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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Constantinian Era| ▸ |Jovian||View Options:  |  |  |   

Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.

After Julian was mortally wounded and died while retreating from Persia, the soldiers made Jovian emperor. To ensure his own safety, Jovian negotiated a disgraceful peace with the Sassanians, giving up five Roman provinces and the cities Nisibis and Singara. Enroute to back to Constantinople, Jovian was found dead in his tent, suffocated by carbon monoxide fumes from a charcoal brazier. During his short reign, Jovian reestablished Christianity as the state church, ending Julian's brief pagan revival.


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In 351, Constantius Gallus built a new church in honor of Saint Babylas at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, and transferred the remains of the bishop to it to neutralize the pagan effects of the nearby temple of Apollo. In 362, Julian consulted the oracle of Apollo at the temple in Daphne, but received no answer, and was told that it was because of the proximity of the saint. He had the sarcophagus of the martyr exhumed and removed. A few days later, on October 22, a mysterious fire broke out consuming the roof of the temple and the statue of the god, copied from Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. Julian, suspecting angry Christians, closed the cathedral of Antioch and ordered an investigation. Ammianus Marcellinus reports "a frivolous rumor" laid blame on candles lit by a worshipper late the previous night (XXII, 13). John Chrysostom claimed a bolt of lightning set the temple on fire. The remains of Babylas were reinterred in a church dedicated to him on the other side of the River Orontes.
SH46443. Gold solidus, RIC VIII Antioch 223, aVF, light clipping, weight 3.894 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch, 9th officina (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 16 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN-VS PEP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Roma holding spear, and Constantinopolis holding scepter and foot on prow, enthroned facing, holding shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X, ANTΘ in exergue; rare (RIC R2); SOLD


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After evacuating Persia, upon arriving at Antioch, Jovian revoked the edicts of Julian against Christians. The Labarum of Constantine the Great again became the standard of the army. He issued an edict of toleration, to the effect that, while the exercise of magical rites would be punished, his subjects should enjoy full liberty of conscience. However, soon after he ordered burning down the Library of Antioch and on 11 September issued an edict that punishing those who worshiped ancestral gods with the death penalty. He extended the same punishment on 23 December to participation in any pagan ceremony (even private ones). In Syriac literature Jovian became the hero of a Christian romance. From Jovian's reign until the 15th century Christianity remained the dominant religion of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, until the Fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.
SH08999. Gold solidus, RIC VIII Antioch 223, near VF/F, holed & plugged, edge filing, weight 4.13 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 135o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 16 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS PEP AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Roma holding spear, and Constantinopolis holding scepter and foot on prow, enthroned facing, holding shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X, ANTE in exergue; Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear; rare; SOLD


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The labarum, was a type of Roman cavalry standard, a vexillum with a military ensign marked with the Christogram (Greek monogram of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
SH34261. Bronze double maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 235 or 238, gVF, weight 8.038 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (the Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and Chi-Rho standard, TESA in exergue; rare; SOLD


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After arriving at Antioch, Jovian decided to rush to Constantinople to consolidate his political position there. While en route, he was found dead in bed in his tent at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea. His death has been attributed to either a surfeit of mushrooms or the poisonous carbon monoxide fumes of a charcoal warming fire. Jovian was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.
SH33676. Silver siliqua, RIC VIII Constantinople 173, nice VF, cleaning marks, weight 1.982 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CP•Γ in exergue; scarce; SOLD


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The labarum, was a type of Roman cavalry standard, a vexillum with a military ensign marked with the Christogram (Greek monogram of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
RL18344. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 238, Choice VF, weight 8.774 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 165o, 3rd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANV-S P F P P AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (the Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and Chi-Rho standard, •TESΓ•; rare; SOLD


Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.

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Flavius Jovianus, comes domesticorum, was chosen emperor by the army after Julian's unfortunate death during his campaign against the Persians in 363. After negotiating a humiliating peace treaty which cost the Romans significant amounts of territory, Jovian withdrew from Persia. Together with his army he went first to Antioch and then westwards, where he died in Asia Minor in February 364. During his brief reign he restored the anti-pagan laws abolished by Julian - Roman Silver Coins V Carausius to Romulus Augustus by C.E. King.
RL90943. Silver light miliarense, RIC VIII Antioch 226, RSC V 4 (£1,600 in VF), F, toned, porous, weight 3.420 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN-VS PEP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor standing facing beneath an archway with fluted decorations on the columns, in military dress, head right, spear vertical in right hand, globe in left hand, ANT in exergue; rare; SOLD


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The labarum, was a type of Roman cavalry standard, a vexillum with a military ensign marked with the Christogram (Greek monogram of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
SH08956. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 238, EF, nice patina, struck from a fine set of dies, a little soft on reverse, weight 8.17 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 320o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN - VS P F AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (the Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and Chi-Rho standard, •TES∆• in exergue; rare; SOLD


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Heraclea, the Greek city of Perinthos, later known as Heraclea Thraciea to distinguish it from Heraclea Pontica, is now Marmara Ereglisi in the European part of Turkey. The Roman mint was established by Diocletian shortly before his reform and was in use until the times of Theodosius II. Dates of operation: 291 - 450 A.D. Mint marks: H, HERAC, HERACL, HT, MHT, SMH, SMHT.
SH63908. Billon double maiorina, RIC VIII Heraclea 107, Cohen VII 23, LRBC II 1911, VF, weight 8.040 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (the Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, labarum in left, Victory on globe in right hand, HERACΓ in ex; scarce; SOLD


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The labarum, was a type of Roman cavalry standard, a vexillum with a military ensign marked with the Christogram (Greek monogram of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
RL87195. Bronze double maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 236 (R), SRCV V 19213, Cohen VIII 23, LRBC II 1700 var. (rosette diademed), Hunter V -, Choice VF, green patina, well centered, edge crack, weight 9.163 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 150o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS P F P P AVG (Our lord Jovianus, dutiful, fortunate, father of the coutntry, emperor), pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (to Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, labarum (Chi-Rho Christogram Standard) in right hand, Victory on globe in left hand offering him and Chi-Rho standard, •TESA• in exergue; rare with pearl diadem; SOLD


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Thessalonica was founded around 315 B.C. by Cassander, King of Macedonia, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma. He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a daughter of Philip II and a half-sister of Alexander the Great. In 168 B.C. it became the capital of Macedonia Secunda and in 146 B.C. it was made the capital of the whole Roman province of Macedonia. Due to its port and location at the intersection of two major Roman roads, Thessalonica grew to become the most important city in Macedonia. Thessalonica was important in the spread of Christianity; the First Epistle to the Thessalonians written by Paul the Apostle is the first written book of the New Testament.
RL72456. Bronze double maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 234 (R), LRBC II 1698, Voetter 1, SRCV V 19213, Cohen VIII 23, VF, full circles strike, nice green patina, reverse double struck, cleaning scratches, weight 8.960 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIANVS P F P P AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM (the Roman victory), Jovian standing facing, head right, Chi-Rho standard in right, Victory on globe offering wreath in left, TESA in exergue; rare; SOLD




  




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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

DNIOVIANVSPEPAVG
DNIOVIANVSPERPAVG
DNIOVIANVSPFAVG
DNIOVIANVSPFAVGCOS
DNIOVIANVSPFPAVG
DNIOVIANVSPFPERPAVG
DNIOVIANVSPFPPAVG


REFERENCES|

Carson, R., P. Hill & J. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).
Carson, R., H. Sutherland and J. Kent. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VIII, The Family of Constantine I, A.D. 337 - 364. (London, 1981).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Constantin II à Zenon (337-491). Moneta 5. (Wetteren, 1996).
Ferrando, P. L'atelier monétaire d'Arles: de Constantin le Grand à Romulus Augustule (313-476). (Arles, 2010).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
King, C. & Sear, D. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. V: The Christian Empire: The Later Constantinian Dynasty and the Houses of Valentinian and Theodosius and Their Successors, Constantine II to Zeno, AD 337 - 491. (London, 2014).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Voetter, O. Die Münzen der romischen Kaiser, Kaiserinnen und Caesaren von Diocletianus bis Romulus: Katalog der Sammlung Paul Gerin. (Vienna, 1921).

Catalog current as of Monday, October 14, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Jovian