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Flavius Arcadius was the son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla. Born in 377 A.D., Arcadius was raised to the rank of Augustus by his father at the age of six. Upon the death of Theodosius in 395 A.D., Arcadius was given the Eastern half of the Roman empire while his brother Honorius received the Western half. Arcadius inherited none of his great father's skills and was under the influence of variously Rufinus the Praetorian prefect, Eutropius a courtier eunuch, the Goth Gainas, Empress Eudoxia and another Praetorian prefect Anthemius. His greatest personal accomplishment in life was his beautiful handwriting. Arcadius died in 408 A.D. and was succeeded by his young son Theodosius II.
Arcadius inherited the eastern empire while his brother Honorius received the west. He inherited none of his father's skills and was under the influence Praetorian prefects and other advisers, including Empress Eudoxia. His greatest personal accomplishment was beautiful handwriting.RL88821. Bronze maiorina, RIC IX Cyzicus 27(b)2, DOCLR 171, LRBC II 2572, SRCV V 20795, Hunter V 43 var. (1st officina), aVF, well centered on a ragged flan with edge splits, brown tone, light corrosion, weight 4.953 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 15 May 392 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor standing facing, head right, standard in right hand, globe in left hand, SMKB in exergue; $28.00 SALE |PRICE| $25.20
The legend is partly off flan and this type was also struck in the name of Honorius. It could be Honorius but the bust on this coin is larger, which is usual for Arcadius.RL92663. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 70, LRBC II 2791, SRCV V 20832, VF, highlighting red earthen deposits, tight flan cutting off parts of legend and mintmark, weight 2.345 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 135o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 395 - 401 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITI (courage of the army), emperor standing facing, head right, spear in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, Victory holding wreath and palm crowns him, ANT[...] in exergue; $19.00 SALE |PRICE| $17.10
The reverse description is our best guess. It is obscure and could be another type.RL91667. Bronze half centenionalis, cf. RIC IX Thessalonica 65(c), VF/Fair, brown tone, obverse off center, reverse obscure due to poor strike, small edge cracks, weight 1.260 g, maximum diameter 12.9 mm, Thessalonica(?) mint, 28 Aug 388 - spring 393; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Victory walking left, head right, trophy of captured arms over shoulder in right hand, dragging captive with left hand, TES...(?) in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $18.00 SALE |PRICE| $16.20
The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.RL92694. Bronze half centenionalis, Hunter V 30 (same officina) RIC IX 86(c), LRBC II 2185, DOCLR 92 ff., SRCV V 20847, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, aF, dark patina, red earthen deposits, scratches, weight 1.023 g, maximum diameter 13.8 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Aug 388 - 15 May 392 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Victory walking left, holding trophy in right hand over right shoulder, dragging captive with left hand, staurogram left, CONSΓ in exergue; $12.00 SALE |PRICE| $10.80
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