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Gallic Empire, Victorinus, summer to November 268 - mid 271 A.D.
Victorinus succeeded Marius to the throne of the Gallic Empire. During his reign, Spain rejoined the rest of the Roman Empire. His officers, offended by his relentless pursuit of married women including their wives, murdered him.
In 270, the Empire suffered an economic crisis due to usurpations, partition of the empire, invasions, and sackings of the countryside and cities. Agricultural and industrial productions were significantly decreased, and mines went unused. A monetary crisis ensued. Inflation was up to 1,000% in some areas of the empire.qRA84435. Billonantoninianus, Schulzki AGK 21b, Cunetio 2564, Elmer 703 (Trier), RIC V 65, SRCV III 11180 var. (same), Cohen VI 114 var. (same), VF, nice portrait, slightly ragged flan, weight 2.978 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 225o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 269 A.D.; obverse IMP C PIAV VICTORINVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, feeding snake in right hand from patera in left hand; $65.00 (€57.85)
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."RA25967. Billonantoninianus, RIC V 114, Schulzki AGK 9b, Cohen VI 49, Elmer 683, Mairat 257, Cunetio 2534, SRCV III 11170, Choice EF, superb portrait, nice reverse, beautiful chocolate patina - an exceptional coin for this emperor, weight 3.080 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverse INVICTVS, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star left; ex Jean Elesen, V 86, 381; SOLD
From the Braithwell Hoard found 1 Sep 2002 by Mr. P. Leech at the village of Braithwell, South Yorkshire. RA52926. Billonantoninianus, Cunetio 2550 (5 examples); Mairat 287; RIC V 78 var. (Virtus right); Braithwell Report 158 (1 example in the hoard), aEF, weight 3.610 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 4th emission, c. early 271 A.D.; obverse IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseVIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), soldier (Virtus?) standing left, right hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left; very rare; SOLD
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941). pp. 1 -106.
Mairat, J. Le monnayage de l'Empire Gaulois. CGB Rome XV. (Fixed Price List, 2004).
Mattingly, H., E.A. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Schulte, B. Die Goldprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus. Typos IV. (Aarau, 1983).
Schulzki, H. J. Die Antoninianprägung der Gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus. (Bonn, 1996).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values III, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Zschucke, C.-F. Die Bronze-Teilstück-Prägungen der römischen Münzstätte Trier. (Trier, 2002).
Zschucke, C.-F. Die römische Münzstätte Köln. (Trier, 1993).
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