Messana, , 411 - 408 B.C.
Founded by Greek in the 8th century BC, Messina was originally called Zancle, from the Greek meaning "scythe" because of the shape of its natural harbor (though a attributes the name to Zanclus). In the early 5th century BC, Anaxilas of Rhegium renamed it Messene in of the Greek city Messene.GB66780. Bronze hemilitron, I p. 51, 9mv4/1; p. 107, 71; cf. 390 (controls obscure), VF, 4.673 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 180o, Messana mint, 411 - 408 B.C.; ΠEΛΩPIAΣ, of nymph Peloria left, hair in and , behind neck; MEΣΣANIΩN, trident, A P between prongs, scallop shell left, hare downward on right; ; $105.00 (€93.45)
Katane, , c. 415 - 403 B.C.
Katane was captured by Dionysios of in 403 B.C., who sold the population into slavery and resettled the city with Campanian mercenaries. The city submitted to Rome during the First Punic war. GB67139. Bronze tetras, III p. 91, 1; 1272; p. 50, 51; -, -, VF, a bit rough, 1.820 g, maximum 13.6 mm, 315o, Katane (Catania, , Italy) mint, c. 415 - 403 B.C.; AMENANOΣ, young of river-god Amenanos left, with horns and wavy hair; winged thunderbolt, wings open, K-A flanking under wings, three small pellets around (two above wings, one right); ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
Although Agathocles was brutal in pursuit of power, afterward he was a mild and popular "tyrant." His grandest goal was to establish democracy as the dominant form of government for the world. He did not want his sons to succeed him as and the Syracusan democracy on his death bed.GB69177. Bronze trias, II p. 247, 118; 1255 ff.; 752; 776; p. 198, 414; 1204; 1509 (S), aVF, , 1.880 g, maximum 15.5 mm, 45o, mint, c. 308 - 307 B.C.; helmeted of left, wearing ornamented Corinthian helmet; ΣYPAK/OΣIΩN, thunderbolt; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, , The Third Democracy, c. 334 - 317 B.C.
Timoleon established a democracy in 345 B.C. and after defeating the Carthaginians in 339 B.C., he retired into private life without assuming any title or office. He went blind before his death. When important issues were discussed he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. After his death, the struggle for control of the city restarted, ending with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power with a coup in 317 B.C.GB69928. Bronze , II p. 205, 85 Ds78 R17/1 (same rev die); 48; 736 ff. var. (various control ), VF, 4.508 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 270o, mint, c. 334 - 317 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, laureate of left, (control symbol) right; Pegasos with pointed wing flying to left, A (control symbol) below; $100.00 (€89.00)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GB72271. Bronze AE 27, II p. 381, 195 R1 16; p. 217, 585; 23; 833 ff. var. (control), 1375 ff. var. (control); 1548, VF/aF, green , pitting, 15.743 g, maximum 26.6 mm, 0o, mint, c. 275 - 215 B.C.; diademed of Hieron left, beardless; horseman prancing right, holding couched spear, Λ (control symbol) below, IEPΩNOΣ (off ); $100.00 (€89.00)
, , c. 413 - 406 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, was founded c. 582 B.C. by from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to in importance on but was sacked by in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.GI83604. Silver , 59, 1010, 105 (R1), -, F, , etched surfaces, grainy surfaces, 1.86 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 180o, (Agrigento, , Italy) mint, c. 413 - 406 B.C.; right, wings open, lowered, holding supine hare right in talons; crab seen from above, fish right below; $100.00 (€89.00)
, , Dionysius I, 405 - 367 B.C.
"The model for the on the is derived from the facing Arethusa by Kimon. Exemplars signed by the great master are known. This issue is usually attributed to Exakestidas with several exemplars signed E. However, stylistic evidence of many exemplars reveals such substantial differences the intervention of other engravers seems to be certain, while the discovery of traces of signature not completely legible but certainly not pointing to Exakestidas confirm the assumption." - p. 59GB68426. Bronze tetras, II p. 59 ff., 29; 385; 679; 1105; 1432 (R1, Second Democracy, 415-405 B.C.); -, VF, nice green , edge chips, 1.431 g, maximum 13.5 mm, 90o, mint, c. 405 - 400 B.C.; of nymph facing slightly left, wearing necklace; octopus; $95.00 (€84.55)
Thermae Himerenses, , c. 407 - 370 B.C.
In 409 B.C., the Carthaginians under the command of Hannibal, conquered Himera, crucified three hundred of its leading men and obliterated the town. The site has been desolate ever since. The few surviving Greeks were settled by the Carthaginians eleven kilometers of Himera at Thermae Himeraeae (Termini Imerese today). Thermae was the birthplace of Agathocles.
Herakles was named in of his stepmother , but she was his enemy. She even tried to prevent his birth by tying his mother's legs in knots and to kill him as an infant with two serpents. After drove him mad, slew his own six sons. She made almost all of Herakles' twelve labors more difficult. later befriended Herakles for saving her from Porphyrion, a giant who tried to rape her. She even gave her daughter Hebe to him as his bride.GB70605. Bronze AE 15, I p. 119, 13; p. 83, 3; 190; -, VF, 3.800 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 180o, Thermai mint, c. 407 - 370 B.C.; of right wearing ; of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion's headdress; $95.00 (€84.55)
as Hispani, , c. 211 - 185 B.C.
In 214, during the Second Punic War, switched its allegiance from Rome to . remained autonomous until 211, when it became the last Sicilian town to be captured by the Romans. It was given as payment by Rome to a group of Spanish mercenaries, who issued coins with the HISPANORVM. See Kenan Erim, "Morgantina," AJA, vol. 62, no. 1 (Jan., 1958), pp. 79-90.
GB65639. Bronze AE 22, , 253, pl. 7, 18 (same dies); III p. 341, 1; 1079; 4/II 484, aF, large , 8.400 g, maximum 21.7 mm, 45o, mint, c. 211 - 185 B.C.; C SIC-LIVN, male right; HISPANORVM, helmeted horseman cantering right, holding spear; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Iaetia, , 4th Century B.C.
Iaitas was located on Mount Jato, near modern San Giuseppe Jato, a village in a hilly region of Palermo's hinterland, 31 km from the Sicilian capital. The settlement dated back to prehistoric times, with influence of Greek culture from the 6th century B.C.
GB65643. Bronze AE 13, I p.383, 1; 1343; -; -, aF, rough, 1.332 g, maximum 13.0 mm, 180o, Iaetia mint, 4th century B.C.; IATINΩN, right; of grain on left, grain kernel (or a second of grain) on right; very ; $90.00 (€80.10)
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