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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ Valerian IView Options:  |  |  |   

Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to a plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sasanian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome, it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool.


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS90045. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 73c, RIC V 87, RSC IV 53, SRCV III 9936, Hunter IV - (p. xxxv), F, well centered, toned, porous, weight 3.137 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITAS AVGG (the good fortune of the two emperors), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS90049. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 73c, RIC V 87, RSC IV 53, SRCV III 9936, Hunter IV - (p. xxxv), aVF, excellent portrait, toned, reverse weak in center, weight 2.910 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITAS AVGG (the good fortune of the two emperors), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)
 


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Names stemming from Nike (the Greek name for Victory) include among others: Nikolaos, Nicholas, Nicola, Nick, Nicolai, Niccolň, Nikolai, Nicolae, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nikitas, Nika, Nieke, Naike, Niketas, Nikki, Nico, and Veronica.
RS90051. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 30d; RIC V, part 1, 125; RSC IV 230, Hunter IV 14, SRCV III 9985, gF, excellent portrait, areas of corrosion, porous, weight 3.889 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 1st emission, 253 - 254 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse VICTORIA AVGG (victory of the two emperors), Victory standing left, wreath extended in right hand, palm frond in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)
 


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Oriens is Latin for "east." Literally, it means "rising" from orior, "rise." The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew (from "zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" in Arabic, and others. The Chinese pictograph for east is based on the sun rising behind a tree and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refers to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something is facing the correct direction, it is said to have the proper "orientation."
RS90067. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 886c, RIC V 13 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 140b, Hunter IV 60, SRCV III 9951, F, nice light toning, tight slightly oval flan, edge cracks, die wear, weight 3.072 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 225o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG (the rising sun of the two emperors), Sol standing slightly left, radiate head left, chlamys over shoulders, left arm and hanging down back, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)
 


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Oriens is Latin for "east." Literally, it means "rising" from orior, "rise." The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew (from "zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" in Arabic, and others. The Chinese pictograph for east is based on the sun rising behind a tree and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refers to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something is facing the correct direction, it is said to have the proper "orientation."
RA84401. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 75c, RIC V 106, RSC IV 135, Hunter IV 31, SRCV III 9950, F, well centered on a broad flan, scratches, porous, weight 3.467 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 257 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG (the rising sun of the two emperors), Sol standing slightly facing, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)
 


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This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality of preserving the public peace by keeping the army true to its allegiance.
RS64692. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 74c, RIC V 89, RSC IV 65, Hunter IV 10, SRCV III 9938, gF, nice portrait, centered, toned, struck with worn dies, small edge cracks, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES MILIT (the loyalty of the soldiers), Fides standing half-left, flanked by two military standards, one in each hand; $30.00 (€26.70) ON RESERVE


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This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality of preserving the public peace by keeping the army true to its allegiance.
RS90036. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 74c, RIC V 89, RSC IV 65, Hunter IV 10, SRCV III 9938, gF, toned, porous, weight 3.710 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES MILIT (the loyalty of the soldiers), Fides standing half-left, flanked by two military standards, one in each hand; $30.00 (€26.70)
 


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This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality of preserving the public peace by keeping the army true to its allegiance.
RS90047. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 74c, RIC V 89, RSC IV 65, Hunter IV 10, SRCV III 9938, F, centered, toned, slightly ragged flan, weight 2.761 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FIDES MILIT (the loyalty of the soldiers), Fides standing half-left, flanked by two military standards, one in each hand; $30.00 (€26.70)
 


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Vulcan is the Roman god of fire, including the fire of volcanoes. Vulcan is often depicted with a blacksmith's hammer. The festival of Vulcan, the Vulcanalia was celebrated on 23 August each year, when the summer heat placed crops and granaries at the greatest risk of burning. The Romans identified Vulcan with the Greek smith-god Hephaestus, and he became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking.
RS90059. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 884d, RIC V 5, Hunter IV 56, SRCV V 9934, RSC IV 50d var. (no cuirass), aF, tight oval flan, struck with worn dies, weight 2.736 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission, 258 - 259 A.D.; obverse VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse DEO VOLKANO, Vulcan standing left within hexastyle temple, hammer raised in right hand, tongs downward in left; scarce; $30.00 (€26.70)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RA90035. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 73c, RIC V 87, RSC IV 53, SRCV III 9936, Hunter IV - (p. xxxv), aVF, tight flan, porous, struck with worn dies, weight 2.887 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITAS AVGG (the good fortune of the two emperors), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $29.00 (€25.81)
 


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In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RS90060. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684e (Samosata), Hunter IV 73, SRCV III 9955, RIC V 285 (Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), gVF, toned, slightly oval flan, porous, weight 3.532 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $29.00 (€25.81)
 


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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people, and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS90023. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684e (Samosata), Hunter IV 73, SRCV III 9955, RIC V 285 (Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), VF, toned, slightly off center, porous, weight 4.271 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Emperors standing confronted, sacrificing at altar in center, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $28.00 (€24.92)
 


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In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RS90034. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684e (Samosata), Hunter IV 73, SRCV III 9955, RIC V 285 (Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), aVF, nice portrait, oval flan, weak reverse, weight 4.179 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Emperors standing confronted, sacrificing at altar in center, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $28.00 (€24.92)
 


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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people, and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS90071. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1699q (Samosata), SRCV III 9955, RIC V 285 (star not described, Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), Hunter IV 73 var. (no star), VF, toned, tight flan, porous, weight 4.193 g, maximum diameter 4.193 mm, die axis 19.9o, uncertain Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium, on right holding parazonium, star above; $28.00 (€24.92)
 


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After Apollo insulted him, Eros (cupid) shot Apollo with an arrow that caused him to fall in hopeless love with Daphne, a mortal woman. Eros shot Daphne with an arrow which made her incapable of loving Apollo. Nevertheless Apollo pursued her, and out of desperation Daphne escaped by having herself turned into a laurel. Ever after, winners of the games to honor Apollo wore wreaths of laurel in honor of Apollo's Daphne.
RS64689. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 72c, RIC V 72, RSC IV 17, Cunetio 468 (455 spec.), Hunter III - (p. xxxiv), SRCV III -, F, toned, struck with a worn-die reverse, weight 3.641 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, Aug 254 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse APOLINI CONSERVAT, Apollo standing half-left, laurel-branch downward in right hand, resting left hand on lyre placed on small rock on left; $27.00 (€24.03)
 


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Cunetio identifies this type as a mule using an older obverse die from Valerian's second series. Although Cunetio included 18 specimens, this is the first example of the type handled by Forum and it does seem to be quite scarce.
RS90021. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 183a, Cunetio 521 (18 spec.), RIC V 107 var. or corr.(?) (no cuirass), RSC 141 var. or corr.(?) (same), SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, aVF, well centered on a tight flan, nice portrait, porous, uneven toning, weight 2.993 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, 5th issue, Rome mint, c. Aug 257 - 259 A.D.; obverse IMP VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG (the rising sun of the two emperors), Sol standing facing, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, left arm and hanging down back, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; $27.00 (€24.03)
 


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This ironic reverse utterly failed to foresee Valerian's fate. In 260 A.D., after four years of great losses in battle and to plague, Valerian arranged for talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sasanian (Parthian) Emperor Shapur but was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown. In Rome, it was rumored that Shapur used his stuffed body as a footstool.

RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata.
RS83693. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700q (Samosata), RSC IV 190 (Antioch), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), F, well centered on a broad flan, porous, weight 3.954 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (to the restorer of the East), Valerian (on right) and turreted female (the Orient) standing confronted, female presenting wreath, Valerian holding spear vertical in left, wreath above; $25.00 (€22.25) ON RESERVE


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In 257, Valerian recovered Antioch in Syria from the Persian king Shapur I.
RS90004. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9976, RIC V 256, RSC IV 204, Cunetio 74, Eauze 1448, aF, well centered on a cracked and, weight 2.563 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) or Treveri (Trier) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse IMP VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing slightly left, legs crossed, long scepter vertical in right, left arm rests on a column; scarce; $25.00 (€22.25)
 


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Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RS83692. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 824c, RIC V 254 (Mediolanum), RSC IV 196, SRCV III 9974, Hunter IV - (p. xxxvii), Cunetio -, F, well centered, die wear, scratch on reverse, encrusted, edge cracks, weight 3.577 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Viminacium (Stari Kostolac, Serbia) mint, 2nd issue, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVGG (the health of the two emperors), Salus standing slightly left, head left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake rising from altar at feet on left, long scepter vertical in left hand; scarce; $25.00 (€22.25)
 


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In 258, Valerian put to death a number of church leaders, including Rome's bishop, Sixtus. Christians belonging to the nobility or the Roman Senate were deprived of their property and exiled. Thinking that the Christian had great hidden treasures, Valerian ordered the leading deacon, Laurentius, him to hand them over. Laurentius agreed but asked for three days to gather them to together. He assembled the poor, aged and sick in Rome and brought them before the emperor, saying "These are the true treasures of the church." Furious, Laurentius was ordered to suffer a slow and cruel death. On 10 August 258, Laurentius was scourged, beaten with irons, and had his joints dislocated. He was then placed on a grate over a fire and slowly roasted to death. Having lain there for some time, he is reported to have called out to the emperor a Latin couplet, "Assum est, inquit, versa et manduca" (This side is done, turn me over and have a bite). His executioner obliged and after he had been tormented for a considerable time, he finally lifted his eyes to heaven and with calmness yielded his spirit to God. Laurentius (Saint Lawrence) is the patron saint of comedians.
RS90041. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684e (Samosata), Hunter IV 73, SRCV III 9955, RIC V 285 (Antioch), RSC IV 152 (Antioch), F, toned, well centered, weight 4.034 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 315o, uncertain Syrian mint, 256 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $24.00 (€21.36)
 


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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people, and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS90031. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1676e (Samosata), RIC V 284 (Antioch), RSC IV 153 (Antioch), SRCV III 9955 var. (...P F AVG), Hunter IV 73 var. (same), aVF, well centered, encrustations, weight 3.917 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 45o, uncertain Syrian mint, c. 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $22.00 (€19.58)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS90028. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 73c, RIC V 87, RSC IV 53, SRCV III 9936, Hunter IV - (p. xxxv), F, toned, part of legends unstruck, weight 3.468 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 2nd emission, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITAS AVGG (the good fortune of the two emperors), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $21.00 (€18.69)
 




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

CONCORDIAAVGVSTORVM
PIETASAVGVSTORVM
FELICIBVSAVGG
IMPCAESPLICVALERIANVSAVG
IMPCPLICVALERIANOAVG
IMPCPLICVALERIANVSAVG
IMPCPLICVALERIANVSPAVG
IMPCPLICVALERIANVSPFAVG
IMPCVALERIANVSPFAVG
IMPPLICVALERIANOAVG
IMPVALERIANVSAVG
IMPVALERIANVSPAVG
IMPVALERIANVSPFAVG
IMPVALERIANVSPIVSAVG
IMPVALERIANVSPIVSFELAVG
VALERIANVSPFAVG


REFERENCES

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. & R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., Sydenham and Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Seaby, H.A. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Monday, February 20, 2017.
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Roman Coins of Valerian I