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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Greek Coins| ▸ |Geographic - All Periods| ▸ |Anatolia| ▸ |Ionia| ▸ |Phokaia||View Options:  |  |  |   

Phokaia, Ionia

Phocaea, or Phokaia, was the northernmost Ionian city, on the boundary with Aeolis, near the mouth of the river Hermus (now Gediz), on a peninsula separating the Gulf of Cyme to the north, and the Gulf of Smyrna (now İzmir) to the south. Phocaea had two harbors, allowing it to develop a thriving seafaring economy, and to become a great naval power. The Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages and founded the colonies Massalia (Marseille, France), Emporion (Empúries, Catalonia, Spain), and Elea (Velia, Campania, Italy). Phocaea was independent until all of mainland Ionia fell under Croesus of Lydia (c. 560-545 B.C.). In 546 B.C., Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia. After the Greeks defeated Xerxes I in 480 B.C., Phocaea joined the Delian League. In 412 B.C., it rebelled with the rest of Ionia and in 387 B.C. Phocaea returned to Persian control. After Alexander, it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid, and finally Roman rule.

Western Anatolia, c. 620 - 600 B.C., Plain Globular Type

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Western| |Anatolia,| |c.| |620| |-| |600| |B.C.,| |Plain| |Globular| |Type|, |hekte|
Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.

Unpublished! The majority of the earliest electrum issues were struck on the lighter Milesian weight standard, with hectes weighing approximately 2.35 grams. This example, however is on the heavier Phocaic standard that was used at mints such as Cyzicus, Mysia and Phocaea, Ionia.
SH85577. Electrum hekte, Phokaic standard 1/6 stater; unpublished, EF, flan cracks, weight 2.721 g, maximum diameter 8.96 mm, uncertain western Anatolia mint, c. 620 - 600 B.C.; obverse plain globular surface; reverse one small incuse square punch; extremely rare; ON LAYAWAY


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 521 - 478 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |521| |-| |478| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phocaea, or Phokaia, was the northernmost Ionian city, on the boundary with Aeolis. The Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, developed a thriving seafaring economy, became a great naval power, and founded the colonies Massalia (Marseille, France), Emporion (Empúries, Spain) and Elea (Velia, Italy). They remained independent until all of mainland Ionia fell to Croesus of Lydia (c. 560-545 B.C.). In 546 B.C., Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia. After the Greeks defeated Xerxes I, Phocaea joined the Delian League, but later rebelled with the rest of Ionia. In 387 B.C., Phocaea returned to Persian control. After Alexander, it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid, and finally Roman rule.
SH86213. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt em. 32, 7 (d/γ); Weber III 5736 (= Bodenstedt 7); Boston MFA 1906, SNG Kayhan -; SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Ionia -, Rosen -, EF, superb archaic style, well struck, tight flan, weight 2.529 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 521 - 478 B.C.; obverse archaic style head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet, almond shaped eye, slight smile, long hair in rows of dots, dotted necklace, seal upward behind; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 521 - 478 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |521| |-| |478| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phocaea, or Phokaia, was the northernmost Ionian city, on the boundary with Aeolis. The Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, developed a thriving seafaring economy, became a great naval power, and founded the colonies Massalia (Marseille, France), Emporion (Empúries, Spain) and Elea (Velia, Italy). They remained independent until all of mainland Ionia fell to Croesus of Lydia (c. 560-545 B.C.). In 546 B.C., Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia. After the Greeks defeated Xerxes I, Phocaea joined the Delian League, but later rebelled with the rest of Ionia. In 387 B.C., Phocaea returned to Persian control. After Alexander, it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid, and finally Roman rule.
SH86214. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 31, 3 (b/β); SNGvA 7943 (= Bodenstedt 3); SNG Kayhan 518; BMC Ionia -; SNG Cop -; Boston MFA -, EF, attractive archaic style, minor die wear, tiny edge cracks, seal off flan, weight 2.559 g, maximum diameter 10.7 mm, die axis 0o, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 521 - 478 B.C.; obverse archaic style head of nymph left, almond eye, slight smile, curly hair as rows of dots, wearing close fitting cap ornamented with a row of dots, rosette earring, seal downward behind; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 521 - 478 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |521| |-| |478| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phocaea, or Phokaia, was the northernmost Ionian city, on the boundary with Aeolis. The Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, developed a thriving seafaring economy, became a great naval power, and founded the colonies Massalia (Marseille, France), Emporion (Empúries, Spain) and Elea (Velia, Italy). They remained independent until all of mainland Ionia fell to Croesus of Lydia (c. 560-545 B.C.). In 546 B.C., Lydia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia. After the Greeks defeated Xerxes I, Phocaea joined the Delian League, but later rebelled with the rest of Ionia. In 387 B.C., Phocaea returned to Persian control. After Alexander, it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid, and finally Roman rule.
SH86291. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 32, 7 (c/γ); Weber III 5736 (= Bodenstedt 7); Boston MFA 1906, SNG Kayhan -; SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Ionia -, Rosen -, EF, superb archaic style, well struck, tight flan, bumps and scratches (mostly on edge), tiny edge crack, weight 2.566 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 521 - 478 B.C.; obverse archaic style head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet, almond shaped eye, slight smile, long hair in rows of dots, dotted necklace, seal upward behind; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 477 - 388 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |477| |-| |388| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phokaia was the most northerly of the Ionian communities in Anatolia and was the mother city of many colonies in the western Mediterranean area, including Massalia (modern Marseille, France).
SH42453. Electrum hekte, SNGvA 7954, gVF, weight 2.537 g, maximum diameter 10.5 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 477 - 388 B.C.; obverse head of a Aphrodite left, wearing earring, hair in sakkos; reverse quadripartite incuse square; beautiful style; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 387 - 326 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |387| |-| |326| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Omphale, queen of Lydia, bought Herakles as a slave after the Delphic Oracle Xenoclea said he must be sold into slavery to purify himself after murdering Iphitus and stealing the Delphic tripod. Omphale forced Herakles to do women's work and wear women's clothing. Meanwhile, as shown on this coin, Omphale wore the Nemean Lion skin and carried his club. After Omphale freed Herakles, she took him as her husband.
SH54547. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 107; SNG Cop 1029; SNGvA 2133; SNG Fitzwilliam 4565; Boston MFA 1917; BMC Ionia, p. 211, 55, VF, weight 2.513 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 330 B.C.; obverse head of Omphale left, wearing earring and Herakles' lion skin, his club at shoulder, seal below; reverse quadripartite mill-sail incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 477 - 388 B.C.

|Phokaia|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |477| |-| |388| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phokaia was the most northerly of the Ionian communities in Asia Minor and was the mother city of many colonies in the western Mediterranean area, including Massalia (modern Marseille, France).
SH38617. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 90, SNGvA 2126, VF, weight 2.558 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 477 - 388 B.C.; obverse head of a nymph left, seal below; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 487 - 326 B.C.

|Phokaia|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |487| |-| |326| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Phokaia (Phocaea) was the most northerly of the Ionian communities in Asia Minor and was the mother city of many colonies in the western Mediterranean area, including Massalia (modern Marseille, France).
SH75215. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 102 (b/ß); BMC p. 212, 63; Weber 6084; Boston MFA 1920; SNGvA -; SNG Cop -, VF, fine style, crowded flan, light contact marks, weight 2.540 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 477 - 388 B.C.; obverse laureate head of nymph left, hair in sakkos, seal right below; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 395 - 390 B.C.

|Phokaia|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |395| |-| |390| |B.C.|, |hekte|
Certificate of Authenticity issued by David R. Sear.

Bodenstedt, in his detailed study of the Phokaian and Lesbian elctrum, dates this type to the first decade of the 4th century B.C. Phokaia was the most northerly of the Ionian communities in Asia Minor and was the mother city of many colonies in the western Mediterranean area, including Massalia (modern Marseille, France).
SH12325. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 94 (g/δ); BMC Ionia p. 213, 68-70; SNG Berry 1083 (different dies); Boston MFA (Supp) 176 (different dies), VF, weight 2.513 g, maximum diameter 10.47 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, 395 - 390 B.C.; obverse head of a maenad left, wearing earring, hair in jeweled net, seal behind; reverse quadripartite incuse square; SOLD


Phokaia, Ionia, c. 372 - 327 B.C.

|Archaic| |Electrum|, |Phokaia,| |Ionia,| |c.| |372| |-| |327| |B.C.|, |hekte|
According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.
SH86298. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 97 (b/-); SNGvA 2123; BMC Ionia p. 208, 36; Boston MFA 1924 (identified as Pan); SNG Kayhan -, Rosen -, VF, attractive style, well centered and struck, mild die wear, bumps and scratches, weight 2.521 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 364 B.C.; obverse head of Dionysos left, wreathed in ivy with berries, hair rolled, small seal (symbol of Phokaia) left below; reverse quadripartite incuse square; scarce; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES|

Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Babelon, E. La collection Waddington au cabinet des médailles. (Paris, 1897-1898).
Bodenstedt, F. Die Elektronmünzen von Phokaia und Mytilene. (Tübingen, 1981).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Cahn, H. "Ionische Damen" in Studies Price, pp. 59 - 63, pl. 15-16.
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber. (1922 - 1929).
Head, B. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Ionia. (London, 1892).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Monnaies Grecques. (Amsterdam, 1883).
Klein, D. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
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Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 20: Ionien 1: (Frühes Elektron-Priene). (Berlin, 1995).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 4: Mysien-Ionien. (Berlin, 1989).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia. (Berlin, 1957).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part II: Asia Minor except Karia. (Helsinki, 1999).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 6: Asia Minor: Pontus - Phrygia. (London, 1965).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I, The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey V, Tire Museum, Vol. 1: Roman Provincial Coins From Ionia, Lydia, Phrygia, etc. (Istanbul, 2011).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VII, Odemis Museum, Vol. 1: Roman Provincial Coins of Ionia, Lydia and etc. (Istanbul, 2012).
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Weidauer, L. Problemeder frühen Elektronprägung, Typos I. (Fribourg, 1975).

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