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Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Cyzicus, Mysia
This is the finest of only two specimens of this type known to Forum, the other example in SNG Von Aulock. Although we can't quite agree, NAC graded it extremely fine.RP86162. Bronze AE 26, SNGvA suppl. 7377, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop -, SNG Tübingen -, SNG Hunterian -, SNG Righetti -, SNG Leypold -, BMC Mysia -, McClean -, Mionnet -, gVF, nice dark green patina, marks, small patina chips, reverse slightly off center, weight 10.976 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 180o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 194 - 217 A.D.; obverse IOYΛIA CEBACTH, draped bust right; reverse KYZIKHNΩN NEOKOPΩN, man sitting right on rocks under a tree, milking goat standing right, goat's head turned back looking left; ex Numismatica Ars Classica auction 100 (29 May 2017), lot 1212; ex Gorny & Mosch sale 237 (7 Mar 2016), 1656; ex Gitbud & Naumann auction 34 (2 Aug 2015), lot 581; extremely rare; $1500.00 (€1275.00)
Vespasian the Younger, Caesar, 94 - 95 A.D., Smyrna, Ionia
In 94 A.D., because he had no heir, Domitian adopted his two young great-nephews. He renamed them Vespasian and Domitian. The next year he executed the boys' father, his cousin, Titus Flavius Clemens, and exiled the boys' mother, his niece, FlaviaDomitilla. They were charged with Atheism, a charge sometimes applied to condemn converts to Judaism or Christianity. The boys then disappeared from history and their fate is unknown.
Smyrna was the only city to strike coins in the name of Vespasian the Younger. No coins were struck for his brother.
Some scholars connect Domitilla with a Roman Matron in the Talmud (Avodah Zarah 10b) and the Deuteronomy Rabbah 2.25. When the emperor had decreed that in 30 days, the Senate would confirm an edict to kill all Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire, the Roman matron convinced her husband to stand up for the Jews. If that identification is correct, her husband Flavius Clemens converted to Judaism, after having contact with the great sage Rabbi Akiva. FlaviaDomitilla is a saint in both the Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church.SH83453. Bronze AE 16, Klose p. 244, 3, pl. 31 (V1/R1); RPC II 1028; SNG Cop 1360; SNGvA 2208; BMC Ionia p. 276, 320, gF/F, weight 2.790 g, maximum diameter 16.3 mm, die axis 0o, Smyrna mint, as caesar, 94 - 95 A.D.; obverse OYOCΠACIANOC NEΩTEPOC, bare head right; reverse ZMYPNAIΩN, Nike standing right, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond over left shoulder in left hand; ex Solidus Numismatik, auction 7, lot 200; rare; $1170.00 (€994.50)
Kingdom of Bithynia, Nicomedes III Euergetes, 128 - 94 B.C.
Nicomedes III Euergetes was the king of Bithynia, c. 127 - 94 B.C. When Nicomedes III was asked to provide troops for Roman Statesman Gaius Marius' war on the Cimbri and Teutones in transalpine Gaul in 104 B.C. he turned down the request declaring: "All those eligible for military service in my kingdom have been robbed by the Roman tax-farmers and sold into slavery."SH86269. Silver tetradrachm, Callataÿ (D55/R1); Rec Gén I.2 p. 230; HGC 6 642; Cohen DCA 444; cf. BMC Pontus, p. 213, 8 (year 183); SNG Cop 648 (year 181); SNGvA 6896 (year 185), gVF, toned, die wear, bumps, scratches, tiny flan flaw obverse right, small edge chip/crack 12:00, weight 16.377 g, maximum diameter 36.5 mm, die axis 0o, Nikomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 115 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Nicomedes right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMH∆OY, Zeus standing left, raising wreath in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, in inner left fieldeagle on thunderbolt over monogram over date ∆ΠP (year 184); ex A. Caillat; $550.00 (€467.50)
Plarasa and Aphrodisias, Caria, 1st Century B.C.
During the middle of the second century B.C., the neighboring towns of Plarasa and Aphrodisias united, forming a single community. The union was undoubtedly approved and probably encouraged by Rome to improve their security. The order of the names indicates Plarasa was the dominant community when the agreement was made. At that time Aphrodisias may have been little more than a small village with a sanctuary to Aphrodite. By the middle of the first century B.C., however, Aphrodisias was the prominent partner. Sometime during the reign of Augustus, the name Plarasa was dropped. The weightstandard is apparently that of a late Roman Republican denarius.GS84797. Silver drachm, Macdonald CoinageType 2 (O2/R3), SNG Keckman I 13 (same dies), SNGva 2434 (different dies), cf. BMC Caria p. 27 (illegible), SNG Cop -, aVF, die break behind head on obv., scratches, polished, almost all of reverselegend is off flan or unstruck, weight 3.478 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, Aphrodisias-Plarasa mint, pseudo-automomous, 1st century B.C.; obversebust of Aphrodite right, veiled and draped, wearing stephane, earring and necklace; reverse ΠΛAPAΣEΩN KAI AΦPO∆EIΣEIΩN (or similar, none known with end of legend legible), eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head right, wings open, MY/ΩN in two lines in left field, ΞE/NO/KPA/THΣ / ME/NAN/∆PO/Y (magistrate Xenokrates Menandrou) in nine lines in right field; extremely rare; $540.00 (€459.00)
Olba, Cilicia Tracheia, Marcus Antonius Polemo, King, c. 64 - 74 A.D.
All three references listed, refer to the exact same coin, plus RPC identifies a second example. We were unable to find another, making this is only the the third specimen of this type known to Forum. In 63 A.D., the Pontic part of the Polemon lands was made part of Roman Galatia. Sometime afterward, Marcus Antonius Polemo (III?) ruled as king over part of Cilicia including Olbia and, from this coin, also Lalassis and Kennatis. In the late 60's, he struck coins as king with portraits of Nero and Galba. RPC I notes similarity between this coin type and a Domitiancaesartype and dates this coin early in the Flavian period. Certainly it dates before 74 A.D. when Vespasian absorbed part of Cilicia Tracheia, likely including Lalassis and Kennatis, into Roman Cilicia.GB85938. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 3742, SNG Levante 644, Staffieri Olba 36, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Lycaonia -, VF, green patina, very light marks, earthen deposits and corrosion, some legend weak, reverse off center, weight 2.873 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 0o, Cilicia, Olba mint, c. 70 A.D.; obverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ M ANT ΠOΛEMΩNOΣ, club; reverseKOINON ΛAΛAΣΣEΩN KAI KENNATΩN, harpa on globe; only the 3rd known to Forum; extremely rare; $360.00 (€306.00)
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Parium, Mysia
Located near Lampsacus, Parium belonged to the Delian League. In the Hellenistic period, it was in the domain of Lysimachus and then the Attalid dynasty. Julius Caesar refounded it as a colonia within the province of Asia. After Asia was divided in the 4th century, it was in the province of Hellespontus.RP70938. Bronze AE 21, SNG Cop 304; SNGvA 1343; BMC Mysia p. 108, 116; SNG BnF -; SNG Hunterian -, VF, perfect centering, struck with a damaged obverse die, weight 4.774 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Parium (Kemer, Canakkale, Turkey) mint, obverse IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate,draped and cuirassedbust right; reverse Capricorn swimming right, holding celestial globe between legs, cornucopia on back, C G I H P (Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana) below; ex Russian Coins; $300.00 (€255.00)
Pontus (Amisos?), Roman Quaestor (Lucius Lucullus?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The Q identifies the bare male head as a Roman Quaestor. This letter is not noted in RPC but is visible here and clear on other examples known to Forum. Perhaps the image is of Lucius Lucullus, an important Quaestor of Sulla, about whom Plutarch wrote. The reverselegend, the Latin FETIA, refers to the fetial ceremony, part of the treaty making process, during which a pig was sacrificed to sanctify the oaths. The mint location is unknown but Imhoof-Blumer placed it at Amisus, where Leypold acquired his specimen.SH71045. Brass AE 21, RPC I 2156, SNG Leypold I p. 24, 69; Imhoof-Blumer GRMK 281, VF/F, weight 6.826 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pontus (Amisos (Samsun, Turkey)?) mint, c. 80 B.C.(?); obverse bare male head right, Q (quaestor) below; reverse two men standing, holding a pig between them, each with a hand raised, taking an oath of fealty, FETA IA in exergue; rare; $280.00 (€238.00)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Uncertain Mint, Anatolia or Syria
The mint, the quaestor who struck this type, and even the identity of the person in the portrait remain uncertain. The type has previously been attributed to Macedonia and the portrait identified as Brutus (Friedlander) or Caesar (Grant). David Sear notes the type has never been found in Macedonia. Finds point to Syria or Anatolia. It is possible that the type was issued, with his own portrait, by Sosius, a general under Marc Antony who was quaestor in 39 B.C. Much more likely, however, the portrait is of Augustus.RB71004. Bronze AE 27, RPC I 5409; Sear CRI 957 (Syria); AMNG II 29 (Pella), F, green patina, weight 17.823 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Anatolian or Syrian mint, obversebare head right; reversehasta (spear), sella quaestoria (quaestor's seat of office), and fiscus (imperial treasury), Q (for quaestor) below; previously a raretype but recent finds have made it somewhat easier to acquire; $270.00 (€229.50)
C. Asinius Gallus, Proconsul of Asia, 6 - 5 B.C., Temnos, Aeolis
The larger denomination of the same series honored Augustus. On this coin Gallus gives himself the epithet Aγνος, meaning pure or holy! Later he was an ambitious and powerful senator. A foe of Tiberius, in 11 B.C. he married Tiberius' ex-wife, Vipsania. He was suspected of and never denied fathering Tiberius' son, Drusus the Younger. After Vipsania died, he courted the widow of Germanicus, Agrippina. In 30 A.D., Tiberius had him imprisoned and for three years kept him in solitary confinement and on the very edge of starvation until he died. To add further insult he was discredited by damnatio memoriae.RP85941. Bronze AE 16, RPC I 2447; SNG Cop 276; SNG Munchen 627; BMC Troas p. 146, 25; SNGvA -, VF, dark green patina, centered on a tight flan cutting off much of legends, bumps and marks, earthen encrustations, weight 4.284 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 0o, Temnos mint, 5 B.C.; obverse ACINIOC ΓAΛΛOC AΓNOC, bare head of Asinius Gallus right; reverse APOΛΛAC ΦAINIOY TAMNITAN, head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy; rare; $270.00 (€229.50)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Parium, Mysia
Eros was the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). According to Hesiod (c. 700 B.C.), one of the most ancient of all Greek sources, Eros was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos, Gaia (the Earth), and Tartarus (the Abyss or the Underworld). Parmenides (c. 400 B.C.), one of the pre-Socratic philosophers, makes Eros the first of all the gods to come into existence. In early Greek poetry and art, Eros was depicted as an adult male who embodies sexual power. But in later sources, Eros is represented as the son of Aphrodite, whose mischievous interventions in the affairs of gods and mortals cause bonds of love to form, often illicitly. Ultimately, by the later satirical poets, he is represented as a child, the precursor to the chubby Renaissance Cupid.RP85220. Bronze AE 20, RPC Online VI temp 3886 (3 spec. all same dies); BMC Mysia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG BnF -, SNG Tub -, SNG Hunt-, SNG Çanakkale -, SNG Leypold -, gVF, centered on a tight flan cutting off tops of some letters, marks and scratches, weight 6.148 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Parium (Kemer, Canakkale, Turkey) mint, 13 Mar 222 - Mar 235 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV AL-EXANDER, radiatehead right; reverse DEO CVPIDI-NI COLI C IL [?] PA (to the god Cupid, Colonia Gemella Julia Hadriana Pariana, blundered), Cupid standing slightly left, head right, nude but for drapery over left arm, right hand held over herm at feet on left; extremely rare; $250.00 (€212.50)