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Ancient Coins of the Persian Satrapy of Caria
Croesus briefly incorporated Caria into Lydia before it fell to the Persian advance. Caria was incorporated as a satrapy into the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 545 B.C. The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of Caria and surrounding areas from about 395 - 334 B.C. They were nominally satraps (governors) under the Persian Achaeminid Empire, but ruled with considerable autonomy, and established a hereditary dynasty. The dynasty originally had its seat in Mylasa. Mausolus moved it to Halicarnassus. Other major towns were Latmus (later Heracleia), Antiochia, Myndus, Laodicea, Alinda and Alabanda. Caria participated in the Ionian Revolt (499 - 493 B.C.) against Persian rule. During the Second Persian invasion of Greece, the cities of Caria were allies of Xerxes I and they fought at the Battle of Artemisium and the Battle of Salamis. Themistocles, before the battles of Artemisium and Salamis, tried to split the Ionians and Carians from the Persian coalition. He told them to come and be on his side or not to participate at the battles, but if they were bound down by too strong compulsion to be able to make revolt, when the battles begin, to be purposely slack. After the unsuccessful Persian invasion of Greece the cities of Caria became members of the Delian League.