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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ Trebonianus GallusView Options:  |  |  | 

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

Trebonianus Gallus was proclaimed emperor by the Roman army after the defeat and death of Trajan Decius. Gallus signed a humiliating treaty with the Goths, before spending the next couple of years repelling barbarian incursions in both the North and East of the empire. Gallus was murdered, along with his son, by his own forces after the usurper Aemilian defeated them in battle.

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandria Troas, Troas

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The representation of the decurions of Alexandria depicted on the reverse of this type is unique within the Roman provincial series. The decurions were members of municipal senates responsible for procuring funds for new public works, festivities and games, as well as for welfare networks. Their fiscal responsibilities also extended to the collecting of imperial taxes, for which they were expected to cover any shortfalls.
RP87204. Bronze AE 22, RPC IX 432 (12 spec.); Bellinger A409; SNG Çanakkale 376; BMC Troas p. 27, 145; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, aVF, dark green patina, reverse slightly off center, tiny encrustations, some legend weak, edge cracks, weight 4.586 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C VIBI TRIBO GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse The curia decurionum of Alexandria in session: nine men wearing togas seated in a semicircle, two outer men seated on curule chairs, two in center holding short staffs, AVG above, two steps below, ALEXAND on upper step, decorative pattern on lower step, TROADA in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics, e-sale 40 (28 Oct 2017), lot 429; very rare; $1300.00 (€1105.00)

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Juno was the patron deity of Trebonianus Gallus. The epithet Martialis literally means "of or belonging to Mars" or "warlike," but the depictions of Juno Martialis on the coins are not warlike. The epithet may refer to Juno as the mother of Mars. Or perhaps she is Juno of March - her festival was on 7 March. Perhaps the title refers to her temple in the Campus Martius, the old "Field of Mars" down by the Tiber. She is sometimes equated with Juno Perusina, as Perugia was where Trebonianus Gallus came from, and as such is sometimes called Juno Martialis Perusina by modern scholars.
SH66386. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 110a corr. (peacock), Banti 14 corr. (same), Cohen V 50, SRCV III 9670, Hunter - (p. cv), VF, nice patina, attractive style, weight 13.008 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 251 - 253 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse IVNONI MARTIALIS, Shrine of Juno Martialis: domed, distyle rotunda with Corinthian columns, garlands hanging below dome; statue of Juno seated facing within holding two stalks of grain in extended right; ex Triskeles Auction, lot 164, auction 2 (25 Apr 2013); $80.00 (€68.00)

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia,

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The reverse refers to the legendary beginnings of Tyre and its famous purple die. The mythical Ambrosial rocks originally floated about the Mediterranean. Between the rocks, an eagle and snake lived on a sacred olive tree which continuously burned but was never consumed by the flames. The god Melqart (Hercules to the Romans) taught the first Phoenicians to build ships and his oracle told them to capture and sacrifice the eagle. After the sacrifice, the two rocks settled and became the land on which Tyre was founded. Once, when Melqart was nearby chasing the nymph Tyros, his dog found a murex on the beach and ate the small mollusk (Hexaplex trunculus). When the nymph saw the bright color stains on the dog's mouth she demanded Melqart give her a dress this color to win her affection. Of course, Melqart gave in to her demand, inventing the famous purple die in the process.
RP89196. Bronze AE 25, SNG Cop 378; BMC Phoenicia, p. 284, 442; Lindgren III 1478; Rouvier 2477; Boston MFA 269, Fair/Fine, rough, scratches, porous, weight 13.252 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Tyre mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C G VIBIVS TREB GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COL TYRO METRO, two baetyls (the Ambrosial rocks) with the sacred olive tree between them, dog of Herakles discovering the murex below; ex C. C. Vermuele Collection; ex Coin Galleries, Mabbot Sale (June 1969), lot 2864; rare; $60.00 (€51.00)

Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Anazarbus, Cilicia

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Anazarbus was founded by Assyrians. Under the early Roman Empire, it was known as Caesarea and was the Metropolis (capital) of the late Roman province Cilicia Secunda. It was the home of the poet Oppian. Rebuilt by the Byzantine emperor Justin I after an earthquake in the 6th century, it became Justinopolis (525); but the old native name persisted, and when Thoros I, king of Lesser Armenia, made it his capital early in the 12th century, it was known as Anazarva.
RP89409. Bronze AE 22, SNG Levante 1506, SNG BnF 2128, Zeigler 780, aF, porous, weight 7.955 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Cilicia, Anazarbus (Anavarza, Turkey) mint, 251 - 252 A.D.; obverse AV K Γ OV TPEB ΓAΛΛOC CEB, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ANAZ AKM MHTP, capricorn swimming right, Γ - Γ (seat of 3 provinces, holder of 3 neocorates) flanking globe below, ET OC (year 270) in exergue; ex Agora Auction 37 (28 Jul 2015), ex George Spradling Collection; $50.00 (€42.50)





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Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Saturday, March 23, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Trebonianus Gallus