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Coins of the Republic


RRC422-1.jpg

14 files, last one added on Nov 16, 2010

Republican Fourrés


Faustus_Sulla_Fourré~1.jpg

Pliny, Natural History 33.134: "mirumque, in hae artium sola vita discuntur et falsi denarii spectatur exemplar pluribusque veris denariis adulterinus emitur." - " It is truly marvellous, that in this art, and in this only, the various methods of falsification should be made a study: for the sample of the false denarius is now an object of careful examination, and people absolutely buy the counterfeit coin at the price of many genuine ones!" (Text and Translation: Perseus Project)

3 files, last one added on Nov 16, 2010

Coins of the Triumvirs (44 B.C.-14 A.D.)


RRC529-4.jpg

3 files, last one added on Nov 16, 2010

Coins of M. Aurelius Probus


Probus_-_Pax.jpg

Probus was Roman Emperor from AD 276 to AD 282. I've illustrated the coin types with extracts from the Historia Augusta. This should not be taken as a deliberate link, of course, but seems simply works out nicely for this emperor. Text and translation are taken from Lacus Curtius.

8 files, last one added on Nov 18, 2010

4 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - Syltorian's Gallery
Probus_-_Mars_Pacif.jpg
Marti Pacifero54 viewsObv. PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. MARTI PACIF, armoured and helmeted mars advancing left, holding olive twig in right, spear and shield in left, cape billowing behind, RQ{Gamma} in exergue,
Rome Mint, AD 282,
20 mm, 3,43 gr
Refs. RIC 177

Historia Augusta 16: "post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veniret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit. his gestis orientem petiit atque itinere potentissimo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca ingressus est. (...) veteranis omnia illa quae anguste adeuntur loca privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne latrocinare umquam discerent." - [20]causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere.

"After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, rightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East, and while on his march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand, named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, (...) And so all those places which were difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that their children, that is, the males only, should be sent to the army at the age of eighteen, in order that they never might learn to be brigands." - "The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned"
SyltorianNov 18, 2010
Probus_-_Victoria_Germ.jpg
Victoria Germanica65 viewsVictoria Germanica
Obv. PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. VICTORIA GERM, trophy with weapons and two prisoners, RAA in exergue
Rome Mint
22 mm, 4,06 gr.
Refs: RIC 222

Historia Augusta, 13-14: "his gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic proelia et tam feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam efferebantur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope quadringentis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant solum, reliquos ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam removit. tantum his praedae barbaricae tulit quantum ipsi Romanis abstulerant. (...) nec cessatum est umquam pugnari, cum cottidie ad eum barbarorum capita deferrentur, iam ad singulos aureos singula, quamdiu reguli novem ex diversis gentibus venirent atque ad pedes Probi iacerent. quibus ille primum obsides imperavit, qui statim dati sunt, deinde frumentum, postremo etiam vaccas atque oves."

"This done, he set out with a huge army for the provinces of Gaul, which since the death of Postumus had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of Aurelian had been seized by the Germans. There, moreover, he fought battles so great and successful that he took back from the barbarians sixty most famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth, were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four hundred thousand who had seized upon Roman soil, drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and the district of Alba, getting from them as much barbarian booty as they themselves had seized from the Romans. (...) All the while the heads of barbarians were brought in to him daily, now at the price of an aureus apiece, and he never ceased fighting until nine princes of different tribes came before him and prostrated themselves at his feet. From these he demanded, first hostages, which they gave him at once, then grain, and last of all their cows and their sheep."
SyltorianNov 18, 2010
Probus_-_Fides_Militum_(1).jpg
Fides Militum53 viewsObv. IMP PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. FIDES MILITVM, Fides facing left, holding to legionary standards, R{lightning}E in exergue,
Rome mint,
21mm, 3,92 gr.
RIC 169

Historia Augusta 10 and 20 "[10] cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Florianum, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, interemerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est. - [20]. cum per Illyricum iter faceret, a militibus suis per insidias interemptus est. causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere. his addidit dictum eis grave, si umquam eveniat, salutare rei publicae, brevi milites necessarios non futuros.

"[10] And so, when it was well known that Probus was emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, who had seized the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they knew well that no one could rule more worthily than Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by the voice of both army and senate. - [20]. While on the march through Illyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of such soldiers."
SyltorianNov 18, 2010
Probus_-_Clementia.jpg
Clementia95 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, draped and radiate bust right,
Rev. CLEMENTIA TEMP, emperor with eagle tipped sceptre receiving globe from sceptered Jupiter, H in field, XXI in exergue;
Antioch Mint,
22mm, 4,37 gr.
RIC 920

Historia Augusta 22: "conferenti mihi cum aliis imperatoribus principem Probum omnibus prope Romanis ducibus, qua fortes, qua clementes, qua prudentes, qua mirabiles exstiterunt, intellego hunc virum aut parem fuisse aut, si non repugnat invidia furiosa, meliorem."

"As for myself, when I compare Probus as a ruler with other emperors, in whatever way almost all Roman leaders have stood out as courageous, as merciful, as wise, or as admirable, I perceive that he was the equal of any, or indeed, if no insane jealousy stands in the way, better than all."
SyltorianNov 18, 2010
Claudius_Turrinus_Fourré.jpg
RRC 494/23 (Clodius Turrinus) Subaeratus92 viewsObv: Anepigraphic, Head of Apollo facing right;
Rev: Diana Lucifera bearing two torches, standing facing, bow and quiver on her shoulder, P. CLODIVS to right, M.F. to left.
Denarius subaeratus, (3,01 g, 18 mm)

Reproducing RRC 494/23, RSC Claudia 15 of ca. 42 B.C.The original coin would have been struck under the second triumvirate, possibly the year Cassius and Brutus were defeated at Second Philippi.
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
Faustus_Sulla_Fourré~1.jpg
RRC 494/23 (Faustus Sulla) Subaeratus50 viewsObv: Laureate and diademed head of Venus right, sceptre on shoulder, SC behind;
Rev: Three military trophies between jug and lituus, FAVSTVS monogram in exergue
Denarius subaeratus (2,372 g, 18,5 mm)

Reproducing RRC 426/3, RSC Cornelia 63 of ca. 56. B.C. The coin was struck by the son of the dictator Sulla, but under Pompey: the reverse design may refer to both men, as both used three trophies on their seal (Cassius Dio 42.18.3). Acquired from Forum.
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
Unknown_Fourré.jpg
Imitative denarius serratus subaeratus55 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
Probus_-_Pax.jpg
Pax54 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left
Rev. Pax standing left, olive branch in right, transverse scepter in left, Q right, XXI in ex;
Antoninanus, 3.25 gr, 21 mm,
Siscia
Refs. RIC V 711

Historia Augusta 20 "Brevi," inquit, "milites necessarios non habebimus." quid est aliud dicere: Romanus iam miles erit nullus? ubique regnabit, omnia possidebit secura res publica. orbis terrarum non arma fabricabitur, non annonam praebebit, boves habebuntur aratro, equus nascetur ad pacem, nulla erunt bella, nulla captivitas, ubique pax, ubique Romanae leges, ubique iudices nostri."

"Soon," he said, "we shall have no need of soldiers." What else is this than saying: "Soon there will not be a Roman soldier? Everywhere the commonwealth will reign and will rule all in safety. The entire world will forge no arms and will furnish no rations, the ox will be kept for the plough and the horse be bred for peace, there will be no wars and no captivity, in all places peace will reign, in all places the laws of Rome, and in all places our judges."
1 commentsSyltorianNov 16, 2010
Probus_-_Restitutor_Orbis.jpg
Restitutor Orbis131 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and draped bust right;
Rev. RESTITVT ORBIS, Female figure standing right presenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding globe; {Delta} between, XXI in ex
Antoninanus, 21mm, 4,32 gr.
Refs: RIC 851

Historia Augusta 14, "His gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic proelia et tam feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam efferebantur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope quadringentis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant solum, reliquos ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam removit."

"This done, he set out with a huge army for the provinces of Gaul which since the death of Postumus had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of Aurelian had been seized by the Germans.There, moreover, he fought battles so great and successful that he took back from the barbarians sixty most famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth, were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four hundred thousand who had seized upon Roman soil, drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and the district of Alba."
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
Probus_-_Virtus_(2).jpg
Virtus Probi (1)94 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust of emperor left, holding shield and carrying spear over shoulder;
Rev. VIRTVS PROBI AVG, emperor on horseback riding left, spearing fallen enemy, XXI P in exergue
Probus Antoninanus, 21 mm, 3,42 gr.
Refs

Historia Augusta, 10: "um his igitur tot ac tantis virtutibus eniteret, Tacito absumpto fataliter ac Floriano imperium arripiente omnes orientales exercitus eundem imperatorem fecerunt."

"And so, resplendent by reason of these many great virtues, when Tacitus had been removed by the decree of Fate and Florian was seizing the rule, he was created emperor by all the troops of the East"
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
Probus_-_Temp_Fel.jpg
Tempore Felici148 viewsObv. IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev. TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae, I in ex;
AE Antoninianus, 21 mm, 3,91 gr;
Lugdunum
RIC 51. C. 723.

Historia Augusta, Probus 22: "quae deinde felicitas emicuisset, si sub illo principe milites non fuissent? annona provincialis daret nullus, stipendia de largitionibus nulla erogarentur, aeternos thesauros haberet Romana res publica, nihil expenderetur a principe, nihil a possessore redderetur; aureum profecto saeculum promittebat."

" What great bliss would then have shone forth, if under his rule there had ceased to be soldiers! No rations would now be furnished by any provincial, no pay for the troops taken out of the public largesses, the commonwealth of Rome would keep its treasures forever, no payments would be made by the prince, no tax required of the holder of land; it was in very truth a golden age that he promised."
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
RRC383-1.jpg
RRC383/1 (Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap. N.)50 viewsObv. Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, stag-shaped bow and quiver over shoulder, S.C. before;
Rev. Victory in biga right, holding palm and wreath, control numeral XXXX below, TI CLAVD TI. F. AP.N. (VD and AP in monogram) in exergue;
19 mm; 3,80 gr.
Rome, 79 B.C.
Refs: RRC383/1, Sear 310, RSC Claudia 5

[Research in progress]
2 commentsSyltorianNov 16, 2010
RRC413-1.jpg
RRC413/1 (L. Cassius Longinus)41 viewsbv. Anepigraphic, draped vestal virgin facing left, shallow vessel (culullus) behind, control letter (L?) before; punch marks.
Rev. Male togate figure left, left hand on hips, right hand placing a tablet inscribed with V(ti rogas) in a cista. LONGIN(VS) IIIV(ir) ro right.
Rome, 63 B.C. or 52 B.C.
RRC 413/1, Sear 364, RSC Cassia 10

This coin was struck by the brother of the famous Cassius who, with Brutus, was the head of the conspiracy to kill Caesar. L. Cassius rose to proconsul under Caesar, and was Tribune of the People in 44 B.C. He was later reconciled to the triumvirs, however (Appian B.C. 5.7).

On both sides of the coin, the allusion is made to L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (cos. 127 B.C.; censor 125 B.C.), who was responsible for the condemnation of wayward Vestals, which had previously been acquitted by the Pontifex Maximus (Cassius Dio 26.87, Asconius, Comm. in Pis. 32). The penalty for the Vestals would have been live burial, and for their accomplices, death by flogging.

While he was a tribune of the people (137 B.C.), Cassius Longinus introduced the secret vote for jury trials (following the Lex Gabinia of 139 B.C., which had made the vote at elections secret). This made Cicero (consul the year this coin seems to have been struck) see Ravilla as a traitor to the Boni (Cicero, de leg. 3.35, pro Sest. 48.103). The scene thus shows a voter placing a tablet marked with Vti Rogas ("as you ask", "aye") in the polling box. A "nay" would have been marked "A(ntiquo)".
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
RRC415-1_-_Graffito.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus), Graffito85 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
17 mm, 3,79 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

It has been suggested that the moneyer, L. Aemilius Paullus, took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, took him and his sons Philip and Aexander prisoner (what happened to the daughter is not recorded), and led them in his triumph. The people themselves did not apparently appreciate the introduction of children into the triumph, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore.

The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum, to quaestor (59 B.C.), Praetor (53 B.C.) and Consul (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.

This coin also bears graffito, spelling out HAEMI. The significance is unknown, and may indicate the owner; if the last latter is to be read as an O, it might be a dedication or a receiver.
SyltorianNov 16, 2010
RRC554.jpg
RRC291/1 (Mn. Aemilius Lepidus) 43 viewsObv. Laureate, diademed head of Roma right, ROMA before, MA in ligate; mark of value behind
Rev. MN AE[M]ILIO, ligature on praenomen. Equestrian statue on arches, LEP between;
17 mm, 3.77 grams
Rome, 114-113 B.C.
Refs.: RRC 291/1, RSC Aemilia 7

Allusions: The head of Roma is not unusual, but the reverse is subject to some debate. Several propositions have been put forward: (1) A triumphal arch to a Mn. Aemilius Lepidus (the prateor of 213 B.C. or his son, consul of 158 B.C.). (2) the pons Aemilius, the oldest stone bridge in Rome, now Ponte Rotto, which connected the Cattle Market with the Transtiberim since the mid-3rd century. It may be then that a Mn. Aemilius had the original bridge built. Its stone form goes back to 179 B.C. under the auspices of the censors M.Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior. (3) The Aqua Marcia, formerly Aqua Aemilia Fulvia (Pliny 31.24 with emendation) and led over the Pons Aemilius. A similar coin issued by the Marcia family in 56 BC exists (Marcia 28, Syd. 919). The Marcii may have tried to counter the Aemilian claim to the aqueduct. In fact, the censors Aemilius and Fulvius had begun building the aqueduct, but never completed it, since M. Licinius Crassus refused to let it be built over his ground (Livy 40.51.7).

The moneyer: Unclear. He may have been the son of the consul of 126 B.C., and father of Mn. Aemilius Mn. f. Lepidus, the consul of 66 B.C. (Crawford);
1 commentsSyltorianNov 16, 2010
RRC139-1.jpg
RRC139/01 (Anonymous) Brockage40 viewsObv. Helmeted head of Roma right, mark of value (X) behind
Rev. Brockage of obverse
18 mm; 3,88 gr
Rome, 190-180 B.C.
References RRC139/01

A brockage is a minting error, which occurrs if an already struck coin sticks to one of the dies without the mint workers noticing. The next coin to be struck receives the negative of the former coin, rather than the design on the die. Here, the head of Roma has been stamped in incuse (negative) on the obverse, rather than the Dioscuri. Thanks to Andrew for identifying the coin as RRC139/01.

The moneyers left no personal mark on the coins of this period, so this coin cannot be linked with any person. During the time this coin was struck, Rome had just emerged victorious from the Seleucid War, for which they obtained 15'000 talents of silver in indemnities: she completeted the Via Aemilia and began founding colonies in the north (Aquileia, Pisa, Lucca, Mutina, Parma). The Senate also extended its grip over Italy by issueing the Bacchanalian Decree throughout the peninsula.
SyltorianNov 16, 2010

Random files - Syltorian's Gallery
Probus_-_Victoria_Germ.jpg
Victoria Germanica65 viewsVictoria Germanica
Obv. PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. VICTORIA GERM, trophy with weapons and two prisoners, RAA in exergue
Rome Mint
22 mm, 4,06 gr.
Refs: RIC 222

Historia Augusta, 13-14: "his gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic proelia et tam feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam efferebantur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope quadringentis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant solum, reliquos ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam removit. tantum his praedae barbaricae tulit quantum ipsi Romanis abstulerant. (...) nec cessatum est umquam pugnari, cum cottidie ad eum barbarorum capita deferrentur, iam ad singulos aureos singula, quamdiu reguli novem ex diversis gentibus venirent atque ad pedes Probi iacerent. quibus ille primum obsides imperavit, qui statim dati sunt, deinde frumentum, postremo etiam vaccas atque oves."

"This done, he set out with a huge army for the provinces of Gaul, which since the death of Postumus had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of Aurelian had been seized by the Germans. There, moreover, he fought battles so great and successful that he took back from the barbarians sixty most famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth, were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four hundred thousand who had seized upon Roman soil, drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and the district of Alba, getting from them as much barbarian booty as they themselves had seized from the Romans. (...) All the while the heads of barbarians were brought in to him daily, now at the price of an aureus apiece, and he never ceased fighting until nine princes of different tribes came before him and prostrated themselves at his feet. From these he demanded, first hostages, which they gave him at once, then grain, and last of all their cows and their sheep."
Syltorian
Probus_-_Fides_Militum_(1).jpg
Fides Militum53 viewsObv. IMP PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. FIDES MILITVM, Fides facing left, holding to legionary standards, R{lightning}E in exergue,
Rome mint,
21mm, 3,92 gr.
RIC 169

Historia Augusta 10 and 20 "[10] cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Florianum, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, interemerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est. - [20]. cum per Illyricum iter faceret, a militibus suis per insidias interemptus est. causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere. his addidit dictum eis grave, si umquam eveniat, salutare rei publicae, brevi milites necessarios non futuros.

"[10] And so, when it was well known that Probus was emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, who had seized the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they knew well that no one could rule more worthily than Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by the voice of both army and senate. - [20]. While on the march through Illyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of such soldiers."
Syltorian
RRC413-1.jpg
RRC413/1 (L. Cassius Longinus)41 viewsbv. Anepigraphic, draped vestal virgin facing left, shallow vessel (culullus) behind, control letter (L?) before; punch marks.
Rev. Male togate figure left, left hand on hips, right hand placing a tablet inscribed with V(ti rogas) in a cista. LONGIN(VS) IIIV(ir) ro right.
Rome, 63 B.C. or 52 B.C.
RRC 413/1, Sear 364, RSC Cassia 10

This coin was struck by the brother of the famous Cassius who, with Brutus, was the head of the conspiracy to kill Caesar. L. Cassius rose to proconsul under Caesar, and was Tribune of the People in 44 B.C. He was later reconciled to the triumvirs, however (Appian B.C. 5.7).

On both sides of the coin, the allusion is made to L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (cos. 127 B.C.; censor 125 B.C.), who was responsible for the condemnation of wayward Vestals, which had previously been acquitted by the Pontifex Maximus (Cassius Dio 26.87, Asconius, Comm. in Pis. 32). The penalty for the Vestals would have been live burial, and for their accomplices, death by flogging.

While he was a tribune of the people (137 B.C.), Cassius Longinus introduced the secret vote for jury trials (following the Lex Gabinia of 139 B.C., which had made the vote at elections secret). This made Cicero (consul the year this coin seems to have been struck) see Ravilla as a traitor to the Boni (Cicero, de leg. 3.35, pro Sest. 48.103). The scene thus shows a voter placing a tablet marked with Vti Rogas ("as you ask", "aye") in the polling box. A "nay" would have been marked "A(ntiquo)".
Syltorian
Unknown_Fourré.jpg
Imitative denarius serratus subaeratus55 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
Syltorian