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Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
L Domitius Aurelianus was born in Sirmium about 207 A.D. Of humble background, Aurelian rose in the ranks to become one of Rome's greatest generals. Proclaimed emperor around 270 A.D., he quickly crushed the various usurpers, restoring to its largest extent except for the Dacia, which was abandoned permanently. Aurelian then embarked on a series of public works meant to restore the empire's shattered infrastructure. His brilliant rule was cut short by a court conspiracy ending in his assassination in 275 A.D.
Sear identifies this denomination for Aurelian as either an as or a reduced sestertius. The as (or reduced sestertius) is a very scarcedenomination this late in the empire.RA76203. Bronze as, MER-RIC 1871, Göbl MIR 145d0(1), BnF XII 297, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 11646, RIC V 80 var. (officina number), Hunter IV 27 var. (4th officina), VF, well centered, nice green patina, flan crack, weight 6.041 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina(?), Rome mint, issue 11, early - September 275; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right; reverseCONCORDIA AVG (harmony of the Emperor), Emperor and empress clasping hands, above and between them a radiate and draped bust of Sol right; $120.00 (€102.00)
Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.RA70549. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 1550, BnF XII 634, Göbl MIR 78Ab3, RIC V 152, Venèra 5548 - 5609, Hunter IV 63, Cohen VI 183, SRCV III 11587, Choice gVF, perfect centering, some silvering, light scratches, a few reverselegend letters unstruck (filled die), weight 4.655 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4th emission, late 274 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reversePROVIDEN DEOR (the foresight of the gods), Fides on left holding standard in each hand, facing Sol, standing left, raising his right hand commanding the sun to rise and holding globe in left hand, TXXT in exergue; $95.00 (€80.75)
Palmyrene Empire, Aurelian and Vabalathus, 270 - 275 A.D.
Vabalathus, son of the Palmyran king Odenathus and Zenobia, was declared Augustus but Aurelian defeated his forces. He and Zenobia were then taken to Rome where they lived in great comfort. The abbreviated titles of Vabalathus most likely were, Vir Clarissimus Romanorum (or Rex) Imperator Dux Romanorum. The portraits of Vabalathus are interesting because they display both the Roman laurel and the Hellenistic royal diadem.RA79908. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 3107, RIC V 381, BnF XII 1248a, Hunter IV 7, Göbl MIR 353, Cohen VI 1, SRCV III 11718, gVF, white metal, toned, uneven strike, porosity, slightly off center, weight 3.703 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 270o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Nov 270 - Mar 272 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right, E below; reverse VABALATHVS V C R IM D R, laureate, diademed, draped and cuirassedbust right; $80.00 (€68.00)
In 275, Aurelian prepared a campaign against the Sassanids in Asia Minor. In Thrace, while waiting to cross the Bosphorus with his army, he ordered severe punishments for corrupt soldiers and made a list of high-ranking officers marked for execution. In September, Aurelian fell victim to a conspiracy of the Praetorian Guard and was murdered near Byzantium (Istanbul, Turkey).RA90410. Billondenarius, MER-RIC 1844, RIC V 73, Venèra 1496, BnF XII 238, Cohen VI 255, F, weight 2.013 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed; reverseVICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond against shoulder in left; a bound captive seated left at feet with head turned right, A in exergue; $70.00 (€59.50)
The reverselegend abbreviates Genius Illyriciani, dedicating the coin to the Genius of [the army in] Illyria (western Balkans).RA90724. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 2027, Venèra II 6029, La Venèra 1069, Cohen VI 103, RIC V 223 var. (Q right), VF, uneven strike,, weight 3.146 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, emission 2, Nov 270; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseGENIVS ILLVR, Genius standing left, nude but for kalathos on head and cloak over shoulder, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, standard in ground behind, Q left, nothing in exergue; variety not in RIC; $70.00 (€59.50)
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.RB71718. Billondenarius, MER-RIC 1854, RIC V 73, Venèra 1503, BnF XII 260, Cohen VI 257, VF, weight 2.554 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275 A.D.; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right; reverseVICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath extended in right hand, palm frond in left hand, bound captive in Parthian garb seated left on left at Victory's feet, head turned back looking at Victory, B in exergue; scarce; $50.00 (€42.50)
Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.RA67085. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 1550, BnF XII 634, RIC V 152, Hunter IV 63, Venèra 5548 - 5609, Normanby 1269, Cohen VI 183, SRCV III 11587, gVF, near full silvering, weak reverse, weight 3.554 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, issue 4, Nov 274 - Sep 275; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reversePROVIDEN DEOR (the foresight of the gods), Fides on left holding standard in each hand facing Sol standing left, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, TXXT in exergue; $40.00 (€34.00)
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