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Crete

7128: Europa on the bull. Pompei, casa di Giasone o dell'Amor fatale. National Archaeological Museum, Naples.


Crete (enlarge)

Crete is the large island in the Mediterranean Sea, southeast of Greece. The first Cretan kings were Archedius, Gortys 2, and Cydon 1, sons of Tegeates, the founder of Tegea in Arcadia. Tegeates was son of the impious Lycaon 2, who lived at the time of The Flood (see Mythical Chronology). The three brothers emigrated from Arcadia to Crete, and it is said that the city Gortyna was named after Gortys 2, and Cydonia after Cydon 1.

After them, Tectamus (son of Dorus 1, son of Hellen 1, son of Deucalion 1, the man who survived the Flood) sailed to Crete with Aeolians and Pelasgians, and became king of the island. During his reign, Zeus carried off Europa from Phoenicia. Tectamus' son Asterius 3 married Europa and inherited the kingdom, being himself succeeded on the throne by Minos 1, son of Zeus and Europa.

Minos 1 was succeeded by his son Lycastus 1, and the latter by his famous son Minos 2, who some call son of Zeus and Europa. The architectural creations of Daedalus (the Labyrinth, the Wooden Cow, the Dancing-floor for Ariadne) are from the age of Minos 2.

Minos 2 waged war against Athens and Megara, imposing tribute to the former, and conquering the latter through the treason of the daughter of King Nisus 1. But during his reign, the power of Crete decayed, and Theseus slew the Minotaur and abducted Ariadne, being helped by Daedalus. Minos 2 died in Sicily (where he had come looking for the traitor Daedalus), killed by King Cocalus or by his daughters.

Minos 2 was succeeded by Idomeneus 1, who became leader of the Cretans during the Trojan War. At his return from Troy, however, he was prevented to land on Crete, or driven out of the island by the usurper Leucus 1.


Throne Succession in Crete 

Rulers

Details 

Archedius
Gortys 2
Cydon 1

Archedius migrated to Crete where the city Catreus was called after him. He was son of Tegeates, son of Lycaon 2, and her mother was Maera 3, daughter of Atlas (Pau.8.53.4).
Gortys 2 migrated to Crete where the city Gortyna was called after him. He was son either of Tegeates and Maera 3, or of Rhadamanthys, son of Europa (Pau.8.53.4).
Cydon 1 migrated to Crete where the city Cydonia was called after him. He let his daughter Eulimene 2 be sacrificed in order to get a better result in war, as an oracle had advised. He was son either of Tegeates and Maera 3, or of Hermes and Acalle, called daughter of Minos 2 (Pau.8.53.4; Parth.36).

Tectamus

Tectamus sailed to Crete with Aeolians and Pelasgians and became king of the island. During the time when he was king of Crete, Zeus carried off Europa from Phoenicia. Tectamus was son of Dorus 1, son of Hellen 1, son of Deucalion 1, the man who survived the Flood. He married a daughter of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1, and had by her a son Asterius 3 (Dio.4.60.2).

Asterius 3

Asterius 3 (Asterion 3) is the king of Crete who married Europa and brought up her children by Zeus. Himself he was childless, or perhaps he had a daughter Crete 1, sometimes said to be the wife of Minos 2. Asterius 3 was son of Tectamus, who sailed to Crete with Aeolians and Pelasgians and became king of the island, and a daughter of Cretheus 1, son of Aeolus 1. Tectamus, from whom Asterius 3 inherited the throne of Crete, was son of Dorus 1, eponym of the Dorians and son of Hellen 1, eponym of the Hellenes and son of Deucalion 1, the man who survived the Flood (Apd.3.1.2; Dio.4.60.2-3; Nonn.2.695).

Minos 1

Minos 1 was king of Crete after Asterius 3. He was son of Zeus and Europa, and father, by Itone (daughter of Lyctius) of Lycastus 1 (Dio.4.60.3).

Lycastus 1

Lycastus 1 succeeded his father Minos 1 on the throne, and was himself succeeded by Minos 2 (Dio.4.60.3).

Minos 2

Minos 2 is the king of Crete who affirmed he had received the kingdom from the gods. Later, pursuing a fugitive, he met his death in Sicily, but now he delivers judgement to the dead in Hades (Apd.3.1.1-3, 3.15.1; Apd.Ep.1.15; Dio.4.60.3, 4.79.2, 5.79.4; Hdt.7.170; Hom.Od.11.568; Hyg.Ast.2.34, 2.35; Nonn.13.223; Pau.7.4.6; Stat.Theb.8.27).

Deucalion 2

Deucalion 2, also counted among the ARGONAUTS and the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS, was son of Minos 2, either by Pasiphae or by Crete 1. His children were: Idomeneus 1, Crete 2, and Molus 1. It is said that when Theseus was about to leave Crete, he joined battle with the Cretans at the gate of the Labyrinth and there he slew Deucalion 2 and his bodyguard (Apd.3.1.2, 3.3.1; Dio.4.60.4; Hom.Il.13.451; Hyg.Fab.14, 173; Plu.The.19.6).

Idomeneus 1

Idomeneus 1 was leader of the Cretans during the Trojan War. At his return from the war he was driven out of Crete by the usurper Leucus 1 who besides had become the lover of Idomeneus 1's wife Meda 2, whom Leucus 1 later killed, along with Idomeneus 1's daughter Clisithyra. Nothing is told about Idomeneus 1's son Orsilochus 4. Idomeneus 1, who is counted among the SUITORS OF HELEN and those who hid inside the WOODEN HORSE, was son of Deucalion 2, son of Minos 2 (Apd.3.3.1; Apd.Ep.3.11ff., 6.10; Hom.Od.13.260; Hyg.Fab.81; QS.12.314ff.; Try.168).

Leucus 1

Leucus 1 became the lover of Meda 2, while Idomeneus 1 was fighting against Troy, and having killed her and her daughter became a tyrant, who drove out Idomeneus 1 when he returned from Troy (Apd.Ep.6.10).


Related sections Map of Greece 
Sources
Abbreviations

Apd.1.1.6, 1.9.26, 2.4.7, 2.5.7, 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.2.1; Apd.Ep.1.8, 3.13, 6.10, 6.11, 6.15a, 6.15b, 6.29; Arg.1.1129, 2.299, 2.1233, 4.1578, 4.1637, 4.1644, 4.1651, 4.1689, 4.1694; Cal.Ze.8; Cal.Ar.191, 205; Cal.Del.272, 309; Hes.The.477, 480, 971; Hom.Il.2.645, 2.649, 3.230, 3.233, 4.251, 4.265, 13.219, 13.221, 13.255, 13.259, 13.274, 13.311, 13.450, 13.453, 23.450, 23.482; Hom.Od.3.192, 3.291, 11.323, 13.256, 13.260, 14.199, 14.205, 14.234, 14.252, 14.300, 14.301, 14.382, 16.62, 17.523, 19.172, 19.176, 19.186, 19.338; Hyg.Fab.14, 30, 38, 39, 42, 97, 139, 173a, 177, 178, 189, 198; Nonn.6.120, 7.358, 8.118, 8.141, 13.150, 14.23, 19.183, 21.307, 35.381, 37.95, 47.391, 47.421, 47.704; Ov.Met.3.2, 3.223, 8.118, 8.183, 9.666, 9.668, 9.735, 13.706.