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Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.
Theodosius I, also known as Theodosius the Great, was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire. The son of the famed general Count Theodosius, he was made emperor in the east by Gratian after the death of Valens at the disastrous Battle of Hadrianople, at a time when the East was ravaged in every direction by the Goths. He defeated them, but the Goths secured control of Illyricum establishing a homeland south of the Danube within the Empire's borders. Theodosius defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius. He ending Roman slavery and inaugurated a feudal society, a pivotal transformation in European history. He effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church and fostered the destruction of some prominent pagan temples including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, the Serapeum in Alexandria, and the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that the Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
In 389, all pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library, were destroyed on the order of Theodosius.RL91040. Bronze maiorina, RIC IX Alexandria 21(a)2 (S), SRCV V 20493, LRBC II 2910, Cohen 18, Hunter V -, gF, green patina, buff earthen deposits, light corrosion, edge a bit ragged with splits, weight 3.968 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, c. 387 - 392 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), Emperor standing facing, head right, vexillum in right hand, globe in left hand, ALEB in exergue; ex Sayles & Lavender; scarce; $50.00 SALE |PRICE| $45.00
In 378, after the disastrous Battle of Adrianople where Valens was killed, Gratian invited Theodosius to take command of the Illyrian army. As Valens had no successor, Gratian's appointment of Theodosius amounted to a de facto invitation for Theodosius to become co-Augustus of the East Roman Empire. Theodosius received the purple on 19 January 379. The Gothic crisis was so dire that his co-Emperor Gratian retired to Trier in Gaul to let Theodosius operate without hindrance.RL88577. Bronze maiorina, RIC IX Thessalonica 37(d)3, LRBC II 1826, SRCV V 20500, Cohen VIII 27, Hunter V -, F, well centered, uneven strike with weak areas, a little rough, edge splits/cracks, weight 3.526 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 19 Jan 379 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing facing, head left, raising kneeling turreted woman with his right hand, Victory on globe offering wreath in his left hand, Γ in right field, SMTES in exergue; $14.00 SALE |PRICE| $12.60
On 24 November 380, Theodosius I made his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople. SH26925. Gold solidus, RIC IX Constantinopolis 43b (R2), Depeyrot 29/2, SRCV V 20392, Cohen VIII 9, Choice aEF, weight 4.439 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 380 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA AVGGG• (harmony among the three emperors)•, Constantinopolis seated facing on high-backed throne, turreted, looking right, right foot on prow, long scepter vertical in right hand, globe in left hand, CONOB in exergue; rare; SOLD
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