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Imperial Coinage of Vespasian


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Titus Flavius Vespasianus - Augustus 69-79 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

214 files, last one added on Feb 14, 2020

Imperial Coinage of Titus


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Titus Flavius Vespasianus - Caesar 69-79 AD, Augustus 79-81 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

154 files, last one added on Feb 21, 2020

Imperial Coinage of Domitian


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Titus Flavius Domitianus - Caesar 69-81 AD, Augustus 81–96 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

Common Minerva Types:
M1 Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear
M2 Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear, on capital of rostral column, accompanied by owl
M3 Minerva standing, facing left, with thunderbolt and spear and shield behind her feet
M4 Minerva standing left with spear

234 files, last one added on Feb 20, 2020

Imperial Coinage of Julia Titi


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Flavia Julia Titi - Augusta 80-91 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

4 files, last one added on Jan 17, 2020

Imperial Coinage of Domitia


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Domitia Longina - Augusta 81-96 AD

Imperial coins are arranged according to the new RIC II Part 1.

References cited:
• RIC - The Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1, I. Carradice and T.V. Buttrey (London, 2007)
• BMC - Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum II, H. Mattingly (London, 1966)
• RSC - Roman Silver Coins II, H.A. Seaby (London, 1979)
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)
• BNC - Monnaies de l'Empire Romain III, J.-B. Giard (Paris, 1998)

RIC frequency ratings:
R3 = unique
R2 = very few examples known
R = rare
C = common
C2 = very common
C3 = extremely common

1 files, last one added on Jul 25, 2018

Provincial Coinage of the Flavian Dynasty


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Flavian Dynasty 69-96 AD

Provincial coins are arranged according to RPC II.

Reference cited:
• RPC - Roman Provincial Coinage II, A. Burnett, M. Amandry, I. Carradice (London and Paris, 1999)

RPC frequency is determined by the number of specimens in the 'core collections'.

Core collections:
Berlin, Staatliche Museen
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum
Copenhagen, Nationalmuseet
Glasgow, Hunterian Museum
London, British Museum
Munich, Staatliche Münzsammlung
New York, American Numismatic Society
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

73 files, last one added on Feb 07, 2020

6 albums on 1 page(s)

Last additions - David Atherton's Gallery
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Titus RIC-21235 viewsÆ Dupondius, 11.40g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD
Obv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII; Head of Titus, radiate, bearded, r.
Rev: VESTA in exergue; S C in field; Vesta std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 212 (C). BMC 200. BNC 203.
Ex eBay, 9 February 2020.

It's not unusual at the start of a reign for the Rome mint to strike coin types that conjure up feelings of familiarity and continuance. Vesta is certainly one of those types and Titus' moneyers made full use of her propaganda value. She frequently appears on the bronze coinage with her message of religious piety and security. Her main attribute here is the palladium - a wooden cult image of Pallas Athena which oversees the safety and well being of Rome.

Great style and good metal.
4 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 21, 2020
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Domitian RIC-46835 viewsÆ Sestertius, 22.60g
Rome mint, 86 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: S C in field; Domitian standing l., with parazonium and spear; to l., river-god (Rhenus) reclining
RIC 468 (C). BMC 377. BNC 399.
Ex eBay, 9 February 2020. Ex Künker, eLive Auction 57, 12 December 2019, lot 97.

In late 82 or early 83 Domitian conducted a census of Gaul as a smoke screen in order to make preparations to invade the Germanic Chatti lands across the Rhine. Not much is known of what the actual war consisted of - perhaps some road building, punitive raids against Chatti strongholds, and minor skirmishing. No large battles, à la Mons Graupius, have come down to us, prompting Tacitus' assertion 'that in recent times, the Germans were more triumphed over than conquered'. Even the date of the conflict is in dispute - although Domitian did rack up four salutations between June 83 and September 84, several of which must be attributed to the Chattan Campaign. Domitian celebrated a triumph over the Chatti in 83, after which he claimed the title 'Germanicus'.

Beginning in 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. One of the more interesting types carried over into 86 features a triumphant Domitian standing over the reclining river-god Rhenus. It is a more poetic type than those showing captives or war trophies, although, even here Domitian is resting his foot on the river-god's knee symbolising Rome's domination over Germania.

Fine style and good metal.
2 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 20, 2020
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Vespasian RIC-24535 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.02g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG P M TR P P P COS III; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTA; S C in exergue; Salus std. l. with patera and sceptre
RIC 245 (C2). BMC 574. BNC 533.
Acquired from Golden Rule Enterprises Coins, February 2020.

A fairly common sestertius Salus type from the great bronze issue of 71. According to Mattingly in BMCRE II this Salus type may perhaps represents 'the salvation conferred by the imperial system', presumably after the upheavals of the Civil War. Salus here symbolises the health and welfare of the Roman state, not the person of the emperor himself.

Superb portrait in good metal.

5 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 14, 2020
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Domitian RIC-70610 viewsÆ Dupondius, 10.34g
Rome mint, 90-91 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, radiate, bearded, r.
Rev: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI; S C in field; Virtus stg. r., foot on helmet, with spear and parazonium
RIC 706 (C2). BMC 446. BNC -.
Acquired from eBay, February 2020.

The Virtus type was struck repeatedly on Domitian's middle bronze from 84 onwards. I. Carradice in his 1983 monograph on Domitian's coinage says the following concerning the type - 'Virtus is a military type, symbolic of the courage of Domitian and the mutual devotion between the army and emperor.' Virtus first appears on the coinage in the flurry of Germania Capta types that were struck soon after Domitian's German triumph. She is impressively depicted in traditional Amazon attire. This Virtus dupondius is fairly common but is oddly missing from the Paris collection.

Well struck and in good condition.
2 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 13, 2020
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Titus as Caesar RIC 75336 viewsÆ As, 8.02g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP COS III CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST; S C in field; Victory stg. r. on prow, with wreath and palm
RIC 753 (R). BMC p. 163 †. BNC 734.
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, January 2020.

A rare variant of the common Victory on prow struck in 74. Missing from the BM's collection. This Victory type was a fairly popular generic design with the prow possibly lending a nautical theme, perhaps alluding to a successful ongoing Flavian naval policy. It was sparingly struck for this issue.

Well centred on good metal.
2 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 08, 2020
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RPC-2015-Titus as Caesar35 viewsÆ Semis, 7.40g
Antioch mint, undated (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP PONT; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S • C in laurel wreath
RPC 2015 (12 spec.).
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, January 2020.

An undated issue of leaded bronze coins with Latin legends were struck at Antioch sometime between 76 and 78. They can be distinguished from an earlier Rome mint issue with similar designs by the local style and 12 o'clock die axis. Production of the series likely commenced soon after the Rome issue had run its course. This semis struck for Titus Caesar is one of the more common types.

Good style and nicely centred.
3 commentsDavid AthertonFeb 07, 2020
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09f Domitian as Caesar RIC 157834 viewsÆ As, 4.57g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in laurel wreath
RIC 1578 (R2). BMC -. BNC -. RPC 2003 (0 Spec.).
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, January 2020.

An extremely rare orichalcum As struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian in 74 AD. Traditionally the issue has been attributed to various Eastern mints, however, recent scholarship has shown that it was produced in Rome. Style, die axis, metal, and circulation pattern all point to a Western coinage, despite the 'Eastern' flavour of the reverse designs. T. Buttrey in the RIC II.1 Addenda wrote: 'There is nothing like this series in the whole of Roman imperial coinage. It is a deliberate act of Orientalism, imposing the flavour of the East on a Western coinage'. This particular As featuring a right facing portrait is rarer than the much more common left facing portrait. Missing from both the BM and Paris collections.

Beautiful patina and fine style.
4 commentsDavid AthertonJan 31, 2020
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Titus as Caesar RIC-157434 viewsÆ Semis, 3.31g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T•CAES•IMP•TR•POT; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: ANTIOCHIA; Bust of city-goddess, r.
RIC 1574 (C). BMC -. BNC -. RPC 1997 (10 spec.).
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, January 2020.

Traditionally, the issue this rather interesting semis is from has been attributed to various different mints over the years. Ted Buttrey writing in the RIC II.1 Addenda commented extensively on it. Because both the Addenda has yet to see the light of day and T. Buttrey's thoughts on the subject are important (and indeed likely correct), I have largely quoted it in full here with some minor editing.

'RIC 756-767 are irregular Dupondii, which should be taken together with Asses, semisses and quadrantes (RIC 1564-1581), forming together a single extraordinary issue in four denominations, distinct in typology and metal, as well as overall character from the regular coinage of the year. Although Eastern in aspect and reverse type, the circulation area of the dupondii is almost exclusively Gaul, Germany, Italy – i.e. the West, with scarcely any penetration of the East. Finds of the smaller denominations are rarely attested anywhere, East or West. The citations in RPC II are drawn almost entirely from Western collections, and total: Western - 108, Eastern - 4.

The Eastern finds appear to be simply the débris of Mediterranean circulation. Previously the series had been attributed to Commagene (BMCRE II, pp.217-222), then as a likelihood to Antioch (e.g. RPC II 1982-2005). The correct attribution to Rome is proved by mules of the dupondii with regular issues (Buttrey, “Vespasian’s Roman Orichalcum: An Unrecognized Celebratory Coinage” in David M. Jacobson and Nikos Kokkinos, Judaea and Rome in Coins, 65 CBE – 135 CE (2012).
The series had nothing to do with Syria or with the East at all, yet it was purposefully designed to appear non-Roman: the suppression of the traditional reverse sub-inscription S C throughout; the suppression of the radiate crown of the Dupondius; the shifting of the consular dating from the obv. to the rev.; the striking of all four denominations in orichalcum; and most obviously the selection of rev. dies which reek of the East (while admitting that they are not Eastern, see on the semis the bust of the city-goddess accompanied by the Latin legend ANTIOCHIA, in imitation of the type actually struck there with the Greek legend ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ – SNG Cop Antioch 99-103, 112, etc. ).
There is nothing like this series in the whole of Roman imperial coinage. It is a deliberate act of Orientalism, imposing the flavour of the East on a Western coinage. The key to its understanding is the reverse type of the dupondius, two crossed cornuacopiae with a winged caduceus between. It replicates the type of an obscure issue of the Galilean city of Sepphoris, an issue which had been, astonishingly, signed by Vespasian himself (ΕΠΙ ΟΥΕCΠΑCΙΑΝΟΥ, “on the authority of…”) when on duty there in the last days of Nero.

The whole of this series memorializes not Vespasian the conquering general (IVDAEA CAPTA, VICTORIA AVGVSTI), but the man. His re-use of earlier coin types is well-known; here he re-uses his own, harking back to his career just prior to his final success in seizing the empire. And the series was struck in 74 A.D., co-terminous with the celebration of Vespasian’s first quinquennium.'

I think it quite extraordinary that the Rome mint would produce a coin blatantly featuring a provincial city-goddess that was intended for circulation in the West. Vespasian's fondness for the region that elevated him to the purple must have been strong indeed! The heavy use of dots in the obverse legend is a curiosity as well.

Good style and well centred.
2 commentsDavid AthertonJan 30, 2020
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RPC-2009-Vespasian36 viewsÆ As, 14.85g
Antioch mint, undated
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, l.
Rev S • C in laurel wreath
RPC 2009 (15 spec.).
Acquired from eBay, January 2020.

In the mid 70s the Antioch mint struck a series of leaded bronze coins with Latin legends. Presumably the Antiochene series picked up where the Rome mint orichalcum 'Syrian' issue struck in 74 left off. They can be distinguished from the Rome issues by the local style, 12 o'clock die axis, and metal. This As likely dates between 76-78 and is very close in style to the contemporary Cypriot tetradrachms struck at Antioch.

Fine Antiochene style struck on a large flan.
5 commentsDavid AthertonJan 23, 2020
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04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 76052 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F above; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 760 (R). BMC 471. BNC 502.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi between 92 and 94 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. It is the second issue of this type struck under Domitian and is slightly rarer than the earlier one produced in 90-91. In the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issues (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
5 commentsDavid AthertonJan 17, 2020
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Titus as Caesar RIC 81041 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.41g
Rome mint, 75(?) AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR VESPASIAN; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVSTI; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
RIC 810 (C). BMC 314. RSC 375. BNC 277.
Acquired from eBay, December 2019.

Vespasian revived the quinarius after a long hiatus going back to the time of Augustus. Striking this denomination was quite in keeping with the antiquarian flavour of the Rome mint during the reign. Vespasian's moneyer's struck a great issue of undated quinarii in 75, possibly in conjunction with the opening of his Temple of Peace. These tiny coins may have been distributed during special occasions. Two standard Victory types (seated or advancing) were employed along with various variant legend spellings and orientations. The variations are: obverse legend - VESPASIANVS or more commonly for Titus Caesar VESPASIAN; reverse legend - AVGVSTI or less commonly AVGVST. The reverse legend can also either be oriented from low r. or high l. Dating this undated issue is a little tricky. The quinarii struck before 75 have AVGVSTI in the reverse legend, while those struck after 75 use the shorter AVGVST. The undated issue employs both forms, therefore it fits neatly to 75. This quinarius struck for Titus Caesar is perhaps the most common variant struck for him in the issue.

Nicely centred with hints of rainbow toning.
3 commentsDavid AthertonJan 15, 2020
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Domitian RIC-70349 viewsÆ Sestertius, 25.05g
Rome mint, 90-91 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in exergue; Domitian stg. l., with thunderbolt and spear, crowned by Victory, stg. l.
RIC 703 (C). BMC 443. BNC 477.
Acquired from iNumis, December 2019.

In 85 AD Domitian rolled out a new set of reverse designs for the bronze coinage, most of which would be repeatedly struck over the next decade. The Victory crowning Domitian was a particular favourite for the sestertius. It copies a similar type struck for Vespasian's aurei with one key difference - throwing modesty aside, Domitian is holding Jupiter's thunderbolt, an unprecedented divine attribute for a living emperor 'which has no doubt been given to him by his patroness Minerva' (BMCRE p. xciv). It brings to mind Suetonius' anecdotes concerning Domitian's megalomania of wishing to be addressed as 'Lord and God' and having statues of himself erected only in gold or silver, itself a divine attribute (Dom. 13.2). The Flavian historian Brian Jones speculated 'Domitian was both intelligent and committed to the traditional religion. He obviously knew that he was not a God, and, whilst he did not ask or demand to be addressed as one, he did not actively discourage the few flatterers who did' (Jones 1992). This coin's reverse seems to contradict Jones' generous explanation. It shows a concious decision to depict the emperor in a divine light. It's a decision that could only have come from the top. Perhaps Jones is correct and Domitian did not directly order people to address him as 'Lord and God', however, the numismatic evidence at the very least shows that he was very open to it. Mattingly in BMCRE sums up Domitian's coinage thus - 'The one ugly feature is the vanity that leads Domitian to take over for himself a divine attribute - the thunderbolt' (p. xcv).

This example from 90-91 is likely a generic Victory type perhaps celebrating the recent double triumph over the Chatti and the Dacians in late 89. A fairly large number of the type were struck for the COS XV issue. Because Domitian did not renew the consulship in 91, these COS XV sestertii cannot be precisely dated and were likely struck for an extended period of time.

A gorgeous coin in fine style, struck on a large flan.

NB: RIC cites Paris 447, it is actually 477.
4 commentsDavid AthertonJan 10, 2020

Random files - David Atherton's Gallery
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Vespasian RIC-93982 viewsAR Denarius, 3.27g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VIII; Mars, helmeted, naked except for cloak, fastened with belt (?) round waist, standing l., holding spear slanting upwards l. in r. hand and trophy on l. shoulder in l. Corn-ear upright in ground r.
RIC 939 (R). BMC 203. RSC 129. BNC 179.
Ex Harlan J. Berk 145, 14 September 2005, lot 235.

A rare variant containing a wheat-ear of the common Mars reverse, possibly to symbolize the peace and prosperity Roman arms has brought the people.

I had a difficult time finding a decent example of this type...patience has paid off and I'm very happy to add this respectable denarius to the collection.
Vespasian70
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Titus RIC 0597 viewsAR Denarius, 3.27g
Rome Mint, 79 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII; Capricorn l.; below, globe
RIC 5 (C). BMC p. 224 note. RSC 280a. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This coin is part of an issue dated after 1 July, 79 AD. Notice the lack of P P in the reverse legend. Rated as common in RIC, I still had a devil of a time acquiring this type!

A bit corroded with some nicks and scratches, which don't detract too much from the over all appeal of the piece. Good portrait too. The photo really doesn't do it justice.

NB: This same type was found in the House of the Golden Bracelet and was mistakenly thought to have read IMP XV. R. Abdy of the BM examined the piece in 2013 and concluded it actually read IMP XIIII without P P at the end of the legend.
David Atherton
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Vespasian RIC-360135 viewsAR Denarius, 3.32g
Rome mint, 72-73 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: VESTA; Vesta stg. l., with simpulum and sceptre
RIC 360 (C2). BMC 71. RSC 574. BNC 55.
Acquired from Beast Coins, October 2004.

Vespasian70