Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
SH58945. Bronze sestertius, RIC V 211 (joint reign), Cohen 203, VF, weight 20.185 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right (drapery on far shoulder?); reverseFELICITASAVGG S C, Felicitas standing left, caduceus in right, cornucopia in left; $195.00 (€146.25)
Hercules is depicted in the same pose as the Farnese Hercules, a massive marble sculpture, which depicts a muscular yet weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He has just performed the last of The Twelve Labors, which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. The Farneses Hercules is probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century A.D., signed by Glykon, from an original by Lysippos that would have been made in the fourth century B.C. The copy was made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546. Today it is in Naples National Archaeological Museum. The statue was well liked by the Romans, and copies have been found in many Roman palaces and gymnasiums.
RS69931. Silveredantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1616g, RIC V 673, RSC IV 1320, Choice aEF, full silvering, slight porosity, weight 3.366 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria) mint, 263 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseVIRTVS AVGVSTI, Hercules standing right, right hand behind back, leaning on his club draped with the Nemean lion-skin, star upper right; $175.00 (€131.25)
In 257 A.D. the Franks invaded Gaul, reaching as far as Spain, where they destroyed Terraco (Tarragona). Also, the Alamanii invaded Italy, but Gallienus defeated them near Milan. In 258, Gallienus created a permanent mobile army from a number of cavalry vexillations to act as a standing reserve force.
RS64095. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 879l, RSC IV 895, RIC V 29, SRCV III 10339, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS • P • F • AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseRESTIT GALLIAR, Gallienus standing half left, in military dress, cloaked, spear in left, raising kneeling Gallia with right; $150.00 (€112.50)
In 257, Valerian's persecution of Christians began. His edict ordered bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibited Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.
RS67084. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 870f, RIC V 22 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 397, SRCV III 10246, VF, full circles strike, grainy, weight 4.421 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 45o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing slightly left on cippus inscribed IMP C E S (Imperator cum exercitu suo - the Emperor with his army), Victory in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; $150.00 (€112.50)
In 254 A.D. the Roman Empire was threatened by the Alemanni, Franks and Marcomanni in Germania, by the Goths in the Danube region (Moesia and Thrace) and Asia Minor, and by the Persians in the East.
RB55007. Bronze sestertius, RIC V 209 var (busttype), Cohen 132 var (same), aVF, weight 19.535 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 254 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseCONCORDIA EXERCIT SC, Concordia standing left, patera in right, double cornucopia in left; $130.00 (€97.50)
Lot of 5 All Different Gallienus Silver Antoniniani
SP65580. Silver Lot, Lot of 5 silver antoniniani of Gallienus, no duplicate types, Fine or better, mostly nice coins with good metal for this emperor, coins in each 5 coin lot were selected from same lot as the coins in the photo; as-is, no returns, 5 coins; $120.00 (€90.00)
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D., Koinon of Thessaly
The First Ancient Theatre of Larissa on the south side of the Acropolis Hill was the largest theater in Thessaly, with a seating capability of 10,000. It was constructed during the reign of Philip V of Macedonia, near the end of the 3rd century B.C. and operated for six centuries until it was abruptly closed shortly before or after the end of 3rd century A.D. At the end of the 1st century B.C. it was transformed into a roman arena. The theater served a dual purpose: apart from theatrical performances and later gladiator spectacles, it also hosted the assemblies of Koinon of the Thessalians.
RP65162. Bronze 4 assaria, BCD Thessaly 991.2 var (obv legend breaks), Rogers Thessaly 126 var (same); BMC Thessaly 86 var (same), SNG Cop 355 var (obv legend), gVF, flan adjustment marks, rev off center, nice green patina, very broad flan, weight 8.083 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 180o, Larissa mint, obverse AYT K ΠO Λ ΓAΛΛIHNOC, radiate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse KOINON ΘECCAΛΩN, Athena Itonia advancing right, wearing helmet and aegis, hurling spear overhead with right, shield on left arm, ∆ (4 assaria) in left field; $100.00 (€75.00)
In 267, the Goths sacked several cities in southern Greece including Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. An Athenian militia force of 2,000 men under the historian Dexippus, pushed the invaders to the north where they were intercepted by the Roman army under Gallienus. Gallienus won an important victory near the Nestos River, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace.
RS58208. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1659f, SRCV III 10364, RIC V 658, RSC IV 987, EF, uncleaned, weight 3.358 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseSOLI INVICTO, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $85.00 (€63.75)
Vulcan is the Roman god of fire, including the fire of volcanoes. Vulcan is often depicted with a blacksmith's hammer. The festival of Vulcan, the Vulcanalia was celebrated on 23 August each year, when the summer heat placed crops and granaries at the greatest risk of burning. The Romans identified Vulcan with the Greek smith-god Hephaestus, and he became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking.
RS64730. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 884d, RIC V 5, SRCV V 9934, RSC IV 50c corr. (not cuirassed), VF, flan crack, struck with worn dies, weight 3.342 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, ColoniaAgrippina (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseDEO VOLKANO, Vulcan standing left within hexastyle temple, hammer raised in right, tongs downward in left, anvil on ground at feet left; rare; $85.00 (€63.75)