Gallienus was co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253, then ruled alone after his father's capture by Parthia in 260. Ruling during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, he repelled wave after wave of barbarian invaders, but he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. Gallienus presided over a late flowering of Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. He was assassinated by his own soldiers in 268 while besieging Milan.
In 257 A.D. the Franks invaded Gaul, reaching as far as Spain, where they destroyed Terraco (Tarragona). Also, the Alamanii invaded Italy, but Gallienus defeated them near Milan. In 258, Gallienus created a permanent mobile army from a number of cavalry vexillations to act as a standing reserve force.
RS64095. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 879l, RSC IV 895, RIC V J29, SRCV III 10339, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS • P • F • AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseRESTIT GALLIAR, Gallienus standing half left, in military dress, cloaked, spear in left, raising kneeling Gallia with right; $150.00 (€130.50)
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RA71411. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1354i, RIC V S512, Cohen 932, SRCV III -, near Mint State, no wear but small areas of light corrosion, well centered on tight flan, weight 3.373 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake in right from patera in left, MS in ex; $150.00 (€130.50)
In 257, Valerian's persecution of Christians began. His edict ordered bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibited Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.
RS67084. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 870f, RIC V J22 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 397 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10246, VF, full circles strike, grainy, weight 4.421 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 45o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 A.D.; obverse IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing slightly left on cippus inscribed IMP C E S (Imperator cum exercitu suo - the Emperor with his army), Victory in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; $135.00 (€117.45)
In 254 A.D. the Roman Empire was threatened by the Alemanni, Franks and Marcomanni in Germania, by the Goths in the Danube region (Moesia and Thrace) and Asia Minor, and by the Persians in the East.
RB55007. Bronze sestertius, Göbl MIR 15z, RIC V J209 var (busttype), Cohen V 132 var (same), aVF, weight 19.535 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 254 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseCONCORDIA EXERCIT, Concordia standing left, patera in right, double cornucopia in left, S - C flanking across field; $130.00 (€113.10)
Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. For a time at least, it appears Jupiter favored Gallienus. He ruled for another 14 years, which was a long reign in the age of the Thirty Pretenders. Alas, it seems every emperor eventually fell from favor since none of them are alive today.
RA64622. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 26u, RIC V J143, RSC IV 377, SRCV III 10241, VF, toned, centered, flat centers, weight 3.501 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Aug 253 - Aug 254 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing, nude but for cloak behind, head left, thunderbolt in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; rare; $125.00 (€108.75)
Lot of 5 All Different Gallienus Silver Antoniniani
SP65580. Silver Lot, Lot of 5 silver antoniniani of Gallienus, no duplicate types, Fine or better, mostly nice coins with good metal for this emperor, coins in each 5 coin lot were selected from same lot as the coins in the photo; as-is, no returns, 5 coins; $120.00 (€104.40)
In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RA64601. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 893i, RIC V J44 (Lugdunum); RSC IV 1059 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10378, VF, weight 3.616 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 315o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust left, spear over shoulder in right, shield in left; reverseVICT GERMANICA, Victory striding left, wreath in extended right, trophy in right, treading with right foot on German captive seated left with hands bound behind; scarce with this bust; $95.00 (€82.65) ON RESERVE
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is therefore the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
RA72397. Billonantoninianus, Göbl MIR 1612e, RIC V S644, Cunetio 1896 (1 spec.), RSC IV 396, AHG 397 (this coin), SRCV III 10245, Hunter IV -, EF, perfect centering, porous, weight 3.849 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 264 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseIOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing slightly left, head turned right, nude, long scepter vertical in right hand, cradling thunderbolt in left arm, star right; $90.00 (€78.30)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) is on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of the west coast of Anatolia, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). The city was founded by Antigonus around 310 B.C. with the name Antigoneia and was populated with the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About 301 B.C., Lysimachus improved the city and re-named it Alexandreia. Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.
RP69784. Bronze AE 27, SNG Hunterian 1305 (same obv die); cf. BMC Troas p. 32, 185 ff.; Bellinger Troy A466; SNG Cop 211; SNGvA 7574; SNG Canakkale 467, F+, weight 10.447 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 45o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, obverse IMP GALLI, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverse TROA, turreted bust of city goddess right, vexillum behind inscribed AV / CO; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; rare; $80.00 (€69.60)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Pamphylia, Side
In 25 B.C., Augustus placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial center through its trade in olive oil and slaves, and some piracy. Its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. Wealthy merchants paid for public works, monuments, competitions, games, and gladiator fights. Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity which lasted well into the 3rd century A.D.
RP69824. Bronze AE 24, SNG Pfälzer 800, SNG BnF -, SNGvA -, SNG Cop -, BMC Lycia -, F, weight 9.178 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 195o, Side mint, 253 - 260 A.D.; obverse AV KA ΠO ΛI EΓ ΓAΛΛΛIHNOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust, from behind; reverse ΣI∆HTΩN, Apollo Sidetes standing facing, head left, wearing short chiton, chlamys, and boots, phiale in right hand, laurel tipped staff vertical behind in left; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; very rare; $80.00 (€69.60)
Besly, E. and R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983). Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885). Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941). Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000). Mattingly, H., Sydenham and Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927). Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978). Seaby, H.A. and Sear, D.R. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982). Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
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