, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.
Perseus of was the last of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., came under Roman rule.
The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve . Perseus was the hero who killed and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. GB83486. Bronze AE 19, cf.
Eion, , c. 500 - 437 B.C.
Eion was only about three miles from Amphipolis and from the late 5th century onwards served merely as a seaport of its much larger neighbor. The is variously described as a or . The significance of the is not clear, but presumably makes reference to the characteristic fauna of the region at that time.GA77599. Silver
, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., In the Name of Alexander
Struck by (Cleitus the White), of , 321 - 318 B.C., under Perdiccas as regent for Philip III, Alexander's brother, and the infant Alexander IV, Alexander's son with the Bactrian princess Roxana. The two were made joint kings by Alexander's generals who only intended to use them as pawns. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to , and in 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from . Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed by the boy's regent, Kassander, in 311 B.C. Sardes also struck coins during this period in the name of Philip. Traditionally coins naming Alexander have been attributed to the Great, but the Alexander named on this coin was more likely the infant son of Roxana, Alexander IV.GS77132. Silver
, , 88 - 31 B.C.
Cassander of founded in 315 B.C. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great. The Romans made the capital of the Roman province of 168 B.C.GB79940. Bronze AE 26,
Amphipolis, , c. 168 - 149 B.C.
On 22 June 168 B.C., Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus won the decisive Battle of Pydna. Perseus of was made prisoner and the Third Macedonian War ended. Paullus executed 500 Macedonians, exiled many more to Italy and confiscated their belongings in the name of Rome but according to Plutarch, keeping too much to himself. On the return to Rome in 167 BC, his legions were displeased with their share of the plunder. To keep them happy, Paullus stopped in , a kingdom suspected of sympathizing with ; 70 towns were sacked, 150,000 people enslaved and the region was left to bankruptcy. Paullus' return to Rome was glorious. With the immense plunder collected in and , he celebrated a spectacular triumph, featuring the captured of himself. The senate awarded him the Macedonicus.GB83472. Bronze AE 19,
, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C.
Struck shortly after Alexander the Great's death during the joint reign of Philip III, Alexander's brother, and the infant Alexander IV, Alexander's son with the Bactrian princess Roxana. The two were made joint kings by Alexander's generals who only intended to use them as pawns. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to , and in 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from . Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed by the boy's regent, Kassander, in 311 B.C. Sardes also struck coins during this period in the name of Philip. Traditionally coins naming Alexander have been attributed to the Great, but the Alexander named on this coin was more likely the infant son of Roxana, Alexander IV.GS75248. Silver
, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV - Kassander, c. 323 - 310 B.C.
Herakles is most often depicted on coinage wearing the scalp of the over his . The first of Herakles' twelve labors, set by Eurystheus (his cousin), was to slay the and bring back its skin. Herakles discovered arrows and his club were useless against it because its golden fur was impervious to mortal weapons. Its claws were sharper than swords and could cut through any armor. Herakles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the bit off one of his fingers. After slaying the , he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. Wise , noticing the hero's plight, told him to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.GB76151. Bronze AE 20,
, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., Amphipolis,
Amphipolis was on the Via , the principal Roman road which crossed the southern Balkans. In 50, the apostle Paul visited Amphipolis on his way to Thessaloniki. Many Christian churches were built indicating prosperity, but the region grew increasingly dangerous. In the 6th century the population had declined considerably and the old perimeter was no longer defensible against Slavic invasions. The lower city was plundered for materials to fortify the Acropolis. In the 7th century, a new wall was built, right through the bath and , dividing the Acropolis. The remaining artisans moved to houses and workshops built in the unused cisterns of the upper city. In the 8th century, the last inhabitants probably abandoned the city and moved to nearby Chrysopolis (formerly Eion, once the of Amphipolis).SH58235. Bronze AE 25,
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., ,
The god is similar in appearance to Dionysos and the rites of his cult were likely similar to those of the Dionysian mysteries. The attributes of are a and hammer.RP59998. Bronze AE 25,
and , 2nd Triumvirate, , , 37 B.C.
The abbreviates, MAPKOΣ ANTΩNIONΣ AYTOKPATΩP ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP AYTOKPATΩP. The of on the "refers to the grant of freedom by the Triumvirs to in 42 BC after the battle of (the which is celebrated on the )." -- , p. 29
In 37 B.C., lent Antony the money for the army. After a five-month siege the Romans took Jerusalem from the . Herod the Great made by Anthony, took control of his capital. was taken to Antioch where Antony had him executed. Thousands of Jews were slaughtered by the Roman troops supporting Herod.SH72307. Bronze AE 29,
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