel, Saalburg and Drnholec Croatia. otlichnik
Belt_11.jpg
Propeller Sword Belt Stiffeners91 viewsA variety of propeller-shaped sword belt stiffeners, circa 4th to early 5th century AD. These items were spaced along the sword belt to keep the side belt from bending under the weight of the sword. Parallels can be found in Soupault, variant 1a, from Hirsova and Dierna Romania; and Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 137, #3, 5 and 7 from Neuss Germany and Zenkovarkony Hungary. They were found across the Roman empire especially in Western Europe, the Balkans and North Africa. The example at the upper right is actually a lead matrix used to prepare moulds and was found in Lower Austria. The design exactly matches stiffeners from Richborough UK.otlichnik
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Roman Auxiliary Javelin Point19 viewsThis iron javelin point has a unique waisted, or piriform, shape used by some of Rome's auxiliary troops during the Marcomannic wars. It is 16.2 cm long, 4.5 cm wide at its widest, with a shaft that took a 9mm diameter wooden haft.otlichnik
Misc_Roman_5a.jpg
Roman Scabbard Slide for Spatha Sword84 viewsDating to mid-2nd to 3rd century AD. This slide was mounted to the side of the leather-covered wooden spatha scabbard. The baldric (shoulder belt) then fed through the gap. The top portion (approximately 1/3) of this scabbard slide is broken off and missing. Examples can be seen in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 78 #1 (Antonine era find from Handrian's Wall) and figure 99 #6 (Corbridge hoard find from 3rd c.); and in the Dura Europos excavation report #7 (small finds), figure 89, #533 which notes that similar items have also been found in South Shields UK, Buciumi Romania, Lyon France and Banasa Mauretania. otlichnik
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Small Barbarian Buckle59 viewsDespite the very fine workmanship this is a "barbarian" and not a Roman item. This small buckles was likely attached to the lower edge of a sword belt where it was used for suspending straps which held a dagger, purse, etc. Circa mid-3rd to late 4th century AD. Classed in Soupault's Les Element Metalliques du Costume Masculin dans les Provinces Romaines de la Mers Noire as buckle and plate type 1, variant Ia. The closest parallel is #7 from a tomb at Timochevskaia in the Russian Kuban but #2 from a small fort at Iatrus, Bulgaria is also very similar. These buckles were used by the Sarmatians and the Chernyakhov (aka Tcherniakov) culture which comprised an Alan and Goth mix. Dated circa 250 - 365 AD. otlichnik
Harness_3.jpg
Snaffle Bit Cheek Piece Fragment 3rd century AD.47 viewsThe fragment of a large round cheek piece from a Roman cavalry snaffle bit, circa 3rd century AD. Parallels can be found in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 124, #4 from Thamusida Morocco and #6 from Dura Europos. The Dura example is dated to 200-250 AD. Similar ones have been found across the Roman empire. otlichnik
Leg_XIIII_brick.jpg
Stamped Roof Tile from Legio XIIII20 viewsA Roman roof tile, or brick, bearing G XIIII. This is part of the stamp LEG XIIII GMNI from Legio XIII Gemini. This tile fragment was found in a ploughed farm field at Carnuntum. Legio XIIII was stationed at Carnuntum from 118/119 to the 4th century AD. Note that while some tiles have been found with XIV for 14, the vast majority use XIIII which was more common for 14 in the Imperial era. 2 commentsotlichnik
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Stamped Roof Tile from LEGIO XXX22 viewsA Roman roof tile, or brick, bearing XXX VV. This is part of the stamp LEG XXX VV from Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix. This tile fragment was found by my son in a ploughed farm field at Carnuntum. Legio XXX VV was never stationed at Carnuntum but was stationed at Brigetio (the next legionary base downstream on the Danube, now Komarom, Hungary) 103 - 118 AD. Other tiles from Legio XXX VV have been found at Carnuntum, including on in the collection of R.F. Ertl, and thus tiles must have been shipped upriver from Brigetio to the larger base and town at Carnuntum. 1 commentsotlichnik
Strap_End_3.jpg
Strap End / Heart Pendant78 viewsThis heavy bronze heart-shaped pendant hangs on a bronze sheet hanger which has been closed with an iron rivet. Circa 3rd century AD. A close parallel is found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, figure 42, #227, circa 200-250 AD. Others are cited for Carnuntum, Zugmantel, and Stockstadt Germany. The weight makes it likely that this is for a horse harness and not legionnaries armour or belt.otlichnik
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Strap End 4th century.46 viewsStrap end from end of Roman military belt (cingulum). Used on belts with propeller stiffeners. Parallels are found in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 137, #7 from Aquileia, #9 from Sagvar Hunary, and #12 from Winchester UK. otlichnik
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Sword Belt (balteus) Phalerae91 viewsThis high quality bronze item is likely a phalerae which decorated a sword baldric (balteus). Circa early- to mid-3rd century AD. Similar, though not exact, designs can be seen in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 100 and the Dura Europos report, volume 7, page 75, #19.otlichnik
roman_buckles_4.jpg
Sword Belt (Cingulum) Hinged Buckle87 viewsThis buckle, with iron hinge and portion of the belt plate, is for a Roman military sword belt - a cingulum or balteus. Circa 1st century AD. It can be distinguished by the buckle design and the fleur-de-lys pin. Examples are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62 #8 (from Rheingonhiem Germany) and #19 (from Velsen Netherlands). A silver example is found in the Dura Europos excavation report volume 7, page 77, # 52. Examples can be seen in the British Museum and the Romische Museum in Germany. It likely dates to the first half of the 1st century AD.otlichnik
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Sword Belt Buckles88 viewsTwo non-hinged buckles for Roman sword belts (balteus or cingulum). The example on the left dates to the 3rd century AD; the right to the 1st or 2nd century AD.

An exact example of the left hand version can be found in Roman Military Equipment 2nd edition, figure 124, #11 from Corbridge UK, dated to the 3rd century. The Dura Europos report notes similar finds dating to 200-250 AD from Syria, Germany, Serbia, Romania, UK and Spain. The Ashmolean Museum collection notes an example found in a Sarmatian grave in Kerth Crimea.

An example of the right hand version can be found in Roman Military Equipment, 1st edition, figure 97, #15 from Hod Hill, UK, dated to the 1st century AD.
otlichnik
Belt_12a.jpg
Sword Belt Decoration73 viewsThis belt plate, in the form of a letter E with loop underneath, is part of a Roman military sword belt. The full set spelled out FELIX VTERE. The first E always has a loop under it for hanging a purse or knife. Feugere cites a set found in a Roman tomb in Lyon dated to 197 AD in figure 151 of Weapons of the Romans. According to Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 101, #1 these belts originate with the legions on the lower and middle Danube and in Dacia and therefore the Lyon tomb must have been of a Danubian legionary. It is dated to the late 2nd to 3rd century AD.otlichnik
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Sword Belt Plate 1st century102 viewsThis large rectangular sword belt (cingulum) late is made of bronze with niello inlay in a vine design and traces of silvering and dates to the early 1st century AD. Similar examples can be seen in the legionnary's sword belt display in the British Museum and in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62, #1-4 from Hod Hill UK and Rheingonheim Germany. When new the sword belt would have been covered in these shiny silvered plates with their with black decoration.otlichnik
Belt_3.jpg
Sword Belt Plate Fragment 1st century BC to 1st century AD.94 viewsThe left hand 1/3 of a large sword belt plate. The edge of the central medallion design can just be made out. According the Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military equipment, 2nd edition, figure 33, #2, this design dates from the Republican era. Similar items were found in Castillejo Spain. Mills Celtic and Roman Artefacts notes that these were attached with rivets and indeed a single rivet remains on the reverse of this plate fragment. otlichnik
Belt_6.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 2nd-3rd century AD.52 viewsTwo sword belt (cingulum) plates circa 2nd-3rd century AD. Parallels for the top example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #85 and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach. A parallel for the lower example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, figure 38, #84. The centre portions may have been blank revealing the belt fabric or may have contained an enamel insert. otlichnik
Belt_5.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 3rd century AD.52 viewsTwo sword belt (cingulum) plates circa 3rd century AD. Similar examples for the top example, which may have been found at the buckle end of the belt - hence its assymetrical shape -, can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #85 and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach. A similar example for the lower example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #84.otlichnik
Belt_10.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 3rd-4th century AD.50 viewsA belt plate on the left and hanger plate on the right. The eyelet design is found, according to Roman Military Equipment 2nd edition, on belts which also have the propeller stiffeners. A near parallel to the left hand plate is found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, dated circa 200-250 AD with others cited from Romania.otlichnik
Belt_9.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 3rd-4th century AD.149 viewsTwo belt plates, both likely from the ends of belts given their assymetrical shape. A similar design is found in Roman Military Equipment, 1st edition, figure 174, #4 from Zenkovarkony Hungary from a belt which also has the propeller stiffeners. Another near parallel is found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, page 81, #94 dated circa 200-250 AD with others cited from Wroxeter UK.otlichnik
lorica_keys_3.jpg
Turn Keys for Armour Plates146 viewsTwo types of turn keys for the chest plates of the famous Roman lorica segmentata armour. The two side plates of the chest armour were overlapped until the rectangular holes lined up, the key was then inserted through the two holes and turned locking the plates together. One key was used on the front of the chest and two on the back. Circa 125 to 225 AD. According the M.C. Bishop's Lorica Segmentata volume 1 these were used for Newstead type lorica segmentata circa 125 to 225 AD, Alba Iulia type lorica segmentata circa 200 to 225 AD, and "sports" parade armour. Examples are found in figures 6.11 and 7.4. The small key is an exact match for figure 6.11, Alba Iulia type. These examples came from near Carnuntum.otlichnik
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Two Late Roman Buckles187 viewsTwo buckles circa 4th century AD. The upper example, with its small, odd-shaped hinged plate is likely late 4th century. It is known as Soupault, type 1, variant I2a and is found in Eastern Europe. The lower example, with its square hinged plate, dates from the mid- to late-4th century AD. It is known as Soupault type Ib with plate type 1, variant I2aI. Example #1 in Soupault was found in Callatis, Romania. Though mostly found in Eastern Europe and example is known from Winchester (Roman Military Equipment, 1st edition, figure 137, #4). Despite use by barbarian soldiers both are considered Roman types.otlichnik
 
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