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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Personifications ▸ RomaView Options:  |  |  |   

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH82657. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 330, Cohen I 271, BnF I 417, Mac Dowall WCN 163, Hunter I 100, SRCV I -, BMCRE I , gVF, excellent portrait, fine style, dark green and brown patina, some corrosion, gently smoothed, weight 24.425 g, maximum diameter 34.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P P P, laureate head left with light beard; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass, one round and one oblong shield behind, wearing crested helmet, right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, Victory offering wreath in Roma's extended right hand, her left hand rests on parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C (senatus consulto) at sides; Numismatica Ars Classica, auction 94 (6 October 2016), lot 127; ex Classical Numismatic Group 783132 ($1750); $1750.00 (1487.50)


Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.

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In 172, Marcus Aurelius crossed the Danube with an expeditionary force, he subdued the Marcomanni and their allies. In a pact signed with the Germanic tribes, he imported them into the Roman Empire to occupy areas that had been depopulated by the plague.
RS87057. Silver denarius, RIC III 261, RSC II 290, BMCRE IV 555, Hunter II 58, SRCV II 4901, Choice EF, light tone on luster, excellent portrait, fantastic figure of Mars, radiating flow lines, light marks, minor flan flaws, edge cracks, weight 2.968 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; obverse M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI, laureate head right; reverse IMP VI COS III, Mars standing half right, wearing military garb, inverted spear in right hand, resting left hand on grounded oval shield; ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 62, lot 1134 (part of); $220.00 (187.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA76944. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $180.00 (153.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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In 62 A.D., Lucan wrote a history of the conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey.
RX86146. Bronze obol, RPC I 5263; Dattari 278/279; Geissen 149; BMC Alexandria 179/180; Milne 207; Kampmann-Ganschow 14.67, F, old scratch on obverse, reverse rough, edge cracks, weight 5.661 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 61 - 62 A.D.; obverse NER KLAY KAI CEB GEP, laureate head right; reverse AYTO KPAT, Roma standing half left, patera in right hand, shield and spear in left hand, LH (year 8) lower left; rare; $160.00 (136.00)


Amisos, Pontos, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.

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Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.
SH90327. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 2144; cf. Rec Gen 47 ff. (various monograms); SNGvA 6732 - 6733; SNG Stancomb 1042; SNG BM -; SNG Cop -, Choice aVF, very thick flan, attractive style, weight 19.462 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, time of Augustus, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse diademed head of Apollo right, uncertain monogram below neck; reverse Amisos (on left) and Roma standing confronted, Amisos holding bridal(?) in right; Roma extending patera in right, shield on left shoulder, spear against her right side; AMIΣHNΩN in exergue; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare; $125.00 (106.25)


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.

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Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
RB84964. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 780, BMCRE IV 1710, Cohen II 753, SRCV II 4221, Hunter II -, aVF, nice green patina, small edge crack, weight 23.734 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 145 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse Roma seated left, Victory holding wreath and palm in extended right hand, long scepter resting against the crook of her left arm, her left forearm resting on shield set on a prow behind, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $125.00 (106.25)


Germanicus, b. 24 May 15 B.C. - d. 10 Oct 19 A.D.

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Issued under Caligula in honor of his deceased father. Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor but died of an unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula obtain the throne after Tiberius died.
RB85820. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC I Caligula 57, BMCRE I 93, BnF I 140, Cohen I 7, SRCV I 1820, F, very rough, weight 10.831 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 37 - 41 A.D.; obverse GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in slow quadriga right holding eagle-tipped scepter; reverse SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus standing left, wearing military garb, raising right hand, aquila (legionary eagle) in left hand, large S - C flanking low across field; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $120.00 (102.00)


City of Rome Commemorative, 333 - 334 A.D.

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In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of the Vestal Virgin Rhea Silvia, fathered by the god of war, Mars. They were abandoned in the Tiber as infants. Faustulus, a shepherd, found the infants being suckled by the she-wolf (Lupa) at the foot of the Palatine Hill. Their cradle, in which they had been abandoned, was on the shore overturned under a fig tree. Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. Romulus was the first King of Rome.
RL82746. Billon reduced centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 553, LRBC I 76, SRCV IV 16489, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V -, EF, tight flan, reverse die crack, weight 2.194 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 333 - 334 A.D.; obverse VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse she-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, two stars and wreath above, TRS in exergue; $120.00 (102.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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To the ancient Romans, Rome was "Roma Aeterna" (The Eternal City) and "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). The empire is history but Rome is still today, the eternal city. Rome's influence on Western Civilization can hardly be overestimated; perhaps a greater influence than any other city on earth, making important contributions to politics, literature, culture, the arts, architecture, music, religion, education, fashion, cinema and cuisine.
RA79930. Silvered antoninianus, Hunter IV 42 (also 2nd officina); Pink VI-1, p. 57/5; Cohen VI 531; RIC V-2 185; SRCV III -, Choice aEF, perfect centering, much silvering, some bumps and marks, weight 3.879 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Rome mint, emission 5, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate bust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, Victory in right hand, long vertical scepter in left hand, R wreath B in exergue; $110.00 (93.50)


City of Rome Commemorative, 332 - 333 A.D.

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On 11 May 330, Constantine I refounded Byzantium, renamed it Constantinopolis after himself, and moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to his new city. The new capital was Christian, old gods and traditions were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism. Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite. Generations later there was the story that a divine vision led Constantine to this spot. The capital would often be compared to the 'old' Rome as Nova Roma Constantinopolitana, the "New Rome of Constantinople." Special commemorative coins were issued with types for both Rome and Constantinople to advertise the importance of the new capital.
RL79233. Billon reduced centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 542, LRBC I 65, SRCV IV 16488, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V 1 var. (1st officina), Choice EF, perfect centering, reverse strike slightly weak, light porosity, weight 2.704 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 332 - 333 A.D.; obverse VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse she-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above, TRS in exergue; $80.00 (68.00)




  



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