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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ Philip IIView Options:  |  |  | 

Philip II, July or August 247 - late 249 A.D.

Marcus Julius Philippus Severus was the son of the Philip the Arab by his wife Marcia Otacilia Severa. He was six years old when, in February or March 244, his father became emperor and he was made caesar. In 247, he was consul, and in July or August he was elevated to Augustus and co-ruler. His father was killed in battle by his successor Decius in late 249. When news of this death reached Rome, Philip II was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He died in his mother's arms, aged eleven years.


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In 145, many thousands of acres of Roman Britain, in modern-day Lincolnshire, England, were inundated by a great flood.
RB76161. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 256a (S), Cohen V 49, Hunter III 14, SRCV III 9249, Choice VF, excellent boy portrait, well centered, nice patina, a few marks, slightest corrosion in some areas, weight 20.220 g, maximum diameter 30.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 244 - 246 A.D.; obverse M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS (In honor of the Prince of Youth), Philip II standing left, bare-headed, in military dress, globe in right hand, inverted spear behind in left, S - C flanking across field below center; scarce; $250.00 (€222.50)
 


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In April 248, Philip combined celebration of Rome's 1000th anniversary with the Ludi Saeculares. Festivities included spectacular games and theatrical presentations. In the Colosseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros. At the same time, Philip elevated his son to the rank of co-Augustus. Undoubtedly the festivities included elephants, as advertised by this coin.
RS77602. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 5, RIC IV 246A(a) (S) corr. (elephant right), Mazzini 5, Hunter III -, SRCV III -, Choice VF, well centered, porous, light scratches, weight 2.066 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse AETERNITAS AVGG, elephant walking left, ridden by mahout guiding it with rod and goad; scarce; $250.00 (€222.50)
 


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In April 248, Philip combined celebration of Rome's 1000th anniversary with the Ludi Saeculares. Festivities included spectacular games and theatrical presentations. In the Colosseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros. At the same time, Philip elevated his son to the rank of co-Augustus. Undoubtedly the festivities included elephants, as advertised by this coin.
RS76195. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 5, RIC IV 246A(a) (S) corr. (elephant right), Mazzini 5, Hunter III -, SRCV III -, VF, well centered, nice portrait, toned, deposits, light marks, weight 4.068 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse AETERNITAS AVGG, elephant walking left, ridden by mahout guiding it with rod and goad; scarce; $200.00 (€178.00)
 


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Eternal peace was just wishful thinking during the reign of Philip I and his son (just as it has always been).
RB76163. Orichalcum sestertius, Cohen V 27, RIC IV 268a corr. (IMP CAES...), Hunter III - (p. xciii), SRCV III -, Choice VF, excellent portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, well centered, a little porous, edge crack, weight 17.735 g, maximum diameter 29.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Jul 247 - late 249 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PAX AETERNA (eternal peace), Pax standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, S - C flanking at sides; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Hieropolis, Cyrrhestica, Syria

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Atargatis was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical Antiquity. Ctesias also used the name Derceto for her, and the Romans called her Dea Syriae ("Syrian goddess"). Primarily she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat ("mistress") of her city and people, she was also responsible for their protection and well-being. Her chief sanctuary was at Hierapolis, modern Manbij, northeast of Aleppo, Syria.
RY78044. Bronze AE 29, SNG München 485; SNG Cop 64; SNG Righetti 1883 corr. (Philip I); Lindgren-Kovacs 1926; BMC Galatia p. 145, 57, F, well centered, nice style, weight 15.624 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Cyrrhestica, Hierapolis-Bambyce (Membij, Syria) mint, Jul/Aug 247 - Late 249 A.D.; obverse AYTO K K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip II right, from behind; reverse ΘEAC C-YPIAC IEPOΠOΛ/ΛITΩN (ending in exergue), Atergatis riding lion right, wearing tall headdress, chiton and peplos, scepter in right hand, left hand in lap; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS76196. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 230, RSC IV 17, Hunter III 23, SRCV III 9265, Choice VF/F, excellent centering, nice portrait, small flan cracks, reverse die wear, weight 4.069 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse LIBERALITAS AVG III, Philip I (holding short scepter) and Philip II seated left on curule chairs; $140.00 (€124.60)
 


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Eternal peace was just wishful thinking during the reign of Philip I (just as it has always been).
RB71667. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 268c, Cohen V 25, Hunter III 31, SRCV III 9281, VF, nice portrait, attractive Pax, green patina, squared flan (normal for the type), weight 17.904 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Jul/Aug 247 - late 249 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PAX AETERNA, Pax standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, S - C flanking at sides; $125.00 (€111.25)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia

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Pisidia's geographic and strategic position made it difficult to maintain peace. To strengthen control, Rome colonized the area with military veterans, who were attracted to the area by the fertile soil. An important Roman colony, the city was, like Rome, divided into seven quarters called "vici" on seven hills. The formal language was Latin until the end of the 3rd century A.D.
RP78010. Bronze AE 27, Krzyzanowska I/3; SNG BnF 1273; BMC Pisidia p. 197, 119; SNG Cop 79; SNGvA 4974, Choice F, well centered, porous, weight 10.254 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, Jul/Aug 247 - Late 249 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse CAES ANTIOCH COL, Pax advancing left, raising olive branch in right hand, scepter in left hand, wearing long chiton, S - R flanking across field; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; rare; $120.00 (€106.80)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Diocaesarea, Cilicia

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Diocaesarea, Cilicia was known as Olba until it was renamed during the reign of Vespasian. According to a legend told by Strabo (Geography, 14.5.10), the temple of Zeus Olbius was founded by Ajax, one of the Greek heroes of the Trojan War. The city and its surrounding territory was a theocracy, ruled by the hereditary priests of the temple.
RP57201. Bronze AE 29, SNG BnF 886, SNG Levante 678, SNG PfPS 423, Staffieri 27, BMC Lycaonia -, gF, weight 14.238 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 180o, Cilicia, Diocaesarea mint, as caesar, 244 - 246 A.D.; obverse M IOYΛIOC Φ[IΛIΠΠOYC K CE]B, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse A∆PIA ∆IOKAICAPEΩN MHT (MHT ligate), KENNATΩ in ex, thunderbolt on throne of Zeus Olbios, lions on arms; rare; $105.00 (€93.45)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Heliopolis, Coele-Syria

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Heliopolis in Coele-Syria was made a colonia with the rights of the ius Italicum by Septimius Severus in 193. Work on the religious complex at Heliopolis lasted over a century and a half and was never completed. The Temple of Jupiter, the largest religious building in the entire Roman empire, was dedicated during the reign of Septimius Severus. Today, only six Corinthian columns remain standing. Eight more were shipped to Constantinople under Justinian's orders c. 532 - 537, for his basilica of Hagia Sophia.
RP58618. Bronze AE 18, Sawaya 628 ff. (D99/R229), SNG Cop 433, aVF, weight 5.927 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Heliopolis (Baalbek, Lebanon) mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse COL / HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, all within laurel wreath; rare; $105.00 (€93.45)
 


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In 246, the first of the Two Councils of Arabia of the Roman Christian Church was held in Bostra, Arabia Petraea.
RB73727. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 256a (S), Cohen V 49, Hunter III 14, SRCV III 9249, F, weight 15.938 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 244 - 246 A.D.; obverse M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS (In honor of the Prince of Youth), Philip II standing left, bare-headed, in military dress, globe in right hand, inverted spear behind in left, S - C flanking across field below center; scarce; $105.00 (€93.45)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria

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Marcus Julius Philippus Severus was the son of the Philip the Arab by his wife Marcia Otacilia Severa. He was six years old when, in February or March 244, his father became emperor and he was made caesar. In 247, he was consul, and in July or August he was elevated to Augustus and co-ruler. His father was killed in battle by his successor Decius in late 249. When news of this death reached Rome, Philip II was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He died in his mother's arms, aged eleven years.
RY73080. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1013, Prieur 334, Dura Coins 451, VF, amusing portrait of the 6 year old caesar, excellent centering and strike, uneven toning, some marks, corrosion, coppery encrustations, weight 13.035 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, as caesar, series 1, 244 A.D.; obverse MAP IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC KECAP, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC, eagle standing right on palm-frond right, wings spread, right wing behind right leg, head right, wreath in beak, S C in exergue; very rare; $90.00 (€80.10)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria

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In 249, after his legionaries proclaimed him emperor, Trajan Decius marched them to Verona, where he defeated and killed Philip I. Philip's eleven-year-old son and heir was likely killed with his father.
RP57198. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1043; Prieur 473; BMC Galatia 559; Dura Coins 464; cf. SNG Cop 268 (attributed to Philip I), VF, weight 12.178 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 249 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC YΠA TO ∆, eagle standing left, wings spread, head left, open wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA / S C below; $85.00 (€75.65)
 


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Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, also known as Philippus II, Philip II and Philip the Younger was the son and heir of the Roman Emperor Philip the Arab by his wife Otacilia Severa. When his father became emperor in 244 he was appointed Caesar. In 247 he became consul, and later elevated by his father to the rank of Augustus and co-ruler. His father was killed in battle by his successor Decius in 249. When news of this death reached Rome, he was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He died in his mother's arms, aged eleven years.
RS77746. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9240, RIC IV 218d, RSC IV 48, VF, toned, grainy small encrustations, weight 3.460 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, Rome mint, 244 - 246 A.D.; obverse M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENT (prince of youth), Philip II standing left, wearing military dress, globe in right hand, inverted spear in left hand; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, ex Kirk Davis; $80.00 (€71.20)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Cyrrhus, Cyrrhestica, Syria

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Cyrrhus was founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, shortly after 300 B.C., and named for Cyrrhus in Macdeonia. It was taken by the Armenian Empire in the 1st century B.C., then became Roman when Pompey took Syria in 64 B.C. By the 1st century A.D., it had become a Roman administrative, military, and commercial center on the trade route between Antioch and the Euphrates River crossing at Zeugma, and minted its own coinage. It was the base of the Roman legion Legio X Fretensis. The Sassanid Persian Empire took it several times during the 3rd century. In the 6th century, the city was embellished and fortified by Justinian. It was taken by the Muslims in 637, the Crusaders in the 11th century, and Nur ad-Din Zangi recaptured it in 1150. Muslim travelers of the 13th and 14th century reported it as a large city and largely in ruins. Its ruins are located in northern Syria, near the Turkish border, about 70 km northwest of Aleppo and 24 km west of Kilis, Turkey.
GB73055. Bronze AE 28, Butcher 21c; BMC Galatia p. 137, 34; SNG München 505, SNG Copenhagen 49 corr. (Philip I), aVF, well centered, rough green patina with reddish earthen highlighting, weight 14.440 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 135o, Cyrrhus mint, obverse AYTOK K M IOY IYΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, cuirassed and draped bust to right, from behind; reverse ∆IOC - KA−TEB−ATOY, KYPHCTΩN, hexastyle temple Zeus Kataibates, in which statue of the god is seated facing with thunderbolt in right and scepter in left, eagle at his feet on left, bull leaping right above temple; $70.00 (€62.30)
 


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The Councils of Arabia were two councils of the early Christian Church held in Bostra, in Arabia Petraea; one in 246 and the other in 247. Both were held against Beryllus, the local bishop, and his followers, who believed that the soul perished upon the death of the body, but that it would one day rise with the body. Origen, who was present at both councils, convinced them that their belief was heresy.
RS71516. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9261, RIC IV 226 corr., RSC IV 6, Hunter III 21, F, well centered, toned, weight 2.550 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 246 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse AETERNIT IMPER, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and billowing behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $55.00 (€48.95)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Perga, Pamphylia

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Perga was the capital of Pamphylia. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, Perga was one of the richest and most beautiful cities in the ancient world, famous for its temple of Artemis. It also is notable as the home of the renowned mathematician Apollonius of Perga.
RP72630. Bronze AE 23, cf. SNG BnF 522; SNG Cop 349; SNGvA 4707; BMC Lydia p. 133, 65; SNG PfPS 397 (slight legend variations), F, weight 6.122 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, Perga mint, as caesar, Feb 244 - Jul/Aug 247 A.D.; obverse AY K M IOY CEOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC C[E?], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind, globe below bust; reverse ΠEPΓAIΩN, Tyche standing left, wearing kalathos, chiton and peplos, rudder in right hand, cornucopia in left; scarce; $50.00 (€44.50)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Deultum, Thrace

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Artemis is depicted here in the same pose as The Diana of Versailles, a slightly over life-size Roman marble statue from the 1st or 2nd century A.D., copying a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 B.C. The sculpture has a stag at her side. The sculpture may have come from a sanctuary at Nemi or possibly from Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli. In 1556, it was given by Pope Paul IV to Henry II of France, a subtle allusion to the king's mistress, Diane de Poitiers. It is now in the Musée du Louvre, Paris.
RP63228. Bronze AE 24, Draganov Deultum 1834 (O172/R280), Varbanov II 3090 (R4), BMC Thrace -, SNG Cop -, aVF, weight 6.632 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, obverse M IVL PHILIPPVS CAESAR, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COL FL P-A-C DEVLT, Artemis (Diana) advancing right, with right drawing bow from quiver on shoulder, bow in left; scarce; $40.00 (€35.60)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Perga, Pamphylia

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Perga was the capital of Pamphylia. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, Perga was one of the richest and most beautiful cities in the ancient world, famous for its temple of Artemis. It also is notable as the home of the renowned mathematician Apollonius of Perga.
RP78007. Bronze AE 24, SNG BnF 511; SNG Cop 350; SNGvA 4708; BMC Lycia p. 132, 60, F, well centered, green patina, corrosion, weight 7.027 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 0o, Perga mint, as caesar, Feb 244 - Jul/Aug 247 A.D.; obverse AY K M IOY CEOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind, globe below bust; reverse ΠEPΓAIΩN, three prize purses, set on three-legged chest with folding doors ornamented with dots (nail heads?); scarce; $40.00 (€35.60)
 


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D., Tomis, Moesia Inferior

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Tomis was founded by Greek colonists on the shore of the Black Sea around 600 B.C. for trade with the local Getic population. The Roman poet Ovid was banished by Augustus to Tomis in 8 A.D. and died there eight years later. By his account, Tomis was "a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire." Constanta Romania today, the city was renamed to honor Constantine the Great.
RP63347. Bronze tetrassaria, Varbanov I 5787 (R4), AMNG I/II 3598, Moushmov 2310, SNG BM -, SNG Stancomb -, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, SGICV -, aF, a little rough, light corrosion and encrustation, flan crack, centration dimples, weight 10.13 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Tomis (Constanta, Romania) mint, as caesar, Feb/Mar 244 - July/Aug 247 A.D.; obverse MAP IOYΛIOC ΦIΛIΠΠOC, KAICAP (ending below busts), bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip II right (on left), confronting draped bust of Serapis left, with kalathos on head (on right); reverse MHTPO ΠONTOY TOMEΩC, Asclepius standing facing, head left, snake entwined staff in right hand, left hand on hip; rare; $29.00 (€25.81)
 







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OBVERSE LEGENDS

MIVLPHILIPPVSCAES
MIVLPHILIPPVSNOBILCAES
IMPCAESMIVLPHILIPPVSAVG
IMPMIVLPHILIPPVSAVG
IMPPHILIPPVSAVG


REFERENCES

Banti, A. and L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Mattingly, H.B., E.A. Sydenham & C.H.V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol IV, From Pertinax to Uranius Antoninus. (London, 1986).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. III. Pertinax to Aemilian. (Oxford, 1977).
Seaby, H.A. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values III, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Sunday, June 26, 2016.
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Roman Coins of Philip II