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Augustus


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus.jpg

1 files, last one added on Apr 21, 2019

Tiberius


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-V7wOu24E4Q74a-Tiberius_sestertius_capracorn.jpg

11 files, last one added on Apr 19, 2019

Caligula


Agrippa-Brass_As_of_Roman_Co.jpg

24 files, last one added on Apr 21, 2019

Claudius


Claudius__AD_41-54__Æ_Quadrans,_Modius_2.jpg

10 files, last one added on Jun 16, 2019

Nero


NERO_DENARIUS,_FOUREE_-_CIRCA__60-61_C_E__105.jpg

12 files, last one added on Jun 11, 2019

Vespasian


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-dw1DGopEm9wADCaN-Vespasian_As.jpg

4 files, last one added on Apr 20, 2019

Titus


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-UY8Ftdm9LPrma-Divi_Vesp_Titus.jpg

3 files, last one added on Apr 20, 2019

Domitian


DOMITIAN_-_SESTERCE_193_26.jpg

8 files, last one added on Apr 19, 2019

Nerva


Nerva_Æ_As__Rome,_AD_96__84.jpg

2 files, last one added on May 09, 2019

Trajan


Trajan_Æ_Sestertius__Rome,_AD_103-111_144.jpg

7 files, last one added on Apr 20, 2019

Hadrian


Hadrian_AD_117-138__Rome_113.jpg

12 files, last one added on Jun 16, 2019

Antoninus Pius


Diva_Faustina_I_AD_140-141__Rome_82.jpg

14 files, last one added on Jun 09, 2019

Marcus Aurelius


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2oIMBWCjCSGhrDb-Marcus_Aurelius_sestertius.jpg

4 files, last one added on Apr 20, 2019

Commodus


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KoutjfGaeGOz-Commodus_sestertius.jpg

3 files, last one added on Apr 20, 2019

Septimius Severus


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-CMt5FFY7AjAV0pX-Septimius_Severus_sestertius.jpg

2 files, last one added on Apr 21, 2019

Caracalla


Caracalla.jpg

5 files, last one added on Jun 07, 2019

Geta


GETA_AS_CO-EMPEROR_WITH_HIS_BROTHER_CARACALLA,__209-211_AD_34_99.jpg

1 files, last one added on Apr 21, 2019

Elagabalus


imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-D9xmlTKLnIcvxngd-Elagabalus_sestertius.jpg

2 files, last one added on Apr 21, 2019

28 albums on 2 page(s) 1

Last additions - Gary W2's Gallery
Maximinus_II_5.jpg
Maximinus II (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Follis 2 viewsMAXIMINVS PF AVG - Laureate head right
IOVI CONSERVATORI - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre, wreath in left field, A in right field, dot SM dot TS dot in ex.
Exergue: dot SM dot TS dot


Mint: Thessalonica (312AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.73g / 23mm / 360
References:
RIC VI 50a, B
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 11/17
Notes: Jun 16, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Jun 16, 2019
Hadrian_AD_117-138__Rome_113.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius2 viewsIMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate draped bust right
PONT MAX TR POT COS III S-C - Hadrian seated left on platform, extending hand to woman before him with child in arms and another to left, LIBERTAS RESTITVTA in ex.
Exergue: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA




Mint: Rome (119-122 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.12g / 33mm / 12h
Rarity: R2
References:
RIC II 568
Cohen 949
BMC 1160
Banti 515
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 34th Silver Auction #406 $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 16, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2Jun 16, 2019
Claudius__AD_41-54__Æ_Quadrans,_Modius_2.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 3 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Three-legged modius
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.21g / 17mm / 6h
References:
RIC I 84
BMCRE 179
Cohen 70
von Kaenel Type 63
Acquisition/Sale: holding_history eBay $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 16, 19 - The modius was a roman unit for grain corresponding to 8.7 liters (2.3 gallons).

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD -This Coin
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.
Gary W2Jun 16, 2019
Herennia_Etruscilla_AD_249-251__Rome_12~0.jpg
Herennia Etruscilla (Augusta) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 viewsHERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG - Diademed and draped bust right.
PVDICITIA AVG, SC in exergue - Pudicitia seated left, drawing veil from head with right hand and long transverse sceptre in left.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (250 AD )
Wt./Size/Axis: 14.74g / 28mm / 12h
References:
RIC IV 136b (Decius)
Banti 8
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 3rd Blue Auction #1255 $0.00 06/19

Wife of Trajan Decius

Rome mint, 6th officina. 3rd emission of Trajan Decius, AD 250.
Gary W2Jun 15, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AZHPr90kZBFMK-Julia_Titi_sestertius~0.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius8 viewsDIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F SPQR - Carpentum drawn right by two mules.
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (92-94 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.24g / 33mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 760 (Domitian)
BMCRE 471-3 (Domitian)
Sear 2891
Cohen 10
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops $0.00 08/18

Julia Titi was the daughter of the Emperor Titus, and although married, she had an affair with her uncle Domitian. In 83 A.D., Domitian divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because Domitian forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius7 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purch

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-UY8Ftdm9LPrma-Divi_Vesp_Titus~0.jpg
Titus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS VESP - Radiate Vespasian seated left holding branch and scepter.
IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII Around large S C - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (80 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.10g / 35mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 145
Sear 2573
Cohen 207
Provenances:
Father Wilbur B. Dexter Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay CNG Electronic/137 #216 $0.00 11/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per RIC-Rare
2 commentsGary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius8 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius18 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
2 commentsGary W2Jun 12, 2019
CALIGULA_AE_orichalc~0.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius7 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

his coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
40-41_AD_CALIGULA_AE~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As6 viewsCAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 54
Cohen 29
BMCRE 73
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

Per RIC: This late series, the final issue from 40-41 AD, is rated R in RIC. The other type from 39-40 AD with the same obverse legend is scarce, whilst the standard type from 37-39 AD is rated common. I find the 39-40 AD issues to be the rarest of them all.
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
Tiberius_(14-37)__Æ_Sestertius_(33mm,_27_07g,_12h)_166_26~0.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 views(no legend) - Triumphal quadriga without driver, stepping right, drawing a cart decorated with Victory, a trophy and a prisoner
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.07g / 33mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 60
C. 66
BMC 113
CBN 91
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts VCoins

The empty Quadriga probably alludes to the action of L. Vitellius against the Parthians, although no decision is known about the attribution of the Signa triumphalia to L. Vitellius. The father of the future emperor had been sent by Tiberius as legatus Augusti pro praetore to Syria, as in Armenia the Parthian king Artabanos III had used his son Arsakes. Lucius Vitellius was extremely successful, not only succeeded in establishing a king of Rome's mercy in Armenia, but also in Parthia himself to install a new king. Artabanos III had to flee to the Scythians.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus~0.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS5 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KwDQ4wsp7yxXEaJ-Tiberius~0.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius4 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO SPQR - Statue of Augustus seated left on throne, set on ornate triumphal car drawn by four elephants.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXVII around large SC - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 33.50mm / 12h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC (Tib.) 62
MIR 2, 52-4
BMCRE 108 (Tiberius)
BN 90 (Tiberius)
Cohen 307 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 45E #259 $0.00 12/18
Notes: Jan 23, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per RIC-Rarity 3
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius4 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-V7wOu24E4Q74a-Tiberius_sestertius_capracorn~0.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Orichalcum Sestertius4 viewsDIVO AVGVSTO S P Q R - Shield inscribed OB CIVES SER in three lines within oak-wreath supported by two capricorns; below, globe
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXVII - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (35-36 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.20g / 33mm / 12
Rarity: R2
References:
BMCRE 109 (Tiberius)
RIC I 63 (Tiberius)
Cohen 303 (Augustus)
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops

From Roma:
The significance of the constellation Capricorn to Augustus is subject to debate, with some ancient sources reporting that it was his birth sign and others relating that he was conceived under the sign - the latter tying in with his official birthday on 23rd-24th September. Although we now view conception and birth as two separate events, the Romans viewed conception through to birth as a continuous process. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits Capricorn from late December to late January, marking midwinter and the shortest day of the year. For this reason, often it was considered a hostile sign but Augustus chose to interpret it positively since it had governed two major events in his life - the granting of imperium to him by the Senate in January 43 BC, and the acceptance of the title Augustus on 16 January 27 BC. The capricorn is represented as a goat with a fish tail, and is often thought to be a representation of Pan escaping an attack by the monster Typhon. Having jumped into the Nile, the half of Pan's body which was submerged was transformed into a fish.

An alternative interpretation is that the goat is Amalthea, who suckled the infant Zeus after Rhea rescued him from being devoured by his father Cronus. The broken horn of Amalthea transformed into the cornucopiae. It is a symbol of fertility and abundance.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2Jun 12, 2019

Random files - Gary W2's Gallery
Caligula_Large_27mm_AE_As_Vesta_42.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 2 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.40g / 27mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 47
Cohen 28
Acquisition/Sale: arkadyn Ebay

This is the second of three dated Caligula As issues. This one dates from 39-40 AD and is the scarcer of the three. The one dated 40-41 AD seems to be more available then the 39-40 AD issue where as the 37-38 AD issue is by far the most common.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-UY8Ftdm9LPrma-Divi_Vesp_Titus~0.jpg
Titus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS VESP - Radiate Vespasian seated left holding branch and scepter.
IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII Around large S C - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (80 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.10g / 35mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 145
Sear 2573
Cohen 207
Provenances:
Father Wilbur B. Dexter Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: fvrivs.rvfvs eBay CNG Electronic/137 #216 $0.00 11/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per RIC-Rare
2 commentsGary W2
Agrippa-Brass_As_of_Roman_Co.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 1 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head of Agrippa, left, wearing rostral crown
S C - Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 161
RIC 1 58
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AKqZfSqOcaxKsm0h-Antoninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 2 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII - Laureate head right
VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III, COS IIII in ex, - Antoninus Pius, standing left, sacrificing with patera over tripod, left arm at side
Exergue: COSIIII


Mint: Rome (158-159 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.09g / 31mm / 12h
References:
RIC 1010
Cohen 1124
BMC 2068
Sear 4262
Acquisition/Sale: mtmstores Ebay
Notes: Nov 8, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2