Katane, , c. 212 - 50 B.C.
Catania, on the east coast of between Messina and , has been repeatedly damaged and even destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes and eruptions from Mount Etna, yet it prospers. Today, Catania is an economic, tourist, and education center, and an important hub of industry, nicknamed the "European Silicon Valley."GB65645. Bronze two chalkoi, III p. 112, 26; 1284; 194; p. 52, 66 (hexas), VF, nice for the , green , 3.590 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 0o, Katane mint, c. 212 - 50 B.C.; laureate of left, behind neck; KATA/NAIΩN, Aphrodite Hyblaia (or ?) standing right, wearing on , holding dove in extended right, II (2 chalkoi) right; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
Himera, , c. 420 - 409 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.GB67658. Bronze tetras, I, p. 42, 31; 1339; 149; -, aF, 2.200 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 90o, Himera mint, c. 420 - 409 B.C.; Pan on a goat prancing right, nude but for fluttering in the wind behind, preparing to blow on conch in right, in left over shoulder, three pellets under goat between legs; [IMEΠAION], flying left, with dangling fillets in extended right, fold of long in left; $85.00 (€75.65)
, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
In 310 B.C., Agathokles, tyrant of , defeated and besieged by , took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in . After several victories he was completely defeated in 306 B.C. and fled secretly back to . After concluding peace, Agathocles styled himself of , and established rule over the Greek cities of the island.SH69733. Bronze AE 16, II p. 239, 110 Ds11 Rl 38 (astragalus); 762 (astragalus?); 1245 ( ) (BMC 356 ff, 570v ), gF, , 3.104 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 90o, mint, c. 317 - 310 B.C.; of Kore-Persephone left, wreathed in grain, lion's leftlion's left (or astragalus) behind neck; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (in ), bull butting left, E/Λ above; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $85.00 (€75.65)
, , Dionysius I, 405 - 367 B.C.
"The model for the on the is derived from the facing Arethusa by Kimon. Exemplars signed by the great master are known. This issue is usually attributed to Exakestidas with several exemplars signed E. However, stylistic evidence of many exemplars reveals such substantial differences the intervention of other engravers seems to be certain, while the discovery of traces of signature not completely legible but certainly not pointing to Exakestidas confirm the assumption." - p. 59GB59265. Bronze tetras, II p. 59 ff., 29; 385; 679; -, VF, rough green , 1.852 g, maximum 13.6 mm, mint, c. 405 - 400 B.C.; of nymph facing slightly left, wearing neck; octopus; $80.00 (€71.20)
Entella, , c. 420 - 404 B.C.
Entella was on the left bank of the river Hypsas (modern Belice), about 40 km from the mouth and nearly midway between the two seas. In 404 B.C. Campanian mercenaries, who had been in the service of , were allowed into the Entella on friendly terms. They put all the male citizens to the sword and took the city for themselves.GB65250. Bronze AE 18, I p. 317, 1; 580; -; -, aVF, 3.171 g, maximum 17.4 mm, 180o, Entella mint, ; female left, wearing , earring, and necklace; ENTEΛ, bearded (Zeus?) right, wearing ; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Hiketas, 288 - 279 B.C.
Hicetas was tyrant of for about nine years. The only recorded events during his rule are his over Phintias, tyrant of , and his defeat to the Carthaginians at the river Terias. He was expelled from by Thynion shortly before Pyrrhus arrived in .GB90325. Bronze hemilitron, cf. p. 263, 125; 1466 (S), 804; 776 ff. (various control ), aVF, nice green , 6.767 g, maximum 20.5 mm, 225o, mint, 287 - 283 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (off ), of Kore-Persephone left, wreathed in grain; driving galloping right, A(?) in (off ); ; $80.00 (€71.20)
"Kainon," , c. 367 - 340 B.C.
This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in in the 4th century B.C.GI72231. Bronze tetras, I p. 249, 1; 133 (Alaesa); 213 (Alaisa); p. 29, 3 (Alaesa?); 1048 (Alaisa); 509, aVF, 9.118 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; springing left, wings open, rope-like line (clouds?); horse prancing left, loose reigns flying behind, KAINON in ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Fifth Democracy, 214 - 212 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GI74344. Bronze tetras, II p. 418, 209; p. 225, 675; 1052; 1549; -; -; -, VF, heavy , corrosion, rough, 2.294 g, maximum 11.5 mm, 0o, mint, c. 214 - 212 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon right, crescent with horns up behind; ornamented trident , downward flanking on each side, ΣYP−AKO/ΣI−ΩN in two lines in lower divided by shank; ex David Surber Collection ; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.GI75138. Bronze hemilitra, II p. 55, 24 (after 410 B.C.); 415 ff. (c. 405 B.C.); 697 ff.; 180 ff.; 1480 (S, 415 - 405 B.C.), aVF, nice green , 3.428 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 135o, mint, c. 415 - 405 B.C.; of nymph left, no earrings, wearing , with hair bound in ; laurel branch with two leaves behind; swimming right above ΣYPA, inverted scallop shell below; $80.00 (€71.20)
The , , 220 - 200 B.C.
or "Children of Mars" were a band of Campanian (or Samnite) mercenaries who, about 289 B.C., seized Messana at the north-east corner of , after having been hired by Agathocles to defend it. The held Messana for over 20 years, converting it from a town of farmers and traders to a raiding base for pirates on land and sea. In 265 B.C., after Hiero of had defeated them and besieged Messana, the appealed to for aid. Soon after they appealed to Rome to rid them of the Carthaginians. The then disappear from history, except even centuries later the inhabitants of Messana were called . "Mamertine wine" from the vineyards of north-eastern tip of was the favorite of and he made it popular after serving it at a feast to celebrate his third consulship.GI75670. Bronze pentachalkia, p, 104, 27; 432; 707; 450; p. 112, 37; 851 (R1), aF, 10.899 g, maximum 26.4 mm, 180o, Messana (Messina, , Italy) mint, 220 - 200 B.C.; laureate of right, long hair, behind; MAMEPTINΩN, warrior standing facing, nude but for over shoulders and left arm, sword in sheath with strap in right, inverted spear vertical in left, grounded leaning against spear, Π (mark of value) right; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
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