Himera, , c. 420 - 409 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.GB67658. Bronze tetras, I, p. 42, 31; 1339; 149; -, aF, 2.200 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 90o, Himera mint, c. 420 - 409 B.C.; Pan on a goat prancing right, nude but for fluttering in the wind behind, preparing to blow on conch in right, in left over shoulder, three pellets under goat between legs; [IMEΠAION], flying left, with dangling fillets in extended right, fold of long in left; $95.00 (€82.65)
Kamarina, , 420 - 410 B.C.
Kamarina was suffering a plague. A marsh of the city was the suspected source. The town oracle advised them not to drain the marsh, but in 405 B.C., the leaders ignored the advice. Once the marsh was dry, there was nothing to stop the Carthaginian army. They marched across the newly drained marsh, razed the city, and killed every last inhabitant.GB67660. Bronze onkia, 411; vol III, p. 47, 2; 182; p. 40, 41 var (A rev right); -; -, aF, 1.362 g, maximum 11.7 mm, 315o, Kamarina mint, 420 - 410 B.C.; , protruding tongue, smooth neat hair tied with ribbon, symmetrical locks on forehead; KAMA, owl standing right, head facing, lizard in left claw, pellet in ; $95.00 (€82.65)
, , Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.GB72312. Bronze hemilitron, II p. 211, 92 DS 25 (same obv die); p. 188, 304 var (no helmet); 1384 var (same); 1505 (S); -; -, aVF, rough, obscure, 2.625 g, maximum 15.0 mm, 270o, mint, c. 344 - 317 B.C.; head of head of river god (or nymph) facing, turned slightly left, Thessalian helmet (control symbol) left; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, forepart of Pegasos left, with archaic curved wing; very ; $95.00 (€82.65)
, , Dionysos I, 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of . He conquered several cities in and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in and made the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GB65232. Bronze hemilitron, II p. 86, 34 (c. 409 B.C.); 1456 (c. 375 - 344 B.C.); p. 187, 292; 426 ff. (end 5th c. B.C.); -, VF, some corrosion on obv, 6.398 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 270o, mint, c. 405 - 390 B.C.; ΣYPA, head of left, wearing Corinthian helmet, no ornament on helmet, no control ; left, no bridle; $90.00 (€78.30)
, , Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GB65634. Bronze AE 23, II p. 429, 231; 911; 1092, aVF, 9.175 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 0o, mint, Roman rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.; head of Kore right, wreathed in stalks of grain; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, Demeter standing left, torch in right, in left; $90.00 (€78.30)
Panormos, , Roman Rule, c. 241 - 50 B.C.
named on this coin could be Axius L. f. , who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this could be completely unrelated.GB67138. Bronze AE 21, I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); -, -, aVF, green , 4.595 g, maximum 20.9 mm, 315o, (Palermo) mint, magistrate (L. Axius?) , c. 241 - 50 B.C.; laureate head of Zeus left; warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left; extremely ; $90.00 (€78.30)
Katane, , c. 415 - 403 B.C.
Katane was captured by Dionysios of in 403 B.C., who sold the population into slavery and resettled the city with Campanian mercenaries. The city submitted to Rome during the First Punic war.GB65647. Bronze onkia, III p. 92, 2; cf. 1272 (tetras); p. 50, 51; -, -, VF, 0.646 g, maximum 10.2 mm, 225o, Katane mint, c. 415 - 403 B.C.; AMENANOΣ, young head of river-god Amenanos left, with horns and wavy hair; winged thunderbolt, open wings, K-A flanking under wings, pellet above left wing; ; $90.00 (€78.30)
, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.GB72306. Bronze hemilitron, II p. 48, 20; 411; 696 var (no ); p. 182, 237 var (same); 1186; 1479 (S), VF, classical , nice green , areas flatly struck, a little off center, 3.541 g, maximum 16.7 mm, 0o, mint, c. 415 - 405 B.C.; head of Arethusa left, hair in and , downward with head turned back up behind; four-spoked wheel, ΣY−PA divided by spoke across upper two quarters, head down and inward in each of the lower quarters; $90.00 (€78.30)
, , Dionysios I, 405 - 367 B.C.
describes this with an E behind the head of Arethusa; it should say behind the neck and on many examples the letter is not present.GB72314. Bronze tetras, II p. 33, 14; 677; 391; 1116; 1430 (R1, 435 - 415 B.C.), VF/aF, nice classical , weak strike, 2.478 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 180o, mint, c. 400 B.C.; head of Arethusa left, hair in and , wearing earring with three long pendants and wire necklace, ; octopus, no pellets, linear ; ; $90.00 (€78.30)
Himera, , c. 420 - 409 B.C.
Himera (Termini), on the coast of , was an ancient Chalcidic colony from Zancle, founded in the middle of the seventh century B.C.GB63870. Bronze hemilitron, 320; I p. 43, 35; 1110; 186, VF, 3.842 g, maximum 16.1 mm, 135o, Himera mint, c. 420 - 409 B.C.; IME, head of nymph Himera left, wearing , six pellets before; six pellets within laurel wreath; $85.00 (€73.95)
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