Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.
In 257 A.D. the Franks invaded Gaul, reaching as far as Spain, where they destroyed Terraco (Tarragona). Also, the Alamanii invaded Italy, but Gallienus defeated them near Milan. In 258, Gallienus created a permanent mobile army from a number of cavalry vexillations to act as a standing reserve force.
RS64095. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 879l, RSC IV 895, RIC V 29, SRCV III 10339, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Cologne mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS • P • F • AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseRESTIT GALLIAR, Gallienus standing half left, in military dress, cloaked, spear in left, raising kneeling Gallia with right; $150.00 (€112.50)
In 257, Valerian's persecution of Christians began. His edict ordered bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibited Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.
RS67084. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 870f, RIC V 22 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 397, SRCV III 10246, VF, full circles strike, grainy, weight 4.421 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 45o, Cologne mint, 257 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing slightly left on cippus inscribed IMP C E S (Imperator cum exercitu suo - the Emperor with his army), Victory in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; $150.00 (€112.50)
In 254 A.D. the Roman Empire was threatened by the Alemanni, Franks and Marcomanni in Germania, by the Goths in the Danube region (Moesia and Thrace) and Asia Minor, and by the Persians in the East.
RB55007. Bronze sestertius, RIC V 209 var (busttype), Cohen 132 var (same), aVF, weight 19.535 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 254 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseCONCORDIA EXERCIT SC, Concordia standing left, patera in right, double cornucopia in left; $130.00 (€97.50)
Lot of 5 All Different Gallienus Silver Antoniniani
SP65580. Silver Lot, Lot of 5 silver antoniniani of Gallienus, no duplicate types, Fine or better, mostly nice coins with good metal, coins in each 5 coin lot were selected from same lot as the coins in the photo; as-is, no returns, 5 coins; $120.00 (€90.00)
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D., Koinon of Thessaly
The First Ancient Theatre of Larissa on the south side of the Acropolis Hill was the largest theater in Thessaly, with a seating capability of 10,000. It was constructed during the reign of Philip V of Macedonia, near the end of the 3rd century B.C. and operated for six centuries until it was abruptly closed shortly before or after the end of 3rd century A.D. At the end of the 1st century B.C. it was transformed into a roman arena. The theater served a dual purpose: apart from theatrical performances and later gladiator spectacles, it also hosted the assemblies of Koinon of the Thessalians.
RP65162. Bronze 4 assaria, BCD Thessaly 991.2 var (obv legend breaks), Rogers Thessaly 126 var (same); BMC Thessaly 86 var (same), SNG Cop 355 var (obv legend), gVF, flan adjustment marks, rev off center, nice green patina, very broad flan, weight 8.083 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 180o, Larissa mint, obverse AYT K ΠO Λ ΓAΛΛIHNOC, radiate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse KOINON ΘECCAΛΩN, Athena Itonia advancing right, wearing helmet and aegis, hurling spear overhead with right, shield on left arm, ∆ (4 assaria) in left field; $100.00 (€75.00)
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D., Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia
Seleucia ad Calycadnum (modern, Silifke, Turkey) took its name from its founder, Seleucus I Nicator. The Romans, who conquered the region in the 2nd century BC, built a bridge across the Calicadnus; its foundations still support the current bridge. According to tradition, Thecla, who was converted by St. Paul, escaped martyrdom by hiding in a nearby cave. The cave was later turned into a shrine, and in the 5th century, the Byzantine Emperor Zeno, who was born in the mountains to the north, built a large basilica above the cave.
RP67053. Bronze AE 31, cf. SNG BnF 1071, SNG Levante 787, SNGvA 5853, SNG Cop - (various reverselegend arrangements), F, weight 13.797 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, die axis 225o, Seleucia ad Calycadnum mint, c. 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse AY K ΠO ΛIKIN ΓAΛΛIHNON, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverse CEΛEY−KE−ΩN TΩN ΠPOX − K/AΛNΩ−AΛYK, Nike standing facing, head left, right foot on globe, raising wreath in right, palm frond in left; $100.00 (€75.00)
In 267, the Goths sacked several cities in southern Greece including Athens, Corinth, Argos and Sparta. An Athenian militia force of 2,000 men under the historian Dexippus, pushed the invaders to the north where they were intercepted by the Roman army under Gallienus. Gallienus won an important victory near the Nestos River, on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace.
RS58208. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1659f, SRCV III 10364, RIC V 658, RSC IV 987, EF, uncleaned, weight 3.358 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseSOLI INVICTO, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $95.00 (€71.25)
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D., Ancyra, Galatia
Ancyra is today Ankara, the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city. Roman Ancyra was a large market and trading center and a major administrative capital. During the 3rd century, life in Ancyra, as in other Anatolian towns, became somewhat militarized in response to invasions. In this period, like in the other cities of central Anatolia, many of the town's residents converted to Christianity.
RP66210. Bronze AE 26, Arslan 207 - 208, BMC -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG BnF -, SNG Hunterian -, Lindgren -, F, double strike, weight 14.171 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ancyra mint, obverse Γ ΠOYB ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHNOC AYΓ (obscured by double strike), radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverse MHTPOΠ B N ANKY,PAC, tetrastyle temple, Ionic capitals, circle in pediment; very rare; $90.00 (€67.50)
Hercules is depicted in the same pose as the Farnese Hercules, a massive marble sculpture, which depicts a muscular yet weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He has just performed the last of The Twelve Labors, which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. The Farneses Hercules is probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century A.D., signed by Glykon, from an original by Lysippos that would have been made in the fourth century B.C. The copy was made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546. Today it is in Naples National Archaeological Museum. The statue was well liked by the Romans, and copies have been found in many Roman palaces and gymnasiums.
RS66287. Silveredantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1616g, RIC V 673, RSC IV 1320, EF, encrustations, weight 3.273 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch mint, 263 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseVIRTVS AVGVSTI, Hercules standing right, right hand behind back, leaning on his club draped with the Nemean lion-skin, star upper right; $90.00 (€67.50)
Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RX66533. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari-Savio plate 271, 10525 (same dies); BMC Alexandria p. 286, 2194; Milne 3995; SNG Cop 768; Kampmann 90.31; Emmett 3736 (R2); Geissen -, VF, weight 9.138 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 315o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 258 - 28 Aug 259 A.D.; obverse A K Π ΛI OY ΓAΛΛIANOC EY EY C, bearded, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseNike (Victory) walking right, wreath extended in right, palm frond over shoulder in left, L - S flanking across field; $85.00 (€63.75)