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Home>Catalog>ByzantineCoins>HeracleanDynasty>Heraclius PAGE 16/21«««131415161718»»»

Heraclius, 5 October 610 - 11 January 641 A.D.

Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine (his son), 23 January 613 - 3 July 638 A.D.
Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas (his sons), 4 July 638 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Heraclius came to power in 610 following a successful revolt in North Africa against the tyrannical rule of the Emperor Focas. His son Heraclius Constantine was elevated to joint rule in 613 A.D. Heraclius' most spectacular military achievement was the total defeat of Rome's old enemy on the eastern frontier, the Sassanid Persians. Unfortunately, this only facilitated the Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died in early 641 A.D. and Egypt fell to the Arabs soon after.


Click for a larger photo
BZ36638. Bronze 12 nummi, SBCV 861; DOC II part 1, 197, F, weight 7.396 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 270o, Egypt, Alexandria mint, 632 - 641 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (in center) and Heraclius Constantine (right) wearing crown with cross, Heraclonas (left) with cross above head, all standing wearing chlamys and holds globus cruciger in right; reverse cross potent above monogram between I-B, ALEΞ (Alexandria) in exergue; black and turquoise patina; scarce; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo This reverse with ANNO above M is unique to Heraclius.
BZ42676. Bronze follis, SBCV 808, aVF, weight 5.868 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 195o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 627 - 628 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (center), Heraclius Constantine (right), Martina (left), all stand facing wearing crown and chlamys with globus cruciger in right, no legend; reverse large M (40 nummi), monogram left, ANNO above, X/ς/II right (regnal year 18), ∆ below (4th officina), CON (Constantinople) in exergue; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine & Martina, c. 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Heraclius' second wife, Martina, was also his niece, his sister's daughter. They had at least nine children, most of whom were sickly and least two suffered birth defects, which was seen at the time as punishment for the incestuous marriage. On his deathbed in 641, Heraclius left the empire to both his son from the first marriage, Heraclius Constantine (as Constantine III) and Heraklonas (as Heraclius II), granting them equal rank. Martina was to be honored as empress and mother of both of them. Three days later Martina announced the contents of Heraclius' will in a public ceremony in the Hippodrome of Constantinople before the Byzantine Senate and the crowds of Constantinople. This ceremony typically belonged to the succeeding Emperor, not to the Empress, but Heraclius Constantine and Heraklonas were both absent. Martina read the contents of the will and claimed the senior authority for herself. The crowd, however, acclaimed the names of the two Emperors and not her own. She was forced to return to the palace in defeat. When Heraclius Constantine died suddenly of tuberculosis only four months later, the common belief was that Martina poisoned her stepson to leave Heraklonas as sole ruler. Facing rebellion, Heraklonas named Constans II, son of the late Heraclius Constantine, a co-emperor. This, however, failed to ease the discontent and by the end of the month the Byzantine Senate deposed him. His nose was slit, Martina's tongue cut out and they were exiled to Rhodes. Constans II became sole emperor.
BB55385. Bronze follis, DOC II part 1, 101a; SBCV 808, F, weight 6.910 g, maximum diameter 24.2 mm, die axis 225o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 626 - 627 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (center), Heraclius Constantine (right), Martina (left), all stand facing wearing crown and chlamys with globus cruciger in right, no legend; reverse large M (40 nummi), monogram left, ANNO over cross above, X/ςI (regnal year 17) right, A (1st officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The Byzantine-Sassanid War ended with a Byzantine victory in 628, but the war, after a century of nearly continuous conflict, left both empires crippled. The Persians suffering economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, dynastic turmoil and other social problems, plunged into civil war. The Byzantines had exhausted their treasure, the Balkans had been largely lost to the Slavs, and Anatolia was devastated. Neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs, newly united by Islam. The Sassanid Empire would soon be completely destroyed. The Muslim conquest of Syria, Egypt and North Africa, would reduce the Byzantine Empire to a territorial rump consisting of Anatolia and a scatter of islands and footholds in the Balkans and Italy.
BZ40041. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part I, 193; Wroth BMC 287; Morrisson BnF 52; Tolstoi 306; Ratto 1443; Hahn MIB 203; Sommer 11.94; SBCV 857, VF, weight 8.247 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Egypt, Alexandria mint, 625 - 629 A.D.; obverse facing busts of Heraclius, with a short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, each wears a chlamys and a crown with a cross and pendilia, cross potent on steps between them; reverse large IB (12 nummi) divided by cross potent on globe on triangular base, AΛEΞ (Alexandria) in ex; SOLD

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BB57506. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part 1, 189; SBCV 853; Wroth BMC 289, Tolstoi 308; Ratto 1445; Morrisson BnF 1, F, weight 5.347 g, maximum diameter 16.83 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, c. 613 - 618 A.D.; obverse dd NN h hERAC (blundered), facing busts of Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine; reverse large IB (12 nummi) divided by cross potent on two steps, AΛEΞ in ex; SOLD

Click for a larger photo This is the larger module for this issue. At the end of year 21 this type was reduced in size. This coin is overstruck on an earlier follis. Heraclius Constantine appears to be holding a long cross? If so, this would be a variety not listed in Sear or Dumbarton Oaks.
BZ02210. Bronze follis, SBCV 810; DOC II part 1, 105c, gF, weight 5.91 g, maximum diameter 30.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 629 - 630 A.D.; obverse monogram left, Heraclius in military dress holding long cross on left, Heraclius Constantine in chlamys holding globus cruciger on right; reverse large M (40 nummi), cross above, ANNO left, X/X right (regnal year 20), Γ below (3nd officina), CON (Constantinople) in exergue; little wear and attractive desert patina, parts of design obscure due to undertype feature effects; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Overstruck on an earlier follis. Part of under-type legend visible on obverse. This type was reduced in size at the end of this regnal year.
BZ02213. Bronze follis, SBCV 810; DOC II part 1, 1056a, F, weight 10.88 g, maximum diameter 33.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 630 - 631 A.D.; obverse Heraclius in military dress holding long cross on left, Heraclius Constantine in chlamys holding globus cruciger on right; reverse large M (40 nummi), cross above, ANNO left, X/X/I right (regnal year 21), A below (1st officina), CON (Constantinople) in exergue; SOLD

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BZ12724. Bronze follis, SBCV 839, F, weight 12.171 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 611 - 612 A.D.; obverse O N hRACLI PERP AVG (or similar), helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, cross in right, shield in left; reverse large M (40 nummi) between A/N/N/O and II (regnal year 2), cross above, retrograde B below, KYZ (Cyzicus) in ex; uncleaned; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
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BZ13447. Bronze follis, SBCV 805, F, weight 10.299 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 613 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIuS Et hERA CONSt PP A, Heraclius on left, Heraclius Constantine on right, both in chlamys holding globus cruciger in right, cross between heads, STN visible from undertype; reverse large M (40 nummi), chi rho Christogram above, ANNO left, III right, A below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; overstruck on an older follis; SOLD

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Heraclius came to power through revolt against the tyrannical Focas. He defeated the Sassanid Persians, but this only facilitated Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after.
BZ38936. Bronze half follis, SBCV 814 (overstruck an older Constantinople mint half follis), aVF, weight 7.119 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 613 - 637 A.D.; obverse No legend, Heraclius, on left, and Heraclius Constantine stand facing, each wears crown and chlamys, each holds globus cruciger in left, cross between heads, X and CON form undertype; reverse large K (20 nummi), ANNO left, regnal year (off flan) right, cross above, officina letter below (obscured by overstrike effects); SOLD



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REFERENCES

Adelson, H. Light Weight Solidi and Byzantine Trade during the Sixth and Seventh Centuries. ANSNNM 138. (New York, 1957).
Anastasi, M. Monete Bizantine di Sicilia. (NP, 2009).
Berk, H.J. Eastern Roman Successors of the Sestertius. (Chicago, 1987).
Berk, H.J. Roman Gold Coins of the Medieval World, 383 - 1453 A.D. (Joliet, IL, 1986).
Carson, R.A.G., P.V. Hill & J.P.C. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).
Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1982).
Grierson, P. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection: Vol. 2, Part 1: Phocas and Heraclius 602-641. (Washington, D.C., 1968).
Hahn, W. Moneta Imperii Byzantini. (Vienna, 1973-81).
Hahn, W. and M.A. Metlich. Money of the Insipient Byzantine Empire. (Vienna, 2000).
Hennequin, G. Catalogue des monnaies musulmanes de la Bibliotheque Nationale. (Paris, 1985).
Metlich, M. A. The Coinage of Ostrogothic Italy. (London, 2004).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris, 1970).
Sabatier, J. Description générale des monnaies Byzantines. (Paris, 1863).
Sear, D.R. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines à l'époque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Tolstoi, I. Monnaies byzantines. (St. Petersburg, 1913 - 14).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1908).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).

Catalog current as of Tuesday, November 25, 2014.
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Byzantine Coins of Heraclius