Panormos, , Roman Rule, c. 241 - 70 B.C.
In 254 B.C. was captured by the Romans. It retained its municipal freedom, and remained one of the principal cities of . It continued to issue bronze coins, bearing the names of various resident magistrates, and following the Roman system. Under , received a Roman colony.GI75169. Bronze AE 12, I p. 338, 41; 580; 545; 778; p. 123, 23; 1085 (S), VF, 1.979 g, maximum 12.4 mm, 150o, Panormos (Palermo, ) mint, Roman rule, c. 241 - 70 B.C.; of Demeter left, veiled and wreathed in grain, plow(?) behind; war galley prow right, Panormos Greek above; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , , Early 3rd Century B.C.
Agathocles, the tyrant of , died in 289 B.C. He the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as . The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves (Sons of ), seized Messana in northeast . The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. was weakened by his loss and began a renewal of their power in .GB76852. Bronze AE 17, 94, 22, 1674 (S), 315, III 8486, 126, 6530, -, F, , green , areas of corrosion, 3.626 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 90o, or uncertain Sicilian mint, early 3rd century B.C.; date tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no , or ; unbridled horse standing right, turned back looking left, no , or ; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GB77981. Bronze tetras, 850; p. 398, 197 R1 19 (described as O−Φ); p. 218, 609 (same); 1550 (S), aVF, nice , , 6.941 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 45o, mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon left; ornamented trident , dolphins at sides, IEPΩ−NOΣ over Θ − Φ in lower divided by shank; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Katane, , c. 212 - 50 B.C.
Catania, on the east coast of between Messina and , has been repeatedly damaged and even destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes and eruptions from Mount Etna, yet it prospers. Today, Catania is an economic, tourist, and education center, and an important hub of industry, nicknamed the "European Silicon Valley."GB65645. Bronze two chalkoi, III p. 112, 26; 1284; 194; p. 52, 66 (hexas), VF, nice for the , green , 3.590 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 0o, Katane mint, c. 212 - 50 B.C.; laureate of left, behind neck; KATA/NAIΩN, Aphrodite Hyblaia (or ?) standing right, wearing on , holding dove in extended right, II (2 chalkoi) right; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
Himera, , c. 420 - 409 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.GB67658. Bronze tetras, I, p. 42, 31; 1339; 149; -, aF, 2.200 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 90o, Himera mint, c. 420 - 409 B.C.; Pan on a goat prancing right, nude but for fluttering in the wind behind, preparing to blow on conch in right, in left over shoulder, three pellets under goat between legs; [IMEΠAION], flying left, with dangling fillets in extended right, fold of long in left; $85.00 (€75.65)
, , Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.
In 310 B.C., Agathokles, tyrant of , defeated and besieged by , took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in . After several victories he was completely defeated in 306 B.C. and fled secretly back to . After concluding peace, Agathocles styled himself of , and established rule over the Greek cities of the island.SH69733. Bronze AE 16, II p. 239, 110 Ds11 Rl 38 (astragalus); 762 (astragalus?); 1245 ( ) (BMC 356 ff, 570v ), gF, , 3.104 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 90o, mint, c. 317 - 310 B.C.; of Kore-Persephone left, wreathed in grain, lion's leftlion's left (or astragalus) behind neck; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (in ), bull butting left, E/Λ above; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $85.00 (€75.65)
, , Dionysius I, 405 - 367 B.C.
"The model for the on the is derived from the facing Arethusa by Kimon. Exemplars signed by the great master are known. This issue is usually attributed to Exakestidas with several exemplars signed E. However, stylistic evidence of many exemplars reveals such substantial differences the intervention of other engravers seems to be certain, while the discovery of traces of signature not completely legible but certainly not pointing to Exakestidas confirm the assumption." - p. 59GB59265. Bronze tetras, II p. 59 ff., 29; 385; 679; -, VF, rough green , 1.852 g, maximum 13.6 mm, mint, c. 405 - 400 B.C.; of nymph facing slightly left, wearing neck; octopus; $80.00 (€71.20)
Entella, , c. 420 - 404 B.C.
Entella was on the left bank of the river Hypsas (modern Belice), about 40 km from the mouth and nearly midway between the two seas. In 404 B.C. Campanian mercenaries, who had been in the service of , were allowed into the Entella on friendly terms. They put all the male citizens to the sword and took the city for themselves.GB65250. Bronze AE 18, I p. 317, 1; 580; -; -, aVF, 3.171 g, maximum 17.4 mm, 180o, Entella mint, ; female left, wearing , earring, and necklace; ENTEΛ, bearded (Zeus?) right, wearing ; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Dionysios I, 405 - 367 B.C.
This coin is on II 24 (Hemilitron, nymph left, two leaves behind / right over scallop), 1480 (S, c. 415 - 405 B.C.). In the references, the is dated LATER than the over overtype. Clearly the conventionally accepted date of one or the other, or both are wrong.GI69004. Bronze tetras, II p. 31, 12; 1429 (R1, c. 435 - 415 B.C.); on II p. 55, 24 (hemilitron, nymph left / over scallop), VF, 2.658 g, maximum 17.9 mm, 315o, mint, c. 400 - 390 B.C.; ΣYPA, of nymph Arethusa left, hair in and , dolphins around; from : neck from left with two leaves behind; octopus, pellet between the two tentacles opposite the , strong but obscure effects; extremely ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, , Hiketas, 288 - 279 B.C.
Hicetas was tyrant of for about nine years. The only recorded events during his rule are his over Phintias, tyrant of , and his defeat to the Carthaginians at the river Terias. He was expelled from by Thynion shortly before Pyrrhus arrived in .GB90325. Bronze hemilitron, cf. p. 263, 125; 1466 (S), 804; 776 ff. (various control ), aVF, nice green , 6.767 g, maximum 20.5 mm, 225o, mint, 287 - 283 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (off ), of Kore-Persephone left, wreathed in grain; driving galloping right, A(?) in (off ); ; $80.00 (€71.20)
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