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Mamluk (Bahri). Muhammad I (al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Muhammad) (1st reign, 693-694 A.H. = 1293-1294 A.D.; 2nd reign 698-708 A.H. = 1299-1309 A.D.; 3rd reign, 709-741 A.H. = 1310-1341 A.D.)
Balog 245b, Plate X No. 245b; SNAT Hamah 394-395; Album 922.

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated (3rd reign); 3.26 g., 20.20 mm. max., 90į

Obv.: Border on both sides, dotted circle between two linear circles; الماك (al-Malik) / الناصر (al-Nasir) in two rows in field.

Rev.: Shield divided by horizontal band into three horizontal segments (fesse). The central band is bendy of eleven pieces. Upper and lower segment contains a floral arabesque.

Muhammad I, the ninth Bahri Mamluk sultan, was the youngest son of Sultan Qala'un (of Turkic origin from the Kipchak tribe) and a mother of Mongol origin, and the brother of Sultan Khalil. After the assassination of Khalil in December 1293 by a faction lead by Lajin, Muhammad became sultan at age nine. In December 1294 Muhammad's regent, Kitbugha, deposed Muhammad with the support of Lajin and installed himself as sultan. In 1296 Kitbugha was deposed by Lajin, who then ruled as a sultan until he was murdered in 1299. Muhammad was recalled and reinstated as sultan at age 14, although power was held by Baybars. In 1309 Muhammad, who sought to free himself from the domination of Baybars, withdrew from Egypt and attempted to have Baybars arrested. This failed and Baybars installed himself as sultan, ending Muhammad's second reign. His second reign was dominated by Mongol threats in the Levant. After only ten months an Egyptian mob forced Baybars to flee and Muhammad was reinstated. at age 24. He reigned until his death 31 years later. His third reign was the apogee of Mamluk power and the high-water mark of culture in Egypt since Ptolemaic Alexandria. Eight of his sons and four of his grandsons would be enthroned as sultans.
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Album name:Stkp / ISLAMIC: MAMLUKS
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