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Magna Graecia - Italy


Greek coins of Southern Italy

"... cast earth upon my body
And seek haven in Velia once more..."

~ Vergil

(please choose 'Position +' for proper order)

20 files, last one added on Jul 15, 2017

Magna Graecia - Taras


Greek coins of Southern Italy

"...I would that I might end my days at Tarentum."
~ Horace

(please choose 'Position +' for proper order)

68 files, last one added on Aug 01, 2017

Magna Graecia - Sicily


Greek coins of Sicily

"Whatever may happen to the Sicilians, they comment on it with a joke."
~ Cicero

7 files, last one added on Feb 06, 2016

Magna Graecia - Syracuse


Greek coins of Sicily

“Give me a place to stand and a lever long enough and I will move the world.”
~ Archimedes

21 files, last one added on Aug 11, 2017

Punic and Siculo-Punic


Greek coins of North Africa and Carthaginian Sicily

“We will either find a way, or make one.”
~ Hannibal Barca

3 files, last one added on Oct 08, 2013

Greek Mainland


Greek coins of Southern and Central Greece, the Peloponnesos, and related Islands

"The glorious gifts of the gods are not to be cast aside."
~ Homer

12 files, last one added on Jun 06, 2017

Thrace and the Black Sea Region


Greek coins from Northern Greece and the lands above the Black Sea

"Bacchus hath drowned more men than Neptune."
~ Dr. Thomas Fuller

7 files, last one added on Feb 15, 2017

Asia Minor


Greek coins of Asia Minor

“Much learning does not teach understanding.”
~ Heraclitus of Ephesus

15 files, last one added on Jul 11, 2017

The Hellenistic Monarchies


The legacy of Alexander's Empire

"Heaven cannot brook two suns, nor Earth two masters."
~ Alexander the Great

7 files, last one added on May 06, 2017

Roman Republic


Coins of the Roman Republic

"What a lot of work it was to found the Roman race."
~ Vergil

4 files, last one added on Dec 28, 2009

Imperial Rome - The Rise


Coins of the early Roman Empire

"I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble."
~ Augustus

10 files, last one added on Oct 22, 2016

Imperial Rome - The Fall


Coins of the later Roman Empire

"When collapse is imminent, the little rodents flee."
~ Pliny the Elder

22 files, last one added on Jan 12, 2016

Roman Provincial


Roman coins from the Provinces

"I came, I saw, I conquered."
~ Julius Caesar

8 files, last one added on Dec 06, 2016

Veiled Goddess


Coins of the Goddess in mourning

"She was wearing a veil on her head, and a long dark robe
trailed around the delicate feet of the goddess.”

~ Homeric Hymn to Demeter

8 files, last one added on Jun 05, 2017



My wife's collection of Greco-Roman treasures

"Everything passes, art alone is eternal."
~ Hippokrates

7 files, last one added on Apr 22, 2012



3 files, last one added on Dec 29, 2009

16 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - Enodia's Gallery
Syracuse, Reign of Dionysius I 14 views405-367 BC (struck circa 380 BC)
Ć Drachm (32mm, 30.12g)
O: Head of Athena left., wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with olive wreath; ΣYPA before.
R: Sea-star between two dolphins.
CNS II, 62-9; HGC 2, 1436; SNG ANS 455-469; Sear 1189 (Timoleon)
ex Saint Paul Antiques
3 commentsEnodiaAug 11, 2017
Taras, Calabria17 views302-228 BC
AR Diobol (11.5mm, 0.85g)
O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
R: Herakles kneeling left on back of Nemean lion and holding him by the tail, about to beat lion with club held overhead; owl below.
Vlasto 1431; cf McGill II, 180; SNG ANS 1463; SNG France 2129; SNG ANS 1463; HN Italy 1065
ex Eukratides Ancient Numismatics

Here we see Herakles, having strangled the Nemean lion into submission, about to deliver the decisive blow. His knee is on the it’s back and he has the lion by the tail, club raised to bash the life out of the beast.
2 commentsEnodiaAug 01, 2017
Herakleia, Lucania42 views281-278 BC
AR Drachm (16.5mm, 3.82g)
O: Head of Athena, three-quarters facing right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla throwing stone; Φ behind.
R: Owl with wings closed, standing right on olive branch; club to right, |-HPAKΛEIΩN above, ΣΩΣI to left.
Van Keuren 114; HN Italy 1411
ex NAC

The colony of Herakleia was a joint venture between the cities of Taras and Thurii, founded in 432 BC and intended to encourage peace between the two embattled polis’ and show a united front against the indigenous tribes of southern Italy. To this end Herakleia became the center of the newly formed Italiote League, probably around 380. This alliance consisted of emissaries from the Greek cities of Kroton, Metapontum, Velia, Thurii, and most notably Taras.
A century later, the period of this coin, Pyrrhus defeated the Roman Consul Laevinius near here, causing the Romans to try a different strategy. A political treaty was struck in 278, granting very favorable terms to the Greek city, and Herakleia became an ally of Rome. As a result the headquarters of the Italiote League was moved to Taras.
7 commentsEnodiaJul 15, 2017
Ephesus, Ionia15 views500-420 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 1.06g)
O: Bee with curved wings and volute-shaped antennae; E - Φ flanking.
R: Quadripartite incuse square.
SNG Kayhan 125; Sear 3517v (Drachm)
ex Tom Vossen
1 commentsEnodiaJul 11, 2017
Ephesus, Ionia41 views390-320 BC
AR Diobol (10mm, 1.02g)
O: Bee with straight wings, within dotted border.
R: Confronted heads of two stags; EΦ above.
SNG Cop 242-43; SNG von Aulock 1835; SNG München 32; Sear 4375v; BMC Ionia 53, 53; 
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

The bee was sacred to the goddess Artemis, whose famous sanctuary at Ephesus was tended by Her priestesses, known collectively as Melissae, a word which translates as ‘bee’, or by some accounts ‘honey gatherer’. It is no surprise then that the coins of this city should feature the bee on their obverse.
5 commentsEnodiaJul 07, 2017
Taras, Calabria33 views272-235 BC (Period VIII - The Roman Alliance I)
AR Didrachm (18.5mm, 6.50g)
O: Nude youth on horseback right, placing wreath on horse's head; ΦI behind, I-ΩΠ-YPO-[Σ] (magistrate) below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding cornucopiae and trident; bee to right, Τ-ΑΡΑΣ below.
Vlasto 855; Evans VIII, B2; McGill II, 99; Cote 490-92; HN Italy 1029 SNG ANS 1183
ex Dr. Busso Peus; ex Germania Inferior Numismatics

Evans calls the insect on this reverse a cicada, a very important symbol in ancient times (see J.C.B Petropolous’ marvelous work ‘Heat and Lust; Hesiod’s Midsummer Festival Scene Revisited’, a very insightful look at ancient agricultural and fertility practices). However Vlasto lists this as a bee, and I tend to think this is likely. It sure looks more like a bee to me.
It’s a real pity that the obverse is struck off-center here, as the artistic and natural rendering of the horse is not typical of these late period didrachms.
3 commentsEnodiaJun 28, 2017
Taras, Calabria34 views325-280 BC
AR Hemilitron (10mm, 0.39g, 11h)
O: Scallop Shell.
R: Dolphin leaping right; hare below.
Vlasto 1596; HN Italy 980
ex Saint Paul Antiques
3 commentsEnodiaJun 15, 2017
Eion, Macedonia37 views500-437 BC
AR Trihemiobol (12mm, 0.92g)
O: Goose standing right, head turned back; lizard and H above, all within dotted border.
R: Quadripartite incuse square.
cf SNG ANS 276; Sear 1295v (lizard)
ex Antike & Klassische Numismatik

Some sources name this bird a swan, while most suggest a goose. No matter, since both are of the same family, and both were indigenous to Macedonia.
Perhaps more importantly though, both species are known to mate for life, and so were sacred to Hera, goddess of marriage, and also to me.
Here in Oregon, the departure of the geese each year heralds the coming of Spring, as their arrival later in the year forebode the inevitable Winter.
5 commentsEnodiaJun 06, 2017
Soloi, Cilicia7 viewsCirca 100-66 BC
Ć19 (19mm, 5.02g)
O: Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right.
R: Filleted piloi of the Dioskouroi; stars above, ΣOΛEΩN and EΠ below.
SNG France 1206v (monogram); cf SNG Levante 866; Sear 5624v (monogram)
ex Gac Antiquity
EnodiaJun 05, 2017
Soloi, Cilicia15 viewsCirca 100-66 BC
Ć19 (19mm, 5.02g)
O: Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right.
R: Filleted piloi of the Dioskouroi; stars above, ΣOΛEΩN and EΠ below.
SNG France 1206v (monogram); cf SNG Levante 866; Sear 5624v (monogram)
ex Gac Antiquity
1 commentsEnodiaJun 05, 2017
Kyzikos, Mysia20 views2nd-1st century BC
AE19 (19mm, 5.42g)
O: Head of Persephone right, wearing wreath of grain.
R: KY-ZI above and below monogram, all within oak wreath.
Sear 3864; BMC 148
ex Wayne Philips; ex Ancient Imports

I saw a tender maiden plucking flowers
Once, long ago, in the bright morning hours;
And then from heaven I saw a sudden cloud
Fall swift and dark, and heard her cry aloud.
Again I looked, but from my open door
My anxious eyes espied the maid no more;
The cloud had vanished, bearing her away
To underlands beyond the smiling day.
(From a fragment by Sappho)
2 commentsEnodiaJun 04, 2017
Neapolis, Campania21 views275-250 BC
AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.92g)
O: Diademed head of the nymph Parthenope left, wearing triple earring; poppy head behind.
R: Man-faced bull standing right; Nike flying right above, crowning bull; IΣ below, [N]EAΠOΛITΩ[N] in ex.
Sambon 510; HN Italy 586; SNG ANS 400; Hands Class VI; Sear 309v (eagle head)
ex Numisantique

The Greek colony on what is now known as the Bay of Naples was one of the earliest in Italy, originally established by settlers from Euboea, and possibly named Parthenope after the local Nymph. The city was later re-founded nearby and renamed Neapolis, or ‘New City’. Its proximity to Rome brought Italian customs to the colony, while conversely bringing a heavy Greek influence to the Romans.
It is not surprising then that Neapolis was one of the first Greek colonies to ally itself with Rome near the end of the fourth century BC, and was instrumental in repelling Hannibal a hundred years later.
3 commentsEnodiaJun 02, 2017
Velia, Lucania21 views465-440 BC (Period II: Pre-Athena Group)
AR Drachm (15mm, 3.52g)
O: Head of nymph right, wearing beaded necklace.
R: Owl with closed wing perched right on olive branch, head facing; YEΛH behind.
Williams 79; Hands Class VI; HN Italy 1265; Sear 251
ex Munzen & Medaillen GmbH

The first coins minted at Velia in the late 6th century BC were archaic drachms featuring a feeding lion on the obverse and a simple incuse square on the reverse.
The nymph head drachms such as this example, which Williams designates as ‘pre-Athena types‘, can be dated fairly accurately to the period immediately following the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC.
The combined fleet of Cyme and Syracuse defeated the Etruscans in a great naval battle off the coast of southern Italy, greatly weakening Etruscan influence in the region and thereby empowering Rome. The resulting economic boost allowed Poseidonia to begin coining again circa 470, followed by Terina in Bruttium and finally Velia. It was also around this time that Velia’s famous lion series of didrachms first appeared, and would continue for the next two centuries.
3 commentsEnodiaJun 01, 2017
Taras, Calabria24 views272-235 BC (Period VIII - The Roman Alliance I)
AR Didrachm (19mm, 6.36g)
O: Naked youth on horseback left, crowning horse with right hand; ∆I above, ΦIΛΩ / TAC in two lines below.
R: Phalanthos on dolphin left, holding kantharos and distaff; cock standing left behind, TAPAΣ below.
Vlasto 847; Evans VIII, A11; Cote 485; McGill II, 96; HN Italy 1024; SNG ANS 1173-77
ex Numisantique

The cock on the reverse of this coin may be a reference to Apollo, or might symbolize ‘a new dawn rising’, possibly referring to Taras’ recent alliance with their old nemesis, Rome.
However it is more likely that this is simply a symbol of the magistrate under whom this coin was struck, in this case one Philotos, which was not an uncommon practice on these post-Pyrrhic didrachms of Taras.
1 commentsEnodiaMay 31, 2017
Taras, Calabria29 views272-235 BC (Period VIII - The Roman Alliance I)
AR Didrachm (19mm, 6.18g, 2h).
O: Youth on horseback left, crowning horse; cornucopia in field to right, |-APEAC (magistrate) below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding kantharos in extended right hand and upright trident in left; POΛY behind, ΤΑΡΑΣ below..
Vlasto 822; Evans VIII, A4; Cote 456; HN Italy 997; cf Sear 374
From the W. H. Guertin Collection; ex CNG

The symbolism of the cornucopia has many origins in ancient lore, from the story of Zeus and Amaltheia to that of Herakles and the river-god Acheloos. Dionysus is also associated with the “horn of plenty”.
All of these deities were venerated at Taras, so the appearance of the cornucopia on this coin may be connected to any of the three, although the kantharos in Taras‘ extended right hand on the reverse makes the cult of Dionysus quite compelling.
George Brauer Jr. (‘Taras: Its History and Coinage’) suggests that the cornucopia can represent “the fruits of war”, and while the city of Taras was constantly fighting one battle or another during its long history, I believe the commonly seen Nike would be a more appropriate symbol of a military victory, and the passive nature of this particular type, with Taras holding his trident in a decidedly non-threatening posture, also seems to argue against this idea. In addition the fact that the city had just been subdued by Rome would apparently put Brauer’s theory to rest, at least in this case.
Of course the answer may be as simple as a local celebration of a particularly prosperous year, or a thank you to Demeter for an abundant harvest. We may never know for certain, but this kind of speculation can be half the fun of collecting!
4 commentsEnodiaMay 11, 2017
Seleukid Kingdom, Reign of Antiochos VI Dionysus17 views145-142 BC
AE17 Serrate (17.5mm, 4.29g)
O: Diademed and radiate head right.
R: Panther advancing left with paw raised, holding palm branch in mouth; BAΣIΛEΩΣ
ANTIOXOY and ΣTA above, star behind, EΠIΦANOYΣ ∆IONYΣOY in exergue.
SNG Spaer 1784; Houghton 241v (cornucopiae); Sear 7083
ex FortunA (Forvm Auctions)
3 commentsEnodiaMay 06, 2017

Random files - Enodia's Gallery
Argos, Argolis134 viewscirca 3rd century BC
AR Triobol (15mm, 2.25g)
O: Forepart of wolf left.
R: Large A, eagle standing right on thunderbolt beneath; IP-EΩ-NO-Σ (Hieronos, magistrate) in corners, all within shallow incuse square.
SNG Cop 42; BCD Peloponnesos 1177; SNG Delepierre 2273; Sear 2795v
ex Empire Coins

The origins of Argos are pre-Mycenaean, making it one of the most ancient cities in Greece.
Argos played a prominent role in The Iliad, being claimed by Hera as "one of the three cities dearest to Me". While they did supply ships and soldiers (including the hero Diomedes) for Agamemnon's war with Troy, Argos later remained neutral during the Graeco-Persian wars. And though ostensibly allied with Athens during her war with Sparta at the end of the 5th century BC, Argos was basically a non-participant.

Recent speculation dates this coin to the time of Cleopatra VII and may in fact have been issued by her. I remain skeptical, however it is an interesting theory.
5 commentsEnodia
Trajan / Mars 112 views103-111 AD
AR Denarius (18mm, 2.86g)
O: Laureate and slightly draped bust right; IMP NERVA TRAIANVS AVG GER DACICVS.
R: Mars advancing right, holding spear, trophy on shoulder; PM TR P COS V P P.
RIC 80v
ex M&R Coins

From a previous comment by Curtis Clay;
"A scarce type with these legends, and perhaps unpublished with this laureate and draped bust type."
4 commentsEnodia
Diocletian30 views284-305 AD
AE Antoninianus (22mm, 2.83g)
O: Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG.
R: Diocletian receiving Victory from Hercules; IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG, XXI in ex.
RIC 275v
ex M&R Coins
Syracuse, Second Democracy82 views440-425 BC
AE10 (Onkia) (1.21g)
O: Head of Arethusa right, hair in koymbos; two dolphins before and behind.
R: Octopus; three pellets around.
HGC 2, 1428; SNG ANS 383; Sear 1184v
ex Pegasi Numismatics