is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and was one of the embodiments of virtues that were of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, rejoiced in his new sovereignty.RB76153. , 38dd, 248, 1293, 33, 10495, Nice gVF, excellent portrait, green , cutting off much , 10.962 g, maximum 25.3 mm, 0o, mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; IMP C GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and right; (valor of the two emperors), standing left, wearing crested helmet and military garb, right resting hand on grounded , inverted spear vertical behind in left, ( ) flanking across ; $560.00 (€498.40)
In 257 A.D. the Franks invaded Gaul, reaching as far as Spain, where they destroyed Terraco (Tarragona). Also, the Alamanii invaded Italy, but defeated them near . In 258, created a permanent mobile army from a number of cavalry vexillations to act as a standing reserve force.RS64095. Silver , 879l, 895, J29, 10339, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 0o, Agrippinensis ( , Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; GALLIENVS • P • F • AVG, , draped, and right; , standing half left, in military dress, cloaked, spear in left, raising kneeling with right; $150.00 (€133.50)
This coin was dedicated to the fidelity of the Pretorian Guard or perhaps to "the leaders." In either case, in the end, lost the fidelity of his guard and officers. He was ambushed and murdered by his own men. The future emperors and were likely both involved in the conspiracy leading to his assassination.RA90710. , 518d, S568 ( ), 216 ( ), 10211, p. lx, -, VF/F, nice portrait, , ragged cutting off the tops of letters, , some corrosion, 2.035 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 0o, mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; GALLIENVS AVG, right; , legionary ( ) between two legionary standards, the standards on the left topped with a , the standards on the right topped with an open hand; RIC lists this as common but market evidence clearly indicates it is ; ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Amphipolis,
Amphipolis was on the Via , the principal Roman across southern Balkans. In 50, the apostle Paul visited Amphipolis on his way to Thessaloniki. Many Christian churches were built indicating prosperity, but the region grew increasingly dangerous. In the 6th century, the population had declined considerably and the old perimeter was no longer defensible against Slavic invasions. The lower city was plundered for materials to fortify the Acropolis. In the 7th century, a new wall was built, right through the bath and , dividing the Acropolis. The remaining artisans moved to houses and workshops built in the unused cisterns of the upper city. In the 8th century, the last inhabitants probably abandoned the city and moved to nearby Chrysopolis (formerly Eion, once the of Amphipolis).RP79943. Bronze AE 25, 3315 (R4); p. 43, 89; p. 60, 140 var. ( ); 122; -; -, aVF, slightly off center, some weak, porous, 9.199 g, maximum 25.4 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; AVT ΠO ΛIKIN EΓ ΓAΛΛHNOC (OC ), , draped, and right, from behind; AMΦIΠOΛEITΩN, City-goddess seated left on high-backed throne, on , statue of in extended right hand, in left hand, fish left in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
was the Roman goddess of health. She was to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of , the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RA71411. , 1354i, S512, 932, -, EF, no wear but small areas of light corrosion, on , 3.373 g, maximum 21.1 mm, 180o, 2nd , Mediolanum ( , Italy) mint, 267 A.D.; GALLIENVS AVG, , draped, and right; (the health of the Emperor), standing right, feeding snake in right from in left, MS in ; $120.00 (€106.80)
This coin was dedicated to Gallienus' relations with the army. eventually fell out of harmony with his guard and officers. He was ambushed and murdered by his own men. The future emperors and were likely both involved in the conspiracy leading to his assassination.SH77278. Silver , 15u, J132, 131a, 10190, J3, VF, excellent portrait, metal, , , flatly struck centers, 3.700 g, maximum 23.5 mm, 180o, mint, 254 A.D.; IMP C GALLIENVS AVG, and right, from the front; CONCORDIAE EXERCIT (Harmony with the army), standing facing, left, in right hand, double in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $115.00 (€102.35)
, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
RIC lists this as common, but lists only a single specimen, and Coin archives lists only one from the first and none from the second.RA71050. , 1212f (1 example), S494, 686, -, VF, uneven , light corrosion, 1.781 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, 2nd , Mediolanum ( , Italy) mint, 266 A.D.; GALLIENVS AVG, right; (the rising sun of the Emperor), Sol standing half left, , nude but for over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S in ; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Emperors frequently made vows to for protection. The Roman's believed as the of the gods, favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. For a time at least, it appears favored . He ruled for another 14 years, which was a long reign in the age of the Thirty Pretenders. Alas, it seems every emperor eventually fell from favor since none of them are alive today.RA64622. Silver , 26u, J143, 377, 10241, VF, , centered, , 3.501 g, maximum 24.4 mm, 0o, mint, Aug 253 - Aug 254 A.D.; IMP C GALLIENVS AVG, and right; (to the protector), standing facing, nude but for cloak behind, left, thunderbolt in right, long vertical behind in left; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
In 257, Valerian's persecution of Christians began. His edict ordered bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the pagan rituals, and prohibited Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.
RS67084. Silver , 870f, J22 ( ), 397 ( ), 10246, VF, full circles strike, grainy, 4.421 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 45o, Agrippinensis ( , Germany) mint, 257 A.D.; IMP GALLIENVS AVG, , draped, and right; ( the victorious), standing slightly left on inscribed ( cum exercitu suo - the Emperor with his army), in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand; $90.00 (€80.10)
Redux, one of the many aspects of , was in charge of bringing people safely, primarily from wars - redux means "coming back" or "returning." She may be one of the later aspects of , as the earliest mention of her is on an dedicated by the Senate in 19 B.C. for the safe return of Emperor .
RA84443. , 1350f, 281, S178, S483, 10218, VF, 2.604 g, maximum 20.7 mm, 135o, 2nd , Mediolanum ( , Italy) mint, c. 266 A.D.; IMP GALLIENVS AVG, right, drapery on left shoulder; REDVX, seated left, holding rudder on globe by tiller in right hand, in left hand, MS in ; $90.00 (€80.10)
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