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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Geographic - All Periods| ▸ |Anatolia| ▸ |Cappadocia||View Options:  |  |  |   

Cappadocia

Cappadocia is in eastern Anatolia, in the center of what is now Turkey. After ending Persian rule, Alexander the Great intended to rule Cappadocia through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow made himself king of the Cappadocians. Ariarathes I was successful and extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as the Black Sea. After Alexander's death, Perdiccas designated Eumenes to rule the area. Ariarathes was defeated, captured and crucified, but due to Macedonian infighting Ariarathes' son recovered his inheritance. He left the kingdom to a line of successors, who mostly bore the name of the founder of the dynasty. Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia became an ally of Rome. The kingdom maintained independence until A.D. 17, when the Tiberius reduced Cappadocia to a Roman province.

Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Caligula|, |Caligula,| |16| |March| |37| |-| |24| |January| |41| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||drachm|
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). During Achaemenid Persian rule, it was the capital of a Satrapy on the crossroads of the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa and the trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates. It was conquered by Alexander's general Perdikkas, was ruled by Eumenes of Cardia, then passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus. It became the capital of the independent Cappadocian Kingdom under Ariarathes III, around 250 B.C. During Strabo's time it was also known as Eusebia, after the Cappadocian King Ariarathes V Eusebes, 163 – 130 B.C. The name was changed again to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honor of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 A.D. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 A.D. In Roman times, it prospered on the route from Ephesus to the East. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid King Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 A.D. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. Arabic influence changed Caesarea to the modern name Kayseri. The city gradually recovered and has a population of around 1 million people today. Few traces of the ancient city survive.
SH29162. Silver drachm, RIC I 63, BMCRE I 102, Cohen I 12, F, weight 3.099 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, bare head right; reverse IMPERATOR PONT MAX (high priest) AVG TR POT, simpulum and lituus; rare; SOLD


Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Roman| |Asia|, |Commodus,| |March| |or| |April| |177| |-| |31| |December| |192| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||tridrachm|
The abbreviated obverse titles KAI CEB VIW, for Kαιcαρι Cεβαcτω Yιω, corresponds to the Latin "Caesar Augustus Filius" (prince, son of the emperor).
RP63453. Silver tridrachm, RPC Online 7058 (citing only 2 examples); Sydenham Caesarea 363; Metcalf 140; BMC Galatia p. 192, 344 (Antioch); SNG Cop -; Prieur -, F, nice portrait, right side of obverse legend weak, weight 10.31 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 175 A.D.; obverse KOMMO∆W KAI CEB VIW, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ΓEPMAN CAPMAT (Germanicus Sarmaticus), eagle standing facing on club left, wings open, head and tail right; ex Comptoir Général Financier mail bid sale 13 (2001), lot 351; extremely rare; SOLD


Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Caesarea-Eusebia, Commagene, Syria

|Claudius|, |Claudius,| |25| |January| |41| |-| |13| |October| |54| |A.D.,| |Caesarea-Eusebia,| |Commagene,| |Syria
||didrachm|
This reverse die, lacking P P, is noted in RPC as an engraver's error since it shares obverse dies with P P specimens.

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.
GS64434. Silver didrachm, RPC I 3626 note, BMCRE I 240 var. (P P above OB CIVES); RIC I 123 var. (same), F, weight 7.037 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, c. 46 - 47 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head left; reverse OB CIVES / SERVATOS, in two lines within oak wreath; ex Elvira Clain-Stefanelli collection; rare; SOLD


Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Tiberius|, |Tiberius,| |19| |August| |14| |-| |16| |March| |37| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||drachm|
The imperial mint at Caesarea was founded by Tiberius c. 30 A.D. This is the only coin of Tiberius issued solely in his name at Caesarea. Because this type probably had greater circulation than the denarius in Jerusalem at the time of Christ, some speculate that this is the true "tribute penny."
GS49937. Silver drachm, RPC I 3620; Sydenham 42; BMC Galatia p. 46, 11, aVF, toned, weight 3.495 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 315o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, obverse TIBEPIOΣ KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, laureate head right; reverse ΘEOY ΣEBAΣTOY YIOΣ, Mount Argaeus, surmounted by radiate and nude statue holding globe in right and scepter in left; fine style!; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia, Titus Reverse

|Cappadocia|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia,| |Titus| |Reverse||didrachm|
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). During Achaemenid Persian rule, it was the capital of a Satrapy on the crossroads of the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa and the trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates. It was conquered by Alexander's general Perdikkas, was ruled by Eumenes of Cardia, then passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus. It became the capital of the independent Cappadocian Kingdom under Ariarathes III, around 250 B.C. During Strabo's time it was also known as Eusebia, after the Cappadocian King Ariarathes V Eusebes, 163 – 130 B.C. The name was changed again to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honor of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 A.D. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 A.D. In Roman times, it prospered on the route from Ephesus to the East. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid King Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 A.D. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. Arabic influence changed Caesarea to the modern name Kayseri. The city gradually recovered and has a population of almost 1 million people today. Few traces of the ancient city survive.
SH81665. Silver didrachm, RPC II 1650, Sydenham Caesarea 102, Metcalf Cappadocia 4, SNG Righetti 1761, aVF, weight 6.896 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 76 - 77 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA KAICAP OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOC, laureate bust of Vespasian right; reverse AYTO KAI OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOY YIOC, laureate bust of Titus right; excellent portraits; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia, Titus Reverse

|Vespasian|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia,| |Titus| |Reverse||didrachm|
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). During Achaemenid Persian rule, it was the capital of a Satrapy on the crossroads of the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa and the trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates. It was conquered by Alexander's general Perdikkas, was ruled by Eumenes of Cardia, then passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus. It became the capital of the independent Cappadocian Kingdom under Ariarathes III, around 250 B.C. During Strabo's time it was also known as Eusebia, after the Cappadocian King Ariarathes V Eusebes, 163 – 130 B.C. The name was changed again to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honor of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 A.D. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 A.D. In Roman times, it prospered on the route from Ephesus to the East. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid King Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 A.D. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. Arabic influence changed Caesarea to the modern name Kayseri. The city gradually recovered and has a population of almost 1 million people today. Few traces of the ancient city survive.
SH48357. Silver didrachm, RPC II 1650, Sydenham Caesarea 102, Metcalf Cappadocia 4, SNG Righetti 1761, VF, superb portraits, weight 7.018 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 76 - 77 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA KAICAP OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOC, laureate bust of Vespasian right; reverse AYTO KAI OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOY YIOC, laureate bust of Titus right; SOLD


Cappadocian Kingdom, Ariaramnes, c. 280 - 230 B.C.

|Cappadocian| |Kingdom|, |Cappadocian| |Kingdom,| |Ariaramnes,| |c.| |280| |-| |230| |B.C.||AE| |16|
An extremely rare type, with fewer than five known specimens.
SH10707. Bronze AE 16, Simonetta 1, BMC Galatia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, gVF, nice green patina, scratches, weight 4.240 g, maximum diameter 15.7 mm, die axis 180o, Mazaca (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, c. 280 - 230 B.C.; obverse head right wearing a bashlyk; reverse horse grazing right, monograms above and below; ex CNG; extremely rare; SOLD


Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochus VII, 138 - 129 B.C.

|Cappadocian| |Kingdom|, |Cappadocian| |Kingdom,| |c.| |130| |-| |80| |B.C.;| |In| |the| |Name| |of| |the| |Seleukid| |King,| |Antiochus| |VII,| |138| |-| |129| |B.C.||tetradrachm|
Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.
SH27110. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 649, Newell SMA 299, SNG Spaer 1875, VF, weight 16.368 g, maximum diameter 29.1 mm, die axis 0o, obverse Antiochos VII diademed head right, horn like lock of hair above ear, fillet border; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY (on right) EYEPΓETOY (on left), Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ∆I / A left, M inner left, K inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border; SOLD


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia

|Cappadocia|, |Septimius| |Severus,| |9| |April| |193| |-| |4| |February| |211| |A.D.,| |Caesarea,| |Cappadocia||drachm|
Kayseri, originally called Mazaka or Mazaca, is in central Turkey on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). During Achaemenid Persian rule, it was the capital of a Satrapy on the crossroads of the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa and the trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates. It was conquered by Alexander's general Perdikkas, was ruled by Eumenes of Cardia, then passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus. It became the capital of the independent Cappadocian Kingdom under Ariarathes III, around 250 B.C. During Strabo's time it was also known as Eusebia, after the Cappadocian King Ariarathes V Eusebes, 163 – 130 B.C. The name was changed again to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honor of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 A.D. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 A.D. In Roman times, it prospered on the route from Ephesus to the East. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid King Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in 260 A.D. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. Arabic influence changed Caesarea to the modern name Kayseri. The city gradually recovered and has a population of almost 1 million people today. Few traces of the ancient city survive.
RS67079. Silver drachm, Sydenham supp. 402b var. (legends), cf. Sydenham 403 (similar didrachm); BMC Galatia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG Fitzwilliam -, SNG Tüb -, VF, weight 3.288 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 208 - 209 A.D.; obverse AY KAI Λ CEΠ CEOYHPOC, laureate head right; reverse MHTPO KAICAP NEΩ, laureate and draped figure (Apollo or Argaios?) seated left on Mount Argaeus, laurel-branch in right hand, ET IZ (year 17) in exergue; extremely rare; SOLD


Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochus VII, 138 - 129 B.C.

|Seleucid| |Kingdom|, |Cappadocian| |Kingdom,| |c.| |130| |-| |80| |B.C.;| |In| |the| |Name| |of| |the| |Seleukid| |King,| |Antiochus| |VII,| |138| |-| |129| |B.C.||tetradrachm|
Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.
SH26765. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 654 (same obverse die), Newell SMA 295, SNG Spaer -, VF, weight 16.452 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 0o, obverse Antiochos VII diademed head right, horn like lock of hair above ear, fillet border; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY (on right) EYEPΓETOY (on left), Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ∆I / A left, A inner left, K inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES|

Bland, R. The Bronze Coinage of Gordian III from Caesarea in Cappadocia in Ashton, RNS Special Publication No. 29. (London, 1996).
Bland, R. "The last Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia" in Studia Arslan.
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - ).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol III, Part 2. (London, 1926).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia, Pontos...Kappadokia...Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 7. (Lancaster, PA, 2012).
Houghton, A., C. Lorber & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Metcalf, W. The Silver Coinage of Cappadocia, Vespasian - Commodus. ANSNNM 166. (New York, 1996).
Mørkholm, O. "A Further Comment on the Coinages of Ariarathes VIII and Ariarathes IX" in Quaderni Ticinesi 4 (1975), pp. 109 - 138.
Mørkholm, O. "The Coinages of Ariarathes VI and Arirathes VII of Cappadocia" in SNR 57 (1978).
Mørkholm, O. "The Coinages of Ariarathes VIII and Arirathes IX of Cappadocia" in Essays Robinson (1968), pp. 241- 258, pl. 30 - 33.
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Simonetta, A. The coinage of the Cappadocian kings: a revision and a catalogue of the Simonetta Collection. Parthica 9. (Pisa-Rome, 2007).
Simonetta, B. The Coins of the Cappadocian Kings. Typos II. (Fribourg, 1977).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia, with supplement by A. Malloy. (New York, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 6: Phrygien - Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien. (Berlin, 1998).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, [etc.]. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 7: Asia Minor: Lycia - Cappadocia. (London, 1967).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II. Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).

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