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Arcadia

Location of Arcadia in central Peloponnesus (enlarge)

Arcadia is the region in central Peloponnesus south of Achaea, north of Messenia and Laconia, east of Argolis and west of Elis. The boundaries of the kingdoms of Arcadia and the throne successions are however less certain: many have been called "King of Arcadia."

Remembered first king

The first king in Arcadia is said to have been Pelasgus 1, after whom the inhabitants of the Peloponnesus were called Pelasgians. But otherwise he is remembered as the king of Argos who received and protected Danaus 1 and his daughters, the DANAIDS. Pelasgus 1 was the son of Zeus and Niobe 1, the first mortal woman to have consorted with the god. Otherwise Pelasgus 1 is said to have been an autochthon (i.e. a son of the soil, see AUTOCHTHONOUS), or as it is also asserted, son of Palaechthon. Niobe 1 was daughter of Phoroneus, who is at the origin of the royal house of Argos and has been called "the first man." Pelasgus 1's brother Argus 5 became in fact king of Argos after Phoroneus. Some say that Pelasgus 1 married Deianira 4, daughter of Lycaon 6, son of Aezeius. This Aezeius is one of the first kings of the Peloponnesus. Others affirm that Pelasgus 1 married Meliboea 1, one of the OCEANIDS, and still others say that his wife was Cyllene 1, a Naiad after whom Mount Cyllene in Arcadia is named (but it is also said that this mountain—the highest in Arcadia—was called after Cyllen, daughter of Elatus 2). One of these women gave birth to impious Lycaon 2, who sat on the throne after Pelasgus 1.

Lycaon 2

Lycaon 2 was a powerful king who thought he could defy the gods, and his sons—founders of numerous cities—were also notorious for their insolence, pride and impiety. Because of his crimes (Lycaon 2 sacrificed a human baby), Zeus transformed him into a wolf, or else blasted him and his sons with a thunderbolt. The one son who survived the god's wrath, Nyctimus (who some say was the youngest and others the eldest of the sons), succeeded his father on the throne. If this is so, then it cannot be, as others say, that Nyctimus was the human baby that Lycaon 2 served to Zeus as a meal. In any case, it is told that about this time Zeus, tired of the crimes of this peculiar family, sent the Flood that destroyed humankind in the age of Deucalion 1.

Parrhasius

Phylonome, daughter of Nyctimus and Arcadia 2, consorted with Ares and had twins. One of them, Parrhasius, has been called king of Arcadia. This Phylonome used to hunt with Artemis. However, Ares got her with child in the guise of a shepherd. Fearing her father, Phylonome cast her twin children into the river Erymanthus, but they found haven in the trunk of a tree. Then a wolf suckled the children, and the shepherd Gyliphus reared them as his own.

King calls the land Arcadia while others emigrate

After Nyctimus, the kingdom was ruled by Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto, daughter of Lycaon 2. Some tell that Maia, the eldest of the PLEIADES and mother of Hermes, brought up Arcas 1 in the land that was called Arcadia after him (instead of Pelasgia). Arcas 1, who some say was the human baby whom Lycaon 2 served to Zeus at a banquet, was put among the constellations (Bear-Watcher) and made immortal. He is called Arctophylax since he guards Arctos (Great Bear) which is his mother Callisto, placed among the stars by Zeus. Arcas 1 is said to have introduced the cultivation of crops, which he learned from Triptolemus. During his time, men learned to make bread and to weave clothes, which has proved quite useful even in our own day. In the meanwhile, other grandsons of impious Lycaon 2, such as Archedius, Gortys 2 and Cydon 1, migrated to Crete, and after them were named the cities Cydonia, Gortyna and Catreus. These are sons of Tegeates and Maera 3, daughter of Atlas. Some say that Atlas himself was once king of Arcadia, and that he was succeeded on the throne by Deimas, son of Dardanus 1 and Chryse 3 (see also Troy).

Several kingdoms

After Arcas 1, his sons became kings in different Arcadian districts. Azan ruled in Azania, and Aphidas 1, a weak king, ruled in Tegea. Elatus 2, who at first ruled in Mount Cyllene, migrated to Phocis, helped the Phocians against the Phlegyans, and founded the city of Elateia. At Azan's death, his son Clitor 2 came to the throne and became the most powerful of the kings in Arcadia. But having died childless, he was succeeded by Aepytus 3 and Stymphalus 1, sons of Elatus 2.

False friend

Pelops 1, an Asian immigrant after whom the Peloponnesus was named, made war on Stymphalus 1's Arcadian kingdom, but not being able to defeat him, he slew Stymphalus under a pretence of friendship, and scattered his limbs. For this reason the whole of Hellas suffered of infertility, a calamity that only was averted when pious Aeacus (the same who now keeps the keys of the Underworld) offered prayers.

Aleus

When Stymphalus 1 was murdered by his false friend Pelops 1, and Aepytus 3 was killed by a serpent while hunting, Aphidas 1's son Aleus became king. Aleus married Neaera 3, daughter of Pereus, son of Elatus 2, and had children by her, among which Auge 2 and Lycurgus 2. Aleus built a sanctuary of Athena in Tegea, and made this city the capital of his kingdom.

Aleus' daughter

Personification of Arcadia, the region in central Peloponnesus. Behind her stands Pan (or perhaps just one of the PANS) with his pipes. There are at least two women named Arcadia—one of the DANAIDS, and the wife of Nictymus, the son of Lycaon 2. But the region is said to have been called after Arcas 1, the son of Callisto. 7112: Hercules finds his son Telephus in Arcadia. Ercolano, Basilica. National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Aleus' daughter Auge 2, having been seduced by Heracles 1, hid her child by him (Telephus) in the precinct of Athena which her father had built and whose priesthood she held. But the land remained barren, and the oracles declared that there was impiety in the temple. Finally, she was discovered and delivered by her father to Nauplius 1 to be put to death. But Nauplius 1, instead of killing her, gave her to King Teuthras 1 of Mysia (northwestern part of Asia Minor), who married her. Her child Telephus, though having been exposed on Mount Parthenius by Aleus, survived because a doe gave him suck. Later, shepherds found him and gave him the name Telephus. He was then adopted by the king of Mysia, on whose death he succeeded to the throne. During his rule, Telephus chased the Achaean expedition, which having sailed against Troy, arrived by mistake in Mysia.

Lycurgus 2

Lycurgus 2 succeeded his father Aleus as king of the Arcadians, and lived a long life. His son Ancaeus 1 is counted both among the ARGONAUTS and the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS. Yet he was killed by the Calydonian Boar during the hunt. As his other son, Epochus, died of an illness, Lycurgus 2 had no heirs when he left this world. Some say that Iasus 1, sometimes called father of Atalanta, was also his son. Lycurgus 2 is also remembered for having killed King Areithous 1, who was called the mace-man because he only used as a weapon an iron mace. Lycurgus 2 came upon Areithous 1 in a narrow way, where the mace was useless, and killed him with his spear despoiling him of the armour that Ares had given him. Later, when Lycurgus 2 grew old, he gave the armour to Ereuthalion 1, his squire, who in turn was killed by Nestor in a war between the Arcadians and the Pylians (for the Pylians, see Pylos).

Echemus

Since no child of Lycurgus 2 was alive when he died, Echemus, son of Aeropus 2, son of Cepheus 2, son of Aleus, became king (for Cepheus 2 see Sparta). During his time, the HERACLIDES made an attempt to return to the Peloponnesus under the leadership of Hyllus 1, but were defeated in a battle at the Isthmus of Corinth. In this battle Echemus killed Hyllus 1 (son of Heracles 1) in single combat. Echemus married Timandra 1 (daughter of Tyndareus and Leda) and had by her a son Laodocus, after whom the suburb Ladoceia near Megalopolis was named.

Time to sail to Troy

Echemus was succeeded on the throne by Agapenor, son of Ancaeus 1, son of Lycurgus 2. Agapenor was later one of the SUITORS OF HELEN. Consequently, he became one of the ACHAEAN LEADERS, being also counted among those who hid inside the WOODEN HORSE. After the Trojan War, Agapenor did not return to Arcadia. Instead he sailed to Cyprus and founded Paphos, where he ruled.

Capital moves to Trapezus

As Agapenor did not return from Troy, the kingdom of Arcadia devolved upon Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1. Hippothous 6 established his capital in Trapezus, and was succeeded by his son Aepytus 4, who was struck blind after entering a forbidden sanctuary of Poseidon, dying shortly after.

Mycenaean power

During the reign of Aepytus 4, King Orestes 2 of Mycenae, son of Agamemnon, moved his home from Mycenae to Arcadia, as his realm had extended considerably. Orestes 2, however, was killed by the bite of a snake at Oresteum in Arcadia. This town was previously called Oresthasium, and had been founded by Orestheus 2, son of Lycaon 2.

Arcadia spared by the HERACLIDES

Cypselus 1 succeeded his father Aepytus 4 as king of the Arcadians, and founded a place called Basilis. It is during his reign that the HERACLIDES effected their return, invading the Peloponnesus, not as it was attempted before, that is, across the Corinthian Isthmus, but by sea. Cypselus 1 made an agreement with the invaders, marrying his daughter Merope 2 to the Heraclid Cresphontes, and in this way he had nothing to fear.

From father to son

Cresphontes received the kingdom of Messenia by casting lots with Procles 2 and Eurysthenes 1, who received Lacedaemon and Sparta, while Cypselus 1's son Holaeas succeeded his father on the throne. The rule passed thereafter from father to son: Holaeas to Bucolion 3 to Phialus (who changed the name of the city Phigalia to Phialia) to Simus to Pompus to Aeginetes 2 to Polymestor 2, under whose reign the Lacedaemonians for the first time invaded Tegea, led by Charillus. On this occasion the Lacedaemonians were defeated in battle by the Tegeans, who used men and women alike in defending the city; the whole Lacedaemonian army, including Charillus, were taken prisoners. Polymestor 2 was succeeded by Aechmis, son of Briacas, brother of Polymestor 2.


Throne Succession in Arcadia 

Arcadia was periodically divided into several kingdoms. The following table combines several accounts. Kings under "Arcadia" had normally Tegea as capital city. Hippothous 6 moved the capital to Trapezus.

Pelasgia

 

Pelasgus 1

Nyctimus

Arcadia

Arcas 1

Azania

Tegea

Mount Cyllene

Stymphalus

Azan

Aphidas 1

Elatus 2

 

Clitor 2

   

Aepytus 3

Stymphalus 1

Arcadia

Agamedes 2

Aleus

Cepheus 2

Cercyon 2

Lycurgus 2

   

Echemus

Agapenor

Hippothous 6

Aepytus 4

Cypselus 1

Holaeas

Bucolion 3

Phialus

Simus

Pompus

Aeginetes 2

Polymestor 2

Aechmis


Pelasgus 1 was either an autochthon, or a son of Zeus and Niobe 1 (the daughter of Phoroneus), or a son of Palaechthon. He is father of Lycaon 2 and Temenus 3. His wife was either Meliboea 1 (one of the OCEANIDS), or Cyllene 1 (one of the NYMPHS), or Deianira 4, daughter of Lycaon 6, son of Aezeius, one of the first kings of the Peloponnesus (Aes.Supp.250 and passim; Apd.2.1.1, 3.8.1; DH.1.11.2; Pau.8.22.1).

Lycaon 2 is the impious king of Arcadia who caused the wrath of Zeus to destroy the world. Possible parentages:

a) Pelasgus 1 & Meliboea 1.
b) Pelasgus 1 & Cyllene 1.
c) Pelasgus 1 & Deianira 4.
d) Autochthonous.-

(Pau.8.2.3, 8.17.6; Apd.3.8.1-2; Lib.Met.31; Hes.CWE.31; DH.1.11.2, 1.13.2; Hyg.Fab.176; Strab.5.2.4.)

Nyctimus was the youngest son of Lycaon 2 or perhaps the eldest. He succeeded his father on the throne and was himself succeeded by Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Yet others have said that it was he who was cut up by his father and served to Zeus as a meal. By an unknown woman Nyctimus had a son Periphetes 4; and by Arcadia 2 he had a daughter Phylonome (Apd.3.8.1; Nonn.18.22; Pau.8.3.1ff., 8.4.1, 8.24.1; Plu.PS.36).

Arcas 1 was son of Zeus and Callisto. When his mother perished, Zeus named the child Arcas 1, and gave it to Hermes' mother Maia to bring up in Arcadia, a land called after him. Arcas 1 is said to have succeeded Nyctimus, son of impious Lycaon 2, on the throne. By Leanira, Meganira or Chrysopelia, he became father of Elatus 2 and Aphidas 1, or else he was father of these two and Azan by Erato 1. By unknown or unmentioned women he fathered Autolaus, Hyperippe 2, Erymanthus 2 and Diomenia, and by Laodamia 3 he became father of Triphylus. Arcas 1 is counted among those who were made immortal, being placed among the stars (Apd.3.8.2, 3.9.1; Hyg.Ast.2.4; Hyg.Fab.224; Nonn.13.296; Pau.5.1.4, 8.4.1-2, 8.9.9, 8.24.1, 10.9.5).

Azan. King of Azania, a district in Arcadia that was called after him. Azan's father was Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto, and his mother was Erato 1, a dryad Nymph. He married Hippolyte 4 and had a daughter Coronis 2, whom Apollo loved, and a son Clitor 2, who became his successor (Dio.4.33.1; Hom.Apo.3.209; Pau.8.4.1-4).

Aphidas 1. King of Arcadia together with his brother Elatus 2. Yet the latter, they say, had all the power. Aphidas 1 was son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. His mother could have been Leanira, or Meganira, or Chrysopelia, or Erato 1. Aphidas 1 had a son Aleus, and a daughter Stheneboea (Apd.3.9.1; Pau.8.4.2).

Elatus 2 (Elatius). Elatus 2 and Aphidas 1 divided the kingdom of Arcadia between them but Elatus 2, they say, had all the power. Yet he migrated to Phocis (the region bordering the Gulf of Corinth west of Boeotia), helping the Phocians against the Phlegyans and founding the city of Elateia. He was son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. His mother could have been either Leanira, daughter of Amyclas 1, son of Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete (one of the PLEIADES); or Meganira, daughter of Croco; or Chrysopelia, counted among the NYMPHS; or Erato 1, also one of the NYMPHS. Elatus 2 married Laodice 1, daughter of Cinyras 1 (later king of Cyprus), and had children by her: Stymphalus 1, Pereus, Ischys, Aepytus 3, and Cyllen (Apd.3.9.1; Pau.8.4.1, 8.4.4, 2.26.6).

Clitor 2 was in his time the most powerful of the kings in Arcadia. He was son of Azan, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Clitor 2 was childless, and therefore he was succeeded by Aepytus 3, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1 (Pau.8.4.4-7).

Aepytus 3. King in Azania, Arcadia. He received the kingdom from Clitor 2 and was succeeded by Aleus. Aepytus 3 was son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus & Callisto, and Laodice 1, daughter of Cinyras 1, the founder of Paphos in Cyprus, and Metharme. Aepytus 3 was killed by a serpent while hunting ( Pau.8.4.4-7, 8.16.2; Pin.Oly.6.30ff.).

Stymphalus 1. Son of Elatus 2 (son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto) and Laodice 1, and king of Arcadia. Pelops 1, an Asian immigrant after whom the Peloponnesus was named, made war on Stymphalus 1's Arcadian kingdom, but when he could not defeat him, he slew Stymphalus 1 under a pretence of friendship, and scattered his limbs. Before that Stymphalus 1 had children: Parthenope 1, Agelaus 4, Gortys 1, and Agamedes 2 (Apd.2.7.8, 3.9.1, 3.12.6; Pau.8.4.8, 8.35.9).

Agamedes 2 is father of Cercyon 2 and son of King Stymphalus 1 of Arcadia, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus & Callisto (Pau.8.4.8, 8.5.4).

Aleus is the successor of Aepytus 3 on the throne of Arcadia and the founder of Alea. He is also remembered for having exposed his grandson, the babe Telephus, on Mount Parthenius when he discovered the motherhood of his daughter Auge 2, whom he then gave to Nauplius 1, to sell far away in a foreign land. Aleus father was Aphidas 1, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. He was married either to Neaera 3 or to Cleobule 1. The former was daughter of Pereus, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1. Aleus had by Neaera 3 a daughter Auge 2 and a son Lycurgus 2. Those who say that he was married to Cleobule 1 also say that their children were Amphidamas 2 and Cepheus 2. Aleus' daughter Alcidice could be the daughter of either Neaera 3 or Cleobule 1, and the same may be said of Cepheus 2 (Apd.2.7.4, 3.9.1; Arg.161ff.; Dio.4.68.1; Hyg.Fab.14; Pau.8.4.7-8, 8.23.1).

Cepheus 2. King of Tegea in Arcadia, son either of Aleus or of Lycurgus 2; his mother (Aleus' wife) could have been either Neaera 3 or Cleobule 1. Cepheus 2 had children: Sterope 4, Aeropus 2, and Antinoe 1. He is said to have perished in battle while helping Heracles 1 against the Lacedaemonians. Cepheus 2 is also found among the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS (Apd.1.8.2, 2.7.3; Hyg.Fab.14; Pau.8.5.1, 8.8.4; Val.1.375).

Cercyon 2. Son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Cercyon 2 had a son Hippothous 6 who became king of Arcadia when Agapenor did not return from Troy (Pau.8.5.4).

Lycurgus 2. King of the Arcadians after the death of his father Aleus. His mother was Neaera 3, daughter of Pereus, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Before dying at a very old age Lycurgus 2 had children Ancaeus 1, Epochus, Amphidamas 1, and Iasus 1; their mother was either Cleophyle or Eurynome 1 (Apd.3.9.1-2; Pau.8.4.10, 8.5.1).

Echemus became king of the Arcadians on the death of Lycurgus 2, and fighting against the HERACLIDES killed Hyllus 1, son of Heracles 1. It is said that he was the winner in wrestling in the first Olympian games. Echemus was son of Aeropus 2 from Tegea in Arcadia, son of Cepheus 2, son of Aleus, son of Aphidas 1, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. His wife was Timandra 1, daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, and he had by her a son Ladocus, after whom a suburb Ladoceia near Megalopolis was named (see also Arcadia) (Apd.3.10.6; Hdt.9.26; Hes.CWE.65.-67; Pau.8.5.1, 8.44.1; Pin.Oly.10.66).

Agapenor. King of the Arcadians. Agapenor was one of the SUITORS OF HELEN, and he is counted among those who hid inside the WOODEN HORSE. After the war he founded Paphos in Cyprus. Agapenor was son of Ancaeus 1 and Iotis. Ancaeus 1, one of the ARGONAUTS, was son of King Lycurgus 2 of Arcadia, son of Aleus, son of Aphidas 1, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto (Apd.3.10.8; Hom.Il.2.609; Pau.8.5.2; QS.12.314ff.).

Hippothous 6 was son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. The kingdom of Arcadia devolved upon him when Agapenor did not return from Troy. He established his capital in Trapezus and was succeeded by his son Aepytus 4 (Pau.8.5.4, 8.45.7).

Aepytus 4. King of Arcadia, son of Hippothous 6, whom he succeeded in the throne, and father of Cypselus 1. Aepytus 4 was struck blind after entering a forbidden sanctuary of Poseidon, and died shortly after (Pau.8.5.4-6, 8.10.3).

Cypselus 1 succeeded his father as king of the Arcadians, and was founder of a place called Basilis. He was son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Cypselus 1's children are Merope 2 and Holaeas (Pau.4.3.6, 8.5.6-7, 8.29.5).

Holaeas. King of Arcadia and contemporary of King Procles 2 of Sparta. He was son of Cypselus 1, son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Holaeas is father of Bucolion 3, father of Phialus, father of Simus, father of Pompus, father of Aeginetes 2, father of Briacas, father of Aechmis, who also was king of Arcadia (Pau.8.5.7).

Bucolion 3. King of Arcadia; he succeeded his father Holaeas, son of Cypselus 1, son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Bucolion 3 was father of Phialus, father of Simus, father of Pompus, father of Aeginetes 2, father of Polymestor 2 and Briacas. Polymestor 2 was childless, but Briacas had a son Aechmis, who was also king of Arcadia (Pau.8.5.7).

Phialus. King in Arcadia who wished to change the name of the city Phigalia to Phialia. He was son of Bucolion 3, son of Holaeas, son of Cypselus 1, son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Phialus was father of Simus, father of Pompus, father of Aeginetes 2, father of Briacas, father of Aechmis, also king of Arcadia (Pau.8.5.7-8).

Simus. King of Arcadia after his father Phialus. He was succeeded on the throne by his son Pompus (Pau.8.5.8).

Pompus succeeded his father Simus as king of Arcadia, and was succeeded by his own son Aeginetes 2 (Pau.8.5.8-9).

Aeginetes 2 was king of Arcadia and son of Pompus, son of Simus, son of Phialus, son of Bucolion 3, son of Holaeas, son of Cypselus 1, son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto. Aeginetes 2 was father of Polymestor 2 and Briacas. (Pau.8.5.9).

Polymestor 2, son of Aeginetes 2, became king of Arcadia after his father. In his reign the Lacedaemonians for the first time invaded Tegea, led by Charillus. Polymestor 2 was childless (Pau.8.5.9).

Aechmis. King of Arcadia, son of Briacas, son of Aeginetes 2, son of Pompus, son of Simus, son of Phialus, son of Bucolion 3, son of Holaeas, son of Cypselus 1, son of Aepytus 4, son of Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1, son of Elatus 2, son of Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto (Pau.8.5.10).


Related sections Map of Greece 
Sources
Abbreviations

Aes.Supp.250 and passim; Apd.2.1.1, 2.7.4, 3.8.1-2, 3.9.1-2, 3.10.6, 3.10.8; DH.1.11.2. 1.13.2; Arg.161ff.; Dio.4.33.1, 4.68.1; Hdt.9.26; Hes.CWE.31, 65-67; Hom.Apo.3.209; Hom.Il.2.609; Hyg.Fab.14, 176; Lib.Met.31; Nonn.18.22; Pau.2.26.6, 4.3.6, 8.2.3, 8.3.1ff., 8.4.1-10, 8.5.1-2, 8.5.4-10, 8.10.3, 8.16.2, 8.17.6, 8.22.1, 8.23.1, 8.24.1, 8.29.5, 8.44.1, 8.45.7; Pin.Oly.6.30ff., 10.66; Plu.PS.36; QS.12.314ff.; Strab.5.2.4. Other mentions of Arcadia: Apd.1.8.2, 1.8.6, 2.2.2, 2.5.3, 2.5.7, 2.7.2, 2.7.3, 2.7.7, 3.6.3, 3.7.5, 3.8.1, 3.8.2, 3.10.1, 3.11.2, 3.12.6; Apd.Ep.1.23, 3.12, 4.263, 4.264, 6.28, 7.39; Arg.1.125, 1.161, 2.1052; Cal.Ar.216, 221; Cal.Del.70; Cal.Ze.19; Hom.Il.2.603, 2.611, 7.134; Hyg.Fab.14, 30, 70, 97, 173a, 206, 225, 242, 253, 274; Nonn.2.527, 13.287.13.295, 18.24, 25.194, 36.70, 37.180, 41.355, 42.290, 47.252, 48.711; Ov.Met.1.217.