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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Papal States||View Options:  |  |  | 

Coins of the Papal States and Vatican (and Papal Medals)

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, not even the Vatican. Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by signing the Lateran Treaty in 1929, thus granting the Vatican City State sovereignty.


Papal State, Pius IX, 1846 - 1878

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Pius IX was the last pope who was also a secular ruler. As monarch of the Papal States, he ruled over some 3 million people. In 1870, the Papal States were seized by force of arms by the newly founded Kingdom of Italy. The matter was only resolved in international law by the Lateran Treaty agreed in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, the latter receiving financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States and Italy recognized the Vatican City State as an independent territorial sovereign entity in International law known as the Holy See. The latter, as before, maintains diplomatic relations with many other states.
SH86343. Gold 20 Lire, Pagani 531, Berman 3333, Muntoni 41, SCWC KM 1382.3, Schlumberger Gold 154, Friedberg 280; Latin Monetary Union; reeded edge, EF, light marks, weight 6.412 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1867; obverse PIVS IX PON MAX A XXII (Pius IX Pontifex Maximus, year 22), bust left, wearing zucchetto, mozzetta, and pallium, fleuron below; reverse * STATO * PONTIFICIO *, 20 / LIRE / 1867 in three lines within oak and laurel wreath, small R (Rome) below; SOLD


Pope Gregory XIII (1572 - 1585), Slaughter of the Huguenots Medal, 1572

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The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day (18 August) of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris to attend the wedding. The massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572, two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to other urban centers and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary widely, from 5,000 to 30,000.
WO88345. Bronze medal, CNORP V 685, Mazio 110, Whitman 14, Lincoln 697, Armand I 37; Engraver: Gianfederigo Bonzanga (known as Federigo Parmesne), EF, beautiful style, a few bumps and marks, scattered minor porosity, reverse die crack, weight 12.830 g, maximum diameter 30.4 mm, die axis 0o, restrike, 17th or 18th century; obverse ·GREGORIVS·XIII·PONT·MAX·AN·I, bust of pope left, wearing camauro and mozzetta, small ·F·P· below; reverse VGONOTTORVM·STRAGES·1572·, Angel advancing right, holding sword in right hand, cross in left hand, entering battleground filled with death; ex Karl Stephens, Inc. (Temple City, CA dealer); rare; SOLD







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REFERENCES|

Armand, A. Les Médailleurs Italiens des quinzième et seizième siècles. (Paris, 1883-1887).
Berman, A. Papal Coins. (New York, 1991).
Cinagli, A. Le Monete de' Papi. (Fermo, 1848).
Coffin, J. Coins of the Popes. (New York, 1946).
Friedberg, A. & I. Gold Coins of the World, From Ancient Times to the Present, 8th ed. (Clifton, NJ, 2009).
Grierson, P. & M. Blackburn. Medieval European Coinage, Volume 1: The Early Middle Ages (5th - 10th Centuries). (Cambridge, 2007).
Jencius, E. A pictorial catalogue of papal medals 1417-1942: as struck by the mint of Rome for the Vatican [Mazio revised]. (Brooklyn, NY, 1977).
Krause, C. & C. Mishler. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - ).
Lincoln, W.S. & Son. A descriptive catalogue of papal medals, to which is added papal bullae and medals of cardinals and other church dignitaries, offered for sale. (London, 1898).
Mazio, F. Serie dei coni di medaglie ponteficie da Martino V fino a tutto il ponteficato di Pio VII, esistenti nella ponteficia zecca di Roma. (Roma, 1824).
Modesti, A. Corpus Numismatum Omnium Romanorum Pontificum (CNORP). (Rome, 2002 - ).
Muntoni, F. Le Monete dei Papi e degli Stati Pontifici, Vol. I-IV. (Rome, 1972).
Pagani, A. Monete Italiane 1796-1961. (Milano, 1962).
Rinaldi, A. Catalogo delle Medaglie Papali Annuali da Pio VII a Paolo VI. (Verona, 1967, 1975 und 1989).
Ryan, J. A Handbook of Papal Coins. (Washington, D.C., 1989).
Schlumberger, H. Goldmünzen Europas von 1800 bis heute. (Munich, 1997).
Whitman, N. Roma resurgens: Papal medals from the Age of the Baroque. (Ann Arbor, MI, 1983).

Catalog current as of Monday, August 19, 2019.
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Papal States Coins