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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Roma||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.

Roman Republic, Libral Cast Series, c. 225 - 217 B.C.

|before| |150| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Libral| |Cast| |Series,| |c.| |225| |-| |217| |B.C.|, |uncia|
The prow right aes grave are common in the as to sextans denominations, but scarce for uncia. This issue was followed by the prow left series, which has no uncia.
RR95368. Aes grave (cast) uncia, Crawford 35/6; Sydenham 77; Haeberlin pl. 18, 22 ff.; Thurlow-Vecchi 56; Vecchi ICC 83; HN Italy 342; RBW Collection 90, SRCV I 589, VF, dark brown patina, weight 27.834 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 225 - 217 B.C.; obverse head of Roma left, wearing a crested Attic helmet, (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right; (mark of value) below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $450.00 SALE |PRICE| $405.00


Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.

|Trebonianus| |Gallus|, |Trebonianus| |Gallus,| |June| |or| |July| |251| |-| |July| |or| |August| |253| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The reverse type was used by Philip I for the 1000th anniversary of Rome, and the reverse legend translates, "The New Century."
RS93313. Billon antoninianus, RSC IV 111e, RIC IV 91 (R), SRCV III 9648, Hunter III 54 var. (2nd officina), Choice EF, well centered, long cracks, weight 3.567 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 251 - 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind, three pellets below; reverse SAECVLLVM NOVVM, Roma enthroned left in center of hexastyle temple, she holds a vertical scepter in left hand, three pellets in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $200.00 SALE |PRICE| $180.00


Hadrian, 11 August 11FORVM Hadrian 117-138 AD Silver Denarius7 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |11FORVM| |Hadrian| |117-138| |AD| |Silver| |Denarius7| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.|, |denarius|
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RS94564. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 722, RIC II 161, RSC II 349, BMCRE III 361, SRCV II 3472, Hunter II 140, SRCV II 3472, Hunter II 140, VF, nice portrait, flow lines, light tone, light marks, slightly off center on a broad flan, reverse die wear, small edge cracks/splits, weight 3.356 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 124 - 125 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Roma standing left, wearing helmet and military dress, Victory in right hand, short spear in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $190.00 SALE |PRICE| $171.00


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

|Gordian| |III|, |Gordian| |III,| |29| |July| |238| |-| |25| |February| |244| |A.D.|, |sestertius|
To the ancient Romans, Rome was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but Rome is still today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, architecture, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.
RB92624. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV-1 RIC 272a, Cohen V 316, Hunter III 91, SRCV III 8736, gVF, excellent portrait, green patina, tight slightly irregularly shaped flan, slight double strike, spots of light corrosion, light marks, weight 18.352 g, maximum diameter 30.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 240 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), Roma seated left on shield (throne back also visible in background) holding Victory on globe and scepter, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $170.00 SALE |PRICE| $153.00


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.|, |antoninianus|
The reverse depicts the double temple of Venus and Roma, designed by Hadrian, the largest and most splendid temple in Rome, finished by Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, the temple was restored "in magnificent manner" by Maxentius. When Constantius visited Rome fifty years later, the "Temple of the City" was one of the sights he most admired. In 625, Pope Honorius received a special dispensation from Heraclius to strip the gilded bronze roof tiles for the repair of St. Peter's. During a twelve-day visit to Rome in 663, Constans II stripped it of its remaining bronze ornaments. It was damaged by an earthquake in 847. Later a church was built in the ruins.
RA91617. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice gVF, excellent centering, traces of silvering, center high points a little weak, weight 4.076 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right hand, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, ex Munzen und Medaillen (Basil, Switzerland); $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

|Septimius| |Severus|, |Septimius| |Severus,| |9| |April| |193| |-| |4| |February| |211| |A.D.|, |denarius|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS94132. Silver denarius, RIC IV 118; RSC III 357; BMCRE V p. 61, W253; SRCV II 6319; Hunter III -, F, light corrosion and marks, edge cracks, weight 2.739 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 198 A.D.; obverse L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right; reverse PACI AETERNAE (eternal peace), Pax seated left, olive branch in extended right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00







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