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SUITORS OF PENELOPE

Penelope with Odysseus' bow and the dog Argus | print010: Penelope. From a drawing supplied by the Sculptor. Engraved by W. H. Mote. From the statue by R. J. Wyatt.

Short outline of the story
(to read afterwards)

During the prolonged absence of Odysseus, the SUITORS OF PENELOPE began courting his wife. Penelope disliked the SUITORS' attentions, and in order to win time fooled them with the help of The Shroud of Laertes, which she wove by day and unravelled by night. When the SUITORS discovered Penelope's trick, they refused to leave Odysseus' palace unless she married one of them, and in the meantime they consumed Odysseus' estate in great parties and banquets. One day Odysseus landed in Ithaca, and while he stayed at Eumaeus 1's hut, he met his son Telemachus, who had just arrived from Pylos and Sparta, where he had expected to gather news about his father. They then put their heads together, and planned the downfall and death of the SUITORS. Odysseus came to the palace disguised as a beggar, and when Penelope declared that she would marry the man who could bend Odysseus bow and shoot an arrow a contest was arranged. And when no one could string the bow, Odysseus took it and shot the SUITORS.

"So the cowards want to creep into the brave man's bed? It is just as if a deer had put her little unweaned fawns to sleep in a mighty lion's den and gone to range the high ridges and the grassy dales for pasture. Back comes the lion to his lair, and hideous carnage falls upon them all." (Menelaus to Telemachus. Homer, Odyssey 17.124).

"I would rather die by the sword in my own house than witness the perpetual repetition of these outrages, the brutal treatment of visitors, men hauling the maids about for their foul purposes … wine running like water, and those rascals gorging themselves, just for the sport of the thing, with no excuse, no rational end in sight." (Odysseus to Telemachus. Homer, Odyssey 16.106).


SUITORS OF PENELOPE are called those who wished to marry Penelope and living in the palace of Odysseus consumed his wealth at their feasts during his absence. But Odysseus returned and no one of them escaped the palace alive. Penelope says that no one was dealt, because of the Trojan War, a heavier blow than her. For during the time her husband was away, she, not knowing whether he was dead or alive, passed her days in continuous mourning, founding relief only in tears or sleep. Some could reasonably tell her that Odysseus was not the only man who never returned from Troy, and she could find the argument perfectly wise. And yet, when she retired upstairs to her room, she would weep again for her beloved husband.

How Odysseus won and lost Penelope

Odysseus joined the alliance against Troy reluctantly, for this man did not dream of war and adventures, but instead of a quiet life at home. Some would say that the gods planned it all, and that mortals have no choice against their will. And they may be right: for if Odysseus had not conceived The Oath of Tyndareus, he would never have lost Penelope, and yet without the invention of the oath he would not have married her at all. In any case, Odysseus and Penelope had lived in Ithaca several years and Telemachus was just a babe, when King Agamemnon's agent Palamedes came to the island and destroyed their family life by outwitting Odysseus, and forcing him to comply with the oath he himself had invented and join the alliance that was being formed in order to sail to Troy and demand, by persuasion or by force, the restoration of Helen and the property stolen by the seducer Paris when he, guided by Aphrodite, visited Sparta. Palamedes did his duty, and Odysseus was bound to comply. Nevertheless, Odysseus held him responsible for having to leave country, wife, and child, and for that reason he plotted against Palamedes, and had him stoned to death by the army as a traitor when they were fighting at Troy. This war, which was not a minor one but instead a huge catastrophe which provoked the ruin, not only of the Trojan house, but also of many states in Hellas, lasted ten years.

The Achaeans difficult Returns

After the war, the ACHAEAN LEADERS, on account of the crime committed by Ajax 2 against Cassandra in the shrine of Athena, were fated to have difficult returns or even no return at all, as the goddess herself declared:

"I will impose on them a return that is no return." (Athena to Poseidon. Euripides, Daughters of Troy 75).

But Odysseus, who was Athena's protégé, was instead pursued by Poseidon, for having blinded, during his journey homeward, the god's darling son, the Cyclops Polyphemus 2, a wild cannibal who devoured several of his comrades. After having lost the rest of his crew between Scylla 1 and Charybdis, he came to the island of Calypso 3, who loved him with possessiveness and kept him with her for seven years, doing her best to banish Ithaca from his memory. And she even offered him immortality to tempt him to stay, but Odysseus, longing to see the day of his return home, refused the life of a god. Such was the love of this man for his wife. But one day Athena, whose heart was wrung because of Odysseus' grief, interceded with Zeus for him, and Hermes was sent to force Calypso 3 to give him up, which she did, lamenting and reproaching:

"…You jealous gods cannot bear to let a goddess sleep with a man." (Calypso 3 to Hermes. Homer, Odyssey 5.120).

As time went by, however, and all the survivors of the war except Odysseus had reached their homes while minstrels were already singing about the war as belonging to the past, some started to believe that he would never return. And so, SUITORS came from Ithaca and the neighboring islands, wishing to marry the queen.

The SUITORS OF PENELOPE

These youths, who are known as the SUITORS OF PENELOPE, were the crème de la crème of Ithacan society, the flower and tops of this insular state. And when they thought that Queen Penelope had been left a widow, which was not an extraordinary thought, considering that so many years had passed and neither Odysseus nor his army had returned, they presented themselves at the palace, asking her to choose the one whom she considered the best suited to be her new husband. However, they did not wait for her answer in their own houses, but instead they gradually turned into an arrogant and insolent mob, imposing themselves and consuming Odysseus' estate for their own sustenance. In this manner, they spent their time slaughtering the sheep and fatted cattle belonging to the palace in order to provide their great parties with food. And when they were not eating and drinking—for their squires and pages, nice dressed young fellows with clean pretty faces and greased hair, were often busy carving meat in lavish portions, blending wine and water, and setting the tables ready—they were practising sports, or playing draughts. And their feasts and banquets were completed with music and dance, for they had brought the minstrel Phemius 2, whom they had pressed into their service. This was the life they led at Odysseus' home, and with such a crowd filling the palace, there was always an uproar at those times, and since they had a remarkable appetite for banquets and feasts, complete ruin could be feared. That is why Telemachus said:

"… they are eating me out of house and home." (Telemachus. Homer, Odyssey 1.250).

Location of Odysseus' home and the islands where the SUITORS came from


The SUITORS were like a disease

Now, the reasonable way was for the SUITORS to be off, each to his own place, and conduct the suit from their own homes. And that is why Telemachus proposed them to feast themselves elsewhere, giving them formal notice to quit his palace in front of the Ithacan assembly. For Telemachus saw these young men who pestered his mother with unwanted attentions and wasted his wealth as a disease and an outrage to decency. But the SUITORS, who were the pride of Ithacan nobility, could not see any wrong in courting the widow of a dead king. And it was her, they argued, who had forced them to act as they did. For she had fooled them during three years with The Shroud of Laertes, saying that she would marry once she had finished this piece of work. But she, deceiving everybody, unravelled by night what she wove by day, and so, they reasoned, in order to avoid to be fooled again, they would have to stay and undermine the palace's finances until she decided to abandon her reluctant attitude. These were the means by which the SUITORS expected to force Penelope to make a choice, and by letting Telemachus suffer and see his wealth consumed, they hoped that he would persuade his mother to marry one of them. But not always those who act unjustly are aware of the consequences that come with their deeds, in particular when they are guided by the enthusiasm and the ambition of youth. For there are many who risk their own skins in situations which they deem to be quite innocent, but that unexpectedly become their ruin.

Mentor 4

And that is why Odysseus' old friend Mentor 4 did not pick a quarrel at the Ithacan assembly with these unexperienced youths, but instead he admonished the citizens of Ithaca and the SUITORS' relatives for their acquiescent attitude. For later, when Odysseus returned, and unleashing his wrath provoked a blood bath not leaving one single suitor alive, they protested and even revolted, but now, while their darling children abused Odysseus' household, they sat in abject silence, not daring to condemn the outrage. And since nobody among those who counted for the SUITORS, condemned or admonished them, they dared to push their luck even further, declaring that if Odysseus would suddenly appear he would meet an ugly end, which means that from thoughtless SUITORS they were turning into rebels and instigators of rebellion. This is how things which are relatively small, looking as if they were childish pranks, fall, step by step, out of proportion. But then it has been said of Discord that she has in the beginning an insignificant appearance, reaching soon heaven with her head while having her feet still on the ground. For one thing is to be the suitor of a widow, another to be an unwanted suitor, and yet another to think about making the woman a widow in case her husband proved to be alive after all. And once the SUITORS started thinking this last thought, it was not difficult for them to go even further and plot, although in vain, against the life of Telemachus, fearing that he would return from his trip to Pylos and Sparta with for them unwelcome news about his father.

Great scoundrels

So by the time Odysseus landed in Ithaca—where Athena, meeting him in the beach, disguised him as a stranger and a beggar, withering his limbs, robbing his head of hair, and covering his body with the wrinkles of Old Age—the ambitious young men who called themselves the SUITORS OF PENELOPE had turned into the worst scoundrels ever seen in that island realm. For being persuaded that Odysseus was dead, they did not pay court to the widow in the regular way, but instead sat in his palace eating up his livelihood by consuming large amounts of meat and wine. Odysseus learned all about them and the state of affairs in his home in the hut of his servant and swineherd Eumaeus 1, who without recognizing him, received him with hospitality, for as he said:

"… strangers and beggars all come in Zeus' name." (Eumaeus 1 to the disguised Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 14.56).

While Odysseus was staying in his servant's hut, Telemachus returned from his trip to Pylos and Sparta, and coming to the house of Eumaeus 1, he met his father. And there, having recognized each other, they jointly plot the downfall and death of the SUITORS.

Planning more crimes

These, in turn, became more and more bold, and one of them, Antinous 2, reasoned that while Telemachus lived it would be difficult or impossible for them to bring the business of their suit to a satisfactory end. And as they tried to murder him in the open sea during Telemachus' homeward trip but failed, Antinous 2 now believed that it would be best for them to murder Odysseus' son in some road of Ithaca, before he denounced them in front of the assembly. After that, said Antinous 2, they could divide Odysseus' property among them all, letting Penelope and his new husband keep the house. However, some among them did not feel ready to carry on this murderous plan, and they adjourned their decision in this matter.

Penelope rebukes Antinous 2

But the herald Medon 5 overheard the SUITORS' debate, and warned Penelope, who called Antinous 2 to account saying:

"How dare you plot against Telemachus' life and dishonour the obligations that a past act of mercy imposes—bonds that are ratified by Zeus himself and make all enmity between you two a sacrilege?" (Penelope to Antinous 2. Homer, Odyssey 16.420).

And Penelope reminded Antinous 2 that his father once had sought refuge in Odysseus' palace from a mob that would have killed him, for political reasons, had not Odysseus intervened. And yet now, Penelope pointed out, Antinous 2 not only was courting Odysseus' wife, but he was also plotting against the life of Odysseus' son, disregarding the grief that the death of her son could cause to Penelope herself.

Eurymachus 2's false words

Antinous 2 kept silent, but this treacherous behavior was so flagrant that the suitor Eurymachus 2, whom Odysseus long ago had taken on his knees, feeding him with meat and letting him taste the wine, felt compelled to soothe Penelope's fears, although he himself had murder in his heart:

"Penelope … Dismiss these terrors from your mind. The man is not born and never will be, who shall lay violent hands on Telemachus your son, so long as I live …" (Eurymachus 2 to Penelope. Homer, Odyssey 16.435).

Distinguishing good from bad for the sake of it

Odysseus came at last to his palace disguised as a stranger and in the company of Eumaeus 1, when the SUITORS were enjoying one of their banquets. And while the servant took a place near Telemachus, Odysseus, limping along with the aid of a staff and looking like a distressful beggar, went round collecting scraps from the SUITORS. They say that it was the goddess Athena who inspired him to go round the table, so that he would learn to distinguish the good from the bad among the SUITORS. And yet, they say, this did not mean that any of them would be saved from destruction and death. Odysseus' inspection and begging tour was not appreciated by the suitor Antinous 2, who disliked tramps coming to pester him and the other SUITORS with their wants at their magnificent dinners. So instead of giving him food, as the other SUITORS had done, he threw a stool at Odysseus, and struck him on the back. And the scene was so embarrassing that some of the SUITORS, fearing that this vagabond could be a god in disguise, condemned the arrogance of Antinous 2, who himself took no notice of their opinion. But later when the real beggar Arnaeus arrived, and having provoked a fight with Odysseus (for beggar fights beggar) was defeated by him, both Antinous 2 and Amphinomus 2 presented Odysseus with food and drink, congratulating him for having stopped the glutton Arnaeus.

Odysseus warns Amphinomus 2

It was then that Odysseus warned Amphinomus 2, who seemed to him to be a decent fellow, telling him that lawless violence, as the SUITORS wasting the man's property and insulting his wife, was bound to end in disaster. For it was a delusion to think, he explained, that father and brothers would stand by them, and he added:

"I only hope that some power may swaft you away to the safety of your own home and that you may not have to face him when he comes to his native land. For not without bloodshed, will the wooers and he part one from the other once he is under his own roof." (Odysseus the beggar to Amphinomus 2. Homer, Odyssey 18.150).

This filled Amphinomus 2 with a foreboding of disaster, but nevertheless he stayed with his comrades, for as they say, the goddess Athena had already decided that Telemachus would take his life.

The SUITORS' gifts

In the midst of their outrages, the SUITORS had also time and opportunity for gallant words, and they could call Penelope, who could be the mother of many of them, for wise, beautiful, and graceful, which nevertheless sounded false, coming from those, who inviting themselves, enjoyed free meals at her estate's expense. But they also gave her gifts, for after all they hoped to win her hand, and with her all of King Odysseus' rights. And so, for example, the scoundrel Antinous 2 presented her with an embroidered robe with dozen golden brooches, and gentle Eurymachus 2 gave her a golden chain with amber beads, and Eurydamas 4 brought a pair of ear-rings, and Pisander 2 gave her a necklace. This was also a pleasure for the SUITORS, for it is delightful for those who enjoy power and wealth, to have the opportunity to exhibit both one and the other, showing that not only insolence, but also grace, glory, and generosity may emanate from their presence. And when that is done, then insolence and arrogance may be resumed with a clearer conscience, for in fact even Odysseus' baldness raised laughter among these merry fellows, and that is why they often had to be exhorted by Telemachus to refrain from provocation and violence.

The trial of the bow

The day came when Penelope, deeming that she could not allow the SUITORS to consume all the wealth, decided to confront them with Odysseus' bow, proposing a trial of strength, and declaring that she was prepared to marry whichever among them proved the best at stringing the bow and shooting an arrow. The SUITORS then took their turn with the bow in the same way as the wine went round. Liodes, who was the first to try the bow, said as he failed to bend it:

"Believe me, this bow will break the heart and be the death of many a champion here." (Liodes to the SUITORS. Homer, Odyssey 21.154).

The rest of the SUITORS decided to grease and thaw the bow before they tried it, and when also Eurymachus 2 failed, Antinous 2 proposed to postpone the test. For this day, being the holiday of the archer god Apollo, was no time, he argued, to bend bows. In the meantime, Odysseus had gone apart with Eumaeus 1 and his cowman Philoetius, and after revealing himself to them, gave them instructions for the coming fight against the SUITORS. And when he returned, he begged a favor of them all: that they should let him have the bow and test it. The SUITORS found this request preposterous, not because they feared that Penelope would marry the beggar if he bent the bow, but because if he did, the people would say that they could not bend it, but in came some casual tramp and bent the bow with great ease. And this kind of black spot in their immaculate reputation they could not suffer. However, as Penelope and Telemachus intervened in his favor, the bow was finally handed over to Odysseus, who strung the bow without effort, and shooting an arrow hit all the marks.

Death is unbelievable

As he finished the test, Odysseus nodded, and Telemachus took place full armed at his father's side. Odysseus then shot an arrow at Antinous 2 and killed him. Now, there are many who cannot acknowledge Death, specially if this terrible god stands beside them, and that is why the SUITORS believed or wished to believe that Odysseus had killed Antinous 2 by accident. For if this was no accident, then there was but little hope and they were in great danger, for there was not a shield or a spear in the room to lay their hands on. But those about to be slaughtered seldom believe that slaughter awaits them, and that is why the SUITORS thought that they could still reproach Odysseus for what they deemed to be a blunder, and threatened him with heavy consequences for having slain the greatest nobleman in Ithaca. So to wake them up Odysseus said:

"You never thought to see me back from Troy. So you ate me out of house and home; you raped my maids; you wooed my wife on the sly though I was alive, with no more fear of the gods in heaven than of the human vengeance that might come. I tell you, one and all, your doom is sealed." (Odysseus to the SUITORS. Homer, Odyssey 22.35).

The SUITORS beg for mercy

Phemius asks for his life | od435gen: Phemius: “By your knees I beseech you, Odysseus, and do respect me and have pity; on your own self shall sorrow come hereafter, if you slay the minstrel, who sings to gods and men. Self-taught am I, and the god has planted in my heart all manner of lays, and worthy am I to sing to you as to a god; wherefore be not eager to cut my throat." (Hom.Od.22.344). Bonaventura Genelli (1798 " 1868).

This is the kind of thing that no young man wishes to hear, for sudden death takes away far more than the colour from the cheeks. That is why Eurymachus 2, talking to Odysseus, tried to make Antinous 2, who was already dead anyway, responsible for all what happened, saying that he had been the prime mover of all misdeeds and the one who had plotted against the life of Telemachus, wishing to make himself king of Ithaca. This is how Eurymachus 2 suddenly found in his dead comrade all kinds of faults that he could not see shortly before. And after saying that Antinous 2 had indeed deserved to be killed, Eurymachus 2 begged Odysseus to spare him and the rest of the SUITORS, promising to make amends, and pay in oxen, bronze, and gold, for all the food and drink they had consumed, until Odysseus was satisfied. However, for reasons that only those who retaliate fully know, Odysseus refused any agreement, and exhorted them to fight or run for their lives. This is how the SUITORS' season of insolence and pleasure came to an abrupt end, and they would have wished that some familiar voice had woken them up from this nightmare so that they could have dinner again. Instead they were forced to fight for their lives, but Odysseus, assisted by his swineherd Eumaeus 1, his cowman Philoetius, and his son Telemachus, killed them all, who were the nicest young men of the island realm, meant to become the elite of Ithaca, Cephallenia, Dulichium, and Zacynthos, the sons of the best families of the kingdom. The wrath of Odysseus knew no mercy, and when Liodes begged for his life, arguing that he only had been the SUITORS' priest, Odysseus, answered before killing him:

"How often, then, you must have prayed in this hall that the happy day of my return might be put off …" (Odysseus to Liodes. Homer, Odyssey 22.321).

But he spared the minstrel Phemius 2, who had been forced by the SUITORS to sing for them at their banquets. This is how the SUITORS' dreams of kingship ended in death when Odysseus, having wandered for many years, returned home to resume his life. But after the extraordinary victory over more than one hundred men, Odysseus did not wish to have any jubilation, for he found it an impious thing to exult over the slain who were victims of their own infamy.

Disloyal servants punished

Instead he asked Euryclia which among the fifty women-servants in the palace had been disloyal. And the twelve that had disgraced themselves were ordered to clean the battlefield, removing the bodies of the slain and washing tables and chairs. And when the whole house was again in order, Telemachus and the two herdsmen took the women who had slept with the SUITORS to the courtyard, and hanged them. And they also killed the disloyal servant and goatherd Melanthius 2, who sided with the SUITORS, after slicing his nose and ears off and ripping away his privy parts as raw meat for the dogs. And they were so angry at him and his lack of loyalty that they also lopped off his hands and feet.

Consequences

The massacre was not without consequences. For when the news of the SUITORS' death spread, many mourners gathered at Odysseus' gate, and soon Antinous 2's father Eupeithes, commanding a force formed by the SUITORS' relatives, rose in arms, attacking Odysseus' palace. Eupeithes was killed by Laertes, and the attack failed. But some say that this feud did not end here, and that both parties sent for Achilles' son Neoptolemus, who was king in Epirus, to act as arbiter. Neoptolemus then condemned Odysseus to be exiled, and in accordance with the sentence he retired to Italy. At the same time, Neoptolemus sentenced the relatives of the SUITORS to compensate Odysseus each year for the waste of his wealth. And they paid the compensation to Telemachus in barley, wine, olive-oil, honeycombs, salt, and animals for sacrifice. Neoptolemus, some believe, judged in this way because he hoped to get possession of the island of Cephallenia, once Odysseus was put out of the way.

Even Agamemnon learned about the SUITORS

And also Agamemnon, who died years before Odysseus killed the SUITORS, learned what happened in Ithaca, for the soul of the suitor Amphimedon told him everything when he descended to Hades.


List of the SUITORS OF PENELOPE 

Apollodorus

Homer

Where the SUITORS OF PENELOPE came from and other details

 

Homer counts the SUITORS as follows: 52 from Dulichium,
24 from Same,
20 from Zacynthos,
12 from Ithaca, and names these:

The SUITORS were killed either by Odysseus or by someone in his team, that is, Eumaeus 1, Philoetius or Telemachus.
Eumaeus 1 was Odysseus' servant and swineherd. He was son of Ctesius 1, son of Ormenus 5. When Telemachus ruled Ithaca he bestowed freedom upon Eumaeus 1. Philoetius was also Odysseus' servant and master-herdman.
Dulichium is one of the Echinadian Islands at the entrance of the Gulf of Corinth.
Same is a city in the island of Cephallenia, which is in the Ionian Sea off the coast of Acarnania.
Zacynthos is a large island opposite the coast of Elis.
Ithaca, where Odysseus had his home, is an island between Cephallenia and the Acarnanian coast.

Acamas 4.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Acarnan 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Agelaus 5.

Agelaus 5.

From Same. Son of Damastor 3. Killed by Odysseus (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff.; Hom.Od.22.241, 22.293.

Agenor 5.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff.; Apd.Ep.7.33).

Agenor 11.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Agerochus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Agrius 5.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Alcarops.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Amphialus 2.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Amphimachus 4.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Amphimachus 5.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Amphimedon 1.

Amphimedon 1.

This is the Ithacan who met the spirit of Agamemnon in Hades and told him what had happened to the SUITORS OF PENELOPE. Amphimedon 1, son of Melaneus 2, was killed by Telemachus (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff.; Hom.Od.22.284, 24.103ff.).

Amphinomus 2.

Amphinomus 2.

Amphinomus 2, who came from Dulichium and was the son of Nisus 2, pleased Penelope above all others and is said to have seduced her. He was killed by Telemachus. King Nisus 2 of Dulichium was son of Aretias, otherwise unknown (Apd.Ep.7.27, 7.39; Hom.Od.16.394, 22.89ff.).

Andraemon 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Andromedes 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Antenor 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.29, 7.33).

Antigonus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Antimachus 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Antinous 2.

Antinous 2.

Antinous 2 was from Ithaca. Penelope considered him to be the worst scoundrel among the SUITORS, but some say that Antinous 2 seduced her (see also Amphinomus 2 above). Antinous 2, son of Eupeithes, was shot dead by Odysseus. After the death of the SUITORS, Eupeithes accused Odysseus and rose in arms against him, but was killed by Laertes (Apd.Ep.7.26ff, 7.38; Hom.Od.1.383, 17.498ff., 22.10ff.).

Antisthenes.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Archemolus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Archestratus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26.ff., 7.33).

Argius 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Aristratus.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Astylochus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Barthas.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Bias 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Calydoneus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Celtus 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ceraus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Cerberus 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Clymenus 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Clytius 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Clytius 3.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Clytius 4.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ctesippus 2.

Ctesippus 2.

From Same. This is the suitor who hurled a cow's hoof at Odysseus the beggar. He was the son of Polytherses and was killed by Philoetius (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.20.288ff., 22.286-287).

Ctesippus 3.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ctesius 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Cycnus 5.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Cynnus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Daemon.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Daesenor.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Damastor 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Demoptolemus.

Demoptolemus.

From Dulichium. Killed by Odysseus (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.22.266).

Diopithes.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Dulichieus.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Echion 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Elatus 4.

Elatus 4.

From Same. Killed by Eumaeus 1 (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.22.267).

Eteoneus 1.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Eumelus 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

 

Euryades.

Killed by Telemachus (Hom.Od.22.267).

Euryalus 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Euryalus 3.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

 

Eurydamas 4.

This is the suitor who gave Penelope a pair of earrings as a gift. He was killed by Odysseus (Hom.Od.18.296, 22.283).

Eurylochus 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

 

Eurymachus 2.

This suitor is said to have surpassed all other SUITORS in generosity. He consorted with Melantho 1, a maid in the House of Odysseus who had been brought up by Penelope. Melantho 1 was daughter of Dolius, the old servant that Penelope had received from her father. Melantho 1's brother Melanthius 2 was a goatherd and a servant; he scorned Odysseus and Telemachus, but later Odysseus killed him together with the SUITORS OF PENELOPE, after slicing his nose and ears off. Eurymachus 2, whom Odysseus slew, was the son of Polybus 6 (Telemachus believed this suitor to be the best man in Ithaca and the keenest bidder for Penelope's hand and Odysseus' rights (Hom.Od.1.399, 15.17, 18.325, 22.79ff.).

Eurynomus 1.

Eurynomus 1.

From Ithaca. Son of Aegyptius, a rich and wise Elder of Ithaca. Eurynomus 1's brother sailed with Odysseus against Troy, but during their return he was devoured by the Cyclops Polyphemus 2, whom Odysseus blinded (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33; Hom.Od.2.22).

Eurypylus 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Eurystratus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Evenorides 1.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Evenorides 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Glaucus 5.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Hagius.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Halius 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Helenus 2.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Hellanicus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Hippodochus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Hippomachus 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Hyperenor 3.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Indius 1.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Indius 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Iphidamas 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Itanus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ithacus 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Lamas.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Laodicus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Laomedes.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Laomedon 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Lestorides.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Liocritus 2.

Liocritus 2.

From Zacynthos. Liocritus 2, whom Telemachus slew, was son of Evenor 1 (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.2.242, 22.294).

Liodes.

Liodes.

This Ithacan was full of indignation against the other SUITORS. He was the first to test the Odysseus' bow of which he said that it would break the heart and be the death of many. Himself was slain by Odysseus (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.21.144, 22.310).

Lyammus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Lycaethus 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Magnes 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Marpsius.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Mecisteus 4.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.).

Medon 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Megasthenes.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Meneptolemus 1.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Minis.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Molebus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Nicomachus 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Nisas.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Nissaeus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Oloetrochus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ormenius 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ormenus 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Paralus 1.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pellas.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Periallus.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Periclymenus 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Perimedes 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Periphas 7.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Periphron.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pheroetes.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Philodemus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Phrenius 1.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Phrenius 2.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pisander 2.

Pisander 2.

From Same. This suitor whom Philoetius slew, was the son of Polyctor 2, the man who made a basin of stone into which a spring ran, in Ithaca, together with Ithacus 1 and Neritus (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.18.299, 22.267).

Pisenor 1.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Polybus 2.

Polybus 2.

From Zacynthos. Killed by Eumaeus 1 (Apd.Ep.7.26ff.; Hom.Od.22.284).

Polybus 3.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Polydorus 4.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Polyidus 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Polypoetes 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Promachus 3.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Promus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pronomus 1.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pronous 2.

 

From Ithaca (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Prothous 2.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pseras.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Ptolemaeus.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Pylaemenes 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Schedius 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Stratius 1.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Telmius.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Thadytius.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Theophron.

 

From Zacynthos (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Thersilochus 2.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Thoas 4.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Thrasymedes 3.

 

From Dulichium (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).

Thriasus.

 

From Same (Apd.Ep.7.26ff., 7.33).


Related sections Mentor 4, Odysseus, Penelope  
Sources
Abbreviations

See above.