, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
In 311 B.C., Agathocles, the tyrant of , invaded the Carthaginian holdings on and laid siege to . Hamilcar led the Carthaginian response, and by 310 controlled almost all of and laid siege to itself. In desperation, Agathocles secretly led an expedition of 14,000 men to , hoping to save his rule by leading a counterstrike against itself. was forced to recall Hamilcar and most of his army from . Agathocles was eventually defeated in 307 B.C., but he escaped back to and negotiated a peace which maintained as a stronghold of Greek power in .GB90149. Bronze AE 24, cf. II p. 218, 96 DS 114 R1 4 ( ); p. 194, 358 (barley kernel); 757 (same); 567 ( ); -, aVF, classical , old light scratches, 10.039 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 90o, mint, 317 - 289 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of Kore left, wreathed with grain, (?) behind; bull butting left, over NK above, below; ex Ancient Imports; ex Coin Galleries mail bid, 14 Nov 1984, of lot 327; $110.00 (€96.80)
, , Roman Rule, 212 - c. 189 B.C.
A is a sculpture of a person or a god, sometimes without detail forming only a vague semblance.GI74374. Bronze AE 25, II p. 428, 230; 897; 1059; 835, F/aF, , small cracks, 14.806 g, maximum 26.6 mm, 0o, mint, 212 - c. 189 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right; in slow right, ΣYPAKO/ΣION divided in two lines, one above and one below; ; $110.00 (€96.80)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric , a achieved at ruinous cost.GI75171. Bronze , II p. 321, 176; 813, 852; 1214; , 1451, VF/F, 11.494 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 270o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; of left, clad in scalp head-dress; ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, in left; $110.00 (€96.80)
Katane, , c. 212 - 50 B.C.
In 212 B.C., after a two-year siege, despite defenses designed by the Greek mathematician and scientist Archimedes, the Roman general Marcellus forced his way into . Although Marcellus wished to spare the Syracusans, he was unable to stop his soldiers from sacking the city. Archimedes was killed. Marcellus carried off the art treasures of to Rome, the first recorded instance of a practice which was to become common. GB66786. Bronze two chalkoi, III p. 110, 25; 1278; 563; 612 (R1); p. 51, 65 .; -, VF, 3.126 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 315o, Katane mint, c. 212 - 50 B.C.; laureate of right; KATA/NAIΩN, Aphrodite Hyblaia (or ?) standing right, wearing on , holding dove in extended right, II (2 chalkoi) right; $105.00 (€92.40)
The , , c. 288 - 278 B.C.
or "children of ," was the name taken by a band of Campanian (or Samnite) freebooters who about 289 B.C. seized the Greek colony of Messana at the north-east corner of , after having been hired by Agathocles to defend it (Polyb. 1. 7. 2). - 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
GB67344. Bronze pentonkion, I p. 93, 3/1; 402; p. 109, 3; 434 var (on Φ left), gF, some corrosion and pitting, 16.288 g, maximum 27.5 mm, 270o, Messana mint, c. 288 - 278 B.C.; APEΣ, laureate of Ares right, Macedonian helmet behind; MAMEPTINΩN, standing left on a thunderbolt, left, wings open; $105.00 (€92.40)
or Sardinia, Carthaginian Rule, c. 300 - 264 B.C.
notes that although this is often attributed to Sardina, the frequency of finds in demonstrates that it was also minted there.GB63621. Bronze AE 19, III p. 395, 21; 173, VF, 5.270 g, maximum 19.7 mm, 90o, or Sardinia mint, c. 300 - 290(?) B.C.; of Tanit left, hair wreathed with grain, wearing earring and necklace; and neck of horse right, tree right; $100.00 (€88.00)
Leontini, , c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Leontini was founded by from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the .GS67480. Silver hemilitra, 548; B; cf. 688 (R2, ); 216 ( , finer ); p. 88, 22 (same); 342 (same), VF, 0.282 g, maximum 10.3 mm, 225o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; crude facing scalp, dot ; LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round ; very ; $100.00 (€88.00)
, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
This is an odd depiction of Arethusa, apparently without earrings or a necklace, and with locks of hair appearing like horns. She appears more like a river-god than a fountain nymph. The octopus seems upside down to us, but this is how they are photographed in .GB67655. Bronze onkia, II p. 30, 10/7; 384; 1434 (R1); -, aVF, centered, green , pitting, 1.235 g, maximum 12.3 mm, 90o, mint, c. 435 - 415 B.C.; ΣYPA, of Arethusa right, no earring or necklace, downward behind; octopus, pellet between tentacles, within round ; ; $100.00 (€88.00)
, , Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.GB59013. Bronze , II p. 291, 151 Ds 8 Rs 50, gF, 7.251 g, maximum 21.6 mm, 225o, mint, 305 - 295 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of young right, wearing ( band), bow behind ; walking right, club above, flaming torch ; $100.00 (€88.00)
Panormos, , Roman Rule, c. 241 - 70 B.C.
In 254 B.C. was captured by the Romans. It retained its municipal freedom, and remained one of the principal cities of . It continued to issue bronze coins, bearing the names of various resident magistrates, and following the Roman system. Under , received a Roman colony.GI75169. Bronze AE 12, I p. 338, 41; 580; 545; 778; p. 123, 23; 1085 (S), VF, 1.979 g, maximum 12.4 mm, 150o, Panormos (Palermo, ) mint, Roman rule, c. 241 - 70 B.C.; of Demeter left, veiled and wreathed in grain, plow(?) behind; war galley prow right, Panormos Greek above; ; $100.00 (€88.00)
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