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Ghaznavids. Yamin al-Dawla Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud (998-1030 A.D. / 388-421 A.H.)
Album 1611.1

AR (broad) dirham, Nishapur (Naysabur) mint, date off flan. 20 mm.

Obv: (Kufic) La Ilaha Illa / Allah WahDahu / La Sharik Lahu (Kalima Shahada in three lines) [= There is no god except Allah; He is Alone/Unique, there is no partner to Him], Adil [= Justice] above, symbol below. Margin [?]: bism allah duriba hadhal-dirham bi- Naysabur sana [date off flan]" [= in the name of God this dirham was struck in the year [off flan].

Rev: (Kufic) Lillah [= for Allah] / Muhammad Rasool Allah [=Muhammad is the prophet of Allah] / Al-Qadir Billah [= name of the Abbassid Caliph overlord] / Yamin Al-Dawlah wa Amin al-Milla [= Mahmud's title, meaning Right Hand of the Empire]. Margin _______.

Ghaznavid dirhams were usually struck on planchets that were smaller than the dies, so that the marginal legends are frequently off the flan.

The Ghaznavids started as Turkish mamluk (slave) governors of the Samanids in the Afghanistan area around Ghazna. They became independent of the Samanids in 999 A.D. (389 A.H.). Mahmud greatly expanded the Ghaznavid empire beyond Afghanistan. He expanded his territory into Pakistan from Sind to Peshawar. His forays went as far as Mathura in India. The dynasty ended in 1186 A.D. (582 A.H.), when it was conquered by the Ghorids.

Attribution assistance from Vladimir Belyaev and Alex Koifman.
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