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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Constantinian Era| ▸ |Constantius Gallus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D.

Constantius Gallus was a cousin of Constantius II and was made Caesar in 351 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces while Constantius II was in the West. His rule was so harsh and cruel that Constantius recalled him to Milan, and then had him arrested and executed before he reached Italy.


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On 15 March 351 Constantius elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantia and put him in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
RL74563. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Cyzicus 97, LRBC II 2487, SRCV V 18990, Cohen VIII 11, VF, well centered on a tight flan, porous, weight 4.975 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 351 - 352 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, horseman beardless and wearing a pointed cap, turned facing soldier and raising right hand, Γ upper left, SMKS in exergue; SOLD


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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!" To a Roman, spearing a barbarian was happy time!
RB71440. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Alexandria 74, LRBC II 2838, Voetter 1, SRCV V 18997, Cohen VIII 17, aEF, some silvering, tight flan, weight 5.005 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, 28 Sep 351 - 353 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, spearing bare-headed bearded fallen horseman who extends arm toward soldier, shield on ground at feet, Γ upper left, ALEA in exergue; SOLD


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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!" To a Roman, spearing a barbarian was happy time!
RL72450. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Alexandria 74, LRBC II 2838, Voetter 1, SRCV V 18997, Cohen VIII 17, VF, well centered, weight 4.911 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 135o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 28 Sep 351 - 353 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, spearing bare-headed bearded fallen horseman who extends arm toward soldier, shield on ground at feet, Γ upper left, ALEB in exergue; SOLD


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In 351, Constantius Gallus built a new church in honor of Saint Babylas at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, and transferred the remains of the bishop to it to neutralize the pagan effects of the nearby temple of Apollo. In 362, Julian consulted the oracle of Apollo at the temple in Daphne, but received no answer, and was told that it was because of the proximity of the saint. He had the sarcophagus of the martyr exhumed and removed. A few days later, on October 22, a mysterious fire broke out consuming the roof of the temple and the statue of the god, copied from Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. Julian, suspecting angry Christians, closed the cathedral of Antioch and ordered an investigation. Ammianus Marcellinus reports "a frivolous rumor" laid blame on candles lit by a worshipper late the previous night (XXII, 13). John Chrysostom claimed a bolt of lightning set the temple on fire. The remains of Babylas were reinterred in a church dedicated to him on the other side of the River Orontes.
RL04511. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 107, LRBC II 2029, SRCV V 18983, Cohen VIII 8 var, aEF, weight 4.23 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, shield on the ground, horseman wears a pointed cap and falls on the horses neck, Γ left, CONSE in exergue; from the Aiello Collection; SOLD


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The labarum, was a type of Roman cavalry standard, a vexillum with a military ensign marked with the Christogram (Greek monogram of Christ). It was an object of religious veneration amongst the soldiers, who paid it divine honors.
RL04505. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 303, LRBC II 1189, SRCV V 18954, Choice VF, nice green patina, weight 4.55 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 350 - 351 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Constantius Gallus standing left, holding labarum (chi-rho standard) in each hand, star above, III left, BSIS followed by crescent in exergue; from the Aiello Collection; scarce; SOLD


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On 15 March 351 Constantius II elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantia and put him in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius II marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
RL81064. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 45, LRBC II 1602, SRCV V 18975, Cohen VIII 13, aEF, weight 5.096 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 225o, 2nd officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, ∆ behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, spearing fallen bare-headed horseman who extends arm toward soldier, shield at feet, A below, S left, BSIRM in exergue; SOLD


Click for a larger photo
On 15 March 351 Constantius II elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantia and put him in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius II marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
RL84357. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Aquileia 200 (S), Paolucci-Zub 584, LRBC II 931, Voetter 4, SRCV V 19013, Cohen VIII 14, VF, nice dark green patina, well centered, flan crack, light marks and corrosion, weight 2.528 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, Aquileia mint, Sept 352 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left, wearing helmet, military garb and shield on left arm, spearing fallen horseman, horseman extends arm toward soldier, shield at feet, AQS exergue; SOLD


Click for a larger photo
On 15 March 351 Constantius II elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantia and put him in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius II marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
RL62227. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 45, LRBC II 1602, SRCV V 18975, Cohen VIII 13, VF, nice green patina, weight 4.318 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, ∆ behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen bare-headed horseman, horseman extends arm toward soldier, shield at feet, A below, S left, BSIRM in exergue; SOLD


Click for a larger photo
In 351, Constantius Gallus built a new church in honor of Saint Babylas at Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, and transferred the remains of the bishop to it to neutralize the pagan effects of the nearby temple of Apollo. In 362, Julian consulted the oracle of Apollo at the temple in Daphne, but received no answer, and was told that it was because of the proximity of the saint. He had the sarcophagus of the martyr exhumed and removed. A few days later, on October 22, a mysterious fire broke out consuming the roof of the temple and the statue of the god, copied from Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. Julian, suspecting angry Christians, closed the cathedral of Antioch and ordered an investigation. Ammianus Marcellinus reports "a frivolous rumor" laid blame on candles lit by a worshipper late the previous night (XXII, 13). John Chrysostom claimed a bolt of lightning set the temple on fire. The remains of Babylas were reinterred in a church dedicated to him on the other side of the River Orontes.
RL77785. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Sirmium 41, LRBC II 1598, Voetter 6, SRCV V 18975, Cohen VIII 13, VF, nice portrait, green patina, tight flan, weight 4.794 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, ∆ behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen bare-headed horseman, horseman extends arm toward soldier, shield at feet, A in center above exergue line, ASIRM in exergue; SOLD


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On 7 May 351, after Constantius Gallus arrived at Antiocha, a Jewish revolt broke out in Palestine. In 352, Gallus sent his general (magister equitum) Ursicinus to put down the revolt. The rebels destroyed Diopolis and Tiberias. Diocesarea was razed to the ground. Ursicinus gave the order to kill thousands of Jews, even children. After the revolt, a permanent garrison was stationed in Galilee.
RL70746. Bronze reduced maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 351, LRBC II 1219, SRCV V 19014, Cohen VIII 14, EF, well centered, sharp detail, weight 2.552 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), helmeted soldier with shield on his left arm spearing a fallen horseman wearing a pointed cap, ASIS in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; SOLD




  




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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

CONSTANTIVSCAE
CONSTANTIVSNOBCAES
DNCONSTANTIVSFORTCAES
DNCONSTANTIVSIVNNOBC
DNCONSTANTIVSIVNNOBCAES
DNCONSTANTIVSNOBC
DNCONSTANTIVSNOBCAES
DNCONSTANTIVSNOBCS
DNFLCLCONSTANTIVSNOBCAES
FLIVLCONSTANTIVSNOBCAES


REFERENCES|

Carson, R., P. Hill & J. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).
Carson, R., H. Sutherland & J. Kent. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VIII, The Family of Constantine I, A.D. 337 - 364. (London, 1981).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Constantin II Zenon (337-491). Moneta 5. (Wetteren, 1996).
Failmezger, V. Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity, 294 - 364 A.D. (Washington D.C., 2002).
King, C. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. V: The Christian Empire: The Later Constantinian Dynasty and the Houses of Valentinian and Theodosius and Their Successors, Constantine II to Zeno, AD 337 - 491. (London, 2014).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Voetter, O. Die Mnzen der romischen Kaiser, Kaiserinnen und Caesaren von Diocletianus bis Romulus: Katalog der Sammlung Paul Gerin. (Vienna, 1921).

Catalog current as of Sunday, August 18, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Constantius Gallus