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Julius Caesar & Octavian
Wreathed head of Julius Caesar right, ΘEOΣ downward before neck.

Bare head of Octavian right, Δ below neck, ΘEΣΣA - ΛONIKEΩN downward on left and upward on right.

Thessalonica, Macedonia, Year 4 = 28-27 BC.
AE 21
10.6g

RPC 1554. BM 58. Varbanov 5153. Touratsoglou, Thessaloniki, p. 143, no. 42 (V10/R39), pl. 1

Of all the coins of this type that I've searched online all of them with a counter mark are a Monogram of NK, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 625 (25 pcs). Likely the countermark refers to NEPO KAICAP (Nero Caesar).

"The Δ has been interpreted as either a denomination mark (four assaria) or, more likely, a date - year four of the Actian era (28/7 BC). The ligate NK monogram has been generally accepted as a reference to Nero (Nerwn Kaisar). This is problematic considering that Thessalonica had abundant coinages issued under Claudius and Nero, such that countermarking these quite older coins would be unlikely. Touratsoglou (p. 105) follows Kraay's suggestion that the NK is an abbreviation for Nike (NiKh), and was applied to the coins during celebrations of the city's 50th anniversary of its grant of liberty by the Romans. All but two of the known specimens of this countermark occur on the coins of this first issue of Thessalonica, and the wear on the countermarks is nearly identical to that of the coins, suggesting that the countermarks could not have been applied very long after the coins entered circulation."
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Randygeki(h2)  [Aug 27, 2011 at 08:56 AM]
cool addition