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France (Feudal): Gien (County of Donzy). Geoffrey III (1120-1160) or Herve III (1160-1194).
Boudeau 297, Poey d'Avant 1998 (p. 42 no. 21), Duplessy 605, Legros 1565, Roberts 1497-8

AR denier, struck 1120-1191, 19 mm.

Obv: + GOSEDVS COS (Geoffroi, count), cross with staff and hammer in second angle and triangles in other three angles.

Rev: + GIEMIS CA (Castle of Gien), degraded monogram of Fulk of Anjou (legend begins at 9 oíclock).

The deniers of Gien were derived from those of Angers and bear a degraded monogram of Fulk of Angers. The reason for this is unclear as the regions are far apart and there is no connection between them. Standards of weight and fineness appear to have been similar, as records from 1202-3 value the denier giennois at 1.5 deniers parisis and the denier angevin at 1.46 d.p.

The deniers are struck in the name of a Count Geoffrey, and the type may have begun under Geoffrey II (1169-1184) or more probably Geoffrey III (1120-1160), but was immobilized after 1160. The coin is variously attributed to either or both of them, and also to Herve III (1160-1194). It ceased to be minted in 1191 when King Phillip II Augustus (1180-1223) acquired Gien and closed its mint.
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